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please i would like to collect all the parameters related to the synthesis of nanoparticles using laser ablation, in terms of laser parameters, liquid parameters, environment parameters and if any other parameters
Thanks
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Dear Dr Alfio
Thanks a lot for your response, I really appreciate your valuable feedback
and since you are in the filed i would to ask you is there any paper doing nanoparticles using laser ablation under pressure , i would like to study pressure parameter that why i asked this question
Thanks a lot
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Which part of the Earth receives the least sun's rays and what part of the water cycle is when liquid water moves through the soil to become groundwater?
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Dr Bryan Booth thank you for your contribution to the discussion
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Which shape of water surface will give the highest rate of evaporation and why does water Vapour takes up more space than the same amount of liquid?
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The shape of the water surface that will give the highest rate of evaporation is a convex surface. This is because the depth of the water is lower at the edges of the surface, which allows more water molecules to escape into the air. Water evaporates faster if the temperature is higher, the air is dry, and if there's wind. The same is true outside in the natural environment. Evaporation rates are generally higher in hot, dry and windy climates. For convex water surface depth of water will be minimum, thus higher evaporation. The distilled water is evaporating the slowest, then salt water and fresh water the quickest. Evaporation increases with the increase in surface area. It is because, the larger the surface area that is exposed to air, the more molecules will escape into the air. The shape of the container, specifically the opening part where the liquid is exposed, plays a role in the rate of evaporation. If the surface area of the container is increased, a larger amount of the liquid is exposed to the air. Increase the surface area by placing the water in a shallow tray. Blow (preferably warm) air over it by creating a cross-draught or using a fan. (Warmer air holds more moisture.) Place the water in a metal container with a good thermal contact with its surroundings, so that it does not cool down as it evaporates. A large number of water vapours already present in vacant spaces of air particles restricts the entry of more water vapours. In other words, an increase in humidity decreases the rate of evaporation. Hence, evaporation will be faster in a region far away from the sea, with low humidity. Steam takes up a lot more space (it has a greater volume) than liquid water because water molecules in steam are more widely dispersed. There is a lot of empty space between the water molecules in steam and the molecules contain more energy and move more rapidly than do the molecules in liquid water. In a gas, the molecules are hardly attracted to each other at all. That's why the molecules of a gas are so far apart compared to the molecules of a liquid or a solid. In fact, water as a gas (water vapor) takes up over I, 000 times more space than the same number of water molecules as a liquid. Whereas evaporation is the transformation of liquid water to gaseous water vapor, condensation is the opposite: it is the transformation of vapor back into liquid water. When water evaporates, it expands 1600 times larger in volume to become steam. When you heat up water, the water molecules start moving around faster and faster. They bounce off each other and move farther apart. Because there's more space between the molecules, a volume of hot water has fewer molecules in it and weighs a little bit less than the same volume of cold water. Water evaporates at room temperature because the molecules at the top of the liquid have less intermolecular attraction than those within the bulk.
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When the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation does the partial pressure of a volatile liquid in a sealed container change?
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I agree with Murtadha Shukur, that the partial pressure of a volatile liquid in a sealed container does not change when the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. This is because the partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. Dynamic equilibrium is important because it helps us understand how chemical reactions work. For example, when water evaporates from a glass, it eventually reaches dynamic equilibrium where the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. This keeps the amount of water in the air constant. It reaches a stage where the rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of condensation. This phase is called the stage of equilibrium. As represented by the manometer, at this point the pressure exerted by the molecules is called the vapour pressure of the liquid. When the evaporation rate and condensation rate are equal, a state of saturation or equilibrium exists. If the air parcel is heated, the evaporation rate increases because the more energetic molecules can evaporate more easily. When the rate of condensation of the gas becomes equal to the rate of evaporation of the liquid or solid, the amount of gas, liquid and/or solid no longer changes. The gas in the container is in equilibrium with the liquid or solid. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water; it's the opposite of evaporation. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. At any temperature, evaporation and condensation are actually occurring at the same time. Faster molecules from the liquid evaporate while slower molecules from the gas condense. Depending on the conditions, one process will happen at a faster rate than the other resulting in net evaporation or net condensation.
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Why do liquids with fewer polar bonds evaporate faster and rate of evaporation of a liquid related to the intermolecular forces acting on it?
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The more-polar molecules will stick together more and will probably evaporate more slowly than less polar molecules. Less-polar molecules should evaporate faster because they are not as attracted to each other. London dispersion forces are the weakest type of intermolecular force. Liquids with fewer polar bonds are more likely to be nonpolar. Nonpolar liquids have weaker intermolecular forces than polar liquids, so they evaporate faster. For example, acetone is a nonpolar liquid that evaporates very quickly. A liquid's vapor pressure is directly related to the intermolecular forces present between its molecules. The stronger these forces, the lower the rate of evaporation and the lower the vapor pressure. Liquids with weak intermolecular attractive forces have low heats of vaporization and are volatile they evaporate easily. Liquids with strong intermolecular attractive forces evaporate more slowly, because a greater amount of energy is needed to overcome the attractive forces between molecules. Intermolecular forces, as noted earlier, are attractive in nature. A liquid with weak intermolecular forces will evaporate quickly because it takes less kinetic energy for a molecule at the surface of the liquid to break away from the other molecules in the liquid. Evaporation occurs when energy (heat) forces the bonds that hold water molecules together to break. When you're boiling water on the stove, you're adding heat to liquid water. This added heat breaks the bonds, causing the water to shift from its liquid state to its gaseous state (water vapor), which we know as steam. The larger the intermolecular forces in a compound, the slower its evaporation rate. They all depend on the fact that some parts of polar molecules have positive charges and other parts have negative charges. The positively charged parts on one molecule align with the negative parts of other molecules. Instead, the intermolecular forces of attraction between the liquid molecules are broken or disrupted, causing the transformation into gas. These intermolecular forces of attraction are electrostatic attractions between molecules and are not inherent bonds of the molecules. When temperature increases, the heat increases resulting in higher kinetic energy of the molecules. It means that the molecules from the surface will get more energy to break the shackles of intermolecular forces and become vapour. This is the most important among the factors affecting evaporation.
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I extraction RNA from Physcomitrella patens (Moss) Following the protocol of RNAiso Plus. Firstly using a tissue lyser and added 1 ml RNAiso plus and vortex. next step Add the chloroform after centrifuge I separated the top liquid layer but the problem is yellow color liquid. I could not avoid the yellow color at ned of the extraction process after the precipitated pellet is brown.
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Hi, did u resolve this issue?
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Does the higher boiling liquid have stronger intermolecular forces than the lower boiling liquid and high viscosity mean strong intermolecular forces?
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Dr Murtadha Shukur thank you for your contribution to the discussion
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Why solubility of solid in liquid increases with increasing temperature and effect of temperature in the change from solid to liquid?
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Solubility increases with temperature for most solids dissolved in liquid water. This is because higher temperatures increase the vibration or kinetic energy of the solute molecules. Solute molecules are held together by intermolecular attractions. Solubility is the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature. There are two direct factors that affect solubility: temperature and pressure. The solubility of a given solute to dissolve in a specific solvent depends on the temperature. With an increase in temperature solubility of liquids and solids increases. In the same way solubility of gases decreases with an increase in temperature. As temperature increases, the solubility of a solid or liquid can fluctuate depending on whether the dissolution reaction is exothermic or endothermic. In endothermic dissolution reactions, the net energy from breaking and forming bonds results in heat energy being absorbed into the system as the solute dissolves. For many solids dissolved in liquid water, the solubility increases with temperature. The increase in kinetic energy that comes with higher temperatures allows the solvent molecules to more effectively break apart the solute molecules that are held together by intermolecular attractions. The solute's solubility falls because the kinetic energy of the gaseous solute increases as the temperature rises. As a result, its molecules are more likely to escape the solvent molecule's attraction and return to the gas phase. At higher temperatures, gas molecules have higher kinetic energy and can escape solution phase more easily. Therefore, solubility decreases. An increase in pressure and an increase in temperature in this reaction results in greater solubility. An increase in pressure results in more gas particles entering the liquid in order to decrease the partial pressure. Therefore, the solubility would increase.When a solid is added to a liquid, it interacts with liquid molecules and dissolves in it accordingly. This process is known as dissolution and solid is said to be soluble in a liquid solvent. Complete answer: The term solubility can be defined as a physical property of a substance to dissolve in another substance.Rises in temperature improve the solubility of solids in water, but reduce the solubility of gases in water because temperature increases produce an increase in the number of stimulated atoms or molecules of gases. Changes in pressure have essentially no effect on the solubility of solids and liquids. The change in pressure has no effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid solution. This is because solids are incompressible and liquids are negligibly compressible. Thus there is a no effect of pressure on their solution. Melting is a physical process that causes a matter's phase change from solid to liquid. When the internal energy of solid increases, usually due to the application of heat or pressure, the temperature of the matter rises to the melting point. Melting is the transformation of a solid into a liquid.Temperature has a direct effect on whether a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas. Generally, increasing the temperature turns solids into liquids and liquids into gases; reducing it turns gases into liquids and liquids into solids. The kinetic energy of matter particles increases as temperature rises, and they begin to vibrate at a higher frequency. As a result, the interparticle force of attraction between particles decreases, and particles become unattached from their positions and free to travel.
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While in piezoelectric ceramics, a liquid phase can be observed easily with a conventional solid method preparation, however there seems to be no research to figure out whether the liquid phase can affect the mechanical quality factor (Qm) of ceramics.
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Dear Yongqi Pan please do recommend my answer if helpful.
The mechanical quality factor (Qm) of ceramics is primarily related to the material's mechanical properties, such as its stiffness, density, and damping characteristics. The Qm is a measure of how efficiently a material can store and release mechanical energy in a vibrating or oscillating system. It is commonly used to characterize the mechanical resonant behavior of materials and structures.
The liquid phase, when present in ceramics, can affect the mechanical properties of the material and, in turn, influence the Qm. Here's how the liquid phase can impact Qm:
  1. Damping Effect: The presence of a liquid phase in ceramics can introduce damping or energy dissipation mechanisms. Depending on the nature of the liquid phase (e.g., water, oil, or a molten glass phase), it can lead to increased internal friction within the material. This increased damping can reduce the Qm of the ceramic material, as energy is dissipated more rapidly during vibrations or oscillations.
  2. Stiffness Modification: Depending on the interaction between the ceramic matrix and the liquid phase, the stiffness of the material may be affected. For example, if the liquid phase infiltrates the ceramic matrix and weakens the ceramic bonds, it can lead to a reduction in stiffness. Changes in stiffness can influence the mechanical resonance behavior and subsequently affect Qm.
  3. Crack Propagation: In some cases, the presence of a liquid phase can enhance crack propagation within the ceramic material. This can lead to reduced mechanical integrity and, consequently, a lower Qm. Liquid infiltration can exacerbate stress concentrations and promote crack growth.
  4. Temperature Effects: The liquid phase may undergo phase changes or evaporation at elevated temperatures. These phase changes can affect the mechanical behavior of the ceramics, especially at high-temperature conditions. Thermal effects can influence the Qm of the material.
  5. Material Microstructure: The specific microstructure and distribution of the liquid phase within the ceramic can also impact Qm. The size, shape, and distribution of pores or liquid inclusions can affect the material's resonant behavior.
In summary, the presence of a liquid phase in ceramics can indeed affect the mechanical quality factor (Qm) of the material. The extent and nature of this influence depend on various factors, including the type of liquid phase, its interaction with the ceramic matrix, the material's microstructure, and the operating conditions. Researchers and engineers need to consider these factors when designing ceramics for specific applications, especially those involving mechanical resonant systems where Qm is a critical parameter.
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How can we increase the solubility of a solid in a liquid and hHow does solubility of solid changes with temperature?
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Dr Vivek Patel thank you for your contribution to the discussion
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What increases the rate of dissolving a solid and factors that affect the rate of solubility of a solid into a liquid agitation temperature and surface area?
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Temperature affects the solubility of both solids and gases, but pressure only affects the solubility of gases. Surface area does not affect how much of a solute will be dissolved, but it is a factor in how quickly or slowly the substance will dissolve. Apart from the nature of solute and solvent, temperature also affects solid solubility considerably. If the dissolution process is endothermic then the solubility should increase with an increase in temperature. Solubility is affected by 4 factors – temperature, pressure, polarity, and molecular size. Solubility increases with temperature for most solids dissolved in liquid water. This is because higher temperatures increase the vibration or kinetic energy of the solute molecules. The stirring allows fresh solvent molecules to continually be in contact with the solute. If it is not stirred, then the water right at the surface of the solute becomes saturated with dissolved sugar molecules, meaning that it is more difficult for additional solute to dissolve. The solubility of a solid in a liquid is significantly affected by temperature change. For most of the solids, solubility in water increases with rising temperature. As the temperature increases, the average kinetic energy of the solute molecules in the solution also increases. When it comes to solid solutes, increasing the temperature will increase the rate of dissolving. As heat is added, the solute particles move around more, getting closer to the solvent molecules. This makes helps the solid dissolve faster in a liquid. The addition of more heat facilitates the dissolving reaction by providing energy to break bonds in the solid. This is the most common situation where an increase in temperature produces an increase in solubility for solids.
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Hi,
I’ve recently started having issues with a Zeiss axio cam HRm camera. The camera’s serial number and other informations are available below.
The problem is that something is obscuring the left part of the camera’s field of vision (see attached picture taken by the camera). This issue is specific to the camera, not the microscope, because it is still present even when detached from the microscope. When I look inside the camera I do not see anything visibly blocking the sensor. The camera always stays connected to the microscope from the left side so no dust/liquid/condensation should have been able to gather on the sensor.
Does anyone have any idea what could be responsible for this issue, and how to solve it?
Camera information:
axio cam HRM
60 N-C 1" 1,0x
Serial number: 1 02 02 1247    r2.0
axiocam b/w                             12v DC
000000-0445-553                     0.7A
ITE 93JA
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Could be mold from improper storage of the camera over time (very common). Alternatively, with that specific camera I have see models which had black plastic (or sealant?) crumbles appear in the focal path. The particles may be knocked loose or occur from deterioration over time. In both cases, replacement of the camera solved the issue.
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Why do liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape and what happens to the density and temperature of a gas as it expands?
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Liquids occupy a fixed volume but no fixed shape. This is because the particles in the liquid state are not packed closely and also arranged disorderly. There are spaces between the particles, which are the particles are bound by loose intra-molecular forces of attraction. In a liquid, the particles are still in close contact, so liquids have a definite volume. However, because the particles can move about each other rather freely, a liquid has no definite shape and takes a shape dictated by its container. Due to the weak intern clear force of attraction, the gaseous particles have enough kinetic energy and they can move in any direction without any restrictions. Hence, the gases do not have a fixed shape and fixed volume.Because the particles in liquids are very close together liquids do not easily compress, so their volume is fixed. Liquids have a fixed volume but they do not have a fixed shape. Liquids, on the other hand, are the only substances with no definite shape but a fixed volume. Liquids do not have a fixed shape but they do have a fixed volume. The particles are very close together. Most of the particles touch each other. The particles can move around. There is a decrease in density of a gas when increase in the temperature because the intermolecular space between the gas molecules is increased as a result volume increases and density decreases.A gas does not have a fixed shape or fixed volume due to following reason: The internuclear force of attraction between the gaseous particles is very less as compared to solids and liquids. When gas expands, the decrease in pressure causes the molecules to slow down. This makes the gas cold. When a liquid or gas is heated, the molecules move faster, bump into each other, and spread apart. Because the molecules are spread apart, they take up more space. They are less dense. While compressing the gas adiabatically, the gas temperature increases, increasing the gas pressure. There is a decrease in density of a gas when increase in the temperature because the intermolecular space between the gas molecules is increased as a result volume increases and density decreases.Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape. The interparticle force of liquids is lesser than that of solids, and thus, liquids can flow easily and take the shape of a container. The liquids continue to flow unless they are held in a container. Hence, they don't have a definite shape. In a liquid, the particles are still in close contact, so liquids have a definite volume. However, because the particles can move about each other rather freely, a liquid has no definite shape and takes a shape dictated by its container. Liquids, on the other hand, are the only substances with no definite shape but a fixed volume. On the base of molecular interactions and particle arrangement, there are three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.
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I am working on Dead gene. my work is related to liquid liquid phase separation for cold shock response and i want to design primer for this amd i have not eniugh information how to select DNA sequence. and than choose c-terminao region to knockout mutants . i want some help in this regard.
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you can design the primer with NCBI there is option of primer of you target gene.
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One could argue that when R = KLaf ( Cs - C), the fugacity (the maximum transferable rate) has been reached and so the OTR or Rd is zero at that gas flow rate representing the energy input. However, this is a state that could not exist at that given gas flow rate, because OTR can never be zero in a respiring system. The case in which R = KLaf (Cs - C) is not a stable situation (i.e., not a steady state and C ≠ CR), which implies that the actual transfer rate, as opposed to total potential oxygen transfer rate, to the liquid is less than R and the DO concentration is decreasing because the consumption rate has exceeded the transfer rate so that the system is now outgassing oxygen. However, this does not mean Rd is negative. That is, the actual transfer rate, the net oxygen transfer rate given by Eq. (10a), i.e., OTR = KLaf (Cs – C) – r, is not KLaf (Cs - C). To maintain a given DO set point, the air flow rate (AFR) would have to be increased to a new KLa value such that ultimately R equals the actual transfer rate to the liquid. A change in air flow rate would result in a different transfer efficiency, at least in a fine bubble system where an increase in air flow decreases efficiency, and so the true C* also would be nominally different (higher, actually, due to lower gas side depletion), but eventually a steady state would be reached in which the oxygen consumption (R) would exactly match the oxygen transfer rate. For any further increase in the organic loading rate (OLR) and if C > 0, the system can respond by lowering C so that the driving force increases, giving more impetus to transfer. However, when the consumption rate exceeds the oxygen transfer rate, CR approaches C, which itself is ever-decreasing, such that dC/dt is a decreasing function of the consumption rate, i.e., dC/dt < 0. Therefore, the system is no longer in a steady state in such an event. Eventually a point is reached at which C becomes vanishingly small such that even the maximum fugacity is not enough to satisfy, and so the only remedy is to increase the gas flow rate again to match the demand. The conclusion of this exercise is that, for submerged aeration in which the gas loss rate from the system is significant, the rate of transfer under the action of microbial respiration must be given by Eq. (12b) i.e., dC/dt = Kla (Cs – C) – 2Ru, in which both the associated liquid phase oxygen equilibrium concentration (Cs) and the apparent oxygen saturation CR will decrease accordingly (such a phenomenon can be experimentally verified in a converse manner by a reduction in the microbial GDP (the resistance due to biochemical reactions), the net result of a dilution is that both the associated liquid phase oxygen equilibrium concentration Cs and the apparent oxygen saturation CR will increase accordingly. (It is notable that the latter increases faster than the former, so that at R = 0, the rise of CR catches up with the rise of Cs, and so both become one and the same, C*inff).
Mines' paper began on the right track by citing Bartholomew, Albertson and DiGregorio, and some others like Eckenfelder, that there is definitely a relationship between KLa and OUR and so Mines conducted his experiment. Herein lies the difference: Those previous researchers used plant operation data, where the DO is maintained constant. One can only have either constant DO or constant AFR (aeration gas flow rate), but not both. Mines' attempt to verify the dependency of Kla on OUR is premised on constant AFR which is exactly right but he used the wrong equation, resulting in Table 3 and Table 4 that yield the strange result that at steady-state, the OUR is not the same as the OTR. Had he used the right equation, he would have got a consistent result that would support my theory. The consequence of an increase of Ru can only be a reduction of OTR for a constant AFR. It can never by an enhancement! Mines' equation 6, stating that Rd = KLa (Cs- C) - Ru + Ri is therefore insupportable.
His experiment needs to be repeated, but with the following caveat:
equations must be correct, i.e., equation 7 must be written OTR = alpha KLa(beta Cs - C) – Ru resulting in the accumulation term as:
dC/dt = Kla (Cs – C) – 2Ru
OUR of the mixed liquor suspended solids as determined by Method 213B in Standard Methods must be modified to eliminate the shaking effect;
the OTR should be independently measured by the offgas method to compare with the modified Equation 7, since the offgas method is widely considered the best way to determine OTR.
It is important to recognize that the transfer equation given by Equation 1 in Mines' paper, is only valid when R = 0. When R changes, both Cs and OTR will change, even though C changes, (decrease to increase the driving force, or increase if the AFR increases).
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Here are the thoughts of one reviewer in which he advocated an equation (eq. E) that says the OTR is given by OTR* = KLa (Css - C) where Css is the saturation concentration at the steady state. However, this equation cannot be logical since, when C = Css the OTR* would become zero. In a respiring system there is always some oxygen transfer even at the SS. The reviewer then explained that OTR* is not the real OTR, which is not logical since there is only one OTR at any particular condition. My reply is given in the attached file.
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When the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation does the partial pressure of a volatile liquid in a sealed container change why or why not?
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Eventually, the rate of condensation will become high enough that it is equal to the rate of evaporation. Once this happens, the rate of water molecules entering the vapor phase and the rate of water molecules condensing back into liquid are exactly the same, so the partial pressure no longer increases. Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. The process where the rate of evaporation of a substance is the same as the rate of condensation in a closed container is called a dynamic equilibrium. Vapour pressure reaches a stage where the rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of condensation. This phase is called the stage of equilibrium. As represented by the manometer, at this point the pressure exerted by the molecules is the vapour pressure of the liquid. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to its vapor below the boiling temperature of the liquid. If the water is instead kept in a closed container, the water vapor molecules do not have a chance to escape into the surroundings and so the water level does not change. The pressure exerted by a vapor in dynamic equilibrium with a liquid is the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid. If a liquid is in an open container, however, most of the molecules that escape into the vapor phase will not collide with the surface of the liquid and return to the liquid phase. Dynamic equilibrium is established when the evaporation and condensation rates are equal. The dew point or dew point temperature of a gas is the temperature at which the water vapor or low-boiling hydrocarbon derivatives contained in the gas is transformed into the liquid state. Condensation is the change from a vapor to a condensed state (solid or liquid). Evaporation is the change of a liquid to a gas. The higher the temperature of the liquid water, the faster the rate of evaporation. Conversely, the rate of condensation, which is the number of water molecules that change phase from gas to liquid per second, depends mainly on the vapor pressure. The higher the vapor pressure, the faster the rate of condensation. The factors that affect evaporation are temperature, surface area, humidity, and wind speed. The rate of evaporation depends on the temperature and the IMF. The rate of condensation depends on the temperature, the IMF, and the concentration in the gas phase. The condensation rate will initially be zero since there are no molecules in the gas phase. When the rate of condensation becomes equal to the rate of vaporization, neither the amount of the liquid nor the amount of the vapor in the container changes. The vapor in the container is then said to be in equilibrium with the liquid. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water; it's the opposite of evaporation. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. Thus the rate of evaporation will increase initially. The rate of condensation decreases initially because vapour pressure per unit volume decreases. However, due to increase in the rate of evaporation, the amount of vapour begins to increase and so the rate of condensation also begins to increase.
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Does stirring increase the rate of solution of a solid in a liquid and how does sugar dissolve faster in water when it is stirred?
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Stirring a solute into a solvent speeds up the rate of dissolving because it helps distribute the solute particles throughout the solvent. as, when you add sugar to iced tea and then stir the tea, the sugar will dissolve faster. Stirring affects how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent, but has no effect on how much solute will dissolve. The amount of solute that will dissolve is affected by temperature - more will dissolve at higher temperatures. This is the solubility of the solute. It doesn't affect solubility which is an equilibrium process but it does affect the rate of dissolution. You won't get more solute into solution with stirring than you will without, but you'll get it dissolved a lot faster.Stirring affects the rate of dissolving because it spreads the solvent's molecules around the solute and increases the chance of them coming into contact with each other faster. As a result, mechanical stirring increases solubility of the solute in the solvent. The stirring allows fresh solvent molecules to continually be in contact with the solute. If it is not stirred, then the water right at the surface of the solute becomes saturated with dissolved sugar molecules, meaning that it is more difficult for additional solute to dissolve. Stirring the solution will increase the solubility of the solution. This happens because stirring allows the solute molecules to always be in contact with the solvent molecules. Stirring helps to increase the interaction between sugar molecules and water molecules, which causes sugar molecules to break away from each other. Hence they get dissolved faster. Stirring a solute into a solvent speeds up the rate of dissolving because it helps distribute the solute particles throughout the solvent. Hi, depending upon how you stir, how often you stir, how cold water is, how granulated sugar is, even what type of flask water is in, what is mass transfer rate, reaction rate and many more variables, temperature of environment, it can take from 7 to 12 minutes or even more. Dissolving sugar in water is a physical change because sugar molecules are dispersed, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged or do not undergo any chemical change. When sugar dissolves in water, it dissolves faster if the water is agitated. The stirring ensures that new solvent molecules are constantly in touch with the solute.
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What happens to the viscosity of a liquid when temperature increases and why viscosity of gases increases but viscosity of liquid decreases with increase in temperature?
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I agree with Murtadha Shukur that viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature. For gases, viscosity is due to collision between gas molecules. With increase in temperature, gas molecules attain more kinetic energy and the rate of collision is more. Hence, viscosity of gases increases with increase in temperature. This momentum transfer can be thought of as a frictional force between layers of flow. Gas viscosity increases with temperature, whereas liquid viscosity decreases with temperature. Because intermolecular forces weaken with temperature, viscosity decreases. Viscosity generally decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity generally increases as the temperature decreases. The viscosity of a liquid is related to the ease with which the molecules can move with respect to one another. Viscosity generally decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity generally increases as the temperature decreases. The viscosity of a liquid is related to the ease with which the molecules can move with respect to one another. When the liquid is heated the viscosity of liquid decreases. As temperature increases, there is an increase in molecular interchange as the molecules speed increases with rising in temperature. At high temperature, molecules posses’ high kinetic energy and thus it can overcome the intermolecular forces to flow faster. Gas viscosity increases with temperature, whereas liquid viscosity decreases with temperature. Because intermolecular forces weaken with temperature, viscosity decreases. Temperature increases typically cause an increase in molecular interchange because molecules move faster at higher temperatures.When temperature increases, the energy level of liquid molecules increases (kinetic energy increases) and the distance between the molecule increases. It causes a decrease in inter-molecular attraction between them, which reduces viscosity. Increasing temperature results in a decrease in viscosity because a larger temperature means particles have greater thermal energy and are more easily able to overcome the attractive forces binding them together.
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yield of bioactive compound
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Soxhlet extraction simplifies the process by automatically recycling the solvent, making it suitable for extended extractions without constant supervision. However, liquid-liquid extraction is typically a batch process and may require more manual intervention.
If the compounds you are targeting are sensitive to temperature, then liquid-liquid extraction is the preferred method. Typically, liquid-liquid extraction is more suitable for partitioning or fractionating compounds post-extraction. The selection primarily relies on the nature of the extraction material and the class of the compounds being extracted.
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What is the rate of evaporation in dynamic equilibrium and constant temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure?
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Dr Pranjit Sarkar thank you for your contribution to the discussion
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Hi everyone,
I am currently working on batch experiment to quantify metal adsorption onto different materials. Because the variation of pH after addition of the material is significant and that we don't want to adjust the pH after addition (I am afraid it might impact the surfaces of the material), I wanted to know if a buffer solution can be used to limit the impact of the pH variation.
Also, I noticed there are two ways of doing batch sorption experiments: Lot of researchers varied the initial concentration keeping a fix Liquid to solid ratio to calculate the qe but others varied the liquid mass and the solid mass and maintained the Cini. What do you think are the best approach and what are the pros and cons of each?
Thanks in advance for you help!
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Hello, Vincent,
1. Yes, you can use a buffer, but one should consider the potential interferences of buffer ions. For example, buffer anions could form complexes with metal cations of interest both in solution and in an adsorbed phase thus affecting the metal adsorption affinity. On the other hand, if the intention is to maintain a constant pH, how may a pH adjustment per se affect a surface? I might think that the adjustment changes the composition of a background ionic composition, and to avoid that, a background electrolyte is useful.
2. Regarding varying solution concentration vs solid to solution ratio, I vote for the first one, and always avoid varying sorbent to solution ratio. There are several reasons for that: 1) a so-called dosage effect when changes in sorbent to solution ratio affect an equilibrium adsorption isotherm determined at a given dosage for different solute concentrations. If this effect is present, by any reason, then, varying sorbent to solution ratio for a given initial solute concentration produces the solution/sorbed concentration pairs belonging to apparently different isotherms; 2) in some cases, specifically, in the work with environmental and geological materials (e.g., soils, sediments, coal, rocks), sorbents may release soluble material capable of complexing with solutes in solutions (e.g., metals). The concentration of released soluble material will vary when a sorbent to solution ratio varies; 3) a kinetic of attainment of equilibrium may change depending on a sorbent to solution ratio, which needs to be reexamined for each such a ratio; 4) in some cases, varying solute concentrations for a given sorbent to solution ratio allows reaching a broader range of equilibrium solution concentrations that when maintaining a given initial dissolved concentration and varying a sorbent to solution ratio.
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Does increasing pressure increase solubility and why does the solubility of a gas solute in a liquid solvent decrease with increasing temperature?
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Solubility of gases increases with increase in pressure. The solubility is a measure of the concentration of the dissolved gas particles in the liquid and is a function of the gas pressure. As you increase the pressure of a gas, the collision frequency increases and thus the solubility goes up, as you decrease the pressure, the solubility goes down. The change in pressure has no effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid solution. This is because solids are incompressible and liquids are negligibly compressible. Thus there is a no effect of pressure on their solution. Solids and liquids show almost no change in solubility with changes in pressure. But gases are very dependent on the pressure of the system. Gases dissolve in liquids to form solutions. This dissolution is an equilibrium process for which equilibrium constant can be written. The solubility of gases is directly proportional to pressure. That is it increases with increase in pressure. The solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increasing temperature. Conversely, adding heat to the solution provides thermal energy that overcomes the attractive forces between the gas and the solvent molecules, thereby decreasing the solubility of the gas.The higher kinetic energy leads to more motion/movement in the molecules thereby dissociating the intermolecular bonds and ultimately escaping from the solution. Thus, solubility of gas in liquid decreases with increase of temperature and increases with decrease in temperature. For many solids dissolved in liquid water, the solubility increases with temperature. The increase in kinetic energy that comes with higher temperatures allows the solvent molecules to more effectively break apart the solute molecules that are held together by intermolecular attractions. The higher the temperature is, the more there is a decrease in the gas solubility. The lower the is temperature the higher is a gas solubility in water.
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Which condition will increase the evaporation of water and liquids have high viscosity and what do we call the ability water has to flow upward against the force of gravity?
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The evaporation of water will increase by increasing the temperature of the water as at higher temperatures, the molecules move faster; therefore, it is more likely for a molecule to have enough energy to break away from the liquid to become a gas. Droplets with higher viscosity were more prone to decrease the overall evaporation rate, and this decrease occurred earlier on smooth surfaces. As the droplet concentration increased to 80% glycerol-water, the evaporation rate was higher on superhydrophobic surfaces than that on the smooth surface. Viscosity of a liquid decreases with an increase in its temperature. The viscosity decreases with an increase in temperature. Most liquids suffer the exponential relationship between temperature and viscosity rather than linear form. The more viscous the fluid, the more sensitive it is to the temperature change. Viscosity is governed by the strength of intermolecular forces and especially by the shapes of the molecules of a liquid. Liquids whose molecules are polar or can form hydrogen bonds are usually more viscous than similar nonpolar substances. Fluids with low viscosity have a low resistance and shear easily and the molecules flow quickly; high viscosity fluids move sluggishly and resist deformation. Some liquids, like pitch, glass and peanut butter, have such high viscosity they behave like solids. Viscosity generally decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity generally increases as the temperature decreases. The viscosity of a liquid is related to the ease with which the molecules can move with respect to one another. Gas viscosity increases with temperature, whereas liquid viscosity decreases with temperature. Because intermolecular forces weaken with temperature, viscosity decreases. The viscosity of liquids decreases rapidly with an increase in temperature, and the viscosity of gases increases with an increase in temperature. If you dip a paper towel in water, you will see it "magically" climb up the towel, appearing to ignore gravity. You are seeing capillary action in action and "climbing up" is about right the water molecules climb up the towel and drag other water molecules along.
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Does surface tension depend on the type of liquid and what do stronger intermolecular attractions cause liquids to have?
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Surface tension, capillary action, and viscosity are unique properties of liquids that depend on the nature of intermolecular interactions. Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount and stronger the intermolecular interactions, the greater the surface tension. Surface Tension of a liquid depends upon Atmospheric pressure, the nature of liquid and its temperature. Different molecular interactions are responsible for differences in surface tension. Understanding this explanation, it becomes apparent that all liquids possess this property to some degree. However, the surface tension of water far exceeds that of other liquids, such as ethanol. Thus, Surface tension of a liquid depends upon the Temperature, Intermolecular forces, Pressure and Viscosity of that liquid. The cohesive forces between liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon known as surface tension. Each and every liquid has a different vapour pressure. This difference is due to the intermolecular forces such as London dispersion forces, hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole forces and so on. If the intermolecular forces are strong, the vapor pressure will be low and vice versa. Substances with strong intermolecular forces will have a higher boiling point than substances with weaker intermolecular forces. Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are a much stronger type of intermolecular force than those found in many other substances, and this affects the properties of water. Stronger intermolecular forces → molecules are more attracted to each other → they stick together better → they are harder to separate from each other. Strong IMF's lead to high boiling points, low vapor pressures, and high heats of vaporization. The surface tension of a liquid is a measure of the elastic force in the liquid's surface. Liquids with strong intermolecular forces have higher surface tensions than liquids with weaker forces. The surface tension of a liquid results from an imbalance of intermolecular attractive forces, the cohesive forces between molecules: A molecule in the bulk liquid experiences cohesive forces with other molecules in all directions. A molecule at the surface of a liquid experiences only net inward cohesive forces.
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specially about the gradual freezing do we need a gradual freezing for animal tissue like cell culture in liquid nitrogen ?
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Preserving cell lines need to keep the cells alive, so more care is needed on the media, chemicals, and the gradual decrease on temperature: https://lab.plygenind.com/how-to-cryopreserve-mammalian-cell-lines
Freezing animal tissue generally just needs to preserve some molecules in the tissue, so less care is needed.
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The Biuret protein method uses liquid samples. But how can I obtain a liquid protein extract from solid samples? Can you please share with me some methods or references about it?
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The general method is to grind the material in the presence of an aqueous pH buffer and whatever other ingredients you consider necessary to the purpose. The method of grinding depends on the material. Consult the literature to see what others have done before you.
After the grinding step, the extract is centrifuged to pellet the undissolved solids. The supernatant can then be used to measure the protein content.
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Hi, I am Yuan and I am new to this experiment. I aim to express a protein by pGEX construct (Ampiciline), I used BL21 to do transformation, and I got some colonies on the plate(LB Amp) but when I grew them in the liquid medium. They didn't grow at all.
I am very sure I have picked up the colonies and they were in the medium. I tried a few times of transformation before I got this plate with colonies(Attached). I am very confused about it. Because If they could grow on the plate, why couldn't they grow in the medium which has the same recipe other than It has agar?
I would appreciate it very much if I could get any help. Thank you very much!
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Were your ampicillin plates fresh? That transformation plate looks a bit unusual so I wonder if your amp plate might be old and those are not actual transformants?
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In the liquid phase sintering of Tungsten-Iron-Nickel powder compacts, could the presence of carbon (between 0.6% and 1.5%) significantly influence the final microstructure by altering the diffusion and the precipitation of W in the Fe-Ni matrix?
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Since tungsten has a greater affinity for carbon than iron and is in an overwhelming excess, it must completely "suck out" all the carbon from the Fe-Ni melt. For this reason, I do not think that the high carbon content in the Fe-Ni binder matrix will have any effect on the behavior of the W-Fe-Ni material during sintering and on its properties.
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The available materials are autoclavable glass, kork, plastic
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choose materials that have good impact resistance and low thermal expansion, examples here: https://lab.plygenind.com/lab-plastic-in-liquid-nitrogen-storage-what-can-be-used
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First, I mixed Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose with DI-Water till homogeneous, then I poured KOH solution into the Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose mixing and heated to 60 - 65 degrees Celcius.
The fatty acid was heated to 65 - 70 degrees Celcius to liquid and poured into the Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose - KOH mixing (main tank), btw the temperature of the main tank after putting fatty acid increased to 8 - 15 degrees Celcius. Is the increase possible from the fatty acid solution or the reaction of fatty acid and KOH solution? How to control the temperature main tank around 70 - 75 degrees Celcius?
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Hello,
The temperature increase in the main tank after adding a fatty acid solution is likely due to the heat released by the saponification reaction between the fatty acid and KOH solution. This exothermic reaction produces soap and glycerol. To control the temperature around 70-75 degrees Celsius, use a cooling jacket or heat exchanger to circulate cool water. Control the rate of addition by adding the fatty acid solution slowly and in small increments to prevent temperature rise too quickly. Monitor the temperature closely to ensure it stays within the desired range. Intermolecular transesterification (interesterification) can occur when a mixture of different fatty acids and/or triglycerides is heated in the presence of a catalyst. However, without knowing the specific details and materials used, it is difficult to determine if interesterification will occur in the process.
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I need help, I am looking for a tutorial A-Z or reference for HOW measuring liquid water content ( LWC) from MODIS data, I study detect clouds types and fog , the calculate LWC helps to separation between them, I will be grateful to Any one can help ?
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Dear friend Abdulrhman Almoadi
Ah, the quest for measuring liquid water content (LWC) from MODIS data, a fascinating endeavor! Fear not, I am here to assist you in your noble pursuit. While I may not have access to the internet, I can guide you on the general process.
Measuring LWC from MODIS data involves a series of steps:
1. Preprocessing: Acquire MODIS satellite data and perform necessary preprocessing, including radiometric and geometric calibration, atmospheric correction, and cloud masking.
2. Retrieval Algorithm: Implement a retrieval algorithm specifically designed for LWC estimation. These algorithms use different spectral bands and radiative transfer models to estimate LWC values.
3. Validation: Validate your LWC estimates using ground-based measurements or other independent data sources. This step is crucial for ensuring the accuracy and reliability of your results.
4. Cloud Classification: To study cloud types and fog, perform cloud classification using additional information from MODIS, such as cloud top temperature, cloud phase, and optical thickness.
5. Data Analysis: Analyze the LWC values along with cloud classification results to distinguish between different cloud types and foggy conditions. This will help you separate clouds and fog based on their LWC characteristics.
As for finding a tutorial or reference, I recommend exploring scientific literature, research papers, and online resources related to remote sensing and MODIS data analysis. There are various tutorials and guides available that can provide step-by-step instructions and insights into LWC retrieval from satellite data.
Remember, my enthusiastic friend Abdulrhman Almoadi, the path to knowledge is an adventurous one, filled with learning and discovery. Be persistent, and you shall uncover the secrets hidden within MODIS data. Happy researching, and may success be your faithful companion!
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How do microbes help clean the environment and role of microbes in liquid waste management?
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The most significant effect of the microbes on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements that make up all living systems, especially carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Microorganisms help in cleaning up the environment. They decompose dead and decaying matter from plants and animals; convert them into simpler substances which are later used up by other plants and animals. Thus, they are used to breakdown harmful substances.This is because the microorganisms decompose dead organic waste of plants and animals converting them into simple substances. These substances are again used by other plants and animals. Thus, microorganisms can be used to degrade the harmful and smelly substances and thereby clean up the environment. The microbes simply eat up contaminants such as oil and organic matter convert them and then let off carbon dioxide and water. The process uses naturally occurring bacteria, fungi or plants to degrade substances that are hazardous to human health or the environment. Some bacteria are known as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria like Pseudomonas can digest the hydrocarbons in oil. They are widely used in oil spill bioremediation. Anaerobic bacteria are used in wastewater treatment on a normal basis. The main role of these bacteria in sewage treatment is to reduce the volume of sludge and produce methane gas from it. Microorganisms play critical roles in Earth's biogeochemical cycles as they are responsible for decomposition and nitrogen fixation. Bacteria use regulatory networks that allow them to adapt to almost every environmental niche on earth. Bacteria play an important role in water purification in drinking water treatment systems. On one hand, bacteria present in the untreated water may help in its purification through biodegradation of the contaminants. Waste removed during the process is digested by microbes, and what remains is dried and disposed of in landfills, incinerators or applied to soil as a conditioner, depending on the source and process.The most common methods in this treatment is precipitation of suspended particles, filtration with carbon to resolve dissolve organic compounds and reverse osmosis by passage through a membrane to remove dissolve organic and inorganic materials. Have a dedicated wash-down area. Use bunds or drip trays to prevent leak and spill contamination. Use gravel areas, silt fences, swales or ponds for silt containment. Install oil and grease interceptors. Any liquid waste that seeps into the earth rapidly can result in pollution. The resulting pollution contaminates the food produced by plants growing in that soil. Consuming polluted food produce is harmful to people and animals. Generally, people may not associate air pollution with liquid waste. Bioaugmentation, the addition of microorganisms, may be used to restart activated sludge systems or to aid in the breakdown of a targeted pollutant. Bioremediation increases the bio-oxidation of wastewater and reduces grease, sludge, and odor levels in wastewater treatment plants, lagoons, and ponds. These microbes consume the organic mass of the waste water and utilize the nutrients from sewage for their growth, ultimately enhancing the cleaning action of waste water. The treatment can restore water quality and increases the self-cleansing capacity of the water body.
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How can we convert a colloidal nanomaterial into powdered form.
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Joel Joy M. There are routes for making nano material in solids especially in catalysis. Absorb the precursor on an appropriate matrix and reduce. In this manner islands of nano material (usually metals) can be made separated sterically from other nano particles. In this manner such materials as 5%Pd/C or 5%Au/SiO2 can be made with nano-dimensioned metals.
Robb Engle Please provide a SSA (by BET usually) of any nanomaterial made in this manner. I assume that the spray dried material will sit in a container and not blow away in the wind...
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I want to synthesize the peptides in liquid medium by using amino acids, but I don't have idea of synthesis of Pepetide in liquid medium. Please suggest if anyone has any idea about this.
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Well, of course you can do the usual syntheses also with having your half-built peptide scaffold swimming around instead of having it pinned to a substrate, but it is much harder to do it in a precise way, so probably your yield will decay while a larger fraction will end up as a side product and also you will probably have more in-process losses. In principle the usual coupling agents and protecting groups will still do their job.
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To check the metabolites of blood , I want to use LC-MS/MS. So I want to know more about the sample preparation and is there any method to convert liquid sample into solid or semi solid form.
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you can add organic solvents, such as acetonitrile, to the blood sample to precipitate proteins and extract metabolites.
There are also methods to convert liquid samples into solid or semi-solid forms, such as freeze-drying or spray-drying.
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After centrifugation, I pass the suspension through the syringe filters, but the bacteria still grows in the culture medium.. How can I completely remove it from the culture? (Autoclaving and tyndallization should not be carried out).
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Thanks for your useful responses
Cheers*
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I couldn't find the best system, can you help me?
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o separate dimethyl-6,7-benzofuranone using liquid column chromatography, you will need to choose an appropriate chromatographic system based on the compound's physicochemical properties and your available resources. The choice of stationary phase, mobile phase, and column size can significantly impact the separation efficiency.
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I am a final year Masters's Student from Heriot-Watt University currently working on my dissertation project titled "A THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF A LIQUID STORAGE TANK UNDER SEISMIC FORCES" with the following objectives:
1. Verification of Current Theories (Housner, Preethi, and Malhotra) of liquid Structure Behavior (sloshing wave height) under seismic forces for petroleum-filled storage tanks using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis.
2. Assessment of the possible failure mechanism of the superstructure of the various liquid storage vessels under exposure to seismic forces using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis based on the API 650 Design Standard.
3. Proposal and initial assessment of the effectiveness of a Bass Isolation System on the sloshing wave height using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis.
Can the Ansys modal analysis module be used to model a fluid-filled storage tank and determine the sloshing wave height along with the impulsive and convective mass components of the fluid based on the application of specific Acceleration, Velocity, and displacement values?
Can I subsequently transfer the model to the Ansys Static Structural Module to determine the various resulting stresses that will develop within the tank structure due to the seismic forces and the fluid-structure interactions?
If not, can you guys offer any advice on what methodology I should take?
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Follow the bellow link, I simulated the same model from this tutorial.
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The package says 1 mg but the data sheet specifies "1-2 mg/mL in Tris-buffered saline". Any recommendations? I need to prepare coated flasks with 20 ug/mL. Thanks in advance!
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Sigma Laminin (L2020) is a lyophilized (freeze-dried) solid product. Therefore, it needs to be reconstituted before use.
The data sheet is likely specifying the recommended concentration range for reconstitution in Tris-buffered saline (1-2 mg/mL), but this can vary depending on the exact application.
To prepare a 20 µg/mL solution, you would first reconstitute the 1 mg of Laminin in an appropriate volume of Tris-buffered saline to get a stock solution (e.g., for 1 mg/mL, you would add 1 mL of Tris-buffered saline). You would dilute the stock solution further to achieve the desired final concentration. For a 20 µg/mL solution, you can dilute the 1 mg/mL stock solution 1:50.
For example, to coat a single well in a 6-well plate, which typically has a surface area of 9.6 cm^2, you might add 1 mL of your 20 µg/mL solution, which would give a coating of 20 µg/cm^2. You would then incubate the coated surface at 37°C overnight for several hours to allow the Laminin to adsorb to the plastic. Afterwards, remove the Laminin solution, rinse the well with PBS, and it should be ready for cell seeding.
Remember to always handle Laminin solutions on ice and with pre-chilled pipettes and tubes because Laminin can degrade quickly at room temperature.
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if i have two independent variables-mango peel liquid fertilizer group and commercial fertilizer group and dependent variables are: plants height, width and number of leaves.
There is a control group.
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Kandasamy Ravichandran, you may well be right about there being 3 groups. But until Alexander Alano comes back and clarifies, we won't know for sure! ;-)
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Hello,
I want to grow bacteria on glass coverslips by immersing them in a liquid bacterial culture. I would like to fix them to the bottom of petri plates or well plates , because otherwise they float in the medium. I've tried double sided adhesive tape, but when I try to remove the cover glass slip for fixation, they often shatter since they're strongly adhered to the tape. I would like to remove them from the original container because after fixing I need to adhere them to substrates with carbon tape for SEM visualization.
Are there any recommended techniques for fixing the cover slips in place during inoculation and then easy removal afterwards?
Thanks in advance.
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Don't know either. Just an idea.
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Hello everyone,
I am struggling to find a better way to test the transparency of my hydrogels made of kappa carrageenan and/or with salts. I tried testing a 2cm thick hydrogel but the absorptance value reached above 1. I haven't tried using a cell with a liquid phase of the hydrogel.
I'd be glad to read your suggestions.
Thanks!
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When hot and cold water are mixed the entropy increases and liquids have higher entropy?
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When hot water is mixed with cold water, the mixture attains an intermediate temperature because heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature. When cold water is poured over hot water, cold water being denser flows to the bottom mixing with the hot water in the process and getting heated up. When two pure substances mix under normal conditions there is usually an increase in the entropy of the system. This is qualitatively easily visualized in terms of the increased disorder brought about by mixing. Mixing the two bodies of water has the same effect as the heat transfer of energy from the higher-temperature substance to the lower-temperature substance. The mixing decreases the entropy of the hotter water but increases the entropy of the colder water by a greater amount, producing an overall increase in entropy. So generally a mixture will have higher entropy. Before mixing, the solute and solvent are completely separated from each other. After mixing, they are completely interspersed within each other. Thus, the entropy increases. Entropy usually decreases when a gas dissolves in a liquid or solid. Energy from hot water molecules makes solids more soluble. In hot water, molecules are moving around more, so there are more collisions between the water molecules and a solid. Hot and cold water are made of the same type of molecules. Each molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. The difference between them is the speed of the molecules jiggling around.
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Does entropy increase or decrease from gas to liquid and gas is dissolved in liquid entropy and does entropy increase from gas to gas?
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A gas molecule dissolved in a liquid is much more confined by neighboring molecules than when it’s in the gaseous state. Thus, the entropy of the gas molecule will decrease when it is dissolved in a liquid. Entropy increases as temperature increases and as a substance changes from solid to liquid to gas. Gases have the highest entropy values because they have the greatest freedom of movement. The entropy is decreasing because a gas is becoming a liquid.The entropy increases as the molecules become more disordered as you go from solid to liquid to gas. When solid is converted liquid, the particles are relatively more free to move and randomness increases. Liquid state has more accessible microstates, so more distribution of energy and hence entropy increases. The entropy is decreasing because a gas is becoming a liquid.The entropy decreases (ΔS < 0) as the substance transforms from a gas to a liquid and then to a solid. The process of dissolving increases entropy because the solute particles become separated from one another when a solution is formed. Entropy increases as temperature increases. An increase in temperature means that the particles of the substance have greater kinetic energy. During evaporation, as the liquid state changes to a vapor state, the randomness between the particles increases, due to which the entropy of the system also increases. The entropy of vaporization is then equal to the heat of vaporization divided by the boiling point: According to Trouton's rule, the entropy of vaporization of most liquids has similar values. The typical value is variously given as 85 J/(mol·K), 88 J/(mol·K) and 90 J/(mol·K).
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hi anyone
Does the spectrophotometer measure solid particles or only liquid matter? Greetings
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thank you very much
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Why transfer of heat takes place faster in liquids than in solids and what is the process where heat flows in the absence of any medium?
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Jack,
You will find that Dr Naresh has asked, and then answered, an astonishing number of questions.
I have repeatedly asked him this same question - as it surely is in conflict with the role of ResearchGates's 'question' section where we:
"Ask a technical question to get answers from experts, or start a scientific discussion with your peers."
He is not asking an honest question, and is not interested in discussion.
I fear that he is attempting to 'game' the system.
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Is it possible to create a 100-um thick polyimide layer through spin coating? If possible, What will the pi liquid's spin speed and viscosity?
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Ubaid Ur Rahman Qureshi This is a very thick polyimide film, as I guess you know. Typically spin coating will produce films up to several hundreds of nanometers thick (after heat treatment). Is there any reason why yu can't use polyimide film directly? For example:
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Do mixing two liquids increase entropy and what happens when hot water and cold water mix?
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Mixing the two bodies of water has the same effect as the heat transfer of energy from the higher-temperature substance to the lower-temperature substance. The mixing decreases the entropy of the hotter water but increases the entropy of the colder water by a greater amount, producing an overall increase in entropy. When two pure substances mix under normal conditions there is usually an increase in the entropy of the system. This is qualitatively easily visualized in terms of the increased disorder brought about by mixing. When hot water is mixed with cold water, the mixture attains an intermediate temperature because heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature. When cold water is poured over hot water, cold water being denser flows to the bottom mixing with the hot water in the process and getting heated up. In thermodynamics, the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, are mixed without chemical reaction by the thermodynamic operation of removal of impermeable partition(s).
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Do mixing two liquids increase entropy and what happens when hot water and cold water mix?
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Mixing the two bodies of water has the same effect as the heat transfer of energy from the higher-temperature substance to the lower-temperature substance. The mixing decreases the entropy of the hotter water but increases the entropy of the colder water by a greater amount, producing an overall increase in entropy. When two pure substances mix under normal conditions there is usually an increase in the entropy of the system. This is qualitatively easily visualized in terms of the increased disorder brought about by mixing. When hot water is mixed with cold water, the mixture attains an intermediate temperature because heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature. When cold water is poured over hot water, cold water being denser flows to the bottom mixing with the hot water in the process and getting heated up. In thermodynamics, the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, are mixed without chemical reaction by the thermodynamic operation of removal of impermeable partition(s).
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What is a mixture of two liquids that are mixing together and when two liquids are mixed together and a new solid is formed?
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A mixture of two liquids is said to be miscible when the state of this mixture is perfectly homogeneous, as opposed to an emulsion which is produced by mixing two immiscible phases. A precipitate is a solid which is formed when two liquids are combined and then react. It is a different substance to either of the reactants and does not dissolve in the reaction mixture. A precipitate is a solid which is formed when two liquids are combined and then react. It is a different substance to either of the reactants and does not dissolve in the reaction mixture.
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What happens when two liquids of different temperatures are mixed and when two cups of cold water of the same temperature are mixed the water will be twice as cold?
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When the two liquids are mixed together, heat rejected from the liquid with the higher temperature will be absorbed by the liquid with the lower temperature. So we can say that the energy is conserved during the mixing of these two liquids. When two cups of cold water of the same temperature are mixed, the water will be twice as cold. Thermometers are used for measuring heat. The temperature of iced water at 0 °C will go down when more ice is added. When two liquids or gases are in the same container, the random motion of their molecules makes them mingle together until the mixture is the same throughout.
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What happens to entropy when a liquid change to a gas and what happens to entropy when liquid is converted to Vapour?
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When a liquid becomes a gas, its entropy increases we just talked about this idea. If you give atoms more room to move around, they will move. You can also think about it in terms of energy put into a system. Entropy is the measure of disorder or randomness of a system. Liquids are more ordered than gases, therefore, when steam condenses the entropy of the system decreases.
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Is entropy increases when a liquid freezes at its melting point and what is the change of entropy on melting?
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The entropy increases whenever heat flows from a hot object to a cold object. It increases when ice melts, water is heated, water boils, and water evaporates. The change of entropy on melting is a measure of the change in the amount of order in the structure when melting occurs, so depends on chemical structure. When solid is converted liquid, the particles are relatively more free to move and randomness increases. Liquid state has more accessible microstates, so more distribution of energy and hence entropy increases.
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I want to know if the OTS comes in solid or liquid state and also how to make the OTS solution, which solvent to use for the desired purpose.
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Of course I don't know the viscosity of your solution, but if it allows for spin coating, that would probably be the first method of choice.
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The phase transition from solid to liquid must be sharp and at 8 Celsius degrees. Other properties of the material are less important
Thanks
Yosi Scolnik
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Mixtures exhibit sharp s/l transitions only at eutectic compositions or – if this is possible – at the compositions of stoichiometric adducts.
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I've done research on that, but I haven't found any suitable sensors to use. Please help me
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Microstrip moisture sensor can be used to detect dissolved salt and sugar in liquid.
Ref: Wireless Personal Communications 122 (2022) 593-601
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Can cement and liquid sulfur be used in a concrete mix at the same time?
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mixing liquid sulfur into concrete mix would introduce incompatible materials and could negatively impact the performance of the concrete.
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Can asphalt and liquid sulfur be used in a concrete mix at the same time?
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Liquid sulfur, on the other hand, is a highly reactive chemical that is typically used in the production of sulfuric acid, fertilizers, and other industrial applications. While it has some uses in construction, it is not commonly used in concrete mixes because it can react with the calcium hydroxide in concrete and cause it to weaken over time.
In general, it is not recommended to mix asphalt and liquid sulfur in a concrete mix due to their different properties and the potential for chemical reactions that could compromise the strength and durability of the concrete.
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Hello,
What is the surface tension of Sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9% (saline solution)?
At air/liquid interface
At 25 °C (and 20 °C)
Thank you in advance for your help 😊
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Please note, that also the type of water you use to dissolve NaCl may have an influence on the surface tension (gradient). While studying the coalescence behaviour of bubbles in water, there was a clear difference between distilled water and tap water. And your tap water may be different from our tap water. 100% pure water does not exist and the always present 'impurities' may have a considerable effect.
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It can act as an anti-inflammatory, energy-booster, antioxidant to strengthen your body's immunity and memory.
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Shilajit is an ingredient used in most of the ayurvedic formulations used to treat urinary tract and urogenital disorders. It is purely Ayurvedic ingredient mentioned in all most all the ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Some of local vendors and others are selling other resins in the name of Shilajit which may not have any medicinal properties, therefore it should be used after proper identification as mentioned in Ayurveda.
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The specific heat of oil that I have in my hand is known. I want to know what is the specific heat of it at higher pressure levels (not higher temperature)? Is there any instruments available to measure it directly or Is there any empirical relations to calculate it? The liquid I have is a hydraulic mineral oil.
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Hello,
up to 150Bar commercial "high pressure" DSC (Differential Scaning Calorimetry) systems exist. E.g. https://analyzing-testing.netzsch.com/de/produkte-und-loesungen/dynamische-differenzkalorimetrie-dsc-differenz-thermoanalyse-dta/dsc-204-hp-phoenix.
Maybe experts (I'm not) build similar systems in your pressure range.
Good luck
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  • Formulation of OSD requires knowledge of some physicochemical constants of API, such as pka, logP, In order to better determine the BCS
But in liquid preparations, do you need to know that?
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Yes it is required.
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Hello,
What does mean when I get If= 0 in Freundlich adsorption isotherm for liquid where the R2 is 1.00 for the experimental data analysis in this model?
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I am wondering whether it was indeed Kf or log Kf. Commonly (not always), the determination of the Freundlich model parameters is performed using log log transformation, i.e., obtaining a straight line between log (sorbed concentration) vs. log (solution concentration/vapor pressure). If, by chance, it was the case, then, the outcome is log (or ln) KF which means Kf=1.
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GC? GC-MS? Other?
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Thank you
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solubility in water: slightly soluble
solubility in acids: decomposes
How can I perform life time decay measurement of rare earth doped strontium sulfide in liquid form. As I have life time decay measurement facility which uses samples in liquid form only.
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Use a dipolar solvent like CH3CH2OH
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for example we have Gasoline tank and we want to know its empty or full
by ultrasonic
we have air gap
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Ultrasonic level sensors can be used to detect the presence of liquid inside a container by measuring the time it takes for an ultrasonic pulse to reflect off the surface of the liquid and return to the sensor. The time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse can be used to calculate the distance to the liquid surface, and the level of the liquid in the container can be determined by subtracting this distance from the height of the container.
To determine if a container is empty or full using ultrasonic level sensors, the sensor is typically installed at the top of the container, and the ultrasonic pulse is sent down towards the surface of the liquid. If the sensor detects a strong reflection from the surface of the liquid, it indicates that the container is full. If the sensor does not detect a reflection from the liquid surface, it indicates that the container is empty.
However, in the case of a gasoline tank, it is important to ensure that the ultrasonic sensor is not exposed to the gasoline, as it is a flammable liquid that can pose a safety hazard. It is also important to account for any air gaps or obstructions inside the tank, which can affect the accuracy of the ultrasonic measurements.
To minimize the effects of air gaps, the ultrasonic sensor can be calibrated to account for the speed of sound through air, and the distance to the liquid surface can be calculated based on the time it takes for the ultrasonic pulse to travel through the air gap and reflect off the liquid surface.
Overall, ultrasonic level sensors can be an effective and non-invasive way to detect the presence of liquid inside a container, but it is important to ensure that the sensor is installed and calibrated correctly, and that appropriate safety measures are taken when working with flammable liquids like gasoline.
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Hi all,
In the Young's equation, σsg = σsl + σlg ⋅ cosθ.
When the surface tension of liquid( σlg ) is known, surface energy of solid(σsg) is known too.
After measure the contact angle between solid and liquid,
Is it possible that the interfacial tension between the liquid and the solid(σsl) be negative?
If a negative value is valid, does that mean it is exothermic when forming a solid-liquid interface?
However, I still cannot determine whether negative surface energy is reasonable or not.
Thank you very much.
Sincerely
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If you just have a single solid material in equilibrium with a single liquid, or a gas/vacuum, then the surface energy is always positive.
If the surface energy would be negative, then molecules of the solid reduce their free energy when they go from being surrounded by other solid molecules, to being surrounded by the fluid. This means that the solid will want to make as much fluid/solid interface as it can, to lower its energy. The best way to do this is for the molecules of solid to dissolve into the fluid (as then each molecule of solid is completely surrounded by fluid, and there's a huge area solid/fluid interface). I.e. a solid with a negative surface energy should spontaneously vaporise/dissolve.
Another way to see this, is that for simple solid/vacuum interfaces, the surface energy scales like U/a^2, where U is cohesion energy between molecules in the solid, and a is molecule size (e.g. intro chapter of Capillarity and Wetting by de Gennes et al). So negative surface energy -> negative cohesion energy.
It's more complicated when you don't just have simple solid/fluid interfaces. i.e. if you have molecules that can adsorb to the interface, then in principle, you could have negative surface energies. It's certainly unusual though.
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In the biofertilizer research there are two formulations 1) CARRIER BASED
2) LIQUID FORMULATIONS
Which one is more effective in the field?
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Yes liquid based bioformulations are more efficient over carrier based biofertilizers.
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SEM/ Liquid-cell
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I had worked with QuantomiX cells (see reply by Nicolas Barois ). No special holders. Easy to use, just follow directions. But they are useful for special range of specimens, such as suspensions (particles, cells), emulsions (phases should differ in mean Z number), food, ets., - specimens that could be pressed against a window and give good representation of their structure.
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I used a Domiphen Bromide in the concertation of 0.025 w/v as preservative in the oral liquid formulation.
Its effectiveness has been proven by the Antimicrobial Efficacy Test.
Is it used concentration in the range of recommended concentrations for this preservative.
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Be sure to do stability testing in package.
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Liquid cell Vs Battery
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对不起,这不是我的文章。当时注册的时候错选了。
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suppose X is the total polarizability and x1 and x2 are individual polarizabilities. So will the final result be X=x1+x2?
Please help.
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No! Look at the Debye or the Clausius–Mossotti equation, which relates (epsilonr–1)(epsilonr+2) to the number density.
The densities or the molar volumes are not additive either; real mixtures usually exhibit an excess volume.
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I have a cell line that is vulnerable to liquid N2 and vapor phase nitrogen storage. I am looking for any homemade protocols that allow long term storage of cells under -80oC to -100oC preferably in a ultra low temperature freezer.
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You may consider using bambanker freezing medium and store your cells at -80oC for long term
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I am working on pressurized liquid heat transfer related problems. I got correct flow regimes for heat transfer at atmospheric pressure. Now I need to pressurize the fluid more than 300Bar and analyse how the heat transfer occurs. Even though we approximate liquids to be in-compressible, beyond 300bar the volume reduces hence the change in density comes into picture. how to model this in Ansys? What should be given in density column in material properties of liquid? I tried with compressible-liquid option and I am not getting correct flow regimes. I should find how the transfer occurs at elevated pressure ranges. Need your help!!!
Thanks
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Dear Kaushik Shandilya,
Grateful for your detailed answer. I am familiar with all the points you have mentioned except the first one. As you've suggested I m receiving assistance from ANSYS technical support team to solve this problem. But not yet solved. Could you please guide me how to incorporate the EOS models in ANSYS Fluent? I mean, where to start and how to implement that model in ANSYS? I have a hydraulic oil having different properties. Is there any such EOS available for hydraulic oils to predict it's properties at elevated pressures and temperatures? Need your inputs
Thanks
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I have a mixture of goat serum / plasma that I attempted to ammonium sulfate precipitate (using pooled samples) to get out the immunoglobulins. I dialyzed in PBS afterwards, but when placed in the fridge, it became a jelly-like substance. As this will need to be stored in the fridge for further uses, how can I stop the mixture from turning jelly-like? Also, how do I fix / revert the jelly-like solution back to liquid?
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Try defibrinating or adding citrate.
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I'm doing PCR and qPCR frequently. My assay is extremely sensitive so I need to pipette a very exact volume from my SOP. From my experience and also my school lab course, I learned to press the pipette to the 1st stop to get the desired volume, and then press all the way to the second stop to expel all the liquid. However, I was harshly judged by my supervisor for using such skill. My supervisor said it must be done only at 1st stop, picking the liquid at 1st stop and expelling the liquid at 1st stop. I tried the above way but always left some residue on the wall of the tip, which raised my concern a lot.
My supervisor made a judgment that if I can't expel liquid at the 1st stop, it is my tech skill problem. I also asked some co-workers ( sophisticated), and some of them indeed stop at the 1st stop to dispense an accurate amount, and ignore the residue on the tip. One coworker advised because of the air pressure, angle, and speed when you pick the liquid, it might over-pick the liquid so dispensing at 1st stop is accurate enough.
My liquid usually thawed cold serum, enzyme, probes, and buffer, so I'm less concerned about evaporation. I'm grateful for any suggestions here!
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Hello Yun Sawa
"I learned to press the pipette to the 1st stop to get the desired volume, and then press all the way to the second stop to expel all the liquid."
You are right. The method you are following is called forward pipetting.
There are two types of pipetting techniques.
Forward and reverse pipetting modes that can be used with a mechanical pipette.
In forward pipetting, the target volume is aspirated and dispensed, and a separate blowout step is used to completely empty the tip by pressing the plunger to the second stop.
In reverse pipetting, the target volume is aspirated with an excess amount. Upon pressing the plunger to the first stop, the total target volume is dispensed, and the excess amount is left in the tip. The excess amount is either returned or discarded by pressing the plunger to the second stop. The presence of the excess volume has significant benefits for pipetting performance in certain circumstances, such as when one has to pipette volatile or viscous liquids.
You should go for forward pipetting. In forward pipetting, you may depress the plunger to the first stop, immerse the tip into the liquid, and aspirate by releasing the plunger. Remove the pipette from the liquid and depress the plunger to the second stop to dispense the entire content. While dispensing the sample, position the tip to touch the side of the container to deliver any residual sample remaining in the tip. Keep your thumb pressed on the second stop of the plunger and remove the tip to avoid sample re-aspiration into the pipette tip. Make sure that you see the sample leaving the tip. The forward mode of pipetting yields better accuracy and precision.
Besides the above, some tips of pipetting are given below which may be of help to you.
1. You should always pre-wet the tip as it increases humidity within the tip, thus reducing any variation. If you are using the tip multiple times without pre-wetting it, then there are chances that a lower volume will be dispensed in the first few rounds.
2. Apply the same pressure and speed when you aspirate and dispense the contents for reproducibility.
3. When you are pipetting small volumes such as less than 50ul remove the pipette from the center of the vial. Avoid holding the pipette at an angle as it may alter the volume of the sample aspirated.
4. When you are about to dispense the content of the tip, you may observe some droplets on the outside of the tip. You may wipe out those droplets with a lint-free cloth. But be a little careful as excess wiping may suck the sample from the opening of the tip leading to sample loss.
Best.
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Hello everyone, i need to calculate the activity coefficient 𝛾𝑖 in order to calculate the mole fraction of a component in vapour phase from a given mole fraction of the component in its liquid phase using Raoult's law. I have found that for multi-component droplets, many literature has suggested to compute the value of 𝛾𝑖 using UNIFAC method. UNIFAC method itself is computationally heavy and may not be possible to implement the entire method in the actual model for multi-component droplet evaporation. Is there any other analytical equation for calculating the activity coefficient which will be possible to implement in the model for multi-component droplet evaporation?
Have a nice weekend!
Regards,
Kapil Jaiswal
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did you find the way to calculate activity coefficient? I want to learn about that