Questions related to Legislation
Dear colleagues and researchers,
Our research group from Federal Paraná University (UFPR), Brazil, is currently working in partnership with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany on a research project focused on floating photovoltaic (FPV) plants installed in reservoirs. Therefore, we would like to find specific legislation or regulations for FPV installation that could exist in your respective countries around the world. If anyone has some information that could be helpful to our research, we would be very grateful if you can contact us.
Thank you in advance for your support.
According to the Regulation, issued by the Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/833, it is not allowed to produce insect biomass on manure and catering wastes. Is it because of potential contamination of these wastes with deleterious chemicals, like pesticides, antibiotics, and endocrine disruptors (which can be applied in farming processes and in kitchens), or because of potential contaminations with pathogens, which is common for agricultiral animals and human? This legislative restriction significantly reduce the opportunity of the recycling of the valuable compounds (fat, amino acids etc.) from the by-products. So, I want to understand, what can we do in order to make the by-product save for recycling by means of insects, earthworms and other invertebrates? For instance, we can use manure from animals, which are free from pharmaceutical usage (I mean veterinary treatments), or we can thermally sterilize the by-products to prevent the propagation of human pathogens.
Maintenance of children born out of live in relationships
I gained a sample of 33 respondents who evaluated 13 dimensions of a topic surveyed.
21-level evaluation scale was used. As I understand, I should use some non-parametric tests like U Mann-Whitney to determine whether these results by each dimension are statistically significant or not. Which test(s) could you recommend to properly assess these results?
The survey issue is a restrictions' severity on human activities within 13 types of zones of protected areas (0 points - mildest restrictions, 20 points - most severe restrictions). Each respondent has been acquainted with these sets established by legislative acts.
I attached xslx file below.
Taking the notion of Galilean Science, as explained by Klaus Jaffe in his book, What is Science, Law today can be considered a scientific field. Legislation, statutory norms, do not use reality as a parameter, nor do they suffer the consequences of it. Empirical studies of law are an exception. Experimentation is even more so. To answer the question whether Law is a Science is to start treating it as if it were. That is why my interest is in Experimental Law.
I have come to the conclusion that chieftaincy and Democracy have similar features. Both have three arms of Government ie Executive, Judiciary and legislative. Why do we have to adopt one to neglect the other, Can we enhance African chieftaincy to suit the African space?
Specifically, I mean how is it working, for example when someone that builds a house, wants to change colours, proportions, ect, things that are basically prescribe on the legislative level. Is it easy to make changes? How it decides what changes can be made and to what extent?
According to your national legislation, are there any requirements for the indexation of the journals or their characteristics to be recognized for promotion? And what do you think about that?
Financing and oversight of electoral campaigns in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
With the increase in cases of attacks on journalists in the Arab world in general and the occupied State of Palestine in particular. Is there a glimmer of hope to legislate binding international rules that limit the violation of the sanctity of journalists and not prevent them from exercising their role by revealing the facts and communicating information to the international community about any violations of human rights law?
In some countries, capital profits are exempted by virtue of a presumption from the tax legislator, bearing in mind that the income tax law does not provide for their exemption. Is it permissible to bypass the law and rely on the presumption of the legislator?
I have to write my bachelor's thesis on international relations and I'd like to dissert on children's legislation, with a comparison between east Asia (Japan or South Korea) and Europe. Does anybody know about some cases that may have entailed both?
Do you believe that it has considerable importance in public?
The vast legislative regulation, if not performed, doesn't guarantee that things work in the right way.
Does politics care about it?
I would like to know what experts think about the current regulations of educational work and the influence that these laws have on the health of the education professional.
I have a comparative study on Morocco and Turkey, and I am looking for references or studies on Turkish political institutions: the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary
Struggles over whose law is better is continuous but can you perceive any common factors among all laws that unite them? How to agree on some common principles? Is reconciliation possible?
I know that integration is possible but what do you perceive the best way to harmonise differences of opinion yet allow everyone to follow distinctive legislations of own sources of law?
Thanks to all in advance.
Current legislation in Brazil for this type of shipment is very confusing (not to say chaotic) and bureaucratic. I would like to know from colleagues who have had this experience how they did to send specimens legally and safely to US institutions.
For a comparative study of legislative activity during the coronavirus pandemic, we are looking for experts who can report about the current operation of the legislature in their country.
We will be most grateful for links to relevant experts, particularly from countries outside Europe and North America.
If you can suggest relevant experts, please write me privately at Ittai.Bar-Siman-Tov@biu.ac.il
Thank you very much in advance,
- Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
- Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
The global nature of the Internet and e-Activities requires a new method of Legislative and Ethical control that includes the many different governments that exist.
Do we need a new International Cyberspace Organization that can lead this process?
To create a framework that is acceptable to all and takes all viewpoints into account.
Are we up to the task?
I've heard some talk about some people trying to get certain highly intelligent animals classified as nonhuman persons. (e.g. elephants, monkeys, orcas,). The primary intention of this action is that it would raise the consequences of abusing these animals as well as making them easier to protect.
I'm looking for both opinions and any factual information anyone may be able to offer. I'm particularly curious about the perspectives of people who have worked relatively extensively with highly intelligent animals, as well as those of people who have significant experience in animal testing.
There could be an endless set of rules regarding the use and the ethics around GMO. However, not everyone accept its use. Despite the rules or legislation behind them what are/could be the basic rules behind the GMOs.
The best is to obtain a fluid conversation, and of course any question, answer or important point to discuss, please contribute.
I myself will start by adding the basic rules I know (please do tell me if i am wrong I am very much certain it is )
- Has modern legislation left the idea of dual responsibilities ?
- We find that there is a clear tendency among the Iraqi legislator to tend to double the two types of civil liability.
- After the jurisprudence and judiciary cut a way or a distance of time in denying the dual responsibilities ?
Although we assume that thinkers change society, from Socrates to Marx, what about artists? What about writers (novelists and poets)?
What for example did Shelley mean 'by poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world'? For example, did this imply changes in perspective or the way words reconstruct that perspective?
My hypothesis is that from 1980s onwards a neoliberal consensus emerged, favouring a liberal trade agenda and prescribing a reduced role for state actors in governing and managing socio-economic development.
The financial crisis of 2009 and now the Covid-19 pandemic have brought the state back in, bailing out financial institutions with public funds and ordering the closure of large parts of national economies (whilst subsidising income losses and keeping businesses afloat) - seemingly inconceivable developments 15 years ago.
I would be grateful for both: a) literature recommendations and b) further examples of state legislative intervention ('activism' particularly with regards to sustainability regulation and laws).
Many thanks in advance!
Big Data, targeted advertising, medical diagnosis systems, etc. use methods of automatically generating decision trees by recursively searching for criteria that can be used to incrementally reduce uncertainty. These methods can span many dimensions without suffering from the "curse of dimensionality."
An application that I have yet to encounter is to use these methods to: a) analyze social problems and their causes; then b) use the resultant decision trees to write legislation that can adapt to many distinct situations - getting away from "one size fits all" overly simplified laws and regulations.; and c) in the execution of the law use the decision trees to decide on: 1) filing charges or not, 2) severity of the penalties, and 3) appropriate remedial follow up.
There are too many cases of overly simple laws that were intended to ensnare major criminal behavior being applied to citizens who are honest and law abiding, but who are subjected to onerous red tape or investigations simply because some element of their activities or appearances innocently triggers certain criteria that makes them subjects worthy of investigation or inquiry.
If the judges don't are elect for popular voting, why would they have - in terms philosophical, and not in legal terms - legitimacy to fail to apply a law approved democratically by legislative?
The objective in formulating the questioning is the search to identify what is the feeling that the researchers have about the interactions between the strengthening of democracy through the improvement of the popular legislative initiative.
EU directives on medical devices only include medical devices for human beings. Medical devices for veterinary use are not included in the legislation and therefore there is no requirement that they must be CE-marked as medical devices or meet the essential requirements for the CE marking.
In Italy there are no local regulations for the design, manufacture and marketing of medical devices for veterinary use.
What local regulations are in force in the EU and not-EU countries?
Hi, I am a final year student at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid ( Spain), doing my final thesis about the working-life conditions in the Nordic Countries.
Especially, I am researching about the different types of statutory entitlement to leave. However, I haven´t found in any nordic country legislation about days off work to enjoy the honeymoon after marriage.
I was wondering if you could know or even pointing me out in the direction of someone with knowledge in those Nordic labour law questions. It would be extremely appreciated.
I a looking to confirm or falsify the often made claim that the period from 1970-1985 was the "dark age" in EEC legislation. For this it would be useful to have a numerical comparison..., ideally also within that period.
What do you think what is the difference between Mandatory Overtime and slavery? and where is the line? Should it be allowed on the legislative basis that in some scenario employers would have a right to have mandatory not paid overtime requests > that employee can not refuse?
Good afternoon, my dear friends and colleagues.
As part of my research, I want to ask you a question: what state support for small business is the most important?
-Financial (state subsidies for starting a business, providing soft loans, state guarantees for creating and developing an enterprise, financing investment, innovative projects, etc.)
-Property (state and local governments create modern business incubators and techno-parks in which small enterprises can develop, the state transfers its property, premises, land, equipment for temporary or permanent use to entrepreneurs, leasing is offered on favorable terms)
-Information (the state creates resources (sites or information stands) for the exchange of business information, general information distribution systems, organizes information seminars and advertising stands, industry and intersectoral exhibitions, at which potential partners can find suppliers and buyers)
-Educational (the state develops special educational programs aimed at developing entrepreneurship skills for various segments of the population, creates conditions and programs for improving professional knowledge in the field of conducting and managing a business, and organizes training seminars and lectures)
-Consulting (the state creates and maintains centers providing consulting services on organizing, promoting development and particularities of doing business, and also compensates entrepreneurs for the costs of services of such organizations)
Legislative (the state simplifies legislation and reduces the number of procedures for registering an enterprise, reduces and simplifies the tax and administrative burden (reduces the number of forms and types of reporting), introduces preferential tax treatment for small and medium-sized enterprises).
Below is a link to my research. If it's not difficult for you, fill it out, please, it's very important!
Trout and other salmonid taxonomies are still in a chaotic state and in many respects have advanced little since the 19th Century. Salmonids are renowned for their phenotypic plasticity expressed under different environmental conditions. This high plasticity in many morphological characters and life histories is such that almost any population will be found to differ from other populations especially if only a few populations are compared. Yet such characters are the basis of many species descriptions. Some claim to be following the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC) of Simpson (1951), where “An evolutionary species is a lineage evolving separately from others and with its own unitary role and tendencies”. Evidence for the ESC is provided by morphological differences that are adaptive in nature (my emphasis), i.e., by definition have a genetic basis (Simpson, 1961). Yet many simply assume that the morphological differences that they use have a genetic and adaptive basis without further investigation even though heritability may be extremely low or absent. In that respect their approach is purely phenetic.
Since most conservation legislation is species-based accurate taxonomy is key to conservation of salmonid biodiversity. Bad taxonomy can kill by failing to recognise a population as a distinct taxon and thus it does not receive the conservation attention it requires. On the other, it can result in wasted conservation resources if the taxon is based on purely environmentally-induced differences and is simply part of a more widespread species of lesser concern. Some 51 species of Salmo trouts are currently recognised in FishBase and recent publications, including several in recent years. Most trout species have been classified on colouration, spotting pattern, occurrence of parr marks in adults, dentition, scale counts, and body measurements. In many, but not all situations, these characters are subject to environmental modulation with the effects of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation being difficult to disentangle. Body measurements are, in some cases, converted to ratios of standard length, but this approach has long been regarded as inappropriate due to allometric growth. Often insufficient specimens and populations are examined to give a true picture of intra- and inter-population variability.
An important criterion in taxonomy is that the characters used to define a species can be used to identify individuals to that species with ≥ 99% of individuals being correctly assigned (Mayr, 1963), either using molecular approaches or genetically based life history and morphological differences. Etheridge et al (2012) found that the power of supposedly diagnostic morphological characters to identify individuals of three putative Coregonus species was low (27%) due to the species descriptions being based on a few specimens, and as a result of phenotypic plasticity.
Given that a reference sequence is available for brown trout and that the determination of full genomic sequences is now relatively straightforward, is there any reason why a DNA sequence in an appropriate depository cannot be the name-bearing type sequence for a species? Linked to the type nuclear sequence should be DNA specimens, which can be used for further study. Once isolated, it can be stored nearly indefinitely. DNA can be easily shared for secure, multi-site curation. Since it takes up little space and can be stored at room temp there is no reason why all national museums should not be involved in such curation. Mitochondrial DNA sequences, while much easier to obtain, are problematic due to the potential for horizontal transfer and the linkage of genes. There are several examples of incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA. Use of only part of the nuclear genome could also be potentially problematic due to differentiation between some closely related trout being present in localised genomic ‘islands’. Sufficient DNA sequences to represent intra-specific variability would be required. Clearly international collaboration would be required to cover the entire Salmo trout range and a meaningful number of specimens. Do others consider this a potential way forward and what are the possible difficulties involved? Or is the real question whether conservation legislation should be species-based in the first place but instead be focused on populations, or groups of populations, as in North America using Evolutionarily Significant Units or Designatable Units?
have been trying to separate the d- and l-forms of propylhexedrine using chiral acids, namely, (-)-tartaric, (-)-malic and (+)-mandelic acids. The latter two readily form precipitates and looks promising but I working with a proper procedure. Most of it has been based on US patent 2454746, which lack procedural details. There are better details in US patent 2276508/9, however I have not been able to repeat this. Does anyone have experience in this and can share some insights?
Do you have any information legislation about mycotoxin limitation acceptance in food for human and animals.
I would like to anticipate the idea why research activities in the academe is not usually adapted or been used by third parties in behalf of its purpose: I mean the purpose of their research. Consequently, college and post graduate schools require thesis products for graduation requirement intents, but, the idea is just for the compliance purpose of the course program; and what about being endorsed to important third parties such as government institutions as to be used as basis for policy making. I see the lapses in that point and that it is ironic that some educational institutions are better and very hard working dealing on their research activities and publications and yet their studies are minimally recognized by their government for policy making and protocols, in which, in this way, the idea or the effort of scholars doing such ingenuity will be usable as it get beneficiaries in hand. Studying is not that easy, why not support or maybe the university or educational institution must endorse their research products to nearby jurisdictional policy makers for the better and best of the community in nearby future. I am just wondering why that research products are treated that way not on the exact way that studies and experiment of these experts must be commended for being excellent in such field they had chosen as proven by the research studies they have done. Is it because it lacks support from their respective government? Is it because their government does not appreciate the efforts of their research scholars and enthusiasts? Or maybe, Do these research products are not totally important in the political maneuvers of their place?
Can anyone answer this question? Will the answer be Legislators?
legislative regulation represents not only of the guarantees of rights and freedoms .but as its said the best of those guarantees. Rights and freedom exists only within community and the legislator is the who organizates right or freedom and regulation gives real existence to those and freedoms.the organization undertaken by the legislator is the one that gives right and freedom its real existence where through I the mechanism of its existence is based and established.
In my country, Brazil, we don't yet have legislation that makes it possible to compensate for the cost of purchasing of BESS for photovoltaic plants. How is the scenario in your country?
Oil prices have waxed and waned following COVID-19, but supply pressures and compliance from OPEC member countries have provided a much-needed balance int he last decade. With the U.S. becoming self-sufficient and both UK and EU legislating for net-zero emissions by 2050, can we expect a sustained upside for oil prices? This is particularly salient for
1) Government finances for commodity exporters?
2). GDP growth and economic development.
3). Employment in the energy sector and exports.
5). Processed fuels vital for global manufacturing value-chains.
Non-exhaust emissions are increasingly in the interest of science. There are numerous working groups around the world that are concerned, for example, with the development of standardized test procedures for determining brake wear particle number and mass. As the interest on the part of the legislator is growing, the developments are becoming more and more extensive.
This platform shall enable scientists to exchange information on important issues and developments in the field of sampling, measurement and classification as well as on technological measures to reduce brake/tyre wear emissions. To make the exchange as efficient as possible, it is necessary that numerous experts gather on this platform. In this way, questions on global developments can be answered in a targeted manner.
I am searching for legislation regarding the legal limits of furosine in milk but I have found so far only information regarding Italy. Are you aware of other EU and not EU countries setting maximum levels in milk or other commodities?
Thanks a lot!
IDPs means internally displaced persons. However the African Union has enacted a Convention on the Protection and Assistance of IDPs in Africa. Then I am looking at the state parties obligation and responsibility to the Convention which they have ratified and not domesticated as a national legislation with particular reference to internally displaced persons in Nigeria.
Helo, I am interested in looking into Secondhand smoke exposure and support level towards smoke-free legislation. I am planning to use secondary data. Can anyone advice on which statistical analysis will be most suitable for this study please? I am planning to analyze sociodemographic factor as well. Should I analyze it separately, or just include it in multivariate/ multiple logistic regression? Please advice me on this and it will be much appreciated if anyone could suggest me with a suitable conceptual framework for my study.
The toxicity of nanoparticles span over a large range from those which are relatively safe all the way to those which can potentially cause cancer. It is clear that the problem is tricky since it is a function of a number of variables including particle size and size distribution, agglomeration state, shape, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge and porosity. In the middle of all this uncertainty, I would like an elaborate answer, advice, legislation, guide on how to safely deal with nanoparticles.
I would look to research Illinois legislator's perspective and attitude of school based agricultural education but I am not sure what framework to use. I don't have much about the research yet because I do not want to research it if there is not a framework for it. Thanks!
I'm looking for any kind of legislation, zoning, best practices, etc. either required or recommended by the state, the EU/other federation or local government.
For a class I'm preparing to teach, I'm looking for (estimated) data on the numbers of U.S. citizens who engage in political activities beyond voting, such as
1. volunteering in campaigns,
2. contributing to campaigns,
3. working as election officers at the polls on election day,
4. contacting legislators, and
5. commenting to agencies about proposed administrative rulemaking.
I am looking for prosecutors who worked on human trafficking cases at any point during their careers as participants for a research study. This study will examine the challenges and limitations to prosecute human traffickers under state-level legislations, the differential evaluation of the state and federal level legislations (TVPA of 2000), and any future recommendations for these legislations as to what can be done differently to make them more efficient. I am conducting phone interviews with the participants to gain their insight on the issue and just to be clear the information provided will be completely confidential (consent forms are involved). If you know someone who could participate in this study, please let me know. I'd be grateful.
BWE was opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975. Now, it is 45 years old.
However, in some fields, effective implementation of BWC is still behind the Chemical weapon convention (CWC).
I would like to discuss this matter with National Authorities of state parties to BWC, and analysts.
Unfortunately, not every scientist follows ethical rules.
The rapid growth of Gene Research and prospects of Gene Therapy raise the question of whether Global Legislation is lagging behind.
We have to be careful that the initiation of gene research, the running of gene studies and implementation of gene research in real world settings are better controlled and monitored. There are many criminal and evil players in the world that are willing to exploit the dark side of gene research. We really need to have a proper debate about this.
Do we urgently lobby and pressurise governments to get this done?
"Applying Internet Laws and Regulations to Educational Technology"
I’d like to invite you to submit a chapter proposal of 1,000 to 2,000 words before January 15, 2019. Your proposal should include your purpose in writing a chapter for a book. Proposals should be either: critical of outdated or ill-conceived law affecting educational interests; or comparative (e.g., how legislation is applied in different jurisdictions). The main criterion for acceptance is a clear connection for a lay reader between: “technology”, “law”, and “education”. The primary readership will be non-lawyers (e.g., college and university professors, medical educators, school teachers, instructional designers, computing educators, administrators, and librarians). Law educators and students may also find readings of interest. Prior to submission, authors should consult the publisher’s guidelines for manuscript submissions at http://www.igi-global.com/publish/contributor-resources/before-you-write
Editor: Bruce L. Mann
All modern constitutions contain and declare the concept and principle of popular sovereignty, which essentially means that the people and their representative organs (like chambers) are entitled to be involved into the legislation.
Is there a public order online? And how can we measure it?
In our study mayors in cyberspace we found that many mayors and practitioners indicate that there is such a thing as an online (public) order. In most cases, however, they do refer to physical effects. Not surprising in itself because the powers of mayors and the legislation are focused on physical effects. The question is whether there is also a separate order online. And to what extent is this space public?
Do we have an official document or publication in Nigeria where the process of policy formulation is highlighted and/or explained?
In countries that have membrane process leachate treatment plants, what is the destination for membrane's concentrate?
Is there any specific legislation for this?
UN Convention against Torture listed a number of positive obligations aimed at the prevention of torture and other forms of ill-treatment. Article 2 par. 1 of the UNCAT: “Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.”
Study “Yes, torture prevention works” analyses more than 60 preventive measures and identifies which of them have a particular effect on the occurrence of torture. These measures were divided
into four main groups: 1) detention; 2) prosecution; 3) monitoring; and 4) complaints mechanisms.
What kind of measures work in your country?
I am a civil servant working in the special department related to stray dogs. As the conductor of the description of the mutual assessment to get dog-food supplies, I have to be accurate about the reason I need to ask for dog-food protein rate around 18-22% with the detail of it containing not less than 18% biologically originated protein. Can you please inform me about the proper legislation referring it? A thousand thank you in advance.
One of the worst experience for a human is being abused especially in childhood; psychological, physical and/or sexual. So many legislations, laws, social services and it still goes on almost in every country. Quite depressing, isnt it? So, do you think we will ever be able to stop child abuse in future?
These two terms almost seem identical, but if for eg. I preserve something, I keep it at the same state that it was.
Although if I protect something it is probably either because that state is at risk or I don't want it to be at risk- (it's threatened).
The word to protect has been used in the environment subject from scientists, governments and the market. For example, the oil companies must preserve and protect the environment where they explore and exploit, although we often see them just protecting after they have disturbed the ecosystem.
Some times protecting can't bring the habitat to it's original state. That is why in my opinion, preserving should be the main focus.
Can you distinguish practises that preserve or protect the environment? eg. Policies and legislation? Should there be a framework to assess whether practices protect or preserve?
My fellow RG Colleagues, please join in this discussion, I would love to know if someone has been digging deeper into this.
Parliamentary opposition in modern political systems plays a large role, particularly in the field of legislation and control of the work of the government or ministry.
The Qur'anic text represents the constitution of a nation, but this constitution appears in a new form of art and legislative content and proves its existence and the success of its mission
This is a challenge that people can not afford.
In 2016, Malta made a paradigm shift in its legislation by adopting the "public domain" doctrine in order to safeguard some coastal sites. The details are inserted by amendment as a 4th schedule of the civil code, cap. 16.
In addition, the same amendment defines the "coastal perimeter", as well as other landmarks of the coastal zone (art. 311 CC).
I found these changes ground-breaking for the Malta's legal order, but I did not find any literature about them.
Do you have any views or references?
Since the Affordable Care Act was implemented in 2010, many health insurance companies debated about the formulation of this particular bill in the legislation. Since this topic was researched under my discretion in a Public Policy course, I want to adequately inform the readers about the health insurance companies that benefited from this particular law under President Obama's administration.