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Linguistic Typology - Science topic

Linguistic typology is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features.
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Publications related to Linguistic Typology (1,014)
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The article focuses on contemporary trends in contrastive studies. As a point of departure the nature, history and evolution of contrastive linguistics are examined. Contrastive linguistics is viewed in relation to other disciplines such as comparative linguistics, comparative historical linguistics, linguistic typology, theory of translation, and...
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This paper examines the role of Lexical Aspect Hypothesis (LAH) and linguistic typological similarity in the L3 acquisition of English tense and aspect among Uygur speakers with L2 Mandarin Chinese (Chinese hereafter). LAH asserts that the emerging verbal inflections at the early stage of language acquisition primarily function as markers of the le...
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Modern Russian uses the same marker kak 'how' to introduce the standard in equative and similative constructions. Historical grammars claim that the same polysemy is found in Old Russian, where three markers, kako, aky and jako, are used interchangeably. Based on the analysis of chronicles and documents of the 11 th-15 th centuries and queries in t...
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Many immigrant children in minority language settings learn to read in their second language (L2), which is the language of their country of residence, prior to their L1. Differences between groups of learners become more evident when children follow this literacy learning pattern with different scripts and linguistic typologies for the languages t...
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Many immigrant children in minority language settings learn to read in their second language (L2), which is the language of their country of residence, prior to their L1. Differences between groups of learners become more evident when children follow this literacy learning pattern with different scripts and linguistic typologies for the languages t...
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This paper describes a method to enrich lexical resources with content relating to linguistic diversity, based on knowledge from the field of lexical typology. We capture the phenomenon of diversity through the notions of lexical gap and language-specific word and use a systematic method to infer gaps semi-automatically on a large scale. As a first...
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Zipf’s law of abbreviation, which posits a negative correlation between word frequency and length, is one of the most famous and robust cross-linguistic generalizations. At the same time, it has been shown that contextual informativity (average surprisal given previous context) is more strongly correlated with word length, although this tendency is...
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In the literature of linguistic typology, Chinese and Vietnamese are often put side by side at the far end of the scale of analyticity. This paper explores some major aspects of this robust analyticity from a comparative point of view. For one thing, it has been established that Chinese sports a prolific system of implicit light verbs, which result...
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Phylogenetic comparative methods are new in our field and are shrouded, for most linguists, in at least a little mystery. Yet the path that led to their discovery in comparative biology is so similar to the methodological history of balanced sampling, that it is only an accident of history that they were not discovered by a linguistic typologist. H...
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This paper investigates “directionals” or geocentric spatial terms in Lamaholot, examining the interaction between directionals, topographic environment, and cultural construals of landscape. Lamaholot is an Austronesian language of eastern Indonesia spoken on the volcanic island of Flores. The Lewotobi dialect, with which this paper is concerned,...
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摘要: 维吾尔语是典型的核心后置语言,以往研究对此已有比较充分的描写与解释。但维吾尔语中还有一些前置核心结构,目前尚未得到应有的注意。本文对xuddi、bä’äyni、goya/goyaki等三个词进行考察发现,其在诗歌等特殊语体中可以充当前置介词。文章的后半部分综合分析维吾尔语复合句,认为维吾尔语-ki型复合句是一种非常规语序的句型,具有突出某一话题、引起听话人注意的功能。 Abstract: Uyghur is a typical post-head language. Previous studies have fully described and explained this, but so far it has not been noticed that there are s...
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Corpus-based studies have become increasingly common in linguistic typology over recent years, amounting to the emergence of a new field that we call corpus-based typology. The core idea of corpus-based typology is to take languages as populations of utterances and to systematically investigate text production across languages in this sense. From a...
Article
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Studies about the Spanish variety spoken by Mapudungun-Spanish bilinguals or español mapuchizado have reported a series of divergent features that makes it different from Chilean Spanish. However, until now no studies about the domain of negation in that variety of Spanish have been done. This work aims to study negation in this language variety fr...
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As the patronymic Ethiopian names do not match the widespread GIVEN NAME – FAMILY NAME pattern of the Western world, the names of Ethiopian authors are often quoted inconsistently and inappropriately by scholars in the field of linguistic typology and historical-comparative linguistics. After a brief introduction into the Ethiopian naming conventio...
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Based on the “Unified Platform for Speech Acoustic Parameters of Chinese Minority Languages”, this paper calculates and compares the acoustic distribution of vowels in Mongolian, Uyghur, and Ewenki and proposes a hypothesis that the relevance between the similarity of the acoustic distribution patterns of vowels and language closeness does exist. I...
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The aim of this paper is to discuss criteria for identifying adjectives in natural languages using the language Karitiana (Arikén, Tupi) as an example. Firstly, the most traditional syntactic criteria used in the literature by descriptivists and typologists are discussed (DIXON, 1991, 2004). Despite the importance of these criteria as a first appro...
Article
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pp. La monografía Lingüística aplicada a la traducción, escrita por Mohamed El-Madkouri Maataoui, es una obra concebida para los estudiantes de Traducción e Interpretación, aunque también para los profesionales (traductores, intérpretes, revisores, redactores y editores de traducción y peritos de traductología forense). En ella se ofrecen al lector...
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The study examines how prototypes and typological relationships between the L1, the L2 and the target language (TL) interact with TL proficiency in learning Italian as additional language. Low-proficiency and high-proficiency undergraduate learners of Italian (N = 25) with Swedish as L1 performed an oral retelling story test, aiming to elicit the I...
Article
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Negation, a linguistic operation used to deny, has a structural peculiarity in Lama, a Gur language spoken in Togo, Benin and Ghana. This language expresses negation through various morphemes. A number of morphemes serve to formulate lexical negation, some participate in the construction of absolute negative statements, and others govern the a...
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RESUME: Dans cette conférence d’adieu, je présente mon credo linguistique qui n’est ni un « manifeste » à valeur normative ni un « héritage » légué à la postérité, mais tout simplement les principes qui m’ont guidé dans mes recherches scientifiques. Je commence par plaider en faveur du remplacement de la dénomination « conférence d’adieu » par cell...
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We evaluate a simple approach to improving zero-shot multilingual transfer of mBERT on social media corpus by adding a pretraining task called translation pair prediction (TPP), which predicts whether a pair of cross-lingual texts are a valid translation. Our approach assumes access to translations (exact or approximate) between source-target langu...
Thesis
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La thèse a pour objectif de comparer les usages du démonstratif défini en emploi adnominal dans les langues tchèque et française, plus précisément dans leur registre parlé informel (le plus sujet au changement et à l’innovation). Pour ce faire, nous nous appuyons sur des données de corpus composées essentiellement de conversations. Ces données sont...
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Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads (LTC) is a new journal dedicated to the crossroads where linguistic typology meets its neighboring fields. Thanks to the advanced infrastructure provided by ABIS-AlmaDL<https://sba.unibo.it/it/almadl/> at the University of Bologna, LTC provides immediate and free open access to all publications, with no embargo...
Article
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Abstract: the model of goal-oriented discovery of new knowledge by a team of experts in texts and the forms of its representation in linguistic typologies and term dictionaries of medical knowledge bases are considered. The usage of the model is illustrated by two examples: the discovery of new knowledge about the meanings of German modal verbs in...
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Current NLP research uses neither linguistically annotated corpora nor the traditional pipeline of linguistic modules, which raises questions about the future of linguistics. Linguists who have tried to crack the secrets of deep learning NLP models, including BERT (a bidirectional transformer-based ML technique employed for Google Search), have had...
Conference Paper
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One of the currently biggest challenges in NLP is to develop multilingual language technology. Lack of data in low-resources languages poses great difficulty to NLP researchers and limits NLP technology's availability to a small number of resource-rich languages. It has been shown that linguistic typology and the knowledge of language universals ca...
Article
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Plural marking systems in natural languages follow an Animacy Hierarchy such that although it is common for animate nouns to receive plural markers while inanimate nouns are left unmarked, the reverse pattern is never attested. A hypothesis that has received wide empirical support is that underlying biases of learners during language learning shape...
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This paper described the mechanism of valence change in Mandailing language. The concept of valence refers to the number of arguments a verb that serves as a predicate in a clause can present. Changing the valence of verbs in Mandailing through a causative process causes the verbs to experience an increase in valence. This study was included a qual...
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The paper presents the “field biography” of Aleksandr E. Kibrik – the outstanding Russian linguist, the founder of the national school of field linguistics. Kibrik’s 1967–2008 field studies of unwritten languages of Russia, most particularly of Daghestanian languages, including Archi, Khinalug, Godoberi, Bagwalal and Tsakhur, are outlined. Descript...
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The paper proposes a parametric analysis of grammatical asymmetries in Daghestanian languages. In this linguistic family, morphological ergativity is accompanied by non-consistent grammatical asymmentries exhibited by various syntactic operations. I demonstrate that this inconsistency can be accounted for under assumption that the internal structur...
Chapter
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This volume is the first book-length presentation of the relatively newly established grammatical category of Associated Motion. It provides a framework for understanding a grammatical phenomenon which, though present in many languages, has gone unrecognised until recently. Previously known mainly from languages of Australia and South America, gram...
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Relationships between phonological and morphological complexity have long been proposed in the linguistic literature, with empirical investigations often seeking complexity trade-offs. Positive complexity correlations tend not to be viewed in terms of motivations. We argue that positive complexity correlations can be diachronically well-motivated,...
Conference Paper
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Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘unive...
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Semantic Syntax (SeSyn), originally called Generative Semantics, is an offshoot of Chomskyan generative grammar (ChoGG), rejected by Chomsky and his school in the late 1960s. SeSyn is the theory of algorithmical grammars producing the well-formed sentences of a language L from the corresponding semantic input, the Semantic Analysis (SA), represente...
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p>O ramo Tupari da família linguística Tupí é constituído pelas línguas: Akuntsú, Makurap, Sakurabiat, Tupari e Wayoro, faladas no estado de Rondônia, por grupos relativamente pequenos. Por esse motivo, são consideradas línguas fortemente ameaçadas de extinção. Os predicados não verbais são formados por construções em que as estruturas formais não...
Article
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Whistled forms of languages are distributed worldwide and survive only in some of the most remote villages on the planet. They are not limited to a given continent, language family, or language structure, but they have been detected only sporadically by researchers and travelers, partly because they can be taken for nonlinguistic phenomena, such as...
Conference Paper
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Enquanto as gramáticas tradicionais, em última análise, são gramáticas da frase, para uma abordagem comunicativa da gramática convém partir da unidade textual mínima que é o ato de fala (cf. Engel, 1991; Johnen, 2012). Ora, no caso da alocução trata-se de um ato de fala que típicamente não é realizado por meio de frases completas. Além disso, não f...
Chapter
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Historical Linguistics and Linguistic Typology have been used to demonstrate that PGA is an independent language family of India. Data from extra-linguistic sources such as anthropology, archaeology and genetics have been used as additional supportive evidence. This chapter will give a summary of the findings and will familiarise the audience with...
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Este trabajo explora las construcciones negativas del mapudungun desde la lingüística tipológica contemporánea. A partir de datos recogidos en el campo y de una discusión bibliográfica previa, se establecen los esquemas de la negación prototípicos del mapudungun y sus variaciones. Finalmente, se propone una clasificación tipológica de las construcc...
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The present article observes the continuous pursuit of experimental software in psycholinguistic research and the need to elaborate more on the practical use of isolated software packages. On the example of a lab-based programme MATLAB with its experiment control library PsychToolbox-3, the article offers the results of the systematic review of lit...
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Much of linguistic typology is inherently categorical. In large-scale typological surveys, grammatical constructions, distinctions, and even variables are typically classified as present, absent, or embodying one of a set of specified options. This work is valuable for a multitude of purposes, and in many cases such categorization is sufficient. In...
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This article provides students of language and researchers with a brief review of the major theoretical approaches to the study of languages in contact. The article defines variation and identifies the major linguistic and extra linguistic causes and consequences of contact on the phonological, the morphological, the syntactic, the semantic and the...
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Linguistics, and typology in particular, can have a bright future. We justify this optimism by discussing comparability from two angles. First, we take the opportunity presented by this special issue of Linguistic Typology to pause for a moment and make explicit some of the logical underpinnings of typological sciences, linguistics included, which...
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There is a great variety of studies on linguistic mitigation in different genres and registers, but there are not so many research into interlinguistic and intercultural comparison. This paper focuses on the comparison of this pragmatic phenomenon in two languages, Peninsular Spanish and German. The purpose is to find out what mechanisms native spe...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the NEMO submission to SIGTYP 2020 shared task (Bjerva et al., 2020) which deals with prediction of linguistic typological features for multiple languages using the data derived from World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS). We employ frequentist inference to represent correlations be tween typological features and use this re...
Method
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This extended abstract was presented at "SIGTYP 2020: The Second Workshop on Computational Research in Linguistic Typology" at EMNLP 2020, November. Online.
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Word order harmony describes the tendency, found across the world's languages, to consistently order syntactic heads relative to dependents. It is one of the most well-known and well-studied typological universals. Almost since it was first noted by Greenberg (1963), there has been disagreement about what role, if any, the cognitive system plays in...
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Dr. Bernard Comrie is a specialist in linguistic typology and linguistic universals as well as in Caucasian languages. He is currently at the University of California, Santa Barbara where he is a Distinguished Professor of Linguistics. His long and respected career includes teaching at the University of Cambridge and the University of Southern Cali...
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Using data from the World Atlas of Language Structures and the Universal Dependencies tree-banks, we provide converging evidence from linguistic typology and comparative corpus linguistics for an efficiency-based trade-off in the encoding of referentially accessible subjects. Specifically , when familiar subjects are marked as bound elements attach...
Book
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2019an 50 urte egin zituen Nafarroako Gobernuaren Vianako Printzea Erakundeak argitaratzen duen Fontes Linguae Vasconum: studia et documenta euskal hizkuntzalaritzako aldizkariak. Horren gorazarre, liburu honek gaur egungo euskal hizkuntzalaritza- eta literaturaikerketa zertan den erakutsi nahi du. Eskarmentu handiko ikertzaileek eta belaunaldi ber...
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This paper describes the NEMO submission to SIGTYP 2020 shared task which deals with prediction of linguistic typological features for multiple languages using the data derived from World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS). We employ frequentist inference to represent correlations between typological features and use this representation to train s...
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This extended abstract surveying the work on phonological typology was prepared for "SIGTYP 2020: The Second Workshop on Computational Research in Linguistic Typology" to be held at EMNLP 2020.
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This issue of the Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics aims to contribute to our understanding of language change in real time by presenting a group of articles particularly focused on social and sociocultural factors underlying language diversification and change. By analysing data from a varied set of languages, including Greek, English, and th...
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The article presents Russian and Polish grammarians’ points of view (Vasily Adodurov, Mikhail Lomonosov, Anton Barsov, Walenty Szylarski, Onufry Kopczyński) on considering language theory issues and how they described them in their works written in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The grammars under consideration were aimed not only at a detailed...
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Synoptic article for WSK Linguistic Typology (De Gruyter)
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Journal name - INFORMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS 2020 volume 14 issue 3 Pp. 119-128 Abstract: an approach to verify the completeness of ontologies and fill in conceptual lacunas found in them is proposed. The approach is based on the following symbiotic information processes: goal-oriented discovering new knowledge using data, its representation in...
Conference Paper
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Our study arose from a need to find and fill lacunas in knowledge systems supporting machine translation. The paper focuses on the challenge of developing a model that describes processes of goal-oriented enrichment of linguistic typologies as dynamic knowledge systems about language units and their translations. To describe the processes, we have...
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Word class flexibility refers to the phenomenon whereby a single word form is used across different grammatical categories. Extensive work in linguistic typology has sought to characterize word class flexibility across languages, but quantifying this phenomenon accurately and at scale has been fraught with difficulties. We propose a principled meth...
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A complex network as an abstraction of a language system has attracted much attention during the last decade. Linguistic typological research using quantitative measures is a current research topic based on the complex network approach. This research aims at showing the node degree, betweenness, shortest path length, clustering coefficient, and nea...
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The Multilingual data in ELTeC: enacting European literary traditions workshop introduces participants to the Distant Reading for European Literary History project (COST Action CA16204) by exploring the linguistical and computational challenges that arise in the creation of the ELTeC (European Literary Text Collection) multilingual corpus. This fr...
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El siguiente artículo ofrece un recuento de las principales propuestas y modelos formulados para explicar la variación en la expresión de sujeto a través de las lenguas. El tema es abordado desde las perspectivas de la teoría lingüística, la lingüística tipológica, la adquisición de primeras y segundas lenguas, y el contacto de lenguas. En él se in...
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This paper explores two peripheral Northern Italian dialects (NIDs), namely Lamonat and Frignanese, with respect to their genealogical linguistic classification. The two NIDs exhibit morpho-phonological and morpho-syntactic features that do not fall neatly into the Gallo-Italic sub-classification of Northern Italo-Romance, but resemble some of the...
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La tipología lingüística de Jakobson (1971a) –a partir de la clasificación de Luria (1947)– sigue siendo el análisis más exhaustivo sobre las alteraciones del lenguaje que se presentan en la afasia; no obstante, hay que considerar que esta caracterización se encuentra limitada al desarrollo de la teoría lingüística de su época, por lo que las refer...
Thesis
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Abawiri is a Lakes Plain language spoken in the Mamberamo River Basin in the northern lowlands of Papua, Indonesia. It is primarily spoken in a single village, Fuau, by about 550 people. The Lakes Plain languages have long been considered something of a curiosity by linguists specializing in Papuan languages. Preliminary descriptions have included...
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Sparse language vectors from linguistic typology databases and learned embeddings from tasks like multilingual machine translation have been investigated in isolation, without analysing how they could benefit from each other's language characterisation. We propose to fuse both views using singular vector canonical correlation analysis and study wha...
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The use of linguistic typological resources in natural language processing has been steadily gaining more popularity. It has been observed that the use of typological information, often combined with distributed language representations, leads to significantly more powerful models. While linguistic typology representations from various resources ha...
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This paper argues that linguistic typology, and linguistics more generally, got off to a good start in the 19th century with scholars like Wilhelm von Humboldt and Georg von der Gabelentz, where the understanding was that each language manifests a unique world view, and it is important to study and compare those world views. This tradition is still...
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The paper shows the role of scripts in explaining the use of taxis connectors of immediate anteriority such as as soon as, once in English. Taxis connectors (conjunctions and syntactic phrasemes) such as after, as soon as, before have been studied in linguistic typology as the means of expressing taxis relation between situations, i.e. anteriority,...
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Aquest article presenta l’experiència de Gramàtica com parada a l’aula, que constitueix una iniciativa per introduir als llibres de text de llengua catalana de l’educació secundària obligatòria un enfocament de l’ensenyament gramatical a partir de la comparació del català amb altres llengües. Els materials que presentem han estat publicats en els l...
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Abstract: This contribution delves into the investigation of cohesive devices in original and translated texts by querying the impact of text and language typologies on the frequency of conjunctions (NUNES, 2014). Data was obtained in the Corpus de Língua Portuguesa em Tradução, a bilingual bidirectional parallel corpus in the language pair English...
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Este artigo, filiado aos estudos de tipologia linguística (WHALEY, 1997), tem como objetivo abordar as diferenças entre fala feminina e fala masculina nas línguas indígenas do Brasil. As línguas escolhidas foram o Karajá (Macro‑Jê) e o Kadiwéu (Guaikuru), visto que ambas já contam com descrições e levanta‑mentos que tratam especificamente do tema:...
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The paper describes an approach to design of the Lexicographic Knowledge Base (LKB), which aims to fulfill two interrelated tasks: (i) goal-oriented development of linguistic typologies; and (ii) creation and updating of electronic bilingual dictionaries based on the developed typologies. In the LKB, some of the fields assigned by lexicographers to...
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This paper examines the syntactic properties of interjections in isiXhosa and their compliance with the interjectional prototype and its extra-systematicity as postulated in linguistic typology. By reviewing nearly two thousand uses of interjections in the comic genre, the authors conclude the following: in its integrity, the category of interjecti...
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There has been a considerable publication of the cross-linguistic study of comitativity. These studies have taken various approaches to the issue of comitativity. Nevertheless, scholars of Igbo grammar are yet to publish accounts of this concept in the language. Thus, this paper sets out to investigate comitativity in Igbo with the aim of identifyi...
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Several languages around the world encode number through a regular alternation between verb roots, in a pattern sometimes called ‘verbal number suppletion’ (Veselinova 2006). Lo–Toga and Hiw, two Oceanic languages of Vanuatu (Torres Islands), thus alternate certain verbs according to their absolutive argument's number – e.g. Hiw tō ‘go:Sing’ vs. vë...
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Relative clause has been studied intensively in linguistic typology, psycholinguistics, syntax, second language acquisition and translation studies because of its unique features. Google’s new generation of neuro machine translation is reported to work better than the previous MT systems. This evaluation study aims at learning progress and potentia...
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In the last decade, linguists have started to develop and make use of ontologies, encouraged by the progress made in areas such as Artificial Intelligence and the Semantic Web. This paper gives an overview of notions and dimensions of “ontology” and of ontologies for and in linguistics. It discusses building blocks, design aspects, and capabilities...
Conference Paper
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A mainstay of models that account for the access of lexical knowledge is that auditory words compete for selection based on form similarity, commonly seen in an inhibitory effect to greater phonological neighborhood density (PND). PND is a metric that states that two words are neighbors if they differ by the addition, deletion or substitution of a...