Science topic

Legislation - Science topic

Works consisting of the text of proposed or enacted legislation that may be in the form of bills, laws, statutes, ordinances, or government regulations.
Questions related to Legislation
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Do you believe that it has considerable importance in public?
The vast legislative regulation, if not performed, doesn't guarantee that things work in the right way.
Does politics care about it?
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The German Occupational Health and Safety Act, based on the EU guidelines on occupational health and safety, regulates the occupational medical examinations for the entire German national territory (i.e. all 16 German federal states) in conjunction with the ArbMedVV (Ordinance on Occupational Health Care).
Please refer:
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I would like to know what experts think about the current regulations of educational work and the influence that these laws have on the health of the education professional.
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I believe that the legislation on educational work isn't friendly to worker health
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I have a comparative study on Morocco and Turkey, and I am looking for references or studies on Turkish political institutions: the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary
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There are many Arabic studies in this field, and I will try to send them to you successively
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Current legislation in Brazil for this type of shipment is very confusing (not to say chaotic) and bureaucratic. I would like to know from colleagues who have had this experience how they did to send specimens legally and safely to US institutions.
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It's so simple
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For a comparative study of legislative activity during the coronavirus pandemic, we are looking for experts who can report about the current operation of the legislature in their country.
We will be most grateful for links to relevant experts, particularly from countries outside Europe and North America.
If you can suggest relevant experts, please write me privately at Ittai.Bar-Siman-Tov@biu.ac.il
Thank you very much in advance,
Ittai
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Dear Ittai, have a look at these two websites:
Here you will find a whole lot of information on current parliamentary works, although you will need some Italian language skills to process the information.
Hope this was useful!
Best,
Anna
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  • Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
  • Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
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I believe legal theory is a tremendous force in the identification of those gaps in legislation. I see legislators all over the planet engaged in the erosion of democratic processes because they are trapped into their own epistemological limitations. Fundamental rights are more than ever under siege, and to move forward into producing a legal theory that identifies the limitations of what has been done so far is badly needed. The functional disconnect between the mandates of international law and national realities is blastering.
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The global nature of the Internet and e-Activities requires a new method of Legislative and Ethical control that includes the many different governments that exist.
Do we need a new International Cyberspace Organization that can lead this process?
To create a framework that is acceptable to all and takes all viewpoints into account.
Are we up to the task?
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Media (online) self-regulation cannot succeed in a repressive environment. However, where is the freedom media guaranteed, self-regulation can help preserve and protect media independence from government interference. So how to offer appropriate corrections in the digital age? The guidelines issued by the Finnish Press Council on fairness are very interesting corrections, and most other press councils agree with them. The guidelines are as follows: - The media should not correct a fake online story by removing it or hers by substituting it with another story; - The media should correct the story and make it clear that there was a mistake in the previous article; - The media should provide a link between the corrected article and the article with the error. In the UK, the principles set out in the Editor’s Code of Practice must be at the center of the journalistic approach to using materials obtained from social media sites networks.
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There could be an endless set of rules regarding the use and the ethics around GMO. However, not everyone accept its use. Despite the rules or legislation behind them what are/could be the basic rules behind the GMOs.
The best is to obtain a fluid conversation, and of course any question, answer or important point to discuss, please contribute.
I myself will start by adding the basic rules I know (please do tell me if i am wrong I am very much certain it is )
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Thank you very much. I did not know it depends on the country. I will look at the link. Thank you.
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If dependent variable - the number of participation in legislative elections (1-8), which regression is better? count model and negative binomial regression? If 'yes', why?
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Pardon me again but if you don't have any idea about dependant variables and their characteristics this question doesn't have an answer. See Rosner text for an explanation of why that would be. Best wishes and apologies for any misunderstanding, David Booth
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How possible is it for one challenge implementation of a bill in parliament before it becomes law? Can the same be taken to court. All views from different jurisdictions are welcome.
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All legislative process, in a given Nation, MUST FOLLOW AND BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES CONSECRATED IN ITS CONSTITUTION!
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  • Has modern legislation left the idea of dual responsibilities ?
  • We find that there is a clear tendency among the Iraqi legislator to tend to double the two types of civil liability.
  • After the jurisprudence and judiciary cut a way or a distance of time in denying the dual responsibilities ?
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Hi. I agree with Dr Francisco.
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Although we assume that thinkers change society, from Socrates to Marx, what about artists? What about writers (novelists and poets)?
What for example did Shelley mean 'by poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world'? For example, did this imply changes in perspective or the way words reconstruct that perspective?
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Certainly, yes artist can change society
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My hypothesis is that from 1980s onwards a neoliberal consensus emerged, favouring a liberal trade agenda and prescribing a reduced role for state actors in governing and managing socio-economic development.
The financial crisis of 2009 and now the Covid-19 pandemic have brought the state back in, bailing out financial institutions with public funds and ordering the closure of large parts of national economies (whilst subsidising income losses and keeping businesses afloat) - seemingly inconceivable developments 15 years ago.
I would be grateful for both: a) literature recommendations and b) further examples of state legislative intervention ('activism' particularly with regards to sustainability regulation and laws).
Many thanks in advance!
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Governments play a key role in achieving the development goals and targets through, for instance, setting and implementing water quality policy frameworks and standards, and regulating the discharge of pollutants into the environment, and wastewater management, recycling and reuse.
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Big Data, targeted advertising, medical diagnosis systems, etc. use methods of automatically generating decision trees by recursively searching for criteria that can be used to incrementally reduce uncertainty. These methods can span many dimensions without suffering from the "curse of dimensionality."
An application that I have yet to encounter is to use these methods to: a) analyze social problems and their causes; then b) use the resultant decision trees to write legislation that can adapt to many distinct situations - getting away from "one size fits all" overly simplified laws and regulations.; and c) in the execution of the law use the decision trees to decide on: 1) filing charges or not, 2) severity of the penalties, and 3) appropriate remedial follow up.
There are too many cases of overly simple laws that were intended to ensnare major criminal behavior being applied to citizens who are honest and law abiding, but who are subjected to onerous red tape or investigations simply because some element of their activities or appearances innocently triggers certain criteria that makes them subjects worthy of investigation or inquiry.
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I fully agree, it is one of the challenges from the training in the Law career
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If the judges don't are elect for popular voting, why would they have - in terms philosophical, and not in legal terms - legitimacy to fail to apply a law approved democratically by legislative?
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Porque ejercen justicia en nombre del pueblo
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Which tool do you use to anonymize the files, taking into account what the legislation requires (GDPR/LGPD)?
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I looked for the information and it is referenced that in addition to minimizing the Risks the Cloud Service based on Natural Language Processing to Anonymize your Data
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The objective in formulating the questioning is the search to identify what is the feeling that the researchers have about the interactions between the strengthening of democracy through the improvement of the popular legislative initiative.
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In this case, I totally agree with the theory that it is a mechanism of direct democracy; It is the possibility protected in the Constitution, people can present bills, without being popular representatives in their respective bodies
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EU directives on medical devices only include medical devices for human beings. Medical devices for veterinary use are not included in the legislation and therefore there is no requirement that they must be CE-marked as medical devices or meet the essential requirements for the CE marking.
In Italy there are no local regulations for the design, manufacture and marketing of medical devices for veterinary use.
What local regulations are in force in the EU and not-EU countries?
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Can I have the Full text article for "Note on the regulation of veterinary medical devices in the EU: A review of the current situation and its impact on animal health and safety".
Request sent to author for the access
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Can you help me find legislation in any country in the world that regulates the permissible limit concentrations of PBDE congeners in soil. Thank you!
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Only Norway has the normative values used to identify contaminated sites for PBDEs. The values for soil are 0.08 mg/kg for pentaBDE (BDE‐99) and hexaBDE (BDE‐154), and 0.002 mg/kg for decaBDE (NGU, 2007; UNEP 2015). Environment Canada has Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines (FEQGs) for PBDEs for risk management practice that describes guidelines for water, sediment and biological tissue to protect aquatic life and mammalian and avian consumers of aquatic life from adverse effects of PBDEs present in some commercial products (Environment Canada, 2013; http://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/default.asp?lang=En&n=05DF7A37-1).
NGU (Norges geologiske undersokelse). Forslag til tilstandklasser for jord. Trondheim, December 2007.
UNEP (2015) Revised draft guidance for the inventory of polybrominated diphenyl ethers under the Stockholm Convention. UNEP/POPS/COP.7/INF/27
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Dear colleagues, please for your information. Which year formally through legislation regulates inclusive education in your country.
You can also send me links to posts.
Thanks in advance!
Julia Doncheva
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Dear prof. Proloy Barua Thank you for the information, it is very valuable to me. I know very little about education in your country. Thank you one more time!
All the best: Julia Doncheva
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Hi, I am a  final year student at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid ( Spain), doing my final thesis about the working-life conditions in the Nordic Countries.  
Especially, I am researching about the different types of statutory entitlement to leave. However, I haven´t found in any nordic country legislation about days off work to enjoy the honeymoon after marriage. 
I was wondering if you could know or even pointing me out in the direction of someone with knowledge in those Nordic labour law questions. It would be extremely appreciated. 
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very good question
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I a looking to confirm or falsify the often made claim that the period from 1970-1985 was the "dark age" in EEC legislation. For this it would be useful to have a numerical comparison..., ideally also within that period.
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very good question
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What do you think what is the difference between Mandatory Overtime and slavery? and where is the line? Should it be allowed on the legislative basis that in some scenario employers would have a right to have mandatory not paid overtime requests > that employee can not refuse?
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very good question
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Good afternoon, my dear friends and colleagues.
As part of my research, I want to ask you a question: what state support for small business is the most important?
-Financial (state subsidies for starting a business, providing soft loans, state guarantees for creating and developing an enterprise, financing investment, innovative projects, etc.)
-Property (state and local governments create modern business incubators and techno-parks in which small enterprises can develop, the state transfers its property, premises, land, equipment for temporary or permanent use to entrepreneurs, leasing is offered on favorable terms)
-Information (the state creates resources (sites or information stands) for the exchange of business information, general information distribution systems, organizes information seminars and advertising stands, industry and intersectoral exhibitions, at which potential partners can find suppliers and buyers)
-Educational (the state develops special educational programs aimed at developing entrepreneurship skills for various segments of the population, creates conditions and programs for improving professional knowledge in the field of conducting and managing a business, and organizes training seminars and lectures)
-Consulting (the state creates and maintains centers providing consulting services on organizing, promoting development and particularities of doing business, and also compensates entrepreneurs for the costs of services of such organizations)
Legislative (the state simplifies legislation and reduces the number of procedures for registering an enterprise, reduces and simplifies the tax and administrative burden (reduces the number of forms and types of reporting), introduces preferential tax treatment for small and medium-sized enterprises).
Below is a link to my research. If it's not difficult for you, fill it out, please, it's very important!
Thank you!
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very good question
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Trout and other salmonid taxonomies are still in a chaotic state and in many respects have advanced little since the 19th Century. Salmonids are renowned for their phenotypic plasticity expressed under different environmental conditions. This high plasticity in many morphological characters and life histories is such that almost any population will be found to differ from other populations especially if only a few populations are compared. Yet such characters are the basis of many species descriptions. Some claim to be following the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC) of Simpson (1951), where “An evolutionary species is a lineage evolving separately from others and with its own unitary role and tendencies”. Evidence for the ESC is provided by morphological differences that are adaptive in nature (my emphasis), i.e., by definition have a genetic basis (Simpson, 1961). Yet many simply assume that the morphological differences that they use have a genetic and adaptive basis without further investigation even though heritability may be extremely low or absent. In that respect their approach is purely phenetic.
Since most conservation legislation is species-based accurate taxonomy is key to conservation of salmonid biodiversity. Bad taxonomy can kill by failing to recognise a population as a distinct taxon and thus it does not receive the conservation attention it requires. On the other, it can result in wasted conservation resources if the taxon is based on purely environmentally-induced differences and is simply part of a more widespread species of lesser concern. Some 51 species of Salmo trouts are currently recognised in FishBase and recent publications, including several in recent years. Most trout species have been classified on colouration, spotting pattern, occurrence of parr marks in adults, dentition, scale counts, and body measurements. In many, but not all situations, these characters are subject to environmental modulation with the effects of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation being difficult to disentangle. Body measurements are, in some cases, converted to ratios of standard length, but this approach has long been regarded as inappropriate due to allometric growth. Often insufficient specimens and populations are examined to give a true picture of intra- and inter-population variability.
An important criterion in taxonomy is that the characters used to define a species can be used to identify individuals to that species with ≥ 99% of individuals being correctly assigned (Mayr, 1963), either using molecular approaches or genetically based life history and morphological differences. Etheridge et al (2012) found that the power of supposedly diagnostic morphological characters to identify individuals of three putative Coregonus species was low (27%) due to the species descriptions being based on a few specimens, and as a result of phenotypic plasticity.
Given that a reference sequence is available for brown trout and that the determination of full genomic sequences is now relatively straightforward, is there any reason why a DNA sequence in an appropriate depository cannot be the name-bearing type sequence for a species? Linked to the type nuclear sequence should be DNA specimens, which can be used for further study. Once isolated, it can be stored nearly indefinitely. DNA can be easily shared for secure, multi-site curation. Since it takes up little space and can be stored at room temp there is no reason why all national museums should not be involved in such curation. Mitochondrial DNA sequences, while much easier to obtain, are problematic due to the potential for horizontal transfer and the linkage of genes. There are several examples of incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA. Use of only part of the nuclear genome could also be potentially problematic due to differentiation between some closely related trout being present in localised genomic ‘islands’. Sufficient DNA sequences to represent intra-specific variability would be required. Clearly international collaboration would be required to cover the entire Salmo trout range and a meaningful number of specimens. Do others consider this a potential way forward and what are the possible difficulties involved? Or is the real question whether conservation legislation should be species-based in the first place but instead be focused on populations, or groups of populations, as in North America using Evolutionarily Significant Units or Designatable Units?
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I don't think any revision of the ICZN is needed.
Regarding the morpological vs. molecular conundrum, the value of a deposited specimen mostly resides in the wealth of undescribed information that its biological structure potentially contains. We simply don't know what further information can be gleaned from a preserved specimen.
Therefore, no improvement could come from replacing a part of this structure with another. Tissue samples for molecular analyses and genomic sequences can be simply added to the lot including the morphological specimens (that could also be preserved with different methods; e.g., both formalin- and ethanol-fixed), as well as any other documentation (e.g., photos of freshly dead or anaesthetised specimens, morphometric measurements previous to fixation, X-rays, ecological notes, environmental data on the habitat). This is already common practice in several large museums, though it is obviously left to the individual researcher depositing the lot. Encouraging this practice is certainly commendable.
Therefore, I would not see any improvement in replacing morphological specimens with genetic/genomic sequences. On the other hand, I think that a considerable improvement may come from preserving and depositing morphological specimens of populations that genomic analyses have demonstrated to be reliable evolutionary units. The deposition of such material, both morphological and molecular, could certainly be a strong basis for defining a taxonomic and/or conservation unit, something the conservation biology of salmonids urgently needs.
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have been trying to separate the d- and l-forms of propylhexedrine using chiral acids, namely, (-)-tartaric, (-)-malic and (+)-mandelic acids. The latter two readily form precipitates and looks promising but I working with a proper procedure. Most of it has been based on US patent 2454746, which lack procedural details. There are better details in US patent 2276508/9, however I have not been able to repeat this. Does anyone have experience in this and can share some insights?
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It is a world wide issue and needs a conference and symposium to identify the problem and determine the objectives for solving such a problem not just articles but real solutions
Really it is a big topic and important at the same time
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Do you have any information legislation about mycotoxin limitation acceptance in food for human and animals.
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I would like to anticipate the idea why research activities in the academe is not usually adapted or been used by third parties in behalf of its purpose: I mean the purpose of their research. Consequently, college and post graduate schools require thesis products for graduation requirement intents, but, the idea is just for the compliance purpose of the course program; and what about being endorsed to important third parties such as government institutions as to be used as basis for policy making. I see the lapses in that point and that it is ironic that some educational institutions are better and very hard working dealing on their research activities and publications and yet their studies are minimally recognized by their government for policy making and protocols, in which, in this way, the idea or the effort of scholars doing such ingenuity will be usable as it get beneficiaries in hand. Studying is not that easy, why not support or maybe the university or educational institution must endorse their research products to nearby jurisdictional policy makers for the better and best of the community in nearby future. I am just wondering why that research products are treated that way not on the exact way that studies and experiment of these experts must be commended for being excellent in such field they had chosen as proven by the research studies they have done. Is it because it lacks support from their respective government? Is it because their government does not appreciate the efforts of their research scholars and enthusiasts? Or maybe, Do these research products are not totally important in the political maneuvers of their place?
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الهدف تطوير الأداء الأكاديمي والبحثي وتعزيز مكانة الجامعات وزيادة قدراتها على أداء دورها الحيوي، وهذا الامر يسهم في تحديد الرؤى والأهداف واستشراف المستقبل وإثراء رصيد الجامعات في خدمة المجتمع وتعزيز مكانتها وسمعتها وتمكنها من الاستمرار في المنافسة والتقدم بخطى واثقة ومدروسة ، وطبعا تطوير هذا القطاع سوف ينعكس على تطوير سياسية السلطة الحاكمة داخل الدولة
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Can anyone answer this question? Will the answer be Legislators?
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Hi Bhaswan!
An interesting question, but as practice shows, pharmaceutical companies are not interested in pharmacogenomic research of their own drugs, since this can lead to a limitation of the market for their drugs and a decrease in revenue (except for narrow areas where knowledge of genetic characteristics is necessary at the stage of choosing a specific drug, for example, targeted therapy in oncology).
Kind regards,
Michael
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Non-exhaust emissions are increasingly in the interest of science. There are numerous working groups around the world that are concerned, for example, with the development of standardized test procedures for determining brake wear particle number and mass. As the interest on the part of the legislator is growing, the developments are becoming more and more extensive.
This platform shall enable scientists to exchange information on important issues and developments in the field of sampling, measurement and classification as well as on technological measures to reduce brake/tyre wear emissions. To make the exchange as efficient as possible, it is necessary that numerous experts gather on this platform. In this way, questions on global developments can be answered in a targeted manner.
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The tire wear pattern is affected by various entities.
  1. Material combination used for the tires
  2. Terrain in which the tire operate (snowy, muddy, concrete, coal tar, rainy or any other terrain)
  3. Weight of the vehicle (Weight of the vehicle acts as the normal load, that proportionates to frictional force)
  4. tread pattern on the tires.
What i intend to say here is that the sampling rate cannot be determined on the dyno as it would be so ideal. over a chassis dyno or roller dyno the vehicle tires are usually exposed to same steel rollers repeatedly. This leads to very small volume loss when compared to real road load scenario.
On the other hand, it is much practical to estimate the wear particle emissions from the brake pads. The brake pads are usually exposed to same brake callipers (Disc brakes) or same drum element in case of drum brakes. Whenever the brakes are applied, the wear on the brake pads depend on vehicle velocity, mass of the vehicle and type of material used.
The brake on the vehicle is can be imagined as the tires on the steel rollers in the dyno. These brake pads are exposed to same surface of the drum.
I hope i cleared it. I am also interested in continuing the discussion further.
Thank you
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legislative regulation represents not only of the guarantees of rights and freedoms .but as its said the best of those guarantees. Rights and freedom exists only within community and the legislator is the who organizates right or freedom and regulation gives real existence to those and freedoms.the organization undertaken by the legislator is the one that gives right and freedom its real existence where through I the mechanism of its existence is based and established.
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Under the Philippine Constitution, freedom of speech and expression are rights accorded to persons but are not absolute. These may be subject to regulation or censure by the State itself through the exercise of its police power. "A valid exercise of police power by the State will allow it to interfere with constitutionally protected rights – including the right of freedom of expression and of the press. Although police power has no definition, case law has clearly and consistently shown that it may be invoked in all aspects of modern day life provided that the requisites of the Constitution and Law are observed.
Fundamentally then, the freedom of expression can be validly and legally regulated by the state since police power is so awesome that it has been used to implement or enforce public safety measures [9] , public morals [10] , and the general welfare [11] . One case [12] put it succinctly when it said:
Legal Infringements on the Freedom of Expression. lawteacher.net)
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In my country, Brazil, we don't yet have legislation that makes it possible to compensate for the cost of purchasing of BESS for photovoltaic plants. How is the scenario in your country?
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in the US, it's the developer who has to make that investment decision, by adding storage (BESS) to a PV plant. In fact, the combo has much better economics as the storage can control and improve the power output of the raw PV. The PV funding typically comes from signing power purchase agreement (PPA). Then, the developer uses the PPA to attract the funding from the external investors. The combo gets paid via PPA and the market prices at the node, based on electricity market rules. Does it help?
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Oil prices have waxed and waned following COVID-19, but supply pressures and compliance from OPEC member countries have provided a much-needed balance int he last decade. With the U.S. becoming self-sufficient and both UK and EU legislating for net-zero emissions by 2050, can we expect a sustained upside for oil prices? This is particularly salient for
1) Government finances for commodity exporters?
2). GDP growth and economic development.
3). Employment in the energy sector and exports.
5). Processed fuels vital for global manufacturing value-chains.
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Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan I'm aware that oil prices are particularly difficult to forecast given unprecedented levels of uncertainty. But whilst fundamental are ever more relevant, they have not always provided a guide for oil prices in the medium term. I wonder if COVID-scares and a renewed push for decarbonization could have a sustained impact on the upside for outcomes over the long-run.
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Hello everyone,
I am searching for legislation regarding the legal limits of furosine in milk but I have found so far only information regarding Italy. Are you aware of other EU and not EU countries setting maximum levels in milk or other commodities?
Thanks a lot!
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@ Sonia Colicchia, nice question.
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IDPs means internally displaced persons. However the African Union has enacted a Convention on the Protection and Assistance of IDPs in Africa. Then I am looking at the state parties obligation and responsibility to the Convention which they have ratified and not domesticated as a national legislation with particular reference to internally displaced persons in Nigeria.
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@Leonard Opara: Recall that the Kampala Convention (2009) was an adoption of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. In itself, the principles are a set of normative, non-binding/non-legal principles that have set the operational standard for addressing issues of internal displacement. They become legal only where national governments domesticate them into legislation. As it stands, Nigeria has not domesticated them. Although, in recognition of the growing number of the displaced population, government established a ministry for humanitarian assistance and relief, in addition to National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). But as it stands, the Ministry is far from addressing durable solutions for the displaced populations and their communities.
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Hi all,
can we use wild rats in experimentation for UVA exposed photoaged rat skin model. and later to use some biomedical materials to examine the anti-photoaging potential of that biomedical material. Any special cares, or legislation regarding such experimentation?
Suggestions, and advises are welcome.
Sincerely
Dr. Farrukh
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You can use either giant rat, guinea pig, rabbit, rat, and mice depending on the pharmacokinetics you're targeting
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Helo, I am interested in looking into Secondhand smoke exposure and support level towards smoke-free legislation. I am planning to use secondary data. Can anyone advice on which statistical analysis will be most suitable for this study please? I am planning to analyze sociodemographic factor as well. Should I analyze it separately, or just include it in multivariate/ multiple logistic regression? Please advice me on this and it will be much appreciated if anyone could suggest me with a suitable conceptual framework for my study.
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Statistical analysis and conceptual framework will depend on your objectives and if it's theory based then it will be more perfect one. Conceptual framework will be based on your theory. Statistical analysis will be also so many types according to your objectives and final outcome.
Pl go through a good book on statistics before finalizing everything. It's the basic.
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The toxicity of nanoparticles span over a large range from those which are relatively safe all the way to those which can potentially cause cancer. It is clear that the problem is tricky since it is a function of a number of variables including particle size and size distribution, agglomeration state, shape, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge and porosity. In the middle of all this uncertainty, I would like an elaborate answer, advice, legislation, guide on how to safely deal with nanoparticles.
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Dear Mustafa Abbas Mustafa, I strongly encourage you to go further in your work, whatever the obstacles are. I hereby tell you that I am ready to help you by any document you need, just send a private email via RG. My Regards
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I would look to research Illinois legislator's perspective and attitude of school based agricultural education but I am not sure what framework to use.  I don't have much about the research yet because I do not want to research it if there is not a framework for it. Thanks!
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I agree with Masoud Yazdanpanah
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I'm looking for any kind of legislation, zoning, best practices, etc. either required or recommended by the state, the EU/other federation or local government.
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Dear Yael,
Wind turbines emit a relatively weak but characteristic noise. The noise is mainly generated by the movement of the blades through the air. This produces a swishing sound in rate with the rotation of the blades, as well as noise from the turbine machinery.
Limits should only be placed on noise over a range of wind speeds up to 12 m/s when measured at 10 m height on the wind farm site, as faster wind speeds will typically mask the noise produced by a wind farm. Separate noise limits should apply for day-time and night-time.
Turbines are audible from distances as great as 2 km only in ideal conditions; when there is very little wind where the listener is, but sufficient wind where the turbines are on a ridge-top to power them.
Peer-reviewed studies have found that living near wind turbines does not pose a risk on human health. The studies looked at a range of health effects from hearing loss, nausea, and sleep disorders to dizziness, blood pressure, tinnitus, and more.
Noise guidelines
Unlike typical noise sources at licensed sites, wind turbine noise is directly related to wind speed. Wind turbine noise guidelines in Ireland are set out by the DoEHLG guidance and are based on the principle that turbine noise should be controlled with reference to fixed limits when background noise is low, or relative to background noise itself as it increases with wind speed, whichever is the greater. A common interpretation of these limits is that turbine attributable noise should be limited to:
1. 43 dB LA90 or 5 dB above background noise, whichever is the greater at NSL for night-time· hours
2. 45 dB LA90 or 5 dB above background noise , whichever is the greater at NSL for daytime hours 35 to 40 dB LA90 or 5 dB above background, whichever is the greater, at NSL for daytime· hours where background noise is less than 30 dB LA90
In this context, background noise is defined as a function of wind speed, over the relevant period (day or night) which is quantified by measurements prior to the site being built. It is important that such background noise measurements are referenced with wind speed at the hub height of the turbine(s) proposed, as it is this which sets the level of noise generated by the turbine.
WHO Guidelines
World Health Organisation Community Noise Guidelines, 1999 This guidance document recommends an external day-time limit of 55 dB LAeq to prevent serious annoyance during the daytime and evening, or 50 dB LAeq to prevent moderate annoyance, together with a night-time external noise limit of 45 dB LAeq to protect against sleep disturbance.
WHO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe
The World Health Organisation has recently published updated guidance on night-time noise levels designed to protect the public, based on external noise levels as averaged over a whole year xii. This recommends a target value of Lnight,outside of 40 dB where Lnight,outside is the external LAeq over a 1 year period xiii. It should be noted that this guideline limit is intended to cover noise from all sources at a specific location.
WHO guidelines for Holland
Holland Wind turbine noise is restricted to an Lden value of 47 dB and an Lnight value of 41 dB.
WHO for germany
Germany No specific wind turbine noise guidance is available so the following generic limits apply. iN genral it is 35 to 70 dB(night) and Day 50-70 dB.
WHO for Itly
A guidance document on wind turbine noise is currently being drafted but, until such time as this is available, the following generic limits apply: 40-70dB(night) and 50-70 in day for school, hospital, mixed activity, commercial and industrial etc.
Hope content is helpful for you.
Ashish
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Is there any particular legislation that you will be focusing on?
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No
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For a class I'm preparing to teach, I'm looking for (estimated) data on the numbers of U.S. citizens who engage in political activities beyond voting, such as
1. volunteering in campaigns,
2. contributing to campaigns,
3. working as election officers at the polls on election day,
4. contacting legislators, and
5. commenting to agencies about proposed administrative rulemaking.
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Unfortunately, to get a real picture, it does get rather involved...
Not in any order.
1) You can contact individual campaigns (web sites) on participation (paid and volunteers) and donation information.
2) The different parties provide numbers for volunteers, staffs, etc. and donations.
3) The Federal Election Commission has numbers on reported donations.
4) The Poll volunteers would be from several sources, local and state election boards, as well as, individual parties for poll watchers.
5) The state election boards can also provide voting participation stats.
6) You also have to research PACs and specific issue oriented groups.
You do have to remember, small donations (don't recall the thresh hold amount) do not have to be individually recorded and can skew perceptions of what is actually going on.
And Lastly: https://uselectionatlas.org/ for actual election results which in reality, is the only participation poll that matters considering several groups have large numbers volunteering but have a low participation rate in voting.
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I am looking for prosecutors who worked on human trafficking cases at any point during their careers as participants for a research study. This study will examine the challenges and limitations to prosecute human traffickers under state-level legislations, the differential evaluation of the state and federal level legislations (TVPA of 2000), and any future recommendations for these legislations as to what can be done differently to make them more efficient. I am conducting phone interviews with the participants to gain their insight on the issue and just to be clear the information provided will be completely confidential (consent forms are involved). If you know someone who could participate in this study, please let me know. I'd be grateful.
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Good and relevant topic of study.
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BWE was opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975. Now, it is 45 years old.
However, in some fields, effective implementation of BWC is still behind the Chemical weapon convention (CWC).
I would like to discuss this matter with National Authorities of state parties to BWC, and analysts.
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Perhaps you could read my paper entitled "The necessity to establish the Organisation for the Prohibition of Biological Weapons: A proposal for the future", published in 2012 in Public Organisation Review. You can find a copy in Google Academic.
Biological weapons are considered, by the international community, as a weapon of mass destruction. When the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) was negotiated during the 1960s and early 1970s, the negotiators considered unnecessary the establishment of an international organisation to supervise the implementation of the Convention’s provisions by the State parties. It is important to highlight that since the entry into force of the BWC, the international situation has significantly changed. For this reason, perhaps the moment has arrived to consider again the proposal of settling down such an organisation in the framework of the strengthening the BWC.
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Unfortunately, not every scientist follows ethical rules.
The rapid growth of Gene Research and prospects of Gene Therapy raise the question of whether Global Legislation is lagging behind.
We have to be careful that the initiation of gene research, the running of gene studies and implementation of gene research in real world settings are better controlled and monitored. There are many criminal and evil players in the world that are willing to exploit the dark side of gene research. We really need to have a proper debate about this.
Do we urgently lobby and pressurise governments to get this done?
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The relationship between ethical and legal aspects of medical intervention is complex, and seems to be particular in each country. I concur with Dr. Crewe that global legislation would be hard to enforce. The particular case of the ‘CRISPR babies’ actually illustrates this difficulty. The BBC news item does not explain the nature of the ‘government ban’ that justified his imprisonment, and as far as I know, previous international criticism had all been based on quite appropriate ethical considerations. Similar questions are also currently the subject of heated discussions regarding cell-based therapies.
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It is interesting to note that almost half of the countries do not have data protection legislation.
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good idea...
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"Applying Internet Laws and Regulations to Educational Technology"
I’d like to invite you to submit a chapter proposal of 1,000 to 2,000 words before January 15, 2019. Your proposal should include your purpose in writing a chapter for a book. Proposals should be either: critical of outdated or ill-conceived law affecting educational interests; or comparative (e.g., how legislation is applied in different jurisdictions). The main criterion for acceptance is a clear connection for a lay reader between: “technology”, “law”, and “education”. The primary readership will be non-lawyers (e.g., college and university professors, medical educators, school teachers, instructional designers, computing educators, administrators, and librarians). Law educators and students may also find readings of interest. Prior to submission, authors should consult the publisher’s guidelines for manuscript submissions at http://www.igi-global.com/publish/contributor-resources/before-you-write
Editor: Bruce L. Mann
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I would like to contribute , I am preparing
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All modern constitutions contain and declare the concept and principle of popular sovereignty, which essentially means that the people and their representative organs (like chambers) are entitled to be involved into the legislation.
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Dear Valeria Tananska, thank you for your detailed answer.
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Is there a public order online? And how can we measure it?
In our study mayors in cyberspace we found that many mayors and practitioners indicate that there is such a thing as an online (public) order. In most cases, however, they do refer to physical effects. Not surprising in itself because the powers of mayors and the legislation are focused on physical effects. The question is whether there is also a separate order online. And to what extent is this space public?
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I think there is certainly an order & discipline online, otherwise, by now we would have had chaos!
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Do we have an official document or publication in Nigeria where the process of policy formulation is highlighted and/or explained?
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Sounds like a communications gap between services and needs
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In countries that have membrane process leachate treatment plants, what is the destination for membrane's concentrate?
Is there any specific legislation for this?
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if you go Mechanical compressor based MEE then the cost is feasible and the final sludge can be utilized for boiler fuel.
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Mental Health Legislation may not be consumer friendly if not designed considering the ground realities of a country.
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The need to fit the legislation in general the requirements of:
the law of the public interest with the need for mental health and not limited to legislation, but requires full implementation of the legal texts in the State
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UN Convention against Torture listed a number of positive obligations aimed at the prevention of torture and other forms of ill-treatment. Article 2 par. 1 of the UNCAT: “Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.”
Study “Yes, torture prevention works” analyses more than 60 preventive measures and identifies which of them have a particular effect on the occurrence of torture. These measures were divided
into four main groups: 1) detention; 2) prosecution; 3) monitoring; and 4) complaints mechanisms.
What kind of measures work in your country?
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First, increase social awareness II. Promoting the concept of justice Thirdly, the implementation of governance standards Fourth: Application of the principle of the rule of law
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هل تعتقد بضرورة وجود قانون لمناهضة العنف الاسري
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yes
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Improvement depends on all of us, but it needs to be organized to make it faster.
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Thank you for sharing this discussion. Best regards: Julia Doncheva
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I am a civil servant working in the special department related to stray dogs. As the conductor of the description of the mutual assessment to get dog-food supplies, I have to be accurate about the reason I need to ask for dog-food protein rate around 18-22% with the detail of it containing not less than 18% biologically originated protein. Can you please inform me about the proper legislation referring it? A thousand thank you in advance.
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Thank you so much for your immediate answer
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What is the way forward for the current chaos in the U.S. concerning Emotional Support Animals? Legislation, research, education??
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In Europe, we do not have "emotional support animals" as they are seen in the States. It seems that a big game-changer in America would be if dogs were allowed more in restaurants and shops, as they are here in Europe (the only areas dogs aren't allowed are grocery stores, hospitals and anywhere where hygiene is a concern). We can all likely agree that emotional support animals should require more regulations (from legislation and mental health professionals) and training, as both of you have already pointed out. However, I think that if someone requires a dog to be with them at all times, they should be acquiring a service dog who has been properly trained. Owning an untrained dog can often lead to more situations causing the human to experience frustration, depression, anxiety and isolation - perhaps especially if the human already deals with a mental disorder (even more so if they are not experienced with dogs). As far as research is concerned, we researchers need to acknowledge the fact more in our work that we cannot make blanket statements. Each animal and human will not make each other happy, nor will those who have a great bond always get along every day - it is all much more individualistic and constantly changing than existing literature is making it out to be. Also, most research which addresses the "dogs make humans happier" angle are not necessarily using participants with mental disorders and untrained dogs. The research which exists is, for the most part, quite flawed and not acknowledging some fairly crucial information. More importance should also be placed on the welfare of the animal who is living with an individual with a mental disorder.
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One of the worst experience for a human is being abused especially in childhood; psychological, physical and/or sexual. So many legislations, laws, social services and it still goes on almost in every country. Quite depressing, isnt it? So, do you think we will ever be able to stop child abuse in future?
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Possible if we really can understand that children is our future and aim of our life.
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When People need Media legislation? And When its become an obstacle toward freedom of expression?
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@Ali Abbood شكرا جزيلا بمتابعتكم الكريمة وانا الان اجمع الاراء للوصول إلى إجابة علمية بإذن الله.
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These two terms almost seem identical, but if for eg. I preserve something, I keep it at the same state that it was.
Although if I protect something it is probably either because that state is at risk or I don't want it to be at risk- (it's threatened).
The word to protect has been used in the environment subject from scientists, governments and the market. For example, the oil companies must preserve and protect the environment where they explore and exploit, although we often see them just protecting after they have disturbed the ecosystem.
Some times protecting can't bring the habitat to it's original state. That is why in my opinion, preserving should be the main focus.
Can you distinguish practises that preserve or protect the environment? eg. Policies and legislation? Should there be a framework to assess whether practices protect or preserve?
My fellow RG Colleagues, please join in this discussion, I would love to know if someone has been digging deeper into this.
Best regards,
Elena
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Well,
preservation is the act of preserving; act of keeping from destruction, decay. protection is the process of keeping something safe.
Regards
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Struggles over whose law is better is continuous but can you perceive any common factors among all laws that unite them? How to agree on some common principles? Is reconciliation possible?
I know that integration is possible but what do you perceive the best way to harmonise differences of opinion yet allow everyone to follow distinctive legislations of own sources of law?
Thanks to all in advance.
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Plato...Laws.... Reason....Logos...
Athenian. No man can be a true worshipper of the Gods who does not know these two principles — that the soul is the eldest of all things which are born, and is immortal and rules over all bodies; moreover, as I have now said several times, he who has not contemplated the mind of nature which is said to exist in the stars, and gone through the previous training, and seen the connection of music with these things, and harmonized them all with laws and institutions, is not able to give a reason of such things as have a reason. And he who is unable to acquire this in addition to the ordinary virtues of a citizen, can hardly be a good ruler of a whole state; but he should be the subordinate of other rulers. Wherefore, Cleinias and Megillus, let us consider whether we may not add to all the other laws which we have discussed this further one — that the nocturnal assembly of the magistrates, which has also shared in the whole scheme of education proposed by us, shall be a guard set according to law for the salvation of the state. Shall we propose this?
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Parliamentary opposition in modern political systems plays a large role, particularly in the field of legislation and control of the work of the government or ministry.
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Thanks Doctor for the valuable information.
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The Qur'anic text represents the constitution of a nation, but this constitution appears in a new form of art and legislative content and proves its existence and the success of its mission
This is a challenge that people can not afford.
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رآن الكريم أبهر العرب من خلال ابرازه للقوة الكامنة في اللغة العربية ، بمعنى انه استطاع أن يوظف اللغة العربية واساليبها التركيبية في التعبير عن أشرف المعاني الأمر الذي عجزت عن اكتشافه الاجناس الأدبية الأخرى ، فالقرآ ن لم يقل هذا لسان جديد بل قال : هذا لسان عربي مبين، أي بيِّن، فالشاعر مثلا يعمد الى الجملة العربية فيفككها ويعيد صياغتها بالشكل الذي يستطيع معه أن يعبر عن المعاني التي تجول في خاطره، لكنه في الوقت نفسه يكبل نفسه بقيود الوزن والقافية الأمر الذي لم يقع فيه القرآن الكريم، لذلك مثل القرآن مستوى من الابداع الحر كان يطمح اليه كل الشعراء..
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From any country, whether or not they have weather modification programs
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You are welcome
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I am looking for literature on legislative success of executives.
What effects how many policies are passed? What possible independent variables affects the legislative success of presidents? etc
Thanks in advance!!
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Check with the American Legislative Exchange Council
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In 2016, Malta made a paradigm shift in its legislation by adopting the "public domain" doctrine in order to safeguard some coastal sites. The details are inserted by amendment as a 4th schedule of the civil code, cap. 16.
In addition, the same amendment defines the "coastal perimeter", as well as other landmarks of the coastal zone (art. 311 CC).
I found these changes ground-breaking for the Malta's legal order, but I did not find any literature about them.
Do you have any views or references?
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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Since the Affordable Care Act was implemented in 2010, many health insurance companies debated about the formulation of this particular bill in the legislation. Since this topic was researched under my discretion in a Public Policy course, I want to adequately inform the readers about the health insurance companies that benefited from this particular law under President Obama's administration.
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Thank you. I will look forward examining this article and apply it to my research pertaining to the development of Affordable Care Act.
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from a financial-economic and legislative perspective.
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It depends on the type of contracts weather is Risk Service Contract, Production Sharing Agreement (PAS), Concession, or Joint Venture. However, International Oil Companies (IOCs) should always negotiated contract clauses. From my point of view, the most effective one is PSA since it does balance govenment takes and IOCs takes, it gives to both of them advantages
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Is anyone aware of a global repository of national legislation protecting species of fauna?
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You could ask to IUCN: assessing the red lists, sometimes there are discussions on local legal action.
contact Axel Hochkirch
Ciao
Filippo
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I am putting together a theoretical framework for understanding the the movement towards mandatory auditing firm rotation in South Africa. The legislation attempts to reduce the dominance of the Big Four auditing firms. The legislation is only due for implementation in 2021 and thus can still be influenced by the firms. The literature on monopolies and oligopolies is obviously relevant but I also want to include general "resistance to change" literature and specific literature about firms influencing regulations to protect their market share.
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This, too, which might be easier to get (on Google Scholar):
[PDF] aeaweb.orgFull View
Institutions
DC North - Journal of economic perspectives, 1991 - aeaweb.orgInstitutions are the humanly devised constraints that structure political, economic, and social interaction. They consist of both informal constraints (sanctions, taboos, customs, traditions, and codes of conduct), and formal rules (constitutions, laws, property rights). Throughout …
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Hello
Any recommendations on tools or methodologies that can be used to determine the influence/impact that current or new policies can have on a new project that changes the operations of the pharmaceutical supply chain in South Africa? The tool should be able to take into consideration the entire supply chain and focus on analysing multiple policies and legislative instruments (not only one policy like most policy analysis models).
Emma
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Hi Emma
I'm not sure what you mean by "tools or methodologies" but there are several policy analytical frameworks that allow you to address multiple policy innovations in a systematic way. For example, in health policy analysis it is quite common to use the 3i's approach -- ideas, institutions and interests. You can google these three words and come up with several policy analyses that use this framework. It is not so much a "tool" or "methodology", as a lens derived from a political economy framework. There are other approaches that are similar; what they do is to ask you to outline systematically the impact of hte various policies. If you combine this with a decent bibliometric approach, you can do an excellent job.
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Sometimes certain difficulties arise for a legislative drafter to choose a word or phrase that can represent a certain meaning of a legal norm to be designed. Sometimes it happens because of the limitations of the language itself.
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When drafting legislation involving concepts which are ambiguous in, or not well supported by, the language in which the legislation is to be drafted, one practical approach is to use an interpretation provision in which the term referring to that concept is defined.
Uncertainty in the meaning of words is a characteristic concern of legislative drafters in English-language jurisdictions. Several such jurisdictions follow a drafting practice in which Acts of Parliament include a section headed "interpretation" or (in Australian plain-English drafting) "definitions". Current Australian plain-English drafting practice goes a step further by removing the interpretation section to a schedule, usually bearing the title "dictionary".
Compare the following interpretation provisions in Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and UK crimes legislation:
  1. s. 4 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 (CTH) https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2018C00205
  2. s. 2 of the Criminal Code (1985, CA) http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/FullText.html
  3. s. 2 of the Crimes Act 1961 (NZ) http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1961/0043/latest/DLM327382.html
  4. s. 64 of the Criminal Law Act 1977 (UK) https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1977/45/contents
The Australian approach is the most comprehensive. Not only does s. 4 of the the Criminal Code Act 1995 (CTH) point to the dictionary (in Volume 2), but many divisions and even subdivisions of the Code (which itself comprises a schedule to the Act) contain further definitions (see ss. 70.1, 71.23, 72.10, 72.36, etc.) which are specifically applicable to the respective parts of the legislation. By contrast, the corresponding UK legislation defines only a few terms.
Supposing that for some reason it is difficult even to describe the relevant concept in the language in which the legislation is to be drafted, another approach would be to use an applicable foreign language term and to define it with reference to its meaning in the law of another jurisdiction, either as at a certain date (fixed meaning) or as understood from time to time (dynamic meaning). However, every effort should be made to avoid reliance on foreign language and reference to foreign law because it makes legislation less accessible to users in the jurisdiction in which the legislation is to be enacted. Depending on the terms of the applicable constitution, such lack of accessibility may introduce doubts concerning legal validity of provisions drafted in this way.
If you would like my assistance in relation to a drafting project, please message me via LinkedIn.
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I need to conduct some of PhD research experiment in Denmark but I want to know about the legislation of transportation of Clinical Isolates of MRSA from Pakistan to Denmark.
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Dear Rafiq I need to transport the MRSA samples through anyway which is more convenient to me either with myself or through courier. but is there any org or body who govern or monitor the process
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The way policies are formulated within the law or legislation concept.
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Legislation is passed in the legislature by a vote from elected officials; policy is written by unelected public servants.
If you break a policy, there are no legal/criminal consequences; if you break legislation, you are potentially liable for criminal or civil damages.
Policies flow from laws and legislation. Legislation is the what ("children are legally required to attend school") and policy is the how ("because children are legally required to attend school, schools must be built in every town and city.")
Here is the order of laws/policies, from most broadly influential to most specific:
  1. International Law
  2. Federal Law/Legislation
  3. Provincial or State Law/Legislation
  4. Regulation
  5. Municipal By-Law
  6. Policy
  7. Procedure
  8. Standard Operating Procedure
Each layer can influence every layer below it, but no layer above it. Provincial legislation must be compliant with existing federal legislation; procedures must adhere to what their policies propose. What we might observe is that the lower into the structure we go, the more focused the scope and the more granular the work. It would be inappropriate for federal legislation to state how many windows a classroom must have, but that does not mean that it is not a topic worth codifying and discussing, possibly in a standard operating procedure.
To use an extreme example, if international law states that torture is illegal– and it does– it is illegal for Canada to sanction torture within its borders. However, it would be just as illegal for Infrastructure to develop a policy that involves torture, because policies must be compliant within all the legal structures that support their governments.
I hope that helps!
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Continuous budget cuts, teacher strikes, and impending federal legislation are three of the many issues that threaten to change the future infrastructure of public education in the United States. Should more educationalists and researchers be publishing research on the validity and benefits of homeschooling students so that American parents can weigh this option as well for their children? Whether they do or don't, should parents still consider educating their own children given the current outlook?
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Labor law is predominantly carried out from the domestic perspective of the countries through their legislation, accepting only some international (often disregarded) legislative inspirations,
How to think about the labor law in the future? when there will be a decrease in jobs, new jobs that will require skills that not everyone can achieve, machine replacement, flexibilization, home office, globalization ...
Is the end of labor law? or will it be the strengthening of international legislation?
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I don't think we will ever do away with the need for labor law, because as others have noted, there will still be "work" to be done, even if it's done very differently. You do raise an interesting question, however, when we think about the trends toward globalization and what might call "privatization" of work -- meaning that at some work may increasingly be done remotely or by telecommuting. I think about how this will affect the prospects of any future labor movement. Labor movements have been built around work places and generally (but not always) confined to national federations. What happens when workers are scattered and isolated, even within a single nation? How will they organize? I suppose they can organize over the internet rather than at the point of production, but clearly techniques will need to change. Without a strong and politically engaged labor movement, how will this impact political coalitions that have pushed for more protective labor laws?
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Dear colleagues,
I am carrying out my research on the Community Co-ops in Italy. I aim to investigate the phenomenon from a socio-political perspective. Part of this work is the analysis of the current regional legislation. A debate is open on the possibility for a national law. What I want to do is a policy analysis on 6 regional legislation and present the different approach. I am a beginner in the field of policy analysis so can you please give recommendations and suggestions on handbooks?
Thank you and best regards.
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Thank you everyone for your help.
I appreciate.
Best regards.
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Some aspects of morality are indeed legislated. So how do you determine which aspects are legislatable and which are not?
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Perhaps this question is related to yesterday's question regarding theology and philosophy? Moral obligations are frequently, but not always, based on a religious moral code. Whereas legal obligations are based on a secular "moral code," which certainly draws from religious beliefs, but is a distillation of these, and is allowed to evolve over time.
How to determine which rules are legislatable? I think maybe a short answer is, rules that reasonable people (hopefully in Congress) can agree benefit society as whole, are legislatable. Rules that depend on nothing more than faith in the precision of an ancient religious text, not so much. So, something like, "first, show me the clear benefit, then we might legislate."
Take, for instance, tithing and holy days of obligation. The secular laws do not make such practices either necessary or "moral," because they have been replaced with secular laws, independent of any religion. Tithing was replaced with "paying your taxes," and holy days of obligation were replaced with government holidays. So, reasonable people determined that the religious practices had merit, but without having to be tied to any religious rigor. For instance, taxes vary, depending on circumstances, regardless of what ancient religious texts might have prescribed. for tithing
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Some parties in my country want to legislate a law that allows the marriage of girls under the age of 12, what means can prevent the legislation of that law?
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That will be dangerous and harmful for the society
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I want to learn more about this topic, such as legislation, special education, etc.
If you want to share some articles about this topic, please share these in English.
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Hello Constantinos,
I‘m German and study inclusive student management systems. What are you precisely looking for? Inclusion in education is a variable term, depending on profession and context.
What a psychiatrist in Munich suggested, is to follow the implementation of the new ICD 11 guidelines for diagnosis. It might affect your work as well.
Inclusion is such a huge field and is based on a compliance model of its users within the system and its norms. Acceptance of neurodiversity and future research about it, is only possible if teaching and learning is perceived as bi-directional interaction.
I‘m happy to learn more about your work!
Best wishes
Annette