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Lepidoptera - Science topic

A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
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I need help from anyone that could confirm or correct the identification of the species listed in the manuscrito attached "Arsenura and Titaea (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Arsenurinae): new records for the Cerrado of Northeast Brazil "
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Hola Jose, puedo recomendarte a alguien.
No puedo abrir el archivo para verlo, seguimos por e-mail
Mis saludos.
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Is it possible to determine the correction factor (Km) to estimate the (AED) for Lepidopteran species? Haven't found any literature that discusses the MRSD for Lepidopteran species. Would very much appreciate it if someone has any insight into it. Need to calculate the drug dose for Bombyx Mori.
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Dear Siam,
I'm afraid I haven't come across allometry for such cases. In general allometry is used to scale between mammalian species (or individual of different sizes for pediatric applications).
The general idea is that flows (clearance) scales with a factor of about 0.75, so this applies also to dose (which is expected to be a function of clearance). So it follows a relationship of a*BW^0.75.
In absolute terms you could apply the formula with the weight of any species / individual. However, I suspect that the empirical principles mainly established between mammals may not apply to invertebrates.
To note that even between more similar species like mammals allometry does not always work well.
Out of curiosity, how do you apply drugs in insects? Can you actually apply orally or how it it done?
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Hello, can someone help me with an estimate of known species for Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera in these two territories? I have searched without much success, it seems as if all the papers I have reviewed shy away from offering a number of species.
Thanks in advance!
Jorge
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Dear Jorge, the following publications may be helpful:
1) Lepidoptera_Puerto Rico
Butterflies s. Ramos (1996)
2) Arthropda Hispaniola
see Perez-Gelabert (2020): Checklist, Bibliography and Quantitative Data of the Arthropods of Hispaniola
3) Insect taxonomical bibliography Puerto Rico - see file!
Wirh kind regards / Saludos
Juergen
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Does it act as a visual deterrent for predators or serves a purpose in the body's physiological processes?
Also, is there any similarity between the Sphingidae caterpillars and the larvae of Trilocha varians (Bombycidae) which also has a horn-like structure in the larval stage ?
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The horn is absolutely not for defense. I’ve tried super hard to get hurt on the horn but the horn does nothing at all. It’s too floppy to do anything defense-related. I’m guessing it has something to do with sensory functions or tricking predators. This would be a cool capstone research project for anyone interested!
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Max Korb (1851-1933) was a German naturalist from Munich who collected mostly Lepidoptera and Coleoptera through Europe, the Middle East and North Africa but also elsewhere. However he centred much of his research in Spain and provided specimens to many contemporary naturalists who eventually described many taxa upon his findings, he never published anything himself but a comprehensive book on Central European butterflies.
A summary of eulogies on his life and work can be seen here (in German):
Nowhere is there any information available of the whereabouts of his collection, if there is actually one and hence my question. Most likely country would be Germany but other surrounding countries are a possibility.
Thanks for any help on this.
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Dear Julius, this is really detective work and thank you very much for the help! Guess these two institutions may hold the key to solve this: either one of them or both!
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I've been collecting & planting seeds of butterfly host plants for the restoration program. And I need research references especially for tropical Southeast Asia native species (include all types of herbs, bush, or shrubs). I looking forward to having some recommendations from botanical experts.
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In early 2022 I'll be completing a length field campaign, collecting Lepidoptera, Odonata and Hymenoptera in a very humid flooded forest in central Africa. Due to the nature of this work we will not be able to use conventional drying boxes, and will not have access to any electricity (we are not taking a generator for logistical reasons). What is the best approach to drying and preserving these specimens (which will number in the thousands) in the field?
Our proposed solution currently is a makeshift drying box with an air intake we will position over a fire, before storing in tupperware with silica crystal. However, this method is difficult to maintain and ensure equal and not excessive drying. One proposed solution is direct immersion in silica crystal, but this is not possible with delicate specimens which will later be analysed for pollen loads (contamination an issue). Alternatively, one could dry specimens in direct sunlight, perhaps under black tarpaulin, but our habitat type is not convenient for this. Drying is necessary (as opposed to e.g. alcohol immersion) due to other aspects of the research.
Entomologists have been collecting tropical insects for hundreds of years - what did Russell Wallace do?
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I use indicator silica gel inside small plastic containers that can be sealed (for katydids, abdomen content replaced by cotton and enwrapped in toilet paper). The silica gel (blue when dry, pinkish with accumulated moisture) can easily be dried in a small saucepan on a stove or open fire. I keep using the same silica gel for many years.
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I want to isolate the microbiom from the gut of the larvae but I have problems with the dissection. I tried to use needles and a scalpel from a dissection set for biologists but I had problems to open the larvae and to find the gut. Is there any trick?
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Larvae of Lepidoptera they have well developed head capsule, 3 pairs of thoracic leg and 3-5 abdominal leg; Duster headless and legless; Coleopyeta well develped.head capsule and only three pairs of thoracic leg; Hymenopteta well developed head capsule. Three pairs of thoracic legs and greater than five pairs of abdominal leg.
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Hi
I have no experience but interested to learn and apply mathematical models for insecticide resistance. It would be great if some colleague guide me from where to start. I have experience for insecticide resistance monitoring, isolines comparison, fitness cost analysis and genetics of resistance in some Lepidoptera insect pests like Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera.
Many thanks in advance
Munir
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I suggest that you find a wild population that was never sprayed with insecticides. This will be your reference population. You will be able to compare the relative resistance of other populations suspected to be resistant to the reference (=wild) population throughout time (= different months or years) and space (=different localities). See attached file.
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Hi, everyone, I am wondering what environmental variables will play an important role in butterfly and its endosymbiont? For example, land cover and growing degree days had the greatest contribution to Ecological niche modeling when Erin et al(2020) studied on Speyeria atlantis-hesperis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) species complex. But I am more interested in endosymbiont. Are there any good suggestions on butterflies and their endosymbiont?
Thank you and hope to discuss with anyone who has good opinions.
Wanzhen
Reference:
Campbell E, MacDonald Z, Gage E, et al. Reconciling genomic and ecological species delimitation using a confusing group of butterflies[J]. Authorea Preprints, 2020.
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Burlap traps are a way to mitigate the invasive Lymantria dispar dispar (tussock/gypsy moth) caterpillars, which defoliate mainly hardwood deciduous trees. Burlap is wrapped around trees and tied with twine, then folded to create a flap and ideal conditions where the caterpillars migrate into. The caterpillars are then disposed of in soapy water when the traps are checked.
If I want to study spatial ecology of these caterpillars, using quantitative analysis from each trap at a small lake surrounded by forest, how should I prioritize trap set-up (location, amount)?
Should the traps be completely randomized?
My study area is at maximum 2 square kilometres with a small Lake taking up about 0.25 of those square km.
Ideally I want to minimize confounding variables such as tree species the traps are placed on.
The goal of this project is to determine spatial distribution of the caterpillars and to mitigate them with weekly checks.
Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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As far as the traps concern I recommend using completely randomized block design in setting your traps.
As for surveying the Lymantria dispar, my suggestion is to go for line transects.
As for burlap issue, I would suggest to go for some baits in parallel.
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The risks of consuming dates infested by Ectomyeloïs ceratoniae Zell (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)?
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Generally, occurrence of arthropods infesting various commodities may be associated with allergens (see review by Hubert et al., 2018). For Lepidoptera allergens consult Hoflehner et al ( 2012) who stated : “Historically, that moths cause inhalant allergies had been reported as early as 1928 by Vaughan [6]. In the following decades, there have been occasional case reports on bronchial asthma caused by moths, such as by the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella in an infested home [7] or the wax moth Galleria mellonella in a company producing fish bait [8]. More recently, IgE immunoblots of clothes moth [9] or silkworm moth [10] demonstrated specific IgE against moth antigens” Hoflehner et al. 2012 “Thioredoxin from moths (Plodia interpunctella) like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.”
Citations:
Hubert J et al., 2018. Health Hazards Associated with Arthropod Infestation of Stored Products. Annual Review of Entomology 2018 63:1, 553-573
Hoflehner E, et al. (2012) Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal Moth Plodia interpunctella: Cloning and Test of the Allergenic Potential in Mice. PLoS ONE 7(7): e42026. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042026
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It was collected in Colombia, the larva sticks the leaves and feeds on coffee plants (Coffea arabica). It measures approximately 1 cm. Probably  genus Platynota sp.
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Agree with Houda Kawas
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I would like to know is working in the field using LED light traps to monitor and to reduce populations of Lepidoptera pests in forest plantations.
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Hello José:
I use Led black light to monitor Coleoptera (Melolonthidae) and Lepidoptera with great success. The advantage of led light is that it consumes much less energy and the 12 volt battery lasts longer (8 hours) one night. The largest catch in one night were 10,000 individuals of Phyllophaga, Cyclocephala, Anomla and Plectris among other orders and families.
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I am interested in the size of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and would like to know what is the smallest known species of this group of insects. It is probably a Nepticulidae (pigmy moths). The species in my figure below (unidentified) measures about 4 mm with the wings spread, and its dry body weight was 0.3 micrograms (0.03 mg).
We are generally more impressed by the higher figures (the oldest tree, the heaviest vertebrate…) than by the minima. Thus for instance one can read about the largest moths (Thysannia, Attacus: http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/index.shtml). However 'smallness' has interesting biological implications (see the recent book by A. Polilov 'At the Size Limit - Effects of Miniaturization in Insects'). I have seen descriptions of other nepticulids in the same range of size as 'my' species (around 4 mm: Dooren weerd et al.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12212/full). Perhaps there are slightly smaller European species (some Stigmella spp., e.g.: http://lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Stigmella_Magdalenae).
So, does anybody know of any moth smaller than 3.5 / 4.0 mm?
Thanks!
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Dear Munira Nasiruddin,
Dear colleagues,
We kindly suggest, prior to providing your answers in this discussion, to read about results of the most recent study (attached above and in the current message). Do you know anything smaller among Lepidoptera than is mentioned in the paper? Let us know please if you possess such info. We can expect that there might be many more extremely small species in the tropics and subtropics.
So far, the minimal recorded forewing length was found to be around 1.2–1.3 mm and the wingspan around 2.6–2.8 mm in two families, the Gracillaridae and Nepticulidae. Among Lepidoptera, the following species have the smallest moths globally: the European Johanssoniella acetosae (Stainton), the Peruvian Simplimorpha kailai Stonis & Diškus, the Mexican Stigmella maya Remeikis & Stonis, the Mediterranean S. diniensis (Klimesh), the Mediterranean Parafomoria liguricella (Klimesh) (Nepticulidae), the South East Asian Porphyrosela alternata Kumata, and the Central African P. desmodivora De Prins (Gracillariidae) (see Stonis et al. 2021).
Kind regards,
Andrius
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Tachinidae flies are difficult to identification , so , I need classification key to the species which parasitoid on Lepidoptera>
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Cerretti, Tschorsnig, Lopresti, Di Giovanni. (2012). MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera). ZooKeys 205: 5–18. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.205.3409. Interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta: Diptera).
Tschorsnig, H. -P. , Herting, B., Raper, C. M., Rayner, R. 2002. The Tachinids (Diptera: Tachinidae) of Central Europe: Identification Keys for the Species and Data on Distribution. English Translation by Chris Rapper. If you write Chris Rapper he can send you the key. There you can find the known hosts of most of the species.
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Dear all
In this year, I have joined a research team focusing on how to rear larvae and moth of durian seed bore (Lepidoptera : Noctuoidae), for example : Mudaria luteileprosa Halloway and Canogethes punctiferalis frequently found durian cultivated in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, to be used for conducting a series of quarantine treatments on fresh durian. In initial steps, we need to collect massively those insects. Unfortunately, what we have seemingly efforted still far away to the target. We would highly appreciate if you could share the information about how to obtain those commercial mass-reared of durian seed bore and their artificial diets. Thank you very much before.
Kindly regards
Hendra Adi Prasetia
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Go through the previous literature and if you want to grow on commercial level please take care of infection during larval stage.
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I am trying to analyse the chemical profile of defensive droplets from the lepidopteran larvae (T Trypanophora semihyalina ). when i collected and tried to dilute in the hexane and acetone the secretion is getting gelly and it is not dissolving. So looking for a suitable solvent.
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I've used for other insects ethanol
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Crosby DF (1994) Further parasite associations for some Australian butterflies (Lepidoptera). Australian Entomologist, 21(3):81–88.
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es
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I can't find Rhyacionia duplana (HÜBNER, [1813]) picture of female genitalia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). I need it for comparison and citation.
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Dear Felipe, Thank you very much.
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I am trying to find a topic for my PhD thesis. I've done two MSc; one in Landscape Architecture (about Ecological Landscape Design and Permaculture) and one in Forest Entomology (about Lepidoptera). Now I want to study further both of them in PhD. Can you help me find a topic that icludes both and woth studying.
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Elaheh Daghighi Dear professor, thank you very much for your answer. I wasn't aware of their work. I am going to read their researches and try to communicate with the professors.
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The image was taken on June 21, 2020 in Hungary. To my knowledge, Brimstones mate in the spring after overwintering, not in the summer after they emerge from their pupae, but these two specimens have disproved all of my previous observations. May and most of June were colder than avarage in Hungary. Could that be the cause of this phenomenon? I couldn't find any information about this.
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Hello Ádám Gór . As far as I know, you are right. Gonepteryx rhamni usually mate in spring after hibernation. Although, especially in colder regions mating can take place a little bit later in the year. Furthermore, if I remember correctly, it is possible that this species has more than one generation per year, even though this is quite rare.
Best regards
Paul
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I want to determine the phylogenetic age of the members of the Lepidoptera (Sphingidae) based on mtDNA, using BEAST software; But I do not have a good indicator. Please what is mutation rate in the mitochondrial genomes of the Lepidoptera (in million years)?
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I would highly recommend to anyone interested in tectonic calibration to read 'Molecular Panbiogeography of the Tropics" (2012) and 'Biogeography of Australasia' (2014) as starting points. These books include hundreds of examples of tectonic correlation with extensive integration of phylogeny for an immense range of animal and plant groups, and also presents a critical account of the issues in molecular calibration. This is just the tip of the iceberg. As for molecular rates of divergence, there seem to be all sorts of models so you take your pick - assuming there is a molecular clock in any meaningful sense. Some have objected to tectonic calibration where it provides ages for a subclade that would then push the larger clade back into e.g. the pre-Cambrian. Of course they never consider that perhaps their clock model is erroneous. Primates provide an excellent example for tectonic correlation with group after group of distributions corresponding to major tectonic events of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Some molecular researchers fall back on the mystical 'I can't believe it' when tectonic ages considerably predate the oldest fossil, but other molecular researchers are quite happy when their fossil calibrated estimates considerably predate the oldest fossils. There is a lot of waffle thinking out there, but the fact is that the vast array of modern life shows tectonic correspondence with Mesozoic tectonics. That is the great reality. Fossil-calibrated molecular clocks were widely proclaimed to falsify that, but it was all smoke and mirrors.
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What are some applied methods for controlling Zeuzera pyrina, the leopard moth, a key pest of walnut orchards?
Gardeners in Iran have recently had many problems with this pest. Current control methods include:
  • Spraying with organophosphate synthetic insecticides like Diazinon for the control the first larval stage at the young bud
  • Paste formulations for use at new holes (fumigation)
  • Imported pheromones 
These have been used, but have low effectiveness.
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You can use Ynject that is an innovative application device for the treatment of trees, composed of a connector and a pressurised bottle. It contains a water solution to which the required dose of plant health product can be added for injection into the trunk. for more details check this website: https://www.fertinyect.com/
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Good day, currently I am practicing extracting total DNA using drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) adult as well as larvae as my sample with Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit. However, I keep obtaining DNA with smears.
My main purpose is to extract total DNA and send the extracted DNA for 16S Amplicon sequencing (V3-V4 region). The insect is from the Lepidoptera family and I will only be extracting DNA from the larvae (which is like caterpillar).
I followed this protocol:
1) Grind 50 mg tissues by disposable micropipette tips a 1.5 ml micro-centrifuge tube with added 180μl PBS
2) Add 200 μl buffer ATL + 20 μl of proteinase K and vortex and incubate at 56˚C for 1 hour
3) Add 200 μl Buffer AL + 200 μl absolute ethanol, vortex
4) Centrifuge 8,000rpm 1 min
5) Pipet the supernatant in DNeasy Mini spin column
6) Centrifuge for 1 min at a speed of 8000 rpm, Discard the collection tube and flow-through, place the DNeasy Mini spin column in a new tube
7) Add 500 μl Buffer AW1 and repeat centrifugation.
8) Add 500 μl Buffer AW2
9) Centrifuge at a speed of 12,000 rpm for 4 minutes
10)Place DNeasy Mini spin column in a 1.5 ml tube and add 50 μl buffer AE and incubate for one min at room temperature followed by centrifuge at a speed of 8000 rpm to elute the DNA
So my questions are:
1) Is there any suggestion why this happen or is there any method to decrease this degradation
2) How "intact" should the DNA be/how little degradation should there be to be sent for NGS?
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Hello,
I am building low-cost terrestrial emergence traps out of tomato cages and polyester no-see-um mesh netting. The traps are about 2 feet tall and have a white collection bottle at the top. I have a choice between black and white mesh netting. Which would be best? I have attached a picture of the prototype with white netting.
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black is the best netting trap
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Does anyone have thoughts on the relationships of the Lepidoptera:Papilionidae genus Papilio L.? I personally believe that separating it out into Pterourous, Heraclides and other distinct genera is superfluous. If you agree with this "splitter" taxonomy, what are your justifications?
I appreciate any thoughts on this subject.
Avery R. Forrest
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Papilio s.l. is monophyletic, and Heraclides & Pterourus s.l. are monophyletic sister groups each containing several subclades which are themselves sister to most of the Old World Papilio taxa. There are also some Old World groups, Chilasa and Agehana, within Pterourus s.l. as discussed by Wu et al. (2015), although they regard Chilasa as sister to Pterourus rather than within it.
However, in my opinion, treating them all as separate genera, both from each other and Papilio, only hides the innate close relationship between the taxa when compared to other genera within Papilionidae. I feel that taxonomists need to be aware that splitting at genus level hides useful information for the non-expert end-users of the genus + species name we provide them with as a result of our analyses. Most ecologists etc etc who want to use the names in their own studies won't immediately know which species are closely related if they are overly split at genus level. I would prefer to regard them all as belonging to genus Papilio and use the relevant 'subgenus' name in parenthesis after the genus name to provide more useful information. This is basically the approach adopted by Wu et al. (2015), who also treat all the species as belonging to genus Papilio, but there is a choice to be made between synomymising Agehana within Pterourus or keeping it as a separate subgenus and splitting the troilus and glaucus clades as separate subgenera.
Season's Greetings everyone,
Adam.
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How can i recognize larva 2 age of tuta absoluta?
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Larva of second stage is creamy colour and 2,6 mm long
It has narrow black band on pronotum
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I have a question about Lepidoptera proboscis.
Despite having an idea, I wish to ask the communauty if there is a serious answer still existing.
1- why the butterfly proboscis is in two parts ?
I suppose it has something to do with embryology and ontongeny , it is a paired organ.
2- As for the attachment system of the two gutters, by means of hooks or a zipper, it also seems quite complicated. Is there a reason why there is not a weld that seems more hermetic and that would allow to have "one piece" ?
no real idea
thanks, Thierry
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Here is a list of a few papers by an entomologist in my state, sorry I did not have time to locate the url's of each but they should not be hard to find:
Kornev, K. G. & P. H. Adler. 2016. The butterfly proboscis as a fiber-based, self-cleaning, micro-fluidic system. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE Newsroom. 10.1117/2.1201603.006419/ (2 pp.) [Invited].
Kornev, K. G., D. Monaenkova, P. H. Adler, C. E. Beard & W.-K. Lee. 2016. The butterfly proboscis as a fiber-based, self-cleaning, micro-fluidic system. In R. J. Martín-Palma (ed.) Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication. Proceedings of the International Society for Optics and Photonics 9797 (979705). 10 pp. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2218941 [Invited].
Kornev, K. G., A. A. Salamatin, P. H. Adler & C. E. Beard. 2017. Structural and physical determinants of the proboscis–sucking pump complex in the evolution of fluid-feeding insects. Scientific Reports 7: Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06391-w
Kwauk, K., D. K. Hasegawa, M. S. Lehnert, C. E. Beard, P. D. Gerard, K. G. Kornev & P. H. Adler. 2014. Drinking with an unsealed tube: fluid uptake along the butterfly proboscis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107: 886-892.
Lehnert, M.S., D. Monaenkova, T. Andrukh, C. E. Beard, P. H. Adler & K. G. Kornev. 2013. Hydrophobic-hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. [Featured in Science News].
Lehnert, M. S., C. E. Beard, P. D. Gerard, K. G. Kornev & P. H. Adler. 2016. Structure of the lepidopteran proboscis in relation to feeding guild. Journal of Morphology 277: 167-182.
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Semiochemicals communication is well studied and well developed in Lepidoptera, It was a mystery before first chemically identification of (Bombykol, 1959) that was not easy, well it was done by using half of a million insects.
Insect scales (especially moths body scales) also studied before and chemically identified and their role is also presented with context of behavioral studies. I want to observe one moth pest scales and their role in behavior studies, i have tried different ways to collect moth body scales, I am not sure either the method is correct or not.
It will be highly appreciated for suggesting me any method of removing moths body scales.
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Denis Thiery Agreed sir with your above statement and I have sent you the mentioned file,,
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I mean sometime we have limited individuals concerned with any taxa, carrying risk to dissect or designated any type.. now a day few new techniques are available to scan even anatomy of any insect. its hopefully a best technique or methodology for future prospective if we work on this . suggestion are welcome.
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This is not exactly what you are looking for, but it is worth pointing out that when pinning fresh male specimens of some groups of larger Lepidoptera, it is possible to gently pull on the valves one at a time using fine forceps, so that the genitalia are almost fully exposed, showing most of the diagnostic features, and they can then be dried in that position - using pins to hold the valves apart if you wish. It is a delicate task, so practice on less valuable specimens first. I have used this extensively with Hesperiidae, but also with Noctuoidea, and it subsequently facilitates the rapid checking of genitalia for diagnostic features or individual variation without dissection. You can also do this with specimens when fresh before being dried for storage in envelopes; although the valves tend not to stay open much remains visible, making subsequent examination without spreading the specimen much easier.
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I want to use some insecticides on Cydia molesta Busck and measure its oxidative stress after treatment.
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Dear Jia, thank you for reply, I will look for that book. Best regards!
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Werny, K. 1966, Untersuchungen über die Systematik der Tribus Thyatirini, Macrothyatirini, Habrosynini und Tetheini (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae). - Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften der Matematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken. pp. 1-463 Mit 436 Figuren.
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Thank you.
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I want to try this work for my research. Anyone knew? Thanks before..
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Indeed, from a freshly pupated specimen one can not investigate the genital organs because they haven't formed yet. But shortly before the imago hatches these organs are completely developed and can be studied without any problems.
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The insect larvae were collected in a maize farm. Attached are the larva and adult. It is in the family Noctuidae. What species does it belong?
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Yes. This is one of the species of feeding leaves Spodoptera frugiperdaas
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Also, it would be of great help if you know to which insecticides oriental fruith moth (Cydia molesta) developed resistance?
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Yes I understand that, thank you for an advice. Best wishes.
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Hi,
I would like to do a comparative study between two type of light traps for the collection of Lepidoptera (moths). Both types are identical in design but differ in type of light source used. Trap A uses a standard 125W mercury vapor lamp, trap B uses a newly developed type of Led lamp.
In this study I would like to answer following questions:
· Is there a difference in abundance of moths captured by both traps?
· Is there a difference in species richness captured by both traps?
· Are certain families of moths more attracted to one lamp or the other?
Due to budgetary constraints I only have one trap of type B at my disposal. This, combined with my admittedly lacking background in statistics, is giving me a few headaches in how I should design the experiment.
So far my DOE is as follows:
· Both traps will be placed simultaneously in a homogenous habitat
· Traps are placed at such a distance so there is no light-interference
· Temperature, wind speed and humidity will be recorded every trapping night, right beside the traps (hopefully there will be no significant differences in these parameters between the two trap locations)
· After every trapping night, the traps will switch spots (by switching the traps every night, I hope to exclude the factor location as much as possible)
· Trapping will happen 2-3 times a week, for a period of 8-9 weeks, giving a total sample size of 16-27 catches per trap type. This number, however, is very dependent on the weather
· To avoid carryover effects, at least one night will be left in between trapping nights (i.e. trapping will never occur on two consecutive nights)
Can anyone give his professional opinion on this experimental design? Am I making any mistakes?
Is my sample size large enough?
Do I need already need to determine how I’ll process the data/what tests I will use at this point in time?
Thank you in advance.
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While installing a light trap, environmental
conditions, trap design, height of the light source and attraction
radii of the light source must be taken into the consideration.
LIGHT TRAP AND INSECT SAMPLING: AN OVERVIEW. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328576875_LIGHT_TRAP_AND_INSECT_SAMPLING_AN_OVERVIEW [accessed Mar 17 2019].
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It is very important publication to make inventory of morth and butterflies of the National Park "Alania". This work is in https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/dlibra/publication/371910/edition/354398?language=en# but close for me.
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I am afraid it is not legal to copy this content from Google due to the copyrights.
Try different browser (e.g. Chrome or Edge) - to me it works.
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A few days ago I found this weird thing on my Caligo memnon L4 caterpillars. When I touch them they lift their head up and project a small "inflatable" horn-like organ. It is similar to an osmeterium in papilionid caterpillars, but there is no smell. I also found the small slit on my L3 caterpillars, but there isn't any horn-like organ. Could anyone explain what this is?
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Thanks Keith! However, I might disagree about presence of this organ's being a rule rather than an exception in Lepidoptera. Perhaps this is only semantics, but it only occurs more frequently in Papilionoidea + Macroheterocera (yet not in,e.g. Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea, Mimallonoidea, Calliduloidea etc- thus even there it hardly is a rule, even if found in about half of the superfamilies (or only some representatives of them). Outside Macheterocera+Papilionoidea it is only known in some families in Yponomeutoidea which form only a tiny fraction of non-Macroheteroceran family-level diversity. I dare to believe that in Yponomeutoidea its development has little to do with the organ of other groups - were its function the same or not. The location for such a gland is good: in a soft membrane between head and 1st thoracic segment which can also be kept hidden or be protruded when in need.
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I am going to be in Costa Rica and I wanted to put butterfly traps with rotting fruit as bait. But I've been told there are quite a lot of monkeys with stealing tendencies.
Even if I put other bait (dung, rotten fish... although I guess the atracted butterflies will be different), I am scared they'll steal mess with the traps or break them. Do you now any method to keep them away?
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I can think of two options:
1. Cages that are large enough to prevent monkeys reaching in and with a large enough mesh to allow butterflies in
2. Placing the traps in locations inaccessible to monkeys (out on small islands or on posts driven into pond beds.
I wonder if there are predator scents that might repel monkeys? We used coyote urine to reduce squirrel numbers. But even that did not eliminate them.
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Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera.
I'd met this one on the leaf of basil on my balcony in June.
Can somebeody help me classify this species?
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The caterpillar of the last photo is of Euthrix potatoria (Lasiocampidae).
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in many insect including Lepidoptera, there are two kind of sperm: Eupyrene and Apyrene. how can we distinguish two kind of sperm in pictures?
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Dear Fatemeh,
besides Lepidoptera the other group with well studied sperm dimorphism are the prosobranch gastropods. My studies of Serpulorbis strongly suggest, that the "atypical" spermatozoa supply (or are) nutrition to the typical spermatozoa (which are the regular, fertile spermatozoa). There might be some similarity in your objects of research.
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All these moths (Family Erebidae) were photographed from Bhutan. About 140 species were photographed, of which around 120 has been identified. I am looking for a person who can help me to authenticate my identifications and suggest ID for the remaining unidentified species. (Unfortunately, all the moths are in photographs as the voucher collection in Bhutan is illegal)
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Pericyma cruegeri
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Now a day many publication on Lepidoptera published from reputed or renowned Journal by experts in the field of taxonomy on Moths. But they mainly focus on morpho taxonomy (mainly on external genitalia) but ignore wing venation. is there less importance of wing venation or due to other reason? waiting favorable response from dear experts...
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Wing venation is mostly used in distinguishing genera, tribes, etc, not species. In describing species, if one places it in a genus, it automatically means that the wing venation is described under the generic description, so there is no need to repeat it in the species description, although some authors routinely show wing venation, leg structure as well as male and female genitalia while describing new species. The important thing is to clearly show the feature that distinguishes the new taxon from known taxa, whether this is genitalia, wing venation, leg structure, palpi or anything else.
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Hello there, we need some advice and opinions for the determination.
Found this buddy in an avocado nursery, damaging plants at the base of the stem and roots.
Thanks.
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Well friends, finally we've received the specimens. After genitalia dissection we can confirm the identity of this species as Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Tineidae:Hieroxestinae).
Fortunately, the genitalia of both sexes have good diagnostic characters.
I would like to thank you for your opinions and discussions on this topic.
See you soon.
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Is there any analysis or explanation of why majority of agricultural pest species come from the orders of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera or Hymenoptera?
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Dear Vaclav Stejskal
I have few points regarding the answer of this question.
1. first could the Type of metamorphosis (Holometamorphosis) make their life cycle more secure that help to increase their diversity (about 350,000 coleo. 115,000 Hymenoptera and 150,000 lep.)
2. most of the members of these groups are phytophagous (plant food is easy to approach). about 50 % (9 orders) of total insect species belong to phytophagous insects.
3. Strong flight ability (As they are Pterygota) increases their survival rate (escaping the enemy, finding mate, finding food, migration to suitable place etc)
These could be the possible reasons that why most of the insect pests belong to these three orders
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Hello everyone.
Any idea how to expose the cocoons with pupae in the wild without being prey to ants or other animals?
Are you aware of scientific works that illustrate the method?
Thanks in advance.
Pier
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Hi Pier,
I did it this way, and works.
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After reading these articles I was wondering what would be some primitive Lepidopterans that have Exarate pupae. I am familiar with most Noctuids and Erebids having adaptations to chew through the pupae but they do not have movable appendages (if we go by the definition of Exarate from the link). Is the article referring to the Noctuoidea superfamily as Primitive Lepidopterans ?
I also feel that the information on the Link might be slightly misleading, so please share better references if possible. They have listed only Butterflies under Lepidoptera, poor Moths get no attention yet again.
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I suppose the article is referring to Micropterigidae (Dettner & Peters, 2003). Those are somewhat archaic (mandibules in the adults, no proboscis) and have functional mandibules in the pupa stage (decticous). These families include excarate or decticous pupae (Westheide & Rieger, 2006): Micropterigidae, Eriocraniidae, Acanthopteroctetidae, and others.
Further literature:
ISBN: 9780521113892
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You asked me to send my paper entitled "Molecular phylogenetic relationship of African swallowtail butterflies, ...., to Japanese butterflies analyzed by DNA sequences ..." that has been appeared in the journal Lepidoptera Science Vol.68 (2): 46-52. I would like to send you a copy of the paper, if you provide me your mailing address and e-mail address through the following my email address.
Best wishes,
Toshio Sekimura, Dr.
Chubu University
Japan
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Dear Toshio:
I would like to get a PDF copy of your DNA sequences paper. Could you please send me a copy through my personal messenger mail of Research Gate ?
Thak you.
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From January 2014 to December 2016, I conducted monthly field trips in three different areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh to investigate how butterflies survive in an inner-city habitat. I have found that the species richness (I did not count the species abundance) is declining with time.
Presently, I have:
* monthly species-specific data of three continuous years (36 continuous months) of the three different areas
* Four environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine hours)
* Pollution level
* IUCN Red List status
* Land-use analysis of these three different areas
Now, I am really confused considering the proper way to link these pieces of information! Could anyone of you please share some ideas?
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Look at the Material and Methods section. Perhaps it could help?
Best,
Guy
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My question is how I can protect myself and my colleagues against the toxins Thaumatopein, because I get very large allergic reactions on my skin?
Could someone tell me, can I do insolation od silk fiber on other way?
I'm posting the nest of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff .
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Dear Rudolf,
I'm working on project with there fibers and I have contact with animals only while taking fiber from nests. I will try with protective colthing with membrane.
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I am attempting to isolate ovary from Helicoverpa armigera larvae. I can't find any pictures showing what it looks like during dissection. I know it is possible since there are several articles describing sequencing of gonad transcripts (ovary and testes). Any help? Ideally I would like to see some pictures of what the ovary looks like during dissection and where exactly it is located.
Thanks in advance!
EDIT: Thanks to Muhammad F Chaudhury for providing me the full version of his article titled " Spermatogenesis and Testicular Development of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae)". In it he describes that in this insect the testis of late-instar larvae are yellow-orange colored, reniform and aprox. 1mm in size.
This information allowed me to identify them in Helicoverpa larvae.
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Thanks to Muhammad F Chaudhury for providing me the full version of his article titled " Spermatogenesis and Testicular Development of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae)". In it he describes that in this insect the testis of late-instar larvae are yellow-orange colored, reniform and aprox. 1mm in size.
This information allowed me to identify them in Helicoverpa larvae.
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What kind of Hymenoptera Symphita  belongs this caterpillar? 
 
Has been found in an oaks
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Hello Massimo:
Most likely a sawfly Allantus nr. luctifer  (Hymenoptera;Tenthredinidae)
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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I have used graph eyepiece for the measurements and calculated graph division in different magnifications like in 4x= 0.25 mm, 10x= 0.1 mm and 40x= 0.025 mm. I have drawn maximum diagrams in 40x on the graph paper. kindly suggest me how to measure the reference line for each diagram like setae, crochets, body segments and head.
kindly suggest me how to measure the reference line for each diagram like setae, crochets, body segments and head.Thank you.
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Okey Sir. it means we can give the larval body length (which would be measured by the scale) as a scale bar for the thorax and abdominal segments. 
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Here I have attached to genitalia photograph of 2 Loepa sp.
Location: Naga Hills, Manipur, NE India.
Date of collection: July 2016
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Dear Jatishwor:
Yes, It is Loepa katinka. The type locality of Loepa katinka is Assam, a state in northeastern India. Located south of the eastern Himalayas.  Your specimen is  from the Naga Hills  a district  of the Assam Province in northeastern India too.
According to Nässig & Treadaway (1988: 175)  the accepted type species of Loepa, Saturnia katinka Westwood, appeared to be based on a misidentification, and later (Nässig & Treadaway 1998: 389) noted that the accepted authorship of the genus, as Moore, 1860 in Horsfield & Moore, “1858–1859“, was incorrect. Nässig & Treadaway (1998) corrected the latter to Moore, 1859 but reserved resolving the apparent type species misidentification until a thorough literature study had been conducted and, if necessary, the case had been prepared for submission to the ICZN. 
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External genitalic attributes are important characters in Lepidopteran taxonomy to discern species as well as defining genus. There are two important papers that generally followed by me such as Klots (1970) and Maes, K. V. N. 1995.
Is there any other paper which deals with details of Lepidopteran genitalia nomenclature ? I wish to freely discuss which are important characters which are significant enough to discriminate species.
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Tuxen, S L (1970) Taxonomists Glossary of Genitalia in Insects, Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd. is a standard text. 
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I want to examine the internal anatomy of Trichoptera and non-Ditrysian Lepidoptera larvae. The genus or species does not matter much for the first examinations, but it would be beneficial to know which species it is. Can anyone provide some fixed specimen? Only thoracic segments would also be fine.
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If you are still looking for specimens:
I have loads of fixed Trichoptera larvae. I may also have some adults in glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde, but I definitely have some in Ethanol, if that is fine, too.
Best regards
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Stueningeria nepalensis Lehmann, 2019
Distribution: Nepal
Lehmann, 2019
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Beautiful, but I do not know, as I am specialized in the Asiatic Noctuidae, only. 
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Size of the specimen - about 12-15mm
Location - Sri Lanka
Can anyone identify the Species, Genus or Family?
Thanks in advance!
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Dear Tharindu:
Your specimen belongs to the genus Tisis Walker, 1864 (Family Lecithoceridae). There is a similar species from Malaysia in this link http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/lecithoceridae,moth/Interesting
Contact Kyu‐Tek PARK, Center for Insect Systematics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea,  for identification at species level. He is doing the revision of Tisis.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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I need advice from a specialist/taxonomist of Microlepidoptera who can give me more details on these specimens of Glyphipterix sp. See photos attached. Any references are good appreciated as well. Thanks for your help.
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Dear Paola,
Is the moth from Colombia? I guess it is not going to be easy to get a reliable identification on the photo alone, but indeed the insect looks much alike the Ecuadorian one in the image linked by Chris!
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In the last decade, the population of butterflies has diminished in the colonies of hibernation in Mexico, so I want to know which are the impacts  of the deforestation and what other consequences can have.
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Hi. 
We are analysing the external morphology of adult moths, so we would like to check as many specimens as possible, mainly pests. If possible, we would also like to compare them with Trichoptera.
Could anyone send us some individuals (about 5-10, but many more would be much better) to Mexico? We would pay shipping. 
Thank you.
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Dear Ricardo,
you posted your question some months ago. Did you get what you needed, or do you still need the insects?
Regards
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This species of moth was take on Abruzzo mountains (1000 m.) Central Italy. 
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Epicallia villica (Arctia villica), fam. Erebidae (Arctiidae), regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli 
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It feeds on damaged kernels of corn and coffee beans with high content of humidity in warehouses in Colombia.
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Please ask Dr. R. Gaedike from Germany
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Size of the specimen - about 20-25mm
Location - Sri Lanka
Can anyone identify the Species, Genus or Family?
Thanks in advance!
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As hypothesis, I suggest the family Lymantriidae. The specimen is a male.
Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Hello everybody,
I'm from Hochiminh city - Vietnam. One year ago, I and 2 others found a new pest in sugar which is Chilo tumidicostalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Vietnam. Right now, I am getting some research in artificial food for sugarcane bore
[Diet 1= Kanta and Sajjan (1989); Diet 2 = King and Hartley (1985)
However, my food was sour and got a lots water. Every 3 days, we have to change food and it make me a lots times,
Do you know for doing simple artificial food for sugarcane bore? (less time and mass rearing Chilo tumidicostalis)
Or Can you help me for cooking process of artificial food?
Thanks a lots,
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As you know,
In Vietnam, we don't get product of cholestrol and cellulose.
Best, :)
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I'm not interested about Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) two-way migration. 
I'm looking for explanation theories on other butterfly migrations.(Painted Lady , Red Admiral and so on)
Thanks!
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I think you could look at paper which deals with the long-distance migration circuit of the Painted Lady in Europe and North Africa.
Also look at the butterfly bits of Hugh Dingle's textbook on Animal Migration.
Best,  Don R.
Stefanescu, C. et al.  (2013). Multi-generational long-distance migration of insects: studying the painted lady butterfly in the Western Palaearctic. Ecography, 36, 474-486.  doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07738.x
Dingle, H. (2014). Migration: The Biology of Life on the Move, 2nd edn.. Oxford University Press, UK.
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I found two yellow spots in the lepidopteran larvae (Tineidae family). They always appear when the larval gut is full of food, whereas In dormant non-feeding larvae, they are invisible. As their color is usually the same with their gut color and they are just visible when the gut is visible, I guess they are part of the excretory or digestive system. I attached photos of different larval stages.
Does anyone know what they are? Are they malpighian tubules or gastric caeca or fat bodies or something else?
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Dear All,
The yellow spots indicated are gonads of the caterpillar as many of you stressed it. Please have a look at this site http://www.butterflyfunfacts.com/male-female-caterpillar.php
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This is the adult. The larvae feed on leaves of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) and Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) in Colombia.
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Hola Luis Miguel, Chrysodeixis includens very comon, and easy to grow. Attached some photos of ex larva. The caterpillar was found on Pelargonium zonale, but it has a large number of host plants.
Regards, Chris