Lightning - Science topic
Lightning is a massive electrostatic discharge between electrically charged regions within clouds, or between a cloud and the Earth's surface. The charged regions within the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves through a lightning flash, commonly referred to as a strike if it hits an object on the ground.
Questions related to Lightning
According to Cicero [De Natura Deorum 3.16.42], there was an ancient Heracles character in India. According to Cicero, the name of this character was "Hercules Belus". Was this character the same as Baal? In general, is Heracles the same as the god Baal that was worshipped as a god in Phoenicia? Wikipedia presents an image of Baal (of Ugarit), and tells that this Baal is holding a lightning bolt in his hand. https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baal .
To me that "lightning bolt" seems more like a staff, which would connect him to Heracles.
According to Megasthenes and Arrian [Indica 8], the Indians were telling already 300 BCE a hundreds of generations old legend, according to which King Heracles was born in the "hill country of India". This opens up space for a hypothesis, according to which the Indian Heracles was more ancient than all of his later Egyptian, Anatolian, and Greek namesakes, mentioned by Cicero.
P.S. I am asking these questions, as I am doing a 3rd edition of my book
there are many videos circulating on social media that Bluetooth conducts electricity through our mobile devices. Still, I know that Bluetooth uses radio waves from 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz. can anyone give a proper scientific explanation about this?
I have modelled a solar pv system and a double exponential lightning current model using PSCAD. When I inject the lightning current (10 kA) in the DC side of the system, the results obtained are as follows
I (dc) = 7339.87 A
I (ac) = 2266.87 A
V (dc) = 227.11 V
V (ac) = 1.96 V
The current values are as expected but the voltage developed due to the lightning strike is too low. Increasing the lightning current magnitudes slightly increases the voltage output as well but still as low as 27.52 V for an injection of 100 kA lightning current.
If anyone has idea about this topic or the issue, please feel free to comment here or email me
In the Super Strength theory that there are 7 hidden dimensions, do I have the right to believe that there are hidden beings in those dimensions? Because what I understand from the history of physics is that scientists want to cancel the idea of creating the universe and creatures, and they try to tell us that, by billions of years, from the movement of lightning and water, a proto-animal is the amoeba, from which all creatures on Earth emerged. So if we accept with the theory that there are 7 hidden dimensions and we cannot deal with them, if we accept that there are hidden beings in those dimensions, who created them? Is it also lightning and water?
I have simulated a solar pv model using PSCAD and I have modelled a lightning current waveform as well. Both these models run properly when ran as separate projects. However, when I inject the lightning current into the solar pv system, my expected voltage and current reading should have a surge but the actual voltage and current that I am getting is the same as when I run it under normal condition, i.e. without injection of lightning current. If anyone knows why this issue is occurring, or has prior experience dealing with the software or the topic, please do comment and help me out.
I'm studying lightning performance on HV lines. I use EMTP software for simulation and i need some options that i don't know how to do them. I want to do this operation in EMTP environment :
Multiple run option: A data case can be simulated as many
times as needed, while changes are introduced into the
system at every run. This capability can be used to perform
statistical and sensitivity studies.
Can anyone help me? thanks
The average lightning strike contains about 1 million joules, enough energy to fry the founding father in his boots. The problem is that the energy in lightning is contained in a very short period of time, only a few microseconds. Further, to obtain that 1 million joules, one would have to handle a voltage of several million volts. Absorbing lightning and converting it to useful energy would be an extraordinary challenge indeed. But robust and dependable safety mechanisms would also need to be built to immediately contain the huge burst of energy and prevent the entire facility from being blown to bits. In addition, determining the most practical locations for capture facilities would present a huge host of problems. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, lightning strikes somewhere on the earth approximately 44 times every second, but most of those strikes occur in the tropics and remote mountain regions. Constructing a state-of-the-art energy conversion and storage facility in such conditions would be enormously difficult. Distributing that energy to more populous areas would add even more logistic and economic challenges.
Imagine a ball lightning in the form of a charged air stream moving along the trajectories of Villarso circles on the surface of a torus, stretched over a sphere without the northern and southern polar caps. It can be seen that in this case the air flow rises from the South Polar Circle to the North along the outer surface of the sphere, and descends from the North Polar Circle to the South already along the inner surface of the sphere (or vice versa). In addition, it is easy to see that the smaller the radius of the polar circles, the closer the flow paths (i.e., Villarso circle) to the coordinates of longitude. Since the closed trajectories of the charged air flow can be considered as the ring current circuits, the nearby ring current circuits will attract and our polar circles will contract. If the contraction of the poles will be sufficient to initiate the cold nuclear fusion reaction at the poles of the sphere, then we will obtain a mechanism for the formation of ball lightning. As for the mechanism for the formation of the internal symmetry of an electron, here we have a union of the internal symmetries of the torus (shift along the Willarso circle) and rotation of the torus along the surface of the sphere, which generates the SU(2) group. The issue of creating a laboratory ball lightning (as a derivative of an artificial tornado) was raised in the study
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
We are trying to improve Tower Footing Resistance and Lightning Performance and We will use some methods for achieving that.
Lightning reflection and refreaction does play important role in using different material. For example conductor and cable point is so importand for reflection and refraction. İs it important for earthing? When lightnin stroke to the tower, which is best for us to get lower voltage on top tower.
We have done some model and transient analysis but When we use copper and steel, we didnt see any differences between them. Copper has little Permeability(nü) than steel and we dont see any effect in transient analysis.
What do you think about it?
Which one do we use for improving Tower Footing Resistance and lightning performance, copper or steel conductor and rod?
my project is to simulate lightning that strikes wind turbine. the terminal is cloud and wind turbine is ground. i want to use time domain and see how the discharge of lightning travels to ground.
How to model and set up a physics in COMSOL for a CFRP panel Embedded with Expanded Metal Foil for lightning strike simulation?
The protection of solar power system from lightning we use lightning rod. how much area cover an lightning rod, and what is the minimum wire size we use for it.
I need to collect the weather information for Sydney city for the last five years. Please help me by suggesting some good web links.
The misconception of Cloud-cloud collision is unable to show continuous triboelectric effect and charge differentiation of clouds. Rather, now charge exchange. Rather, wikipedia mentioned charge exchange between uprising supercooled water and ice droplets and Graupel (soft haill).
But both are nearly same material (water and ice)- why and do they exchange charge? even if they dow, how only state and crystallinity change of a material can change its triboelectric properties? Is there any structure-property justification of triboelectric series, anyway?
Dear authors: Hi, I'm interested in learning whether you've noticed from the literature or from your own research, anomalous lightning strike activity around turbines based on land. I'm specifically interested in evidence of C-G strikes that do not hit the turbines but strike the Earth sufficiently close to the base of the turbine structures that cause lightning physicists and meteorologists to ask..."why didn't the lightning hit the prominent infrastructure rising above the ground, presumably a more likely target to hit?" I'm not specifically interested only in wind turbines, but any examples you may be familiar with of lightning bypassing nearby infrastructure and instead striking the ground where no obvious competing source of streamers exist (i.e. turbines, power lines, local topography, pipelines, etc.).
My interest in this information is to further document additional examples of how lightning can bypass attractive infrastructure in favor of more attractive geological features. We have documented how geology can influence: where lightning strikes; the distribution and frequency of positive and negative lightning strikes and the lightning attributes associated with these strikes.
Thanks for your assistance in this matter. Keep up the good work.
I would like to compare 3D simulation softwares to study the electromagnetic compatibility through an airplane when it is struck by lightning. I have searched the internet but I am not sure to know all existing FDTD solvers which could work properly with my kind of study.
Could you help me listing those softwares and summerizing their qualities and drawbacks?
There should be a logic right.
While lightning its searching for the closest point to discharge ( I guess). Same thing for the root searching for water. Both searching looks so much similar. So, is there theory for this. Would be great help, if you guys could share your thoughts.😁
what could be the most probably reactive elements or atoms that is present in the swampy soil that is reacting with the lightning and causing the destruction?
on the same token, is there are any possible ways to minimize or prevent such destruction through farming practices?
There are quite a number of occasion where lightning strike solar panel. I wonder why lightning protection is not installed at the solar farm.
There is always a confusion whether a forest fire was man made or natural. Some persons say that natural forest fire occurs in certain places due to lightning, rubbing of falling rocks, rubbing of stems, etc. But how many have really seen it?
Can someone help me to have more information concerning the device to reduce Lightning strike on aircraft?
lightning occurs for a few seconds but the damage it leaves behind is immense,
the windmills in the sea are one of the tallest structures in the sea, lightning usually strikes tallest point, so lightning strike occurs commonly for windmills.
Is modelling the lightning phenomenon going to add any value ?
are there any simulation packages available for modelling lightning.
Lightning is in Plasma state, so when it interacts with a solid it becomes like Plasma-Solid interaction problem.
How do we approach to simulate this phenomenon.
i have modeled a lightning strike as below(current source),and i want to impose it to my HVDC line. im using 1.2/50 microSec model of lightning but i need to know the current peak. ill be glad if any one could help about peak value of lightning current in mentioned situation.
The vector I'm using is pmirGLO (7350pb) and my 3'UTR region has 2300pb (yes, it is very long). I am testing the interaction of 2 miRNAs, both have two binding sites to the 3'UTR region, two of them very close and the other two very far between them.
I cloned all 3'UTR region and perform a luciferase assay comparing against the empty vector. However, the empty vector throws on RLU 100.0000, while the vector with the 3UTR only RLU of 10,000 (both luciferase and renilla), I do not know if this magnitude is very low. I suspect that the efficiency of the trasnfection is low by the size of the vector with the 3'UTR. I was thinking cloning only the target region of my miRNA, but I think that the presence of the two regions may be necessary for regulation to be efficient.
On the other hand, I am building the mutated controls, and I have the doubt whether to work on the whole 3'UTR region or just on the target regions. For this, I want to buy the QuikChange Lightning kit.
Can someone give me opinions? thank you very much!
During mod-locked laser generation, it is necessary to create phase matched condition. But when we place the nonlinear crystal within the cavity lots of green lights are generated but mode-locking is not happening. From green lightning, II have understood that upconversion is happening but I am not sure about the phase matching. In all total, I could not understand for perfect phase matched mode-locked laser generation, which points we should follow.
It is said that animals can predict thunderstorms but do they realize chances of getting affected by lightning ? whether any change in behavior of animals observed before getting affected ? Any animal for which the probability of lightning strike is minimum?
If any study is conducted related to this then please share
We hear multiple sound propagation across the sky when a normal lightning occur but we hear thud kind of sound when a lightning bolt occurs.
Sound propagates in the form of waves according to theory.But the hitting sound appears like a concentrated energy focused on to a single point like a hammer hitting an object.
Recently I have visited a rural area of Nepal where frequency of Thunder and Lightning is very high and thus there is a high number of human casualty and property loss for many years. I would like to know any research work about localized effect of Thunder and Lightning in a very small area and any mitigation measures?
As we have seen the lightening during early showers before the rainy season sets in.The formation of path of glow(plasma state) is irregular in shape.what factors does govern the creation of such path between the clouds/between the clouds and earth?
Is there any English copy of this research paper - (Extreme weather events under climate change- Lightning) available?
The dynamic response of the grounding electrodes subjected to such current pulses is predominantly influenced by same physical processes, which are related to the soil ionization in the immediate proximity of the grounding electrode, which is related to the current pulse intensity. In the case of a current pulse with a high peak value, the electric field at the ground electrodes may become larger than the electric strength of the soil, resulting in breakdown and spark discharges.
Different expressions and values are recommended for the critical value of the electric field.
What do you propose (which expression) in the case of a simulation for different resistivity value? Can be considered this critical electric field of the ground as a calibrating parameter ?
The behaviour of grounding systems under impulse currents associated with lightning return strokes can be very different from the low-frequency behaviour. This difference should be accurately quantified to achieve a design that achieves adequate protection performance. To characterise ground electrode behaviour under transient conditions, many different approaches have been adopted and several different parameters have been proposed; For example, a wide range of terms are in use e.g. ‘impulse resistance’, ‘impulse impedance’, ‘dynamic impedance’, ‘surge impedance’ and ‘transient impedance’.
Which one is of engineering interest for design specialists? and which one can be used to analyse the impulse performance of ground electrodes? ( with reasons please).
As per my current knowledge:
1. Lightning is a flash of light created by electric discharge between clouds or between cloud and the ground or any object on the ground.
2. Most of the lighting are because by negatively charged clouds.
3. The precipitation process within a cloud is a reason lightning occurs.
4. The filaments of lightning flames are having very high temperature even more than the sun surface.
5. Suddenly high temperature and then again low temperature caused by lightning causes thunder in the sky.
I wish to know that the electric current passage due to lighting
a) is AC or DC?
b) if AC then what is its frequency?
Can you add some more information about it?
I have found that distribution transformer failure differs from altitude to altitude. One of the main reason being frequent lightning in some locations. Therefore, there is a need for different lightning arrester for different locations of transformer.
I'm working on OCR. I want to improve accuracy of tesseract open source OCR engine. It works ok if image has uniform light but it fails when image is non-unifomly lighted. Is there any way to convert non uniform lighted image into unifom illuminated Image? I have attechted one photo here. When we threshold it with global thresholding, it make it worse, however adaptive thresholding works but I need to change parameters in adaptive thresholding function for different images.
Recently, Bangladesh is experiencing huge lighting death. I am very much interested to pursue a research to document geographies of lightning death in Bangladesh as well as in the world. I need relevant sources to gather some secondary data. I am also thinking about the research design in the context of Bangladesh. Thanks
How much difference did anthropogenic fire have on background natural fire regimes in eastern North America? Based on the limited data for the previous (Sangamon) interglacial, which occurred well before humans entered North America, vegetation in the prairie peninsula region developed a prairie-like vegetation, though perhaps less coverage relative to woodlands compared to the Holocene. Though I understand that in the current fragmented landscape, lightning contributes very little to the fire regime relative to human ignitions, I would expect that a simulation using larger unbroken blocks of fuel would have a greater potential for ignitions and for the rare large fire. Broken and moister landscapes would likely have had less fire and a more mesophytic vegetation without supplemental human ignitions. But lightning fire should have been sufficiently frequent in the most favorable landscapes to have evolved endemic fire-dependent species to begin with, unless they all somehow evolved within the last 15,000 years of human occupancy.
Is dielectric breakdown of air/ collision of positive and negative charges/ electrons being ripped of nuclei (ionization to plasma) and falling into different orbitals the only reasons for emission of EM waves during lightning discharge?
During summer the atmosphere is dry and ionized.Due to this the clouds formed in the early monsoon is electrically active.possibility of lightning strikes is bright .Hence to alert people can we measure the on coming cloud charge?
If there is such an expression for streamers (or lightning) in general, this would be optimal, if there is no such formula - an equation for air at atmospheric pressure (or similar) would already be a great help.
If anyone knows a good publication, please let me know.
Thanks in advance
I am trying to quantify the erosive power of natural lightning. Lightning flashes can reach 1-10GJ of energy but only around 1-10MJ are estimated to be delivered to the strike point.
I would like to know how much of these 1-10MJ are spent in melting the rocks? What is the ratio?
To expand the discussion further, how much of these 1-10MJ are spent in mechanically fracturing the rocks and excavating material from them?
Thank you in advance and until then let's keep making the world a happier place
I would like to simulate the magnetic field (in time domain) at approx. 1m from a copper drain pipe (mounted vertically onto the wall of a house), caused by a lightning strike.
Does anyone have experience with setting up such simulation?
I am trying to estimate mainly the pressure but also the temperature that occurs in the plasma of an artificial current that mimics a lightning strike.
Looking forward to your answer and until then let's keep making the world a happier place!
Most of the literature agrees that most cloud to ground lightning is downward negative (~90%). Even most of lightning illustrations, depict the Earth as positive and lightning as negative Thus, it can be inferred that the Earth's surface is generally charged positively and that downward positive lightning exist only as special cases.
However, in A.Rakov and A.Uman book "Lightning - Physics and Effects" (2003), it was stated that the Earth's surface is charged negatively.
Page 17: "1.4. The global electric circuit
Shortly after the experiment at Marly that confirmed
Franklin’s conjecture regarding the electrical nature of thunderstorms
(Section 1.1), Lemonnier (1752) discovered atmospheric
electrical effects in fairweather. Further research
established that the Earth’s surface is charged negatively and
the air is charged positively, the associated vertical electric
field in fair weather being about 100 V m−1 near the Earth’s
surface." (A.Rakov & A. Uman, 2003)
Can someone please lift my confusion? Thank you in advance!
I am supposed to estimate the viscosity of melt in a shock by lightning setting. The target rock was seeberger sandstone and the cathode that produced the shock is made out of Cu (Exact formula CuZN39Pb3 (MS58) Material Number 2.0401). Therefore the melt spherules in the following pictures are made mostly of Cu and the melt threads of SiO2.
Looking forward to your answers!
What I know about this kind of data is what NOAA releases from its website, there is other. It would be great if that data involve some area of South America.
Thanks for any help
Melt spherules in an impact setting are usually made from the impactor material, so I'm curious if they would form in fulgurites. The PT values necessary for their formation are well reached by most lightnings, so theoretically it might be possible...
Unlike the laws of the propagation of the field, why the shape of Electromagnetic field radiated by lightning increases and take an ascending form far distance?
Is there any indication that lightning prefers sites near electrical power lines, e.g. high-voltage power lines or power lines of railway systems?
Conference Paper Analysis of lightning-induced forest fires in Austria
My research is aimed at terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), which are bursts of gamma rays produced in the Earth's atmosphere. TGFs have been recorded to last 0.2 to 3.5 milliseconds, and have energies of up to 20 MeV. They are probably caused by intense electric fields produced above or inside thunderstorms.
In the measurement of the partial discharge , we can usually observe a current which may be the displacement current. It has a significant influence on the sensitivity of the PD measurement. So how can we wipe out its influence? For example, we can use a high pass filter (H_P Filter ) to reach this goal, as shown in the file below, however it can somehow weaken the PD signal. Is there a method which can wipe out the displacement current without influencing the PD signal.
Not really a technical question but more on collaboration opportunity. I would like to ask if there is any member here who would like to collaborate on lightning and EMC research? I'm looking for the opportunity to tap international research funding, esp UE fund or other available funding, as well as to benefit the outcome from it. Looking forward for your reply.
I am trying to figure out what the best way is to address the thermodynamics immediately following a discharge, when the initial strong shock is generated, on Titan. I am a physical acoustician, not well-versed in chemical physics. I have a model that generates a strong (overpressure) shock from a cylindrical source, based on a paper by Lin from 1954.
I am debating what to use for the adiabatic index gamma=Cp/Cv, since it is bound to drop following dissociation-ionization of the N2-CH4 mix. I seem to be dealing with a circular problem: does the initial shock propagate *into* a preionized gas or is it the shock itself that dissociates and ionizes the medium? I know that the molecules right behind the shock are ionized by the perturbation. Can one assume that the (quiet) gas ahead of the front is pre-ionized by energetic UV photons released by the discharge?
We have possible photographs of mesospheric lightning discharges detected by P-H pulses detectors , we are looking at small EQ swarm within 200km of Perth WA Australia , we are trialling differences between vertically polarized and horizontally polarized antenna freq detect range 100khz to 1.3ghz