Questions related to Learning and Memory
- Brain tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance emission tomography, are able to identify areas of the brain that are activated during more participatory learning, and these are related to emotions?
- Learning and verbal memory is the least remembered the short term?
- The brain area of emotions in students are not activated or are refractory to the classroom lessons, lectures or conferences?
- The emotions related area is more active when the student participates in learning and this is related or meaning to the real world?
- Videoconferencing algorithms, allusive outlines a certain topic with brief captions; and mental and conceptual maps the brain area activated more emotions, that lectures and master classes?
I was wondering if I fear condition my rats, and then train them in Morris Water Maze (spaced training), will the rats show weaker or no long term spatial memory? I tried to look for relevant literature, but could not find many papers directly addressing this sort of question. If I missed them, could someone send me those papers? Thank You.
I am planning to do learning and memory tests using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests in young rats.
I was wondering if it is possible to perform two behavioral tests at the same period of time or I should perform one behavioral test at a time?
Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most significant innovation in education for the profession for many years . Some argue that it is the most important development since the move of professional training into educational institutions
If someone could kindly direct me in the direction to research one significant key study in learning, memory, attention and perception, which cognitive psychology has contributed to in our scientific understanding of these areas.
I have collected rats blood plasma, and serum & stored it at -4°C but the problem is that the serum and plasma have preserved more than 1 month.
Do you know where can I get/buy a T maze for Planarian memory and learning experiments, particularly the simple T Maze used by McConnell in his planarian studies? Or does anyone know how to create a makeshift T maze for Planarian learning and memory experiments? Thank you very much!
central cholinergic signaling via muscarinic receptor is implicated in learning and memory. one of the mechanism by which cholinergic signaling influence cognitive has been assumed to be directly cholinergic stimulation of pre- and postsynaptic hippocampus neuronal receptors. muscarinic receptor is one of the kind of acetycholine receptor. My principal target is this receptors by checking for d activities of my bioassays guided isolated compounds on this receptor. I am looking for muscarinic activating receptor biochemical guided assay. Thanks.
Exercise, diet, CBT in relation to neural plasticity, neurogenesis, Long term potentiation and learning and memory. looking for papers to support my assignment
The Elevated Plus Maze Model (EPM) is basically tested for the anti-anxiety activity. Currently, I am working on learning and memory activity in rats by the Barnes Maze and EPM test. Is the EPM reliable for nootropic activity? whether the electrophysiology of hippocampus part of rats brain suitable or not to know the mechanism of action for tested drugs?
I am doing research on learning and memory activity in rats. I have bought piracetam injection which is used for IM and IV route in human but I want to give through IP route in rats. can I do this?
I will do first-time electrophysiology of rats hippocampus. How can I interpret the learning and memory activity in rats by electrophysiology graph?
In the elevated plus maze , Barnes maze test and many more behavioral models it is mentioned that 70 percent of ethanol is used for cleaning of maze. Is there any rationality behind it.
Does anyone have familiarity with switching from normal light/dark (L/D) cycle for rats to reverse L/D ? Our lab is considering, it but I have a number of questions.
Does any exposure to normal light even if brief disrupt the rats circadian rhythm once they are on the reversed cycle?
How do the animals use/respond to extra maze cues if they are being tested in red light and presumably can't see them? Or do you test in normal but very dim light and only the colony room is kept red?
We do learning and memory tasks (T maze alternation / Radial arm maze) does the reversing of cycle actually make a difference in these tasks?
Hi, I'm analyzing behavioural mice data, such as locomotivity, anxiety and learning and memory. by qq plot I confermed that the data I collected have a considerable variability. I runned normality test and confirm this variability. But I have a large number of animals by group: 3 groups; n=25, 22, 23. So I have two questions regarding wiht. is animal number larger enought to consider a normal distribution?, and if yes, there is another observation: those animals are outbred, and I have riden an article that mentioned that outbred mice tend to have more variability in behaviour. so in the case I can run a parametrical test, Do I have to be present the mouse strain?. I really appreciate your suggestions
Shouldn't I provide a shorter (or graduated) way to see what I am all about?
Well, here is an attempt at that :
I (myself) avoid (eschew?) defining anything, I have viewed attention as an aspect of working memory or/and an aspect of the episodic buffer (usually or always both). Both change a lot and frequent (both are very "dynamic") . It is hard to see how attention would not be similarly dynamic (as well as a guiding factor for those 2 memory aspects or types of memory). That being the case, it seems to me it would be well nigh impossible to factor "attention" out. (And "we" should define nothing; the Subject should define all -- as it was with the classical ethologists of the 60s and 70s -- AND AS IS THE CASE WITH ALL TRUE SCIENCES.)
An easy (shorter) way to see my outlook is to read the outline and guidelines I provide for AI people (that about 35 pages long) -- and THAT is also what I believe should be roughly, the as-of-yet outline of good behavioral science: cognitive-developmental human ethology, with (always) an eye to contributing towards an ethogram via that which is ALWAYS founded in the sometime present directly observables (as true proximate causes, along with aspects of the present environment, and simultaneous "innate direction" provided). (This is basically a type of classical ethology, which unfortunately even today's "ethologists" do not know, recall or respect.)
Anyhow, if it is good enough to "mechanize" in AI, AND IS NOT A MODEL OR ANALOGY, but a fair and likely necessary outline of our rather well-defined memory facilities (and capacities) (AKA our differ sorts of Memory) -- all based on the best research -- _AND_ the key "containing system" seen as innately guided qualitative shifts IN/by gaze changes, then things 'noticed' (though often unconscious, and thus better termed "patterned-gazes-noticed") , then defined (conscious) attention, and then new processing (for new representations, and soon, new types/hierarchical levels OF THINKING (all the connected cognition there)). The latter is where BOTH psychology and AI need to make discoveries to progress empirically and systematically (and as any kind of decent science). Anyhow, for a short version of my view,
AND also read the COMMENTS below the item,
Data everythinga.doc 0B (Read "A Human Ethogram ..." sometime rig... :
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
And then, read my major Project description:
AND, finally, for MUCH more (for "everything"), if so desired, see:
read my 326-page collection of essays, everythinga.doc_0B.pdf , UNDER
BY clicking the link to that collection (to everythinga.doc_0B.pdf (and, again, read the new additions, as Comments, under that).
Maybe I am wrong, but I give a clear completely empirical approach to see if I am correct or not. It has been correctly said that I am -- as much as a cognitive developmental ethologist could possibly be -- a "methodological behaviorist"; and, all else cited except such behaviorism (<-- as usually understood) ALSO has clear empirically directly observable foundations, at least at the inception of any major new behavior patterns OR qualitative changes thereof.
Let me try to provide an answer by sharing a relevant essay I wrote to a friend. (This contains that "shortest description".)
Let me answer "What is your definition of 'innate guidance'? " in the only way I ever will answer anything when it comes to a scientific study of human behavior (aka ethology). My answer is I do not define; I never define anything. All is discovered and the Subject (the human) will define what, in any given type of case/circumstance, the innate guidance IS (and what that is like). ("Ditto" for 'learning'.)
This is the only way other ethologists should have things 'defined' . IN FACT: Real and good scientists (in any science) NEVER 'define' anything just with their imagination; no guessing EVER, except just "where to look" -- THEN they find that which is important and worth noting FROM THEIR SUBJECT MATTER).
Everytime (literally) I hear the word "define", I cringe.
NOW: This may not be easy to understand, or understand as I intend, but I have written 500 pages explicating, elaborating, and justifying the following view:
From what I said before: I can only tell you where I would look and hope for the discovery of what is at the INCEPTION of new 'seeing' new things and differently (that then eventually leads to new representation, then to new thinking): IN PARTICULAR: This (coming up) is how I will look for the proximate causes OF the behavioral shifts, in BOTH directly observable overt behavior patterns AND in the associated directly observable aspects of the current environment (and WITH the special sort of associative/discriminative learning that THEN OCCURS; and THAT along with other behaviors -- some developed in just this same type of way in the past, which now function in some similar way to when the behavior was overt, though now covert). I hypothesize, and it is now testable and verifiable (yes or no) with new eye-tracking technology and computer assisted analysis :
That "perceptual shifts" are the overt behavioral patterns aspect(s) WITH the innate guidance that there is/are at the inception of a transition starting a qualitatively different level/stage of representation . Such an inception, of course, includes (for contextualization) what is brought forward from our Memories -- to have the new environmental aspect(s) meaningfully seen . The perceptual shifts will result in finding and using "things" thus discovered (by the organism), BEGINNING with the perceptual shift(s) FOR new elements processed from the environment which allow the key new/additional "ingredients" that need to be added to existing cognitive abilities' contents (the latter, existing already, at a lower level of the hierarchy), to begin to move to the next higher hierarchical level/stage-type behavior (behavior including not only necessary overt aspects, but also existing cognition <-- understood, in important part, by seeing similar perceptual shifts beginning earlier stages; THUS: you have to do investigations longitudinally, beginning just after infancy; you must track the relevant ontogeny).
You will note I use the word WITH very intentionally: that is because the innate guidance (which, in a sense can be seen as manifested in the perceptual shift) IS ALSO OCCURRING SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH new LEARNING, IMMEDIATELY (or in effect, immediately) ALSO INVOLVED at the same time as the perceptual shift occurs. (In short,' innate' and 'learned' occur literally (OR, IN EFFECT) SIMULTANEOUS, TOGETHER -- there is no dualism, this is that 'problem' solved. If you really want to say BOTH the innate and learned are always involved, then this is what you mean.)
I think this is the only brief 2 paragraph version I can provide. To really know more:
SEE: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brad_Jesness2, then https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory then https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286920820_A_Human_Ethogram_Its_Scientific_Acceptability_and_Importance_now_NEW_because_new_technology_allows_investigation_of_the_hypotheses and then https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321685790_everythingadoc_0B -- if you really want to know.
Hi dear colleagues I need to record AMPA and NMDA currents of CA1 neurons in p21-p32 mice but I do not know what internal solution to prepare. There are papers that use CsCl, other Cs-Glu and other K-Gluc and differ in the use of QX314 (besides that they use different reactants). I really do not know what internal solution is better for this type of records and I am starting in the patch-clamp world. Also, is it possible that you can recommend a publication that supports the use of your internal solution? What care should I have when preparing the internal solution (ATP / GTP) and during the electrophysiological record? I appreciate your help very much
No one could really expect to outline (then research) ALL the species-typical behavior of the human (or any advanced animals, such as mammals and birds) AT ONCE. WE SIMPLY ARE NOT omniscient (and not capable of ever becoming or being so -- though, in time, perhaps TOGETHER we can approximate this state).
Thus, a good start for a human ethogram IS ITSELF the beginning of the human ethogram. Of course, you must have a correct start: Look for the always-involved capabilities which basically is a "containing system" for all other interesting things -- things less pervasive and less-flexibly-and-openly applied (by themselves) (like emotions and language). Yet it must be essential aspects of real particular human behavior.
I chose (for the first and ONLY human ethogram, in existence): the cognitive-development behavioral system AS IT UNFOLDS AND DEVELOPS in ontogeny; I posit such a study can be done grounding everything (at the root, in very key ways) in behavioral patterns and the environmental aspects involved. BUT, in addition, one must understand the nature of our types of memories , and how awesome amounts of perspective and context can be brought forward with that. YET, at the same time, the INCEPTION of anything (including new ways to represent and conceptualize and eventually think) will themselves have real (overt directly observable) environment aspects required at least at the beginning (inception) [ as well as some clear overt, directly observable behavior PATTERNS, acting at the inception ] -- THIS would be true of any SIGNIFICANT new DEVELOPING behavior patterns (including the inception of 'abstract" thought) : this is simply sensible empiricism, which MUCH BE ASSUMED AND SOMETHING A SCIENTIST SEES as necessarily "worth a try", because there simply is NO alternative for an empiricist.
The likely BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS INVOLVED (along with these environmental aspects, at the inception of significant new behavior PATTERNS) not only could simply be perceptual shifts (see first link below) BUT VERY LIKELY WOULD BE _AND_ now these very things are investigable (verifiable, provable, replicable) using the new eye-tracking technology (likely along with computer-assisted analysis). Now the citations: First what I see as the likely phenomenological nature OF these very perceptual shifts, which occur with each hierarchical and new stage/level of thinking:
[ (please IGNORE the incoherent Answers to this Question by Nathan Latvaitis -- an uneducated person with no publications (and not likely under any sort of good mental control) -- one who believes he can simply take on any topic with his mind, no education or discipline needed) ].
THEN: see the overall position, for the role of these perceptual shifts during child development, by reading the paper (Research Item) "A Human Ethogram ...: :
When dynamically reactivated through pedagogy, can learning memory embedded for reveal the contemporary relevance and future potentialities of adult learners online?
We talk about "boundaries of intonation units" and that language is a "code". And if we go in the direction of "categorial perceptions" and "motor theories," could it be expected that speech pauses (rather hesitations than breath pauses) can draw attention to the listener and thus promote the performance of remembrance? At which point could one expect a discriminating point at the pause length in relation to the rate of articulation? Imagine a Morse Code, e.g. SOS: We say three times short, three times long, three times short, but nobody talks about the silence between the individual units, right? Someone in distress at sea might have a different frequency of all units including pauses than someone on a deserted island who has been sending this code for weeks or months. How does the receiver discriminate between the individual units (in these cases, of course, we hope that there is a receiver at all ;-) ) and how does he know that it is an SOS signal? Can this model-like idea be applied to the language? And does it make any sense to think about the long-term memory? Or does it only concern the short-term memory and what is actually stored in the brain are generated emotions?
I thought about how the term scaffolding which was originally a term often used in the field of construction techniques, by Wood and friends later developed by Anghillari and other experts so that a term which may be brought also to the world of education.
on computer systems often delays in the call data. It happened (one of them) because the memory on the disk fragments (position data is a mess). To avoid further delays, perform the defragmentation (arrangement).
In humans (human memory) is also often a delay in calling the information that has been studied, either because the information previously forgotten or not well understood. Can this condition is associated with the term disk fragmentation on the computer?
This becomes interesting, because if it makes sense, the defragmentation can also be done in humans so, improvements will occur over the maximum.
I am currently working on a memory association tool to help build better understanding of various learning models or concept. Any help will be greatly appreciated. Many thanks
I particularly hope to find research on what happens if you elaborate on factual content (e.g. a fact or a concept) on long-term retention. Imagine if I have to remember a definition of what an earthquake is (concept) or a year in which a major earthquake took place (fact), what would elaborating on this do to my memory relative to less active processing strategies such as restudy?
I am trying to investigate learning and memory consolidation over sleep/wake using brain stimulation. Multiple studies have used the paired-association list learning task in the context of sleep; however, only one study has used tDCS and Sleep with this paradigm. Unfortunately, this study made use of German words. Can someone recommend an English database for me to design this experiment?
Although the importance of enabling students to create episodic and semantic memories during the learning process has long been acknowledged, this issue has not been adequately addressed in educational research. This is particularly true for the 'social contagion of memories' which refers to the memories implanted by others (e.g., teachers, friends, parents) via social interactions. In fact, this implantation process almost entirely occurs in an implicit manner and has important conclusions for learning because, for example, students' memories may be contaminated by others' knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and emotions during the learning process. If this is the case, I strongly believe that we may benefit from the effects of the mentioned social process (i.e., social contagion of memory) by using memory contagion strategies in educational settings such as classrooms. Yet, at this point, an important question arises: What are these strategies?
I'm wondering if there is a plateau in derivative of learning once you reach a certain level of expertise (say Gladwell's 10K hours) or do people continue to get linearly better at whatever they do? I.e. is growth something like sigmoidal or rather exponential?
hello... I want to know which is the best model to investigate the memory enhancing/restoring effect of any test compound.. Literature has mentioned many models, which makes it difficult to choose one particular model.. Thanks
I will look at to the effect of aging on learning and memory in rat (using Morris Water Maze test).
The rat will be performed the testing when they reach the age of 8, 12, 16, 20 months.
Is it possible to use the same rat for testing?
The previous testing (at 8 month age) will interfere the result of the later testing (at 12 or 16, 20 month age) , or not?
or I should separate the rat into 4 group?
What is the minimum of time interval between the two testing (in case of Morris water maze test) can be performed?
Baddeley (1983) said it clearly, that working memory is the temporary retention of recent information for the performance of a task or the solution of a problem. Yet the future perspective of working memory is commonly ignored and, with it, the essence of its definition and the key to understanding its brain mechanisms. Indeed working memory is essentially prospective, like other executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. They are prospective and preadaptive. So, in a certain sense, working memory is teleological. Psychologists and neuroscientists, however, like all other scientists, abhor teleology because it reverses the temporal course of causality, an absurdity. They even have a hard time accepting teleonomy (Monod 1971), which posits that life itself has future “purposes”: to preserve and to propagate itself.
On close analysis, working memory can be shown to be prospective, future-oriented, yet not strictly speaking teleological. The evidence is now overwhelming that working memory consists of activated long-term memory that has been updated for the achievement of a goal in the near future. The updating may be prompted by an external or internal stimulus, but the content of working memory is not just that stimulus but also its history. Therefore, working memory is not a special form or system of memory, but the active state of a temporarily reconfigured cortical network of long-term memory toward a goal in the near future.
Baddeley, A. (1983). Working memory. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London. B302, 311-324.
Monod, J. (1971). Chance and Necessity. (New York: Knopf).
Fuster, J. M. (2015). The Prefrontal Cortex, fifth Edition. (London: Academic Press).
Fuster, J.M. and Bressler S.L. (2015). Past makes future: Role of pFC in prediction. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27: 639-654, 2015.
Oral administration of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in a dose of 17 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days, which induced AD-like pathology in male rats. Any reference for what should be the molar concentration of AlCl3 to be administered.
Dear fellow researchers,
I just started doing field stimulation in the CA3 region of wild-type (WT) SVE129 mice (2-4 month old) to record long-term potentiation in the CA1 region. However, I have major problems seeing LTP in young sve129 mice slices. Instead of an instant excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) elevation, which is maintained at least 30min (typical LTP), I see a slow incline over 5 to 10 min. I already tried to improve my slicing, double checked my solutions and changed batteries in the stimulator. I would be grateful for your help and advice how to fix it.
What could be the reason behind synaptic enhancement by altered testosterone levels? I found increased level of testosterone by pre-treating rats with Danazol alters the post synaptic calcium release which finally alter the plasticity of the synaptic neurons and increases the glutamate release in synapse. Is there any possible role of testosterone in learning and memory function?
Usually, researchers have revealed the role of free unsaturated fatty acids on learning memory. I am very curious whether the saturated fatty acids have any function on learning and memory formation. If you have any idea or access of research article, are welcome to share.
Thanks in advance.
i am interested in recent empirical studies on early memories and career interests, following the Adlerian approach. does anyone know?
This is due to me finding that the DVN has improved performance of a visual memory task in one of my PhD studies.
I want to analyze a performance task over a period of time in animal study, where a particular group of animals is observed for learning curve over a period of 5 days. Is there any trend analysis statistics or other similar analysis that I can perform for this type of dataset? I would like to know how significant the treatment group is as compared to untreated group. Any input or suggestions are welcome.
It is an alternative to memory or stereotype based learning methodologies, more in line with Socratic method. I wonder if any experiments have been conducted and documented with reference to contemporary learning.
Usually we see that when a baby is instruct not to do a particular task, they do that one or want to do that frequently. So far the literature explain in a way of losing control of inhibiting instruction. I suspect that it might be happen to older people (above 60 years of age). It would be highly appreciable if any one can provide me any relevant study in that context.
When does perception end and memory begin? This question is rarely considered but has important implications for the science of psychology.
Folk intuition suggests that perception ends once the object of experience is no longer stimulating the senses. However, this demarcation lacks scientific rigor and is inconsistent with many physical theories of time.
Take for example time considered as a spacetime continuum. Meaningful events that unfold relative to an organism are always defined by time-like intervals. Therefore, the use of spacetime as a model for time in psychology would lead to the conclusion that every experience is memory-based.
I would be happy for any contributions you might have to this discussion!
I am looking for robust theories which explain our ability to know and recall knowledges acquired by drill and practice, but is not obviously somatic. Perhaps knowing the times tables is the best example - similar but also different from learning to ride a bicycle. Thus I know that 42 is the answer to the question "what is six times seven" and I know it instantaneously - without thinking. The body must be involved, just the same as I know some telephone numbers as long as I hold a hand-set and engage in the rhythm of finger-punching them out, but if I try to recall them to mind-alone, I can't. Can anyone help me with a genuine theorisation of these issues?
Bacopa monnieri is one of most studied medicinal herb for memory and cognition. Yet, we have very little scientific evidence (in terms of PK) on the bioactive compounds of the plant. I would like to invite comments on this.
I am trying to understand how depolarisation induced with KCl or glutamate/ NMDA or any such stimuli leads to the balance of actin polymerization: actin depolymerization in neurons. Is it possible that actin depolymerization precedes actin polymerization as an immediate step post depolarization. How does it fit the spine dynamics post depolarization. This relates to temporal dynamics of actin organization in the neurons post depolarization. I think if actin depolymerization precedes polymerization for few minutes (30-1 hr) post depolarization it will help the spines to be flexible and let the movement of receptors and function of other spine machinery possible. It might also help to let the new dendritic mRNA and newly synthesized proteins to enter the spines and take their appropriate functions. Does this concept sound logical? Or are there other possibilities?
I have two D'Prime measures - one for baseline memory, and another one for similar but manipulated trials that are of primary interest. Instead of using the actual D'Prime for the condition of interest, I wish to correct it by subtracting the baseline in some way. Is there a definite way of doing this or one of these would work?
- D'Prime Baseline - D'Prime Condition
- (D'Prime Baseline - D'Prime Condition) / (D'Prime Baseline + D'Prime Condition)
Can someone suggest a better way?
I would like to understand how my results fit within the levels of processing framework. However, I am only familiar with the original work that was completed in the 70s.
What sources (preferably review article(s)) might you recommend for obtaining a contemporary understanding of this phenomenon?
Specifically, there are two main types of settings for mice: 2mA, 2s and 0.3 mA, 5 s. What is the difference? Which is more sensitive? How Passive Avoidance test results may be different between out bread white mice and C57Bl/J mice?
I wonder whether findings on memory recall based on lists of nouns can just be tranferred to other kinds of content, especially numbers. I would think that math problems would be encoded diffently and memory recall would also not be comparable. Any thoughts or hints to literature?
Can anyone recommend coordinates (w.r.t bregma) for CA-1 region of the hippocampus in 4 mo old mice (C56/BL6). Also, what is the recommended volume of the dye to be injected for verification purposes?
I am looking for specific literature to understand what happens with the calcium levels during early LTP phase and Late- LTP phase. It is very well known Calcium influx is necessary for LTP induction but what happens during the maintenance phase of LTP or late- LTP phase, is my question. Are the calcium levels brought to normal levels during maintenance and if yes, then how?
Greg Miller " Many details of the process of memory recall are not known (or are disputed). Even so, some researchers say it's time to revise some aspects of the standard view—such as the notion that the hippocampus is not involved in retrieving older episodic memories, and that memories become fixed and unchangeable once transferred to the neocortex. Newer work suggests a far more fluid role of memory, and one in which retrieval plays a crucial role in shaping memory over time"
It is known testosterone can improve cognitive functions, but less known is whether triggering some kinds of memories can influence testosterone production.
I am looking to dissociate the functional role of the hippocampus and Striatum in humans and am currently searching for potential tasks that have been used in previous studies. I am particularly interested in the dissociation of stimulus response and action outcome learning.
Thank you very much for your help.
We plan to do some behaviour experiments such as putting the SD rats into a multiple T mazes and record the path and latency of the subjects to analyze the behavior performance. Some questions:
Is there any latest protocols published in the literatures can be referenced? Wish the experiments can be conducted as the standard protocols and finished smoothly.
How many types of spatial learning are there in the above experiments according to the cognitive psychological theory?
Given that the rat can be delivered with real time reward to its motor actions during running in the maze. What is difference between the group of rats with real-time reward and the rats with the final reward only at the goal position?
Your comments and suggestions are really appreciated.
I am working on the relationship between working memory and academic achievement among children with intellectual disabilities.
Neger, Rietveld and Janse (2014; attached) recently found that perceptual and statistical learning may rely on the same mental mechanism. Now, fearless of stretching, if we relate that to the issue of symbol grounding in language comprehension (cf. modal/embodied vs. amodal/symbolic accounts), would the previous findings support the mixed proposals that language comprehension is both perceptual and statistical (e.g., Barsalou's Language and Situated Simulation; Louwerse's Symbol Interdependency)?
Thank you very much
I am doing a research in Spatial Location Memory in children. If anyone knows of previous research performed in the subjuct could you please help?
Memory is genetically regulated from mother to offspring or its all influence by her experiences during gestational period. What influences or what determines the offspring cognitive process and memory?
I'm having some trouble with my mice freezing when they are placed in the Morris water maze. I understand that this is indicative of anxiety, but I'm not sure how best to remove this element when conducting these experiments. I try to handle the mice daily for at least a week prior to commencing the experiment and the water is kept at around 28°C. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
There are several theories of basal ganglia function, leading many of us to propose segregation of functionally heterogeneous subregions within the dorsal striatum [e.g., see our 2011 review in Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 96, pp. 95-120]. Given the subregional variation in several neurochemical markers within the striatum, are the functional distinctions related to the compartmental organization of the patch-matrix system?
We have been using the Morris Water Maze, but I was wondering if there are any more reliable experiments to test for deficits in ACC function in rats.
my question is that,short stressful events (acute stress) always said to be facilitates learning and memory and also chronic stress said to be impair the learning and memory. Can anyone tell what is the reason and how it works?
What is the neuronal plasticity mechanism behind learning and memory during stressful condition?
How do you check the normal intelligence of laboratory animals like rat? What criteria is there and how are the normal healthy animals identified?
Constitutive (or global) costs of learning are paid by individuals with genetically high-learning ability, whether or not they actually exercise this ability.The process of learning itself may also impose additional costs reflecting the time, energy and other resources used. This hypothesis predicts that an individual who is exercising its learning ability should show a reduction in some fitness component(s), relative to an individual of the same genotype who does not have to learn.
I've been searching for papers regarding Learning and Forgetting curves, however I've only found works focusing on the manufacturing industry or something related. Are there papers focusing on knowledge retention between scientists and researchers (mainly old researchers, who have already studied many topics during their lives)?
Knowledge is stored in long-term memory (LTM). What are the alternatives?
Where is the LTM located? Where else could the knowledge be stored? What does it mean to store knowledge: to keep it static in LTM, as it was when it was learned?
Information is stored. Could we say the same for knowledge? What is stored finally?
Do you believe that cognition is distributed? Then, if knowledge is distributed, where is it stored?