Science topic

Leaching - Science topic

Leaching is the process of extracting minerals from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid.
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Rock in chemical solution will appear chemical damage, this damage is a kind of water-rock interaction, so we can expect rock mechanical properties cracking, what else can we pay attention to?
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Thank you for your reply. In fact, I once studied the dissolution process of rock minerals in the process of acid leaching, and observed the rock morphology after the acid leaching process by scanning electron microscope. I'm actually curious about the formation of rock cracks https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Blessing-Taiwo-5during acid leaching.@
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we have an aerated heap with sensing temperature. Shockingly, the part with aeration pipes records very lower temperatures (21-34 C) in comparison with the parts with no aeration pipes (56 C).
What are the probable reasons from operational and scientific viewpoints?
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Presumably (you didnt say) the aeration pipes are at the bottom of the heap. Hot air rises and usually the bilogical activity creates heat, therefore the air rising through the heap gets hotter. The oxygen from the air is required for the bugs to be active to create the heat in the heap so there is some practical limitations, but the air flow is also required to cool the highly active zones as the bugs like a temperature window and die if too hot and go dormant or slow down if too cold.
If the air ingress into the heap is not forced (by a fan or compressor) then the temperature of the inlet air will be the atmospheric temperature at the inlet and the air will reach equilibrium in the heap.
If mechanically forced into the heap, there will be some heat gain from the mechanical fan or compressor and then inside the heap it will attain equilibrium, again by heating or cooling the surroundings.
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Hello All,
I am currently working on the research topic, "Metals recovery from Jarosite and Jarofix". The study will entail performing experiments using the acid and water leaching approach for the recovery of metals. I intend to focus on just Zn and Cu. I have reviewed some literature however I have not found a clear algorithm for the process and necessary parameters like temperature etc to be used in the process. I would appreciate if anyone with insight on this could explain it to me or render any form of help.
Thank you.
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hello All, Please I am currently working on the material and methods of the recovery Of Jarosite. i am suppose to use the acid leaching and water leaching technique. during my risk assessment, inwas told the temperatures needed are too high and this has made my risk assessmen to continue to get disapproved. i really need some help with the methodology for this work. I have limited time and the reviews I have read through all use high temperatures are some point. either for roasting or pretreatment. i was told that HCL even tho mixed with the sample is hazardous to heat up and will evaporate. it will also produce flammable gases. Can anyone suggest journalsnor technique that will give me better understanding of the techniques I need to use. The heating equipments mentioned Include the Bunsen heater,microwave and hot plate. The hot plate can only heat to 100oC and I need a higher temperature at some point. this is urgent please .
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knowing that the acid concentration and the temperature are optimal.
Increasing the reaction temperature from ambient to 80°C increased the leaching yield
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Dear Fatima
Stirring speed is a key parameter which affects nearly all chemical or electrochemical leaching reactions. It is worth noting that depending on the leaching material and other parameters, increasing the stirring rate can affect the leaching kinetics in different ways. For instance, in some cases increasing the stirring rate can decrease the thickness of boundary layer and consequently, it promotes the diffusion and increases the reaction rate. On other other hand, when a certain reaction is to be considered as chemically reaction-controlled, an increase in the stirring speed will not change the reaction rate. For more details, our recent review paper is highly recommended.
"Kinetics of leaching: a review", 2020.
Best of luck
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After IMAC1, the protein in the elution has some Ni leached out from the Ni column. The elution fraction seem to be brown in colour.
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Reduce pH of your solution or coat your Ni column with a Teflon
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I need to know the complete calculation how much mol percentage of palladium is left after recycling my catalyst do that I can understand how much metal has leached from the prepared catslyst
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ICP AES gives the concent of Pd in the catalyst, which is a absolute content value. (0.658-0.358)/0.658*100% of Pd was leaching.
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Jadeite itself is an anhydrous mineral. However, the secondary action it undergoes, the leaching of limonite will change the appearance of jadeite, can the infrared spectrum be used to indicate its water content? If so, which wavelength data can be used to characterize it?
Thanks for your answers
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I'm not expert of this materials, but if you have the chance to acquire more than one spectra before and after a specific treatment (e.g. limonite leaching), you can check the region between 1700-1600 cm-1 (around 1630 cm-1) which is related to the bending mode of water (check the presence of some cut-off in that region) and run a mathematical difference of spectra. If the peak/band around 1630 cm-1 increses than water content is increasing. You can also check the OH region beyond 3000 cm-1. To be sure about the presence of water you could perform some experiment using D2O but it would be more complicated).
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Gender representation in numerous school textbooks across diverse societies has been studied and discussed since the 1970s. A substantial number of these studies stated that gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is quite stubborn and practically a barrier in the way of gender inequality (Ullah & Haque, 2016). In particular, in textbooks of Social Studies, the construction of gender is solely stereotypical (Jabeen, Choudry, Omar, 2014). Hameed (2012) in his study on gendered based English textbooks found that in shaping up ideas of the children and for encouraging optimist gender roles in children, textbooks play a decisive role and can be a valuable tool. Further, Jabeen and Illyas (2012) emphasize that characters in (learning resources (textbooks) play a significant part in children. Characters influence children's choices concerning to what type of being they want to become (Jabeen & Illyas, 2012).
Unterhalter and North (2010) therefore argue that to achieve gender equality through education, the concerns of men and women would be considered as integral parts monitoring, designing, evaluating policies programs in all social, political, and socio-economical domains to provide equal benefit for men and women and to not perpetuate inequality. Emphasizing on efficiency approach of Gender and Development (GAD), Cornwall (2000) also mentioned that men as oppressors and women as a victim of gender inequalities is a simplification of reality. So, there is a need to view gender, not as a unilateral issue of women but it should also be considered in terms of power relations and powerlessness where men and women may be dis-empowered and vulnerable (as cited in Gender analysis framework of Leach, 2003, pp.10-11).
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There is need to relook at the true meaning of gender-neutral laws on sexual harassment which should aim at protecting both men and women against sexual harassment in work settings. An enabling environment for prompt reporting and quick redressal with an unbiased investigation and a well laid out counselling system to ensure safety, as well as emotional and mental support to the victims, are important preventive strategies. These measures may help address the problem of hesitancy &/or other reasons for non-reporting. It is also pertinent to offer the accused a fair opportunity to defend, as there may be instances of false allegations
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Hello everyone,
I am having leaching experiment. I took 10g soil sample and put in 100ml diluted acid solution (0.5M).
After leaching i took 5ml sample and add 5ml d.i water to dilute the samples (10ml total) to know the concentration of leachate.
since the concentration was higher than instrument detection limit, i further dilute that 10ml sample into 10 times (got 1ml from that 10ml solution and add 9ml d.i water).
now already got the concentrations, which are 86mg/L
anyone can help me for this calculations.
Help would be much appreciated. Thank You.
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I do agree with Matthew F. Gladfelter.
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A student is installing a field trial that we expect to largely impact soil moisture and temperature, and we simultaneously want to measure the secondary impacts on N-mineralization in the field. What are the best methods for doing this. I've seen methods of installing closed bags of soil, but that will only react to temperature, not the soil moisture. We could measure total and inorganic N at the start and after the experiment, but there could potentially be differences in leaching losses that are not accounted for. Suggestions would be most welcome!
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Nitrogen (N) is among the vital elements needed for the survival of living things. It being an abundant common element on earth, it forms approximately 78% in the earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen is chemically reacted with other compounds such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates and cyanides to form unique compounds with totally different chemical and physical properties. Since plants cannot use or take nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, uptake is through nitrogen forms that include ammonium and nitrate.
Majorly N-mineralization in field experiments can be measured by adopting the three different methods:
In situ cylinder incubation: In this method Galvanized iron tubes (13 cm diameter, 65 cm long) were set up on each site in the middle of the inter row a few days after sowing the crop. At harvest, soil samples were collected from the 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm layers of each tube for inorganic N determination. The amounts of N mineralized from soil organic matter were estimated.
Incubation tests: In this method Soil samples of about 30 kg were collected for the incubation tests. They were taken from the 0–20 cm layer at four places on the different sites each year before the beginning of the field experiment and kept at 5 °C until laboratory incubation and then we estimated mineralized N in the sample. Incubation tests are divided into two types:
i. Incubation test at 20 °C: 1.2 kg of the fresh soil sample, previously homogenized by hand, was put in a PVC jar (11.2 cm diameter, 13.0 cm length). In order to maintain soil moisture at 90% of water content at 0.1 MPa matrix suction, the jars were weighed regularly and the lost water was made up. The soil water content remained above 80% of the moisture at 0.1 MPa matrix suction during the experiment. After approximately 25, 120 and 200 days of incubation, the soil in one jar was removed for NO3 –-N and NH4 +-N determination;
ii. Outdoor incubation test: In this method Three kilograms of fresh soil were homogenized by hand and placed in 30 cm long PVC jars installed upright in the soil. The soil moisture was maintained between 80 and 90% of the water content at 0.1 MPa matrix suction by weighing the jars every week and then we estimated mineralized-N in sample.
Analytical procedures: NO3 –-N and NH4 +-N in soil was extracted with 1.0 mol·L-1 KCl (soil/extracting ratio: 1/2) and determined by colorimetric using a technic on an autoanalyzer. Soil and plant total N was measured by the Kjeldahl method followed by colorimetric NH4 + N analysis. 15N excess of total N was measured at the Laon Agronomy Station using a mass spectrometer (VG SIRA 9) linked to a CN analyzer (NA 1500 Fisons Instruments). The 15N excess of inorganic soil N was determined on NH4+ collected in 0.05 mol·L-1 H2SO4 after reduction and steam distillation of the KCl extract.
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Hi, I found that when I use MgO or Mg(OH)2 for catalysis in water, the leaching of Mg is serve. Is there any method to suppress the Mg leaching, like change the reaction solvent etc? Thank you!
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MgO will ultimately form Brucite (Mg(OH)2) in water. It starts as a magnesia MgO particle, which forms a hydroxide shell. The shell eventually goes to a more crystalline, less reactive state. Normally, in the hydrometallurgical use of MgO, that's the last thing you want! But if you're happy with synthetic brucite and are using it in alkaline or near-alkaline water, then soaking the MgO in fresh water for (say) 6 hours (keep it in suspension if you want to retain the particulate nature) then you should have something like it. You will get minor Mg solubility, but maybe it will be OK for your application. Good luck! Mike
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Many research has been done on the use of Chitosan as an adsorbent material. When I was studying the material, I noticed that it was leaching organics when I did a leaching test. Are there any recommendations to prevent organic leaching from chitosan beads?
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Nayim Sepay Thank you very much sir for your suggestion. I will try characterizing and identify the organics of the material I have.
Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh Thank you sir for the comments. I will try and see the modification method to see where the issue is.
Thank you very much Professor Frank T. Edelmann . The mentioned articles were very useful to get an idea on what aspects I should proceed. I will do a thorough literature check again and see.
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To Know the Trace elements concentration in carbonate and phosphorite minerals separately.
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Dear Rajeev,
an interesting question, indeed.
There are classical approaches using sequential extractions to separate calcite from FAP. Dolomite, unfortunately, behaves in acidic media more similar to FAP than calcite.
To avoid any contamiantion issues for the TEs (sequential extraction is seldom quantitative), and depending on the number of samples you have, you may think about the application of simple mixing model: Analyse the total TE content of Do-FAP mixtures (formed under the same conditions at one site) with different relative mixing mineral proportions (based phase analysis via XRD or total geochemistry) and estimate the composition of the end-members by extrapolation. Another approach would be La-ICPMS based.
Good luck, interesting topic indeed. Best Michael
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I am observing a high UV260 absorbance plateau during the cleaning in place of my HIC column using 1 M NaOH. This is giving me confounding results in regards to mass balance. The HIC column uses a butyl ligand. Could this suggest that the integrity of the ligand is poor or could it be leaching out because of the high concentration of NaOH? The UV260 peak appears with or without loading sample.
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Dear Jomar Difuntorum sorry to see that your interesting technical question has not yet received any expert answers. Unfortunately I'm not an expert either because we work in synthetic inorganic chemistry. However, I just found out that a closely related technical question has been asked several years ago on RG. Perhaps it might be helpful reading the answers given to that question:
Does anyone know why my 1N NaOH solutions have a high absorbance at 280nm during chromatography runs?
(7 answers)
Also please check the following ppotentially useful link:
Sodium hydroxide sanitization of AxiChrom™ columns packed with chromatography resin
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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I run a model on an aquifer with 3 layers. the contaminant is leaching on the upper layer. At the point of entry, the contaminant concentration is constant at 0.1 mg/m³.
I am having a hard time selecting the appropriate option in Sink/Source Concentration under MT3DMS/SEAWAT model as the options available are Constant head cells, well, river, and time-variant specified concentration.
Also, no recharge is applied to this model.
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In soils normally the erosion losses of soil phosphate -P are considerable and they are monitored.The leaching losses are presumed to be  negligible. Under what soil crop  conditions the leaching losses of phosphate are considerable and need monitoring? 
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According to the literature review and due to the nature of structure and function of phosphorous cycle in soil in various ecosystems and when the vital activities of some organisms is endangered due to its fluctuations, it should be considered a series suitable management decisions to prevent diminish of that. In fact, the balancing/equilibrium building of this macro element/ion as a conventional approach is proposed in soil science. Among that, the pH of soil is decisive role that should be considered.
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I have done hot filtration test for the catalyst to show leaching and I found no reaction after filtration. So, is it still necessary to perform ICP analysis of the catalyst??
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Dear Loveneesh Kumar thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. According to the relevant literature reference cited below, a "hot filtration test alone cannot prove that the reaction occurs heterogeneously":
Synthesis, catalytic activity, and leaching studies of a heterogeneous Pd-catalyst including an immobilized bis(oxazoline) ligand
Fortunately this article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can freely download it as pdf file.
It might also be worth a try to check the answers given to the following closely related questions which have been asked earlier on RG:
How might I measure the leaching of heterogeneous catalyst using simple techniques?
(4 answers)
and
What is the best technique to test the heterogeneity of a reaction in catalysis?
(58 answers)
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy!
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According to the available references, PbCO3 and PbO are easily soluble in HBF4 and it is sometimes mentioned that adding H2O2 will improve the efficiency of the leaching by preventing the production of PbO2.
In my experiments, a white substance forms as soon as PbO or PbCO3 is added to HBF4 and dissolution does not occur at all. I also have done some 24 hours tests and even the temperature raised to 80 ° C in these tests, but no progress is observed in the process of leaching of this materials.
It would be really appreciated if anyone can help me through this leaching process of PbO or PbCO3 in HBF4!
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Dear Hadi Sharifi many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. In principle, both PbO and PbCO3 should be soluble in tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4). Of course it is difficult to judge from the distance what perhaps went wrong in your case. My suggestion would be to make sure that your samples are finely ground in a mortar prior to the leaching experiments. For some general information you might want to have a look at the following potentially useful article:
Optimization and kinetics studies of lead concentrate leaching using
fluoroboric acid
This paper is freely available on the internet as public full text (please see attached pdf file).
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy! With best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Hello,
I have a question about the interaction of the glass surface (soda-lime glass) with moisture and white paper. I would like to find some sources of information (articles, publications, studies, etc.). I have not yet found anything specific in the available libraries.
I have found experimentally that when wrapping glass in white paper (to store it), there is a problem with leaching of ions from the glass. This changes the adhesion properties of the glass.
I know that white paper is not generally recommended for packing and storing glass. Bleached paper reacts with Na ions from the glass. The low concentration of sodium ions on the glass surface results in further leaching of ions from the glass to the surface. And also deacidified paper has a so-called alkaline reserve. Glass is less resistant to alkaline environments, especially in connection with humidity.
I would like to know more. Please do you have experience with this phenomenon? Alternatively, can you send me links to publications that deal with this?
Thank you.
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Joseph Cukjati Thank you very much for your reply and information provided. Your explanation is clear. In addition to carbonates, sulphates (mostly sodium sulphate) were also present on the glass surface.
I will read the recommended literature and resources. Thank you for them.
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Good day, dear colleagues!
One of the critical point in the glass industry is a glass surface leaching.
Many factors may lead to this problem. Some of them is critical visible on the surface even vefore heat treatment (bending, tempering etc).
But I wanna talk about nonvisible (via human eyes) leaching.
Can You advice any method without destroing glass for identeficate glass surface nonvisible leaching?
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If the leaching involve some differences in the height it would be possible to use a optical profilometer which is non-destructive method however do have some limitations in terms of size of sample.
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What are the most effective and sustainable measures to prevent leaching from glass (precursor)-based geopolymer? Please recommend your suggestions and publications. Thanks.
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Dear Alesha,
My research evidenced that silica gel, the main reaction product from waste glass dissolution, can be significantly stabilized by its interaction with polymerized C-S-H. Moreover, silica gel can be also modified with Ca from CaCO3 , which also enhances the hydrolysis resistance. We believe that modified silica gel can be a new promising hydraulic cementitious phase, but I need to do more research in this regard.
I agree with Alex, achieving geopoymerization with waste glass as precursor is quite complicated. Because of the low Al content, the polymerization process of silica gel can take several weeks. In a recent submitted paper, we tried to promote polymerization through constant curing at 60°C, with pastes developing more than 100 MPa at 28 days. However, the pastes had drastic strength losses afterwards, result of drying and polymeric shrinkage.
On the other hand, the formation of a hydraulic alkali-activated cement (AAC) with good mechanical properties is feasible (1-year mortars up to 29 MPa).
Cheers,
Luis Menchaca
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I am doing an experiment to leach polonium-210 from my plant samples. I am having trouble getting decent recoveries. I am not able to use any heating methods because of the volatility of polonium. Does anyone have any recommendations to improve my leaching procedures? currently I am soaking the grinded plant samples overnight in HCl in a shaker.
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The autoclave allows you to use pressure to control the vapor pressure of the process, generally the vapor pressure of gases and liquids increase with temperature at a constant pressure, if you raise the pressure you generally depress the equilibrium vapor pressure allowing a higher temperature to be used.
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I was going though this paper "Extraction of vanadium from high calcium vanadium slag using direct roasting and soda leaching" but finally how could they extract from the leached solution I didn;t get.
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Generally, metals recovery from a solid waste includes two stages. First, the metal has to be liberated from the solid complex through acidification or alkalinization. Then, the solution condition should be altered in a way (usually by pH adjustment) that the desired metal selectively precipitates in the form of metal oxide. Thereafter, the precipitate can be collected using filter paper. Other ways to recover the solubilized metal from the solution are electrowinning, solvent extraction, and ion exchange.
You can refer to the below paper for more info
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I'm working on a manganese processing project. Unfortunately, in the manganese ore high amounts of divalent iron are present and it remain in solution after acidic leaching and increasing pH to 5.
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Hi
Mr nasser
I think you use ore of manganese ore.
For remove completly of ferros ion you must rise ph of solution by cao to ph =7 . Then stirr the solution 1h at 80c.
Then filter it.
Almost of ferrous ion will be remove.
I have question
What is your reduction agent ?
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Chemicals added to swimming pools leach into the air above the surface of the water, with the result that regular lap swimmers must be inhaling them to a significantly greater degree than casual pool users. Have there been any studies on the long term health effects?
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Studies have revealed that pool chemicals and their by-products (some chemicals combine to form new chemicals) cause burning eyes, skin irritation, allergies, asthma and higher rates of cancer.
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The EDS analysis reported the decreasing amount of Nickel on catalyst surface after hydrogenation reaction. I thought there is leaching of Nickel during reaction and easier than leaching copper. But why and what is the properties of Nickel that can explain this result, the leaching of Nickel on catalyst.
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Dear Thanakorn Lowasri I'm not an expert in heterogeneous catalysis, but to my knowledge the encapsulation of metal catalysts in SBA mesoporous silica materials in done particularly in order to prevent leaching of the metals. For more information about this please have a look at the following very useful review article:
Current advances in the utility of functionalized SBA mesoporous silica for developing encapsulated nanocatalysts: state of the art
This is an Open Access article which is freely available on the internet (see attached pdf file). Several cases of metal leaching are discussed in this review. I actually do not know why in your case nickel is leached to a larger extent than copper.
Good luck with your research!
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I am using a Ni, Co, Ru activated carbon catalyst (simple impregnation method) for hydrogenation. But I am facing the metal leaching problem during recyclability. Please suggest to me some synthesis modifications, which will be beneficial to stop metal leaching and will not affect catalyst activity.
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Dear Adarsh Kumar you should change your synthesis method to achieve your purpose. You can use two methods:
1) You can graft linker on the surface inside the pores then when you using impregnation technique the linker help the metal salt to diffuse into the pores and stabilized there then use a reducing agent like NaBH4 to form particles inside the pores.
2) You can use the activated carbon substrate as a sieve to filter the particles. First you should synthesis the particles by hydrothermal treatment or some method that has low aggregation. Then you must add the substrate to the suspension and keep it on stirring and evaporate the solvent (this step take too much time and should done slowly about one week). Then you can do the calcination step.
Read these articles for more information about the synthesis methods:
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I need to prepare yttrium nitrate by dissolving its oxide into 6M nitric acid.
I would like to know any experimental considerations in this process to get best results.
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Dear Mohammad Jazirehpour many thanks for posting this interesting technical question. The preparation of Y(NO3)3􏰀x6H2O powder has been reported in the article cited below. It was obtained by dissolving yttrium oxide in 6 M nitric acid:
Size dependence of the upconverted luminescence of NaYF4:Er,Yb microspheres for use in ratiometric thermometry
From our own experinence I would suggest the following procedure: Place the nitric acid in a beaker and heat it to ca. 50-80 °C. With stirring, add a little more than the calculated amount of Y2O3 and let the mixture stir until most of the oxide has dissolved. A small excess of oxide is useful to completely consume the acid. Then filter the mixture and evaporate the clear filtrate until crystals begin to form. Pour the hot solution into a crystallization dish and let it stand at room temperature over night so that the remaining water evaporates. Then collect the product.
Good luck and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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  • I have a very complex XRD spectrum (fly ash leaching residue) and couldn't match all the peaks with JADE. Do you know any free or paid software which may has strong database and can do search and match of complexes? In JADE you have to guess which is inside your sample and then compare with your peaks but when you are not sure about the formed minerals, this method is not helpful. Thank you!
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Theoretically:
From XRD patterns as follows:
Variations in the height of the specimen in its holder, whether increasing or decreasing, cause XRD peaks to change from their original location.
Important and useful pathways are connected to the XRD Curve:
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size, D = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
Then
Delta=1/D^2
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A daily leaching column Nitrogen was conducted to investigate the rate of soil leaching. Now I search for a simple model of equation to represent scientifically the results.
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Leaching of heavy metal can be a concern as heavy metal contaminated sludge is introduced to the finished products. It should be confirmed that leaching of heavy metal from bricks does not exceed the maximum permissible limit even under extreme conditions. The leaching efficiency was defined as the ratios of concentration of the heavy metal in the original sample and leachate of the sample
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Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008
IS 9806 (2001): Methods of Test for and Permissible Limits of Toxic Materials Released from Ceramicware, Vitreous Enamelware, Glassware and Glass-cerami
TCLP regulatory limits given by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and Germany Leachate Quality Standards.
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I'm planning the calcium leaching experiment. Thereby, the cement paste specimens were immersed in the 6M ammonium nitrate(NH4NO3) solution. If the specimens were removed at a specific immersion age, what method should be used to maintain the condition at that time? (For example, can it be maintained when the specimens were immersed in acetone and then dried?)
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Hello,I am pleased to answer your question.I think you can put the cement paste specimen into the constant temperature and humidity curing box to ensure its condition. If you follow your method, making the specimens were immersed in acetone and then dried, the moisture content of the specimen will change with the drying time. I hope my answer will help you.
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Does the β-cyclodextrin leach out during the pollutant removal from wastewater using β-cyclodextrin based composite materials and how it affects the pollutant removal efficiency? Could anyone suggest a reference paper showing the leaching of β-cyclodextrin and its effects on the pollutant removal process?
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The best person I know to accurately answer your question is Brian Reid - he has a career in cyclodextrin and environmental research. https://people.uea.ac.uk/b_reid/info?type=researchinterests
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Hello everyone, my research is about leaching of gold from end-of-life printed circuit board by using Fe2(SO4)3 solution and the leachability was approximately 30-40%. Hence, i have some questions to ask.
1. Could these reactions be spontaneous in my solution?
Au + Fe3+ --> Au+ + Fe2+
2Au + SO42- + 2Fe3+ --> Au2SO4 + 2Fe2+
2. If not, in your opinion, what reactions might occur in my solution for gold leaching?
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Dear Natrawee Khetwunchai thank you for your very interesting technical question. Please find cited below some research articles in which the mechanism of gold leaching using Fe2(SO4)3 has been investigated:
1. Recovery of Gold from the Refractory Gold Concentrate Using Microwave Assisted Leaching
(see attached pdf file)
2. Bacterially generated Fe2(SO4)3 from pyrite, as a leaching agent for heavy metals from lignite ash
This article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate.
3. Leaching kinetics of gold bearing pyrite in H2SO4−Fe2(SO4)3 system
(see attached pdf file)
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Hello everyone. My research is about kaolin bioleaching which reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+. I am required to filter out leaching solutions so I can dry the kaolin to powder form for ICPOES analysis to detect Fe3+ ions.
Since the leaching solution contains glucose, bacteria cells and reduced Fe2+ ions, may I know is cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate membrane can be used for this filtration?
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I am doing some leaching experiments now on metal-bearing wastes using citric acid as lixiviant. The metals of interest are REE, Co, Mo and V. Is there any specific method for each of them to be precipitated from organic (citrate) PLS? Or are the standard methods (e.g. precipitation of V using ammonia solutions) suitable for organic PLS?
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About predicting the pH of citric acid ― sodium citrate solutions and buffers for approx. pH < 4.0 ― cf. my post at:
About predicting the pH of citric acid ― sodium citrate solutions and buffers for approx. 4.0 < pH < 5.5 ― cf. my posts at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why-the-pH-of-Citrate-buffer-increases-when-diluted-with-water
About predicting the pH of citric acid ― sodium citrate solutions and buffers for approx. 5.5 < pH < 8.0 ― cf. my posts at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why-the-pH-of-Citrate-buffer-increases-when-diluted-with-water
About predicting the pH of citric acid ― sodium citrate solutions and buffers for approx. pH > 8.0 ― and for approx. pH > 9.0 ― cf. my posts at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why-the-pH-of-Citrate-buffer-increases-when-diluted-with-water
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We are trying to add nanoparticle power waste material in sustainable concrete, so we want to see any leaching effect of this material. Need suggestions and discussion from experts.
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Many Thanks Prof. Nehdi
I will go through the suggested article for more information
Thanks
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The commercial graphite is purchased from the market. And the recycled graphite is simply and mechanically recycled from the copper foil of a spent lithium-ion battery. There is no leaching or any other purity removal process on it. Does anyone could help to analyze these two spectra?
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Hi Zhao Hua Li The raman of your commercial graphite powder tells you that most of the carbon atoms present in the powder are arranged in layer-by-layer configuration (i.e. the G-band at ~1550 cm-1 is dominating). Moreover, in each of the interlayers; the carbon atoms (in your commercial graphite powder) are also forming hexagonal rings (i.e. the 2D band at ~2800 cm-1 is clearly present). However, some small defects in the atomic orientation are also present (i.e. D band at ~1450 cm-1 is also present).
I hope now you can use the above explanation to analyze your "recycled graphite powder". You may note that the D-band has appeared also most equivalent to the G-band (i.e. the intensity ratios of D and G band is almost 0.8-0.9) which means that there are alot of defects in the layer-by-layer orientation of the carbon atoms. The disorientation has also damaged the hexagonal rings (i.e. the 2D band is very shallow).
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We want to couple proteins to Fe3O4 particles via their primary amine or SH groups. We can generate large amounts of these particles. We are currently trying coupling via epoxide group in which particles have been coated with a silane compound but are not having much luck. The coupling needs to be covalent and resistant to pH 3-13 so that there is low leaching of proteins. Please let me know if you can provide this expertise.
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For how many metric tons?
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In zinc production plant, in leaching step, there are 20 g/l zinc and 0.6 g/l chloride. Is there any practical approach to remove chloride to less than 300 mg/l?
Regards
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There are two common methods to produce a solution with lower Cl, one is to precipitate the zinc (and other metals) with caustic or carbonate, use a filter to recover the precipitate and then re-dissolve the zinc with acid solution with low
Cl water, typically demineralised water. The second option is to extract the zinc using ion exchange or solvent extraction and strip the zinc from the organic extractant or resin into a a low chloride solution.
Both options mean that a base is required to neutralise the acid associated with the metal ion, you don't need to do this for all of the zinc solution but only enough to meet your Cl target.
It is preferable to limit the chloride ingress into the leach solution, this could be by washing the ore/concentrate prior to leaching in a low chloride solution, or evaluating water quality used in the leaching process, especially if leach solution is recycled then chloride levels will increase to an equilibrium level, a bleed stream may be a good way to manage the chloride levels...
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I had prepared 50ml of 0.5M Sulphuric acid and to that I added 20ml of 0.5M sulphuric acid containing 9 drops of 2M sodium hydroxide. I then leached the mixture for 15 minutes using a magnetic stirrer. In the same standard procedure I continued to increase the pH by adding more drops of sodium hydroxide that is from 9 to 34 and 50 drops. 
thank you
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follow
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I need to know the particle size for the test, concentration of acid, amount of sample to be tested and the apparatus to be used as well as how to analyze the solution.
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some one please suggest me software for analysis of leaching pollutant in soil.I have the physio-chemical result of the soil.
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The U.S. EPA's model for pesticide leaching to groundwater (PWC) is located here:
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Examples of articles of trivial scientific values:
1. Meswak extract did not have much effect on female mouse fertility. Phytomedicine.
2. Leached components from dental composites and their effects on fertility of female mice. Eur J Oral Sci.
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Since the subject is somewhat out of my field of expertise, I cannot judge its scientific relevance, however looking at the journal and number of citations these papers apparently do meet scientific standards and seems to have some relevance in the eyes of the scientific community since:
-The first mentioned paper is published in the journal “Phytomedicine”, this is a well-respected journal with a decent impact factor (4.268) and CiteScore (5.7) and is a PubMed journal as well (https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/phytomedicine/about/abstracting-and-indexing )
-The first paper is cited reasonably well (cited by 50 according to Google Scholar).
-The second mentioned paper is published in the journal “European Journal of Oral Sciences”, this is a nice and legit journal with an impact factor of 2.22 (and CiteScore 3.3) (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/16000722?tabActivePane= )
-The paper is cited quite good (cited by 129 according to Google Scholar)
So yes, one can argue about the scientific relevance. In terms of quality and looking at the legitimacy of the journals these are decent papers and in this case certainly not two examples of ‘business-oriented predatory journals’.
Best regards.
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Increased costs as well as increased awareness of the impact of fertilizer leaching on the environment have increased interest in use of controlled release fertilizer to increase the nutrient uptake efficiency and reduced the nutrient leaching potential. The application cost of fertilizer also reduced considerably.
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Undoubtly, it is very important as proven by fertigation under protected cultivation. Replication of same in open fields with enhanced efficiency and productivity is practised by innovative farmers in vegetable crops. Preparation of nano fertilizers is ahead for the same purpose.
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Hy, may you suggest a method to quantify acetic acid in wastes or leaching test?
Thanks in advance
Stefano
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Thank you
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when we check the iron leaching of zinc ferrite NPs, what could possibly happen with zinc ions. Can we associate the Fe leaching with zinc leaching as both are supposed to be chemically bound.
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Nimra - As mentioned by Krzysztof Gargul it depends on the conditions of the leaching process, i.e. if you use an acidic or basic leaching solution or a complexing agent like citric acid. For example, this article entitled "Extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites by alkaline leaching: Enhancing recovery by mechanochemical reduction with metallic iron" reports the extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites by alkaline leaching. The article is available as public full text on RG.
The following article entitled "Extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites by alkaline leaching: enhancing recovery by mechanochemical reduction with metallic iron" is available open access (see attached pdf). It also describes an alkaline leaching process.
Leaching under acidic conditions is described in the attached article entitled "Selective leaching of zinc from zinc ferrite with hydrochloric acid".
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Froth Flotation has truly changed the mining/mineral/ metal industry and is one of the most revolutionary surface chemical separation technique. Temperature effects strongly influence the flotation performance both physically and chemically. Flotation operations in cold climates are therefore objective of my research work. Any valuable feedbacks in term of reference material and/or suggestions are highly appreciated.
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In my opinion, there is no clear influence of temperature on the flotation process. I am sending you an article (in Polish) on the influence of temperature on the flotation kinetics of copper shale. Fig. 2 shows the copper yield as a function of time for 3 different foaming agents at 15, 25 and 35 oC. Figure 3b shows the direct dependence of the Cu recovery as a function of temperature for the reagents C2E2, C4E2 and C6E2. Generally, it can be concluded that the copper yield in the flotation process decreases with increasing temperature.
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I am looking for a modelling software to simulate post-grazing nitrate or N leaching in dairy farming in New Zealand condition. The idea is to estimate the amount of N leaching from different crop types (main objective) with considering different management systems, N fertilizer levels, soil and environments in the model. I have seen Overseer and APSIM models in the literature. Which one would you recommend? Is there anything else, any suggestion please?
Thank you in advance!
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Did you check “Overseer”
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I want to calculate the effusion percentage of silver from the composite to water. From ICP-OES I will be able to calculate the concentration of Ag. But How to calculate Ag effusion percentage? Is there any formula ?
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Please look at the following below attached files which may help you in your analysis.
Thanks
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I experimented with loading metallic nanoparticles onto a substrate (for example, resin beads) at different mass ratios of precursor to substrate. After which, I precipitated the metal nanoparticles in situ by immersing in a solution. The final materials were then tested for leaching in DI water.
I expect that higher mass ratios may lead to more leaching of metal nanoparticles due to the greater amount of nanoparticles present. However, I found that lower mass ratios, leaching was higher. I am not sure if there is a plausible explanation for this, for example, higher mass ratios form larger nanoparticles, which may be more stable.
Any help would be appreciated.
Thank you!
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Kendric Tee The term leaching is used in manufacturing when a reaction occurs. Your metals dissolve in distilled water. Of the metals, zinc, magnesium and alkali metals dissolve in water. Suppose that you have a ball-zinc ion complex on the surface of the ball. Then, when interacting with water, the reaction occurs
surface ball-Zn2 + + HOH = Zn2 + OH - +H+
This reaction is reversible. According to the law of mass action, the more complex there is on the surface of the balls, the less will be the dissolution of zinc ions bound into a complex in the form of single zinc ions in water.
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Hello
I am developing a soil column experiment to study pharmaceuticals transport and attenuation.I would like to know If is better to use a glass or a PVC column to perform this experiment and why
I would be very grateful for any help
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PVC is much cheaper, more durable and easier to use. However, it may adsorb organics. I suggest to test the material with your compounds of interest by making a cylinder with a sealed end, filling with solution at the appropriate concentration and letting it sit for 24 or more hours. Take a sample of the solution when you put it in, and then compare that concentration with the solution in the cylinder.
Perhaps at better option is to use Teflon, PTFE. I have used it with good results on volatile organics.
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Dear researcher,
I have performed adsorption of hydrophobic organochlorine on PVC sheet, to measure the adsorbs amount I was used methanol and n-hexane as a solvent but bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasiticizer leached out a lot. In chromatography this phthalate high abundance cause interference in the organochlorine analysis. Please kindly suggest how can I over this interference.
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See the following link:
Regards
L.Shafea
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If I have 40 g of malachite ore to work with,will it be necessary/enough to do head sample test for copper grade in the ore.will it be necessary to do tritration test if am going to work with 3 different leaching reagent with the same feed rate? .how will I decide on the concentration of reagents to optain maximum recovery?
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I was given a Project that is to write up a research proposal on the topic " Leachability of Gold Telluride minerals", and I need assistance in coming up with a perfect Problem Topic and how to go about in the write up.
Thank you,
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Good to know you will be working on this interesting subject. For a quick overview of Au extraction from Au-telluride ores, you can read the following paper "Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Richmond, W. et al. Processing technologies for gold-telluride ores. Int J Miner Metall Mater 17, 1–10 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-010-0101-6"
Below is a crude outline to help you draft up your research proposal.
Ideally your proposal must consist of 6 sections as follows:
1. Introduction
Under this section, do a thorough literature review on your subject. Include previous studies core findings on your subject. Furthermore, describe your research subject. Justify the need for your research (Here you have to be direct. Specificity and clarity are very important)
2. Objectives and hypothesis
Here list your objectives and anticipated outcomes.
3. Methodology (Experimental approach, etc)
4. Expected impact on your reach vis-a-vis gold extraction from Au-Telluride minerals
In a nutshell, clearly write down here the relevance of your research.
5. Time plan
Outline your tasks to achieve objective. These could be daily or monthly tasks. Here you can present this in table format.
6. References
I hope this helps.
All the best,
Stephen
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Hello!
I was wondering if anyone has any clue why the amount of calcium carbonate formed (i.e. carbon dioxide sequestered) from the reaction between calcium ions and atmospheric carbon dioxide is slightly less at a liquid-to-solid ratio range of 0.2 - 0.7 compared to it at 0.1 (The liquid is pure water and the solid is hydrated cement paste i.e. portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and C-S-H) As you can see from the image attached, there is a slight dip in the quantity of carbon dioxide sequestered between the liquid-to-solid ratios of 0.2 and 0.7 but then it linearly increases past 0.7 to reach an optimum at 8.
Thanks,
Tim
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following
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I want to know about the basic concept of leaching regarding Sludge sample.
Also, what is the impact of the surface area during the leaching process?
kind regards
Mehedi Hasan
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Dear collegue, Here is the complete procedure of the TCLP test (method 1311) available on the US EPA website: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/1311.pdf
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Which Cluster Head (CH) selection technique is better?
1. In the LEACH algorithm, CH selection based on the probability dependent threshold, which was random in nature.
2. In the Fuzzy C-Means, every CH selected from the cluster members using the fitness function.
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Dear Akhilesh,
Using Fuzzy C- Means in choosing the cluster head for wireless sensor networks
leads to elongation lifetime of the network.
This is the result of the study in the paper at the link:
Best wishes
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Iron is 4th most abundant element of earth crust, and there are about 10-20% Fe or below iron minerals/rocks/sands/clays at huge quantity that cannot be leached by traditional means, like red clay soils, or magnetic fraction of sand. Is it possible to use existing/genetically engineered plants, fungi and microbes for iron leaching from these sources? (e.g. genetically modified bog iron making peat). Would that be sustainable, economical and environmentally benign at present or future?
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I think it depends on the target. if you want to produce iron to be processed further to make steel products, it is not economically viable as simple physical methods such as gravity and magnetic separation can be used to produce iron concentrate. But, if you want to produce a product such as nano based iron as a career material, it could be a good choice.
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We use the technology of water magnitazation to release inutrients from the soil and leaching salts from soil profile in salt effected soils.
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The idea of magnetic water is unsupported by fact. In addition, I have seen the equipment tested and it has none of the claimed effects
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Gypsum is preferred but any salt can do.
I need to study the effect of leaching out of salt on the shear strength parameters of a salty soil.
Triaxial tests would be better and if volume change is recorded it will be much better. Direct shear tests will do also.
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I'll do it with unsaturated Oedometer device on three different gypsum contents; 14%, 22% and 29% and I'll inform you.
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Hello researchers,
Can herbicide dicamba accumulate within the sewer sludge and leach out to the wastewater during the warmer months of the year?
It would be greatly appreciated if any one could share a similar experience, or provide me with some information in this regard.
Many thanks.
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Yes it is applicable, according
The accumulation of this herbicide is mainly dependent on water solubility (4500 mg/L), mobility, half life (28.3 days) and other soil–water characteristics (Ghoshdastidar and Tong 2013).
Now a days the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are becoming more popular in treatment of herbicides containing water. Among all the AOPs, the Fenton’s process is cost effective and it generates OH radical (oxidation potential = 2.8 V) by reacting with Fe2+ and H2O2 (Wang and Lemley 2001, 2003).
please find below articles
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Dear researcher,
We all use the non-solvent additives to improve the structure and performance of the polymeric membranes. However, the non-solvent additives can be easily washed out quickly with the solvent during the formation of the membrane as well as the cleaning process.
How can we calculate the amount of residual non-solvent (pore-former) additives in the membrane using IR spectra analyses?
There is a reference in this matter but I cannot understand the method that they used.
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Dear Foroogh Khodadadi, if the non-solvant contains a specific element such as N, S, ..., elemental analysis is the solution. My Regards
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I follow the soil sequential leaching procedure listed in this paper with a soil sample from Mauritania. The following is the basic steps.
The chemicals sequence are 1M Ammonium acetate => 1M Acid acetic => 1M Nitric acid => Burn in oven at 500 degree in 8 hours => Milli Q => Total digestion.
Samples are equilibrated for 24 hours. Supernatants are collected after centrifugation then the samples are washed with MQ to get rid of the chemicals. The wash solution are also collected after vortex and centrifugation. The samples are then resuspend in MQ and dry in oven overnight at 60 degree.
Nothing comes out in the first 3 steps. However, in the final Milli Q steps (after burning in oven at 500 degree), even after centrifugation, the supernatant is red and turbid. I let it sit for a few days but it didn't change. When I added concentrated Nitric acid (15M) to reach 1% concentration, the supernatants quickly flocculated and settled down as pic attached.
I tried adding 2mL HCl 32% into 0.5mL sludge then vortex but it doesn't dissolve at all. So what happens here?
I will try to test the sludge on XRF or SEM to know the composition of the sludge but I am interested in knowing what is the mechanism after this phenomenon. If there's any info I can provide/clarify please ask.
Thank you!
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Depends on the sample matrix, the colour can range from white to various greys.
It is rare for furnaced samples to not have colours in this range when cleaned fully.
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Rice husk ash is increasingly being used in silicon production for electronics, which is required to be cleaned off water soluble alkali (and alkaline earth, to some extent) oxides. In Agriculture dominant area, rice husk ash is simply dumped outdoor as landfills by Rice mills. would it be better to use the dumped ashes for further purification to electronics, especially if not spoiled by soil/clay?
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Dear Sumit,
welcome,
The percentage of the silica in the ash of rice hask makes about 85-95 percent which is much lower than that of silica in mines of about 99 percent. In order to increase the percent of silica in the ash one has to undertake an extraction process which may be costly. However, if one reaches 99.8 percent one can use it in silicon extraction for electronic industry.
Best wishes
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Hello to everybody, I have three different cropping sites soil samples of three different years, I want to compare the leaching of nitrate with the first, year. my first question is how to convert the NO3-N content of mg N/kg TO Kg/ha? and another question, how I will calculate the number of % of samples leashing increased or decreased in comparison to the first year. waiting for your valuable answer.
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To convert mg/kg to kg/ha we need (i) area (ii) bulk density and (iii) layer depth
If area is 1 ha, bulk density is 1.2 t/m3 and soil depth is 30 cm (0.3m)
volume of soil layer is 10000 X 0.3=3000 m3
Mass of soil layer is 3000 m3 X 1.2 t/m3 = 3600 t or 3600000 kg
If No3 content per kg soil is 10 mg
3600000 X10 = 36 kg NO3 /ha at a layer depth of 30 cm
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I am did SEM /EDS analysis on some solid samples after leaching and the EDS detected a possible increase in some of the elemental components on the surface of the samples. though it is qualitative i want to know how to make good inferences from this qualitative analysis how can i do that?
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Are your specimens similar in composition, flat, polished? If yes, then you can to find if there is a difference in quantity of elements.
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I am developing a soil column experiment to study antibiotic transport and attenuation. Most works in the literature perform a saturation with a CaCl2 solution in the soil before performing the leaching experiment. I would like to know the reason for this saturation with CaCl2. I have not found any work that explains the reason for this saturation.
I would be very grateful for any help.
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In sorption and leaching exprimnets one mostly uses 0.01 M CaCl2 (see also OECD guidelines). This is because a) soil never contains simply water but always a solution of different salts. b) Agricultural soils typically have soil pH >4.5. Under that conditions Ca ions largely dominate the solution. As a consequence of a) and b) 0.01 M CaCl2 is a perfect surrogate of soil solution.
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This question I am arising out of curiosity. Assuming nano porous ball (500 um diameter) loaded with NA+ and Cl- poured into water.
I am measuring the leaching of ions from the ball into water as soon as I pour them into the water. There are two conditions (1) no electric field has been applied (2) electric field is applied (the water is between two electrodes). On the electric field, electrophoretic mobility will enhance the mobility of ions in a particular direction, however, will it enhance a much faster rate than the concentration-dependent diffusion process.
Notes: I am not good at reading scientific mathematical equation. So I am throwing this question after failing to understand some of the relevant scientific articles. Any help/advice to reach the answer or direct answer itself will be appreciated.
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If you ions are bound to the ball then the ball will also undergo electrophoresis. If your ball is charged anyway then you will get a distribution of counterions around the ball.
You also need to account for the strength of the electric field in order to estimate whether random diffusion or linear motion will dominate the overall. Halide ions have electrophoretic mobilities of the order of 1e-8 to 1e-7 m2s-1V-1. The diffusion coefficient of chloride in water is of the order 1e-12 m2-1. You may not like equations but they are important (and simple in this case). Over a given time, t, the average distance travelled by the ions will be:
diffusion: the square root of (diffusion coefficient x time)
electrophoresis: the electrophoretic mobility x the voltage / distance between your electrodes x time.
In this instance, diffusion can very easily dominate. This is true for nanoparticles, too, which are much larger than simple ions and therefore diffuse much more slowly. It is a big problem in measuring electrophoretic mobilities of nanoparticles in salt water. That's why I invented a technique that averages the diffusion to zero and keeps the electrophoretic motion.
Also, unless your ball has the same density as the liquid, you will get sedimentation, too, which could be faster than diffusion.
You have to use some equations to predict the likely behavior or just do the experiment. Measure the bulk conductivity as a function of time.
You can describe your system as a porous particle immersed in an electrolyte solution. From an electrokinetic perspective, this is complicated.
(1) Hermans, J. J. Sedimentation and Electrophoresis of Porous Spheres. J. Polym. Sci. 1955, 18 (90), 527–534. https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1955.120189008. (2) Duval, J. F. L.; Ohshima, H. Electrophoresis of Diffuse Soft Particles. Langmuir 2006, 22 (8), 3533–3546. https://doi.org/10.1021/la0528293. (3) Hsu, H.-P.; Lee, E. Electrophoresis of a Single Charged Porous Sphere in an Infinite Medium of Electrolyte Solution. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2013, 390 (1), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2012.09.036.
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Has anyone ever used a mini autoclave for parameter requirements of 30bar and 220degrees celcius safely for leach simulations? If yes, can you please share where such a unit was purchased? If not what other ways have been used to simulate a similar process?
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In the past, I have done similar testing, although I do not recall the temperature and pressure limitations. At that time I used a Parr reactor. See website address below. Perhaps they have what you need.
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I want to know the threshold limit for the leaching of various inorganic anions, metals, ammonia, bicarbonates etc. from mined fine fraction from municipal solid waste?
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Hi Mohit. You can go through Wisconsin State Legislature's NR 538 Beneficial Use of Industrial Byproducts. The document defines the leachability limits of heavy metals from different industrial byproducts and categorizes them into 5 different categories and defines whichever area is safe for the material's applicability. Hope this solves your query. I am attaching the Appendix of NR 538 that defines these limits and categories.