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If someone expressed a feeling when confronting a piece of literature, would that be considered an interpretation?
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I think it is generally accepted now that there is no such thing as 'pure' reason. Cognitive processes are never separate from feelings. In my opinion, any account of this issue that sees 'interpretation' as a higher stage of analysis is a product of self deception. Just as Einstein spoke of 'space/time' as a single phenomenon, so, difficult as it is to grasp intuitively in our cognitively -biased era, we need to find a way of talking about 'reason/feeling', or whole person responses to reading. We have not yet fully completed the transition from the Myth of Pure Reason to approaches which reflect the most recent findings of brain science, but that is not to advocate a reduction in the opposite direction.
Reason and Feelings are two functionally different aspects of a single process.
So I would agree with some of the responses to this question, but demur when contributors go on to privilege the cognitive. Although I would not take Heidegger's approach, I would conceptualise the issue holistically as he does.
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Do you think that a paper (a piece of literary criticism) using Derrida's deconstruction theory as a main thrust would seem rather outdated, and/or obsolete, today?
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As the above cited interview of Professor/Dr. Jonathan Culler himself suggests, this ResearchGate discussion thread question is very much to the point: "Do you think that a paper (a piece of literary criticism) using Derrida's deconstruction theory as a main thrust would seem rather outdated, and/or obsolete, today?"
In the last paragraph in the interview of Professor Culler, he himself indicates that, even in 2008, deconstruction was rapidly giving way to newer, more socially engaged forms of literary theory and criticism.
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When undergoing a process to evaluate and interpret a literary work one must know about literary criticism and narrow it down by applying a specific literary theory, but practically doing this is a bit challenging in the process of research, besides, the people have left criticism itself beyond the work and starts criticizing your work, and its become blunt in your work, how to prevent and resolve this issue? Any expert advice???
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The primary purpose of literary theory is usually taken to be the interpretation of literary (and other) texts, i.e. the determination of their meaning. This is often contrasted with literary aesthetics, whose primary purpose is the appreciation of literary (and other) texts, i.e. the realisation of their value. Some literary theorists, like Jonathan Culler and Fredric Jameson, think that the primary purpose of literary theory is twofold: the determination of textual meaning and the determination of the structure of meaning itself. Your selection of a literary theory to interpret a particular text will inevitably be subject to criticism because their is no single 'right' answer, just answers that are more or less well-argued.
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I have spent hours searching for a journal in q1 or q2 at Web of Science, however, I could not get the way to resolve this matter. Our paper deals with the pandemics in the Arabic novels using the New Historicism approach, so, we aim to get a journal in, Literature, Literary Criticism, Middle East, Literature Theory, or Cultural Studies.
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A week ago the new JCReport is released (see enclosed file).
Good luck with finding a suitable journal.
Best regards.
PS. You can also search in the so-called Master Journal list of Clarivate: https://mjl.clarivate.com/home here you can see in which index of the WoS a journal is included (SSCI, SCIE or ESCI).
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I'd be more than grateful if you could mention publications that have applied Heinz Kohut's ideas to literary criticism.
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Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist Thank you for introducing Ilham Dilman's chapter in the book. It was concise and insightful.
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They used almost the same dramatic conventions and techniques. According to you, in what way is Shakespeare different from Christopher Marlowe?
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For one thing, the depth, breadth, and sheer density of William Shakespeare's entire performative oeuvre from historical to tragic to comedic dramatic works provides the most remarkable and striking contrast to Christopher Marlowe's work, which nonetheless epitomizes the best of the English Renaissance revenge play. In some respects, it might be stated that Shakespeare is a magna cum laude graduate of the Universal School of World Dramatic Texts, while Christopher Marlowe is a summa cum laude graduate of Great Britain's School of Drama!
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Shakespeare's works have been tackled from almost all angles and have been subject of thorough examination from literary theory and literary criticism perspectives. Can we talk today about post-theoretical Shakespeare? If yes, then how?
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I think Shakespeare defies space and time. He is a suitable for topics of analysis anytime anyplace. Only this explains why his work can be accessed by whatever theory proposed!
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we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
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I believe it is imperative to work on a some form of a literary anthology to register all the literary works that depicted the turning point in the history of the country and how the American invasion of Iraq and its aftermath were portrayed in the works of Iraqi writers (dead or still alive). It is a promising and massive project but it is not an impossible task. There is a bad need for volunteers to start working on such project. It is a national obligation!
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Hello,
I am looking for a theoretical scholarly full definition for the concept of "theatrics". Any books? any names? any articles?
Thank you so much in advance.
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Dear Zied Ben Amor,
I am sending the definition of the term/concept "theatrics":
  • Как и любой вид искусства, театр имеет свой собственный выразительный язык, свой собственный способ познания окружающего мира, свое собственное образное мышление. Спектакль – это и особое действие, и особое образное мышление. Процесс работы над спектаклем состоит в перенесении драматургического текста на сцену. В результате литературное слово становится, словом сценическим. Сценическое пространство указывает место действия, историческое время, национальный колорит. С помощью пространственных построений можно указать даже настроение персонажей. Для того, что бы все компоненты сценического пространства «заговорили» необходим художник-декоратор.
  • 7. Вместе с научной мыслью человечества развивалась и театральная техника. От простейших «адских машин» - подъемных механизмов и свечей до современных механизмов, лазерных установок и компьютерных технологий. Еще в античности сформировались два типа сцены – сцена-коробка и сцена-амфитеатр. Сейчас в мире используются оба типа. Современная техника позволяет изменять театральное пространство – устраивать помост посреди зрительного зала, сажать зрителя на сцену, а спектакль разыгрывать в зале и т.д. Усилить эмоциональное воздействие на зрителя помогает музыка.
  • Best regards,
  • Nikola
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Deleted this question
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I have no experience with that
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Is there such thing as false interpretation in Literature?
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An interpretation is considered admissible if it's not in contradiction with the text, but since the text is open and polysemous, the return to the text is often insufficient to determine the validity of the interpretations, which are diverses and can be contradictory. Literary interpretation is both subjective and in part conditioned by interpretative communities (Fish). We cannot use a criterion of truth (true / false) but an intersubjective validation process (admissible / contestable), in other words to be admissible an interpretation must be recognized as such by other readers. We must then turn to the explanation by the readers of the sources of their interpretations. In my educational research, I have shown that teachers refer more to literary culture and students to the values ​​shared in their communities as well as to their personal experiences of the world. Thank you for the rich discussion!
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The word "orange" is commonly cited as an example.
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Yes Stanley Wilkin , when I first asked the question little did I realize how complex the issues were, how many different criteria or desiderata might be invoked, and how nuanced the answers might become.
floccinaucinihilipilification .....
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Was the graphic design something and then it became something else after the emergence of structuralism and deconstruction, etc.?
Are there indications or evidence that literary criticism approaches have helped change or develop the graphic design field?
I hope the answer will indicate precisely how this change happened, supported by examples.
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For the source of my inspiration in contributing my answer to this thread, I owe a debt of gratitude to the thread located at this Researchgate link: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_architecture_an_art#view=5e5231712ba3a1176d550492
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The same adjective " romantic" is used for the two nouns. So majority of people associate being romantic with romance , that is love affection and courtship experience. However, to literary critics , romantic love is impossible love that seeks freedom in a rigid society. Romance Literature is 17th century English Elizabethan period whereas Romanticism Literature is 19th century literary of rebellion in Europe.
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Romance Literature predates Romanticism- the latter is a late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century aesthetic and political break from the values of the Enlightenment- the primacy of reason, science and empiricism. Romanticism prioritizes emotion and feeling ('sentiment'), advocates an introspective return to Nature (not as an external fact but a state of being) and takes issue with the social and psychic ramifications of the Industrial Revolution- the quantification and commodification of culture, the rise of utilitarianism and a disassociation between thought and feeling. Romance is a medieval mode of writing focused on adventurous conquests of chivalrous heroes, damsels and distress and entrapments of the supernatural (think about King Arthur and the Round Table, as a representative example).
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http://fredromano.org/ed_amiga/index.htm or is it superior goals oriented (such as tax evasion tracking)? Nevertheless, I must say the EC3 analysis of Celine let me astonished about your software. Not only I deeply disdain Celine as a retained writer that enhance the worst human aspects, but I'll only save from "Voyage au bout de la nuit" la ville debout as a NYC description. The ten first pages were so repugnant to me I begun Voyage au bout de la Nuit on page 11. And I especially dislike doctor of the poor full of disdain for his patients. Spaniards call him "el hijo de puta de referencia" that started the French school "perro callejero writings" (écriture de boucher). My favorite writer is almost unknown today, Jean Giono, de Manosque and its amazing Serpent d'étoiles. The kind of literature I feel deep in my soul and that triggers my imagination. I have no interest in Celine's universe, it's cold, grey and dirty.
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c'est fait. Quant à l'anglais, ça me semble normal de choisir une langue de préférence. En plus, pour moi l'anglais us est particulièrement bien adapté pour la recherche et la formulation d'idées nouvelles. Mais oui, je parle français, j'ai même gagné le prix mondial 1994 de la nouvelle en français RFI/francophonie. Et aussi espagnol, avec le même niveau, et une demi-douzaine d'autres langues à différents niveaux...
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Presentism is a new trend in contemporary literary criticism. It succinctly explores the representation of the present in literary texts. Seen thus, presentism is totally different from historicism which addresses the articulation of the past in literature.
Thank you in advance
Hasan Saleh
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Presentism is a reading of the literary text from today's point of view.
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How far is (or should) critical literary theory be independent from other fields?
Do we have purely literary theoretical approaches or does literary criticism rely mainly on other disciplines like history, psychoanalysis, philosophy, etc...?
Has literature been able to produce its own epistemological tools or approaches?
Your thoughts are much appreciated!
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Literary theory is a distinct field of study, however over the years, it is obvious it is a multi-faceted discipline. Literary theory can generate her own theories and it many times relies on inquiries and theoretical breakthroughs in other and allied fields. This is because it has a philosophical basis and philosophy is foundational to and feeds all disciplines. Literary theory cannot be and need not be isolated from theoretical developments in other disciplines.
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This is a perennial problem. The difficulty is that educated people end up 'talking for' victims of social existence, so that they become victims of 'attention' in addition to being victims of social existence, wrapped in the 'entire theoretical framework' which others have provided. They themselves know only the language of violence and despair, and have little confidence even in that. Power elites lose interest in the poor and dispossessed immediately they are elected. The remedy can only be to hold those in power to account, continuously, through the ballot box and rigorous, ongoing public engagement. Better public services, improved education, less self-indulgence. The alternative is revolution, which again victimizes the oppressed.
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Do you agree that he was writing back to the canon, why? Or do you have any other opinion?
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Okonkwo kills himself. This is a significant personal decision: he does not allow himself to be arrested, arraigned and killed by the colonial (in)justice system. Okonkwo defies the intrusion. The tragic irony is that in killing himself, he shall be thrown into evil forest; he becomes, in death, the efulefu that he has decried all his life. He dies 'a woman's death' and his people, even his closest friend Obierika, cannot touch his body: it is defiled. I do not subscribe to the view that his death signifies the 'death' of traditional native views. What dies in Okonkwo are those uncompromising values that he embodies: quick to anger, beating his wife, a masculinisation of the home/village/Umuofia. His work ethic does not die with him. His stern views on consumerist culture remain a stubborn reminder that productive work is still the acme of (igbo) society. By extension, Obierika, who is his erstwhile friend remains alive at the end of the narrative. The bond between the two enables us to read Obierika's longevity as an extension of that which was good and enduring in Okonkwo to thrive in a contested landscape where the District Commissioner and the Kotma and the school are bringing in new challenges, new vistas and new problems. Remember, it is Obierika who remarks: "The white man has put a knife on the things that held us together...and now we have fallen apart." Perhaps, more than WB Yeats, Obierika understands those 'things' much more clearly, much more personally, much more enigmatically.
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A list of such journals might be most helpful.
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A useful MOOC course regarding publishing in High-impact journals. Discounted course link pasted below:
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On returning from a visit trip collecting stories and making college class visits at Purdue University and Indiana University regional campuses in northwest Indiana, I have been weighing the state of publishing and whether writers from the "Rust Belt" "Flyover Zone" have a hope of being read outside their local region. This is not only applicable to the United States "Rust Belt" and "Flyover Zone" but analogous zones across the planet.
A key to Thorstein Veblen's theory of "conspicuous consumption" in his study _The Theory of the Leisure Class_ is social emulation. Each narrow band of socially-stratified society looks up to a slightly higher band and embarks on a furious program of "emulation" or mimicking their "betters." And when this is accomplished the active agent moves on to emulate a higher rung. Veblen helpfully supplies comparisons to bird behavior and the rituals of pre-industrial society, such as the Inuit "potlatch" as analogous to the upper-class debutante's "coming out" ball.
So, in the United States instance, any editor in New York or on the East Coast will see a less-status-y setting and instantly know "Sorry. This is not for us. Good luck elsewhere." Yes, taste matters. As Veblen writes, "a beautiful article which is not expensive is not accounted as beautiful" ("Theory" 132). With a slight shift, we might add that "a beautiful text not placed in an expensive setting is not beautiful."
What effect upon cognitive development and the mental evolution of creative writers does this process entail? The embodied subject so often enthusiastically dissected in pages of the Modern Language Association journal says little about the bodies and Foucaultian embodiment in the "Flyover Zone" or "Rust Belt," although I have addressed the issue by starting a "Rust Belt Literature" group in the MLA online commons. The same "emulative" avoidance seems to be at work since our new "Rust Belt Literature" MLA group is relatively low-traffic. Seven members at last count. MLA groups for the lesser poets of the Scottish Hebrides of the late 18th Century often boast more members than this.
Some creative writing students have devised work-arounds such as (1) pretending to have lived in Paris or (2) writing in a vacuum where characters walk in a vague setting like dry ice fog in a low-budget film to disguise the less-status-y real setting. These texts show some initiative and focus in CW students. However, perhaps, creative writing classes could find a more accurate name in flyover country such as Evasive Writing? Does Veblen fit?
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Novelists didn't need to be told about conspicuous consumption and waste and the leisure class by the wonderful Veblen. Certainly he formulated them in a systematic way, but Dickens, Thackeray, Zola, didn't require his orderly exposition to make the point about patterns of wealth.
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As an occasional teacher of classical, early modern and modern literature I am curious about the merits of literary canon. I often read work on internet sites, for example, that bears comparison with trumpeted writings and writers of the present. If 'great literature'has shared intrinsic qualities, what are they? Do we remain enthralled to the ethnic make-up of writers, selecting thereby those we are familiar with to revere, with a nod only to others in distant countries who mirror these writers? Are real or imagined intrinsic qualities measurable, and if so shouldn't we be attempting to devise such measurements, an idea,yes, fraught with problems, rather than relying on the assurances of educational and awarding bodies -especially where still living writers are concerned? Are the narrative and structural efficacies of the great and famous really better than my students whose work reflects the same or similar concerns?
I believe that networking plays a part in the raising up and popularity of writers-consider the British writers of the 1970s who knew one another, often from university, and also knew all the most influential agents and literary critics, often intimately: the Liverpool poets of the 1960s: the agent promoted novelists of today writing technically able novels that have similar tone and structure. Are agents now the driving force for whom we read, who we revere and the kind of novels their clients write?
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Impossible to separate politics and influence from estimations of greatness. Look what happened to Christopher Marlowe. Arguably he was no less than Shakespeare, and far bolder and more radical politically. The canon is a myth; public esteem is a wildfire, neither to be described nor directed other than by the inscrutable wind.
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modern literary criticism...
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"Effective" sounds like the wrong approach.  Each schools has different principles and goals.  Structuralism is effective at detailing the rhetorical and symbolic organization of a work, Marxism and postcolonialism are effective at decoding hidden material relations and underprivileged perspectives and structures of feeling, and so on...
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Comparisons stand for similarities and contrasts stand for dissimilarities or opposites or what is not similar. They can be found in the societal norms, genre, form, figures of speech, settings, and vocabulary of the poem. Do you agree? If yes, please tell me some more kinds of comparisons and contrasts in the Rape of the Lock.
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Thank you
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As an academic writer, you are expected to be critical of the sources that you use. This essentially means questioning what you read and not necessarily agreeing with it just because the information has been published. Being critical can also mean looking for reasons why we should not just accept something as being correct or true. This can require you to identify problems with a writer's arguments or methods, or perhaps to refer to other people's criticisms of these. Constructive criticism goes beyond this by suggesting ways in which a piece of research or writing could be improved.
So what are the best phrases for constructive criticism?
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Most people are very thin-skinned and easily upset when it comes to receiving criticism. Constructive criticism is achieved when criticism is given in a way that politely instructs the person being criticized on how to better accomplish the goal or task. Constructive criticism's main goal is to better a person or group, not to tear down confidence or self-esteem. Each situation of constructive criticism must be handled on an individual basis, as every person reacts differently and requires a certain level of sensitivity. Before giving constructive criticism, one should make sure to speak to the person about the issue at hand and use methods that benefit his particular personality. A constructive criticism focuses on the situation, not the person. The feedback sandwich method is a popular method of giving constructive criticism. It is often used in Toastmasters and in the corporate environment. Be specific with your feedback. Comment on things that can be actioned upon. Give recommendations on how to improve & at last my final tip for giving constructive criticism is not to make assumptions. Keep in mind that giving criticism is a skill that, like all skills, can be mastered through learning and practice. Always Remember:  Think well, act well, feel well, be well.
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Foucault points out that, even though there are many discussions on the idea of "Author", none of the current theories try to understand how the concept of "opus"/ "literary work"  operates in different literary systems. I'm trying to find authors that deal with this concept in a theoretical level. Could you recommend me some? 
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Caio,
Umberto Eco é um bom caminho para isso. Comece com "Obra Aberta" e depois pode prosseguir para as questões do livro "As Formas do Conteúdo", "Estrutura Ausente" e "Lector in Fabula" (que é uma grande resposta ao Barthes), todos da Editora Perspectiva em Português.
Também tenho coisas escritas sobre isso. Coloquei aqui alguns  que trabalham sobre a questão de autoria e diferentes níveis da obra
Abraço!
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I am trying to understand a comment made by somebody with respect to a presentation that dealt with solitude and nature. The comment is " Professor Tison had been struck by the indifferentism expressed in the paper. It reminded him of the English poet mentioned by Emerson whose teaching amount to this- that nothing really mattered very much."
The "indifferentism" here means apathy towards the world and mundane matters. I am aware that Emerson was very much influenced by Wordsworth's various ideas including solitude and nature and he also critiqued him a lot that we can see in his journal entries and works like "English Traits", etc.
But I am wondering, did Emerson ever feel that Wordsworth was indifferent to the human society/problems/ humans?
Many thanks well in advance for your replies !
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I couldn't find a theory that include both genders for me to investigate representation of gender roles in young adult literature. Please suggest me an appropriate theory which is able to anchor masculinity and femininity in young adult literature. Thank you.
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If you are working with fiction, with characters who are young adults, maybe the theories on the apprenticeship novel (Bildungsroman) will help. Part of the process of formation is to achieve a stable identity, and this, in turn, demands achieving some clarity on the gender roles the character must perform, the ones the character will not perform no matter what, and the ones the character looks forward to performing. 
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I'm looking where could I publish an article pertaining italian north-easthern dialect area.
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Try this search tool for selecting articles based on year, impact factor, languages and more
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I'm researching children's music however most of my theory comes from literature studies. I'm aware of the lists of the attributes of children's book complied by Perry Nodelman, Myles Mcdowell and others, and I have used such a list for my studies. But I know this method is not without its critics. I appreciate that this involved reception theory and issues of implied readership.
I wondered if someone could summarise the main limitations of 'the child in the book' approach.
Thanks, Liam
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I recommend cognitive development theories and principles: Jeanne Bamberger, The Mind Behind the Musical Ear: How Children Develop Musical Intelligence (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1991).  I'm sure there are other books as well.
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How can we apply the appropriate critical theories to analyze a novel?
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I believe understanding theory is a good starting point in this regard. What theoretical approaches would you like to work with and then what practical approaches in understanding literary texts would you like to use. Even as you survey literature on the novel or the field you want to do research in, it is always important to ask the basic theoretical and methodological question. This is where the 5WsH questions come in.
So, get a theory that is specific to the type pf literary research you are doing and then see how and why it works with the novels you are dealing with. Think through sometimes what writers say about their own texts and then relate this to both theory and practical approaches to literary studies.
I hope this helps
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T.S. Eliot presented a new mode of poetic idiom - 'objective correlative'. This was experimented by Hulme and Ezra Pound. As we study the post-Eliot poetry, we discover a tendency to use poetic idiom dissimilar to that found in the 19th-century poetry. So, we can say that poetic idiom is fast changing, breaking away from the tradition. Is this proposition acceptable?
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Art deepens our awareness and command of our present reality. In this sense it is always an objective correlative of some sort. TS Eliot applied his idea to explain why Hamlet cannot find an objective correlative in the form of revenge to rectify the crimes of his mother and uncle (destroying the collusion of Non-Being(Claudius) with Becoming(Gertrude) to effect the (symbolic) resurrection of his father (Old Hamlet) ).Paradoxically, in failing to find an objective correlative, he completely undermines this collusion, thus creating, through failure, the objective correlative)
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TS Eliot's The Waste Land is ending in the form of an Upanishad: Shantih Shantih Shantih. The Upanishad are not only a religious book, but also a legal code. So the final formula could concern the Law.
Besides, the whole poem is about a wounded King whose body is to be restored in order to put again his lands in order: to overpass the state of exception restoring the wounded flesh of the sovereign.
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The whole field of Literary Criticism is based on the unverified and probably false assumption that literary works must necessarily have deep meanings, whether conscious or unconscious.  This is analogous to the idea that dreams must have a meaning, as Freud and others presume.   Whilst it is possible to analyse and possibly explain the content of dreams, it does not follow that there is an overarching meaning to them, as opposed to the simpler explanation that thery are a fairly random rerun of stored images or experiences.
So, what is the evidence for the assumption that any literary work has a valid meaning other than that explicitly intended by the author?   I will believe this when some literary critic can, for example, come up with any literary criticism or deep structure in say early Bob Dylan songs that BD will agree with!  Are authors grateful for critics?
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In June 2015, the Mayor of Venice, Italy, decided to withdraw from schools 49 picture books that the considered that should not be read by children because they treated subjects that should only be dealt at home. Among the censored books had some predictable titles, like And Tango Makes Three or What's dad's secret?. However, the ban of others picture books, like Little Blue and Little Yellow or We're Going on a Bear Hunt, borders on the grotesque. What do you think about this kind of censorship? The controversial subjects relating to family and gender should be only dealt in the private sphere?
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It seems to me that there are several variables - the quality and accuracy of the books, the ages and sensitivities of the children, the presence or absence of input from parents, the quality and sensitivity and training of teachers. Schools should never be places of indoctrination, no matter what the agenda. Facts need to be distinguished from opinions. Banning never accomplishes anything but pros and cons may need careful discussion, depending on children's maturity and perhaps also on the composition of the class.
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I need it for teaching at undergraduate level for learners. Your effort will highly be appreciated.
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Dear Farooq,
Suggested Text
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I am doing a corpus-based study of metadiscourse use in this genre. Letters of recommendation are written about some who is seeking employment or admission. The writer mostly highlights the abilities, competencies and characteristics of the individual to show whether the person has what it takes for the task ahead.
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I've just stumbled upon this:
Margaret Ferguson, "The Letter of Recommendation as Strange Work", PMLA 127.4 (Oct 2012), pp. 954-962.
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In particular, with reference to the poetry of Tagore, Yeats, Senghor, Césaire, and Neruda.
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My book, "Poetry and Politics of Decolonization: Yeats, Tagore, Senghor, Césaire, and Neruda," just came out from Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP; ISBN #978-3-659-62893-1). It is available from morebooks.de for 46.90 EUR at https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/poetry-and-politics-of-decolonization/isbn/978-3-659-62893-1.
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I am embarking on a post-doc project (which might entail a conference and a collection) and would like to find out if anyone shares its interests (particularly in Germany, but also beyond).
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Alexandra
studies on alienation and irony could be conducive to a deeper understanding of such  concepts ,  I am teaching cross cultural studies , let me know if I could be of any assistance.
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For my Phd I'm working of how writing has supposed for a novelist a way of cure his traumas of the war and something vital for him. I need to support my ideas with theory and litterary criticism. 
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There is a lot of material on poets' and novelists' responses to the conflicts of the twentieth century.  Anglo-American, French, and German poetry of the 1920s deals with war trauma, as do many of the novels of the period.  Ford Maddox Ford's The Good Soldier andthe Parade's End trilogy would be a reasonable place to start.  For literary criticism, Paul Fussell's book on World War One.  For World War II: Jospeh Heller's Catch 22, Norman Mailer's The Naked and the Dead, Dalton Trumbo's Johnny Got his Gun.  And in Science Fiction, Joe Haldeman's The Forever War.
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Are we at a point in literary criticism that we reject the linguistic constructionism (such as postmodernism) of theorists such as Derrida, Lacan and Foucault who argued for a theory that sees everything as textuality, as a network of signifying systems? Are we beginning to articulate a new approach to the materiality that surrounds us by bringing back the materiality, thereby describing the complex interactions of language and matter, human and nonhuman, living and nonliving. Are we ready to bring back the 'real' world into our theories?
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In a world increasingly becoming practical, we can no longer afford to while away time in bourgeois intellectualism. Ideas have no meaning if they cannot help to bring our humanity a little further from where it was. Knowledge is ever expanding, frontiers are ever merging and what I see is simply recurrences. However, the recurrences follow a dialectic pattern toward the ideal, toward perfection. We cannot attain the ideal or even strive toward it consistently if we do not concretize what we know, if what we know does not effect a positive change. Once the meaning we derive from life is the pursuit of good, then ideas expressed in language must serve practical needs. The text for its own sake exercises the brain, no doubt and makes it aware of its limitless capacity; postmodernist theories emphasize that individual narratives are as important if not more important than meta-narratives. But the truth is that our world needs ennobling on daily basis; the environment needs to be saved; peace needs to be built and technology must be humanized. These will never be achieved if we do not bring back the materiality, if ideas, which are not tangible, are not made palpable. We must therefore bring back the real world into our theories. But we must not do that thinking that the immaterial world does not exist, because the complement themselves, they reenergize themselves into focused power ... if only we can let them do that!!!!
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Critics don't seem to be interested anymore in distinguishing between ordinary and literary language, but I'm wondering whether this is a crucial issue we need to return to.
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Language is an ensemble of ordinary and extra-ordinary texts and contexts. Hence there will not be any scarcity of interest in the similarities and differences between texts and contexts. In a neo-classical era like ours, the prominence will be more to identify the homogeneity rather than the heterogeneity between the measures of language. Hence literariness in itself will be less prominent. However this cannot repress the fact that language is the most primitive device for the humanity and hence will be the weapon for cultivating the future and mining the past for any social epoch!
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Twice more powerful than The Hopi's...???
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The one who is confused is me. Please translate into American English if you would.
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I've a lengthy paper connecting the two countries with Shakespeare and the birds in his plays, but something's missing. It needs more depth. One area might be about the general function of birds in storytelling -- as prophets, omens, etc. Other ideas?
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Thank you so much!
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Many CDA approaches are aimed at analyzing ideology and power relations in society through discourse (text) language. And their data can range from a one a phrase add to large pieces of texts or documents. I haven't come across a CDA that is particularly tailored for literary works.
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True, most of CDA is directed towards analyzing media discourses and political discourses, however, literary works can be subjected to CDA on numerous levels, for instance if one has to analyse a larger corpus of works, like novels, one may analyse the major discourse strands running through them etc, however, the researcher needs to establish a clearly defined theoretical framework and the conceptual tools to correlate how either the discourse fragments or discourse strands relate with themultiple societal formations and the power matrix within which the literary text is embedded. Once more, the tools engaged in the process need to be defined by the researcher him/her self. This is what makes CDA unique. E.g I am working in this domain and in order to apply CDA on literary works I have had to define the relevant episteme and the discursive matrix that defines this episteme and related the major discourse strands as evinced in the texts in collimation with the epistemic paradigms that I had defined earlier. In the process I had to modify CDA to meet the requirements of my research. However, a lot still needs to be done in the domain.