Science topic

Law Enforcement - Science topic

Law Enforcement are organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
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I need to find the number of full time (officer and civilian) law enforcement officers for as many years as possible. I know that uniform crime reports has some data, but I can't seem to find too many years. Anyone know of an already constructed data set?
If I could find part time data too that might be nice. I also need law enforcement spending (total - federal, state, and local).
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Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) of the US Department of Justice (DOJ) is an excellent source. Also, some media outlets keep local files. For example the NJ based Asbury Park Press maintains a DataUniverse which contains information about policing in NJ, among other items.
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I am interested in collaborating on this project. Anyone interested in conducting this research collaboratively is welcome to do so.
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Your research project is interesting and valuable, but the main problem is that we don't have any more free access to Myanmar. I used to study the Portuguese 16th-17th century presence in Arakan, but nowadays, access to the country is blocked, and some of my former students have been arrested. Researching a persecuted minority without accessing its territory and society is challenging. What are your suggestions?
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We are launching a research project looking at how federal law enforcement individuals in the United States who decide on which cases to open make those determinations. Specifically, most federal law enforcement agencies get orders of magnitude more complaints than they can adequately investigate. As such, they must triage those based on multiple factors (personnel resources available, financial loss, impact, etc.) If anyone has pointers to any systematic reviews of decision making in that triage process it would be appreciated.
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I believe to answer the question that it would depend upon the state that you live in and whether it was a Public Law 83-280 state. Recently SCOTUS reached a unanimous decision in United States v. Cooley, 141 S. Ct. 1638 (2021) where the Court addressed a public right-of-way within the Crow Reservation in the State of Montana that addressed detention.
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  • Looking for comparable rates or statistics on LAP completion at law enforcement agencies
  • Research on improving rates/completion
  • Research on the use of LAP
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Analysing the repertoire of power impact of primarily economic and political instruments preferred by postcolonial leading actors, a banal idea comes that the economic dominance of individual countries and macro-regions becomes crucial because of creating the prerequisites for redistributive gains or competitive advantages. These advantages can be called "leadership rent". This concept borrowed from the political economy literature demonstrates that the group of developed countries predetermines the nature and pace of development of the world economy and acts as a natural "centre of gravitation" to emerging economies.
These centres of gravitation often use personalised relations between the dominant and the dependent; and, it is usually attributed to cultural grounds. I'm trying to use patron-client relations as an explanatory model. My argument comes from the observation that since patronage supposes to be imprinted in polity behaviour and affects the way how these polities represent their interests, this instrument is utilised by leaders-patrons linked to their clients by the strong historical and cultural ties resilient to radical political transformations.
So the question is could we stretch the concept of patronage from electoral behavior to a strategy for acquiring, maintaining, and exacerbating political power from patrons? Are there any important research that I possibly miss?
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A very interesting approach
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We have a client claiming to have a microchip embedded in his body without his consent. Is this physically doable? How can we best obtain evidence for law enforcement purposes . Please advise. Best regards  Director of Cybercare. Maureen Kendal , maureen@cybercare.org.uk. 07973 221409
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A question to reflect on in times of a new technological look
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Am working on articles and presentations on supporting Law Enforcement in terms of mental health issues..... and looking for any current research on this topic...
Here in the US a huge issue particularly around the increase in Suicides with this population... so many of us trying to sort out best practices for working with this population...
Thanks for any stats or suggestions....
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of course we can have a zoom meeting or something because it also for me a very interesting topic
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I am currently developing a qualitative research proposal to study the effects of stress on members of law enforcement, and determine its correlation on the high rate of police suicides.  Does anyone have any advice on how to approach a police department to begin my research?
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Evening Rut,
There is quite a lot of interest in this area currently. That said I'd be happy to introduce you to either the Scottish Police Federation or Association of Scottish Police Superintendents - between them they have approximately 17,000 serving police officers as members. Let me know your thoughts.
Cheers,
Martin
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Should people who do not wear protective face masks be allowed to shop in grocery stores? Should they be allowed to use public forms of transportation, including bus, train, commercial airliner?
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De nada, estimada Prof. Nancy Ann Watanabe.
Se le aprecia.
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In suicide prevention there are many high-risk populations hiding in plain sight that are overlooked. One such group is police chiefs. There are at least 3-5 media reports of suicides of chiefs, deputy chiefs, and sheriffs every year in US big cities and small towns. There doesn't seem to be much literature on suicide risk among in the upper echelons of local law enforcement. These individuals accrue all the suicide risk affecting those they manage plus that coming with their jobs. This often takes the form of being terminally trapped between the demands of elected officials and the needs of their departments and communities. Many lack civil service protection and may face termination or demotion if they resist budget or staffing cuts, "political" personnel decisions, threats to consolidate with other jurisdictions, and worse. Community dissatisfaction, personal issues, and pending retirement may also be factors. In any case, suicide prevention targeting police (as well as other emergency responders) must address risk at all levels of the department or agency.
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Thank you.
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I came across reference to the above recently in the world history of a Dutch writer and I was aghast as archaeological research has been going on in present day Israel for over a hundred years and no evidence for this famed polity has emerged, except for occasional finds in the Shephelah. Assessments of Jerusalem continue to insist it was little more than a village and many of the urban sites claimed in Judaic writings as belonging to this supposed early Hebrew empire seem culturally Philistine or Canaanite.
I have elsewhere theorised that the stories were fabricated after the defeat of Judea, never more than a secondary power in the region, by Assyria and Babylon, the crushing and annihilation of the Kingdom of Israel based in Samaria, in order to assuage such overwhelming defeats.
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I agree with Barry Turner.
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Looking to find appropriate submissions to our International Employee Assistance Digital Archive that will support professionals who are asked to support Police and Firefighters during the COVID Pandemic and Racial tensions in the US
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The fatality of violent protests for violating distancing norms as contributing to the spread of COVID-19
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Criminalistics forensic science is a traditional scientific speciality which has long played a supporting role to law enforcement around the world, in the fight against crime and providing supporting evidence for courts of law. Crime scene examinations and scientific evidence are typically utilised as a reactive tool to explain, or clarify, what has occurred in a crime scene: therefore assisting juries and court officials make judgements of culpability of those on trial.
Nonetheless, there is a strong argument that forensic science, and the resultant forensic intelligence, should not only be used as reactive evidence, but also as a proactive means of gathering advantageous actionable intelligence for the ‘deterrence and reduction of crime’(Almog, 2014, p. 325), in the prevention of attacks, and possibly, for the early intervention and protection of future targets.
Is Criminalistics Forensic evidence/intelligence being proactively exploited as a intelligence tool to identify actors, targets and possibly prevent terrorist attacks?
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Dear Ahmet, I totally agree and a change is required.
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We are implementing a domestic violence offender apprehension unit. This will complement our DV investigators/detectives. Does anyone have any experience or research on the effectiveness of these units working days (with detectives) versus nighttime?
Thank you!
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Christian--I hope you will have success with the "advertisement" idea! As you and Mohammad have found that DV is happening in secret--much of my experience is that it is "secret" because of the great shame involved.
I’m a retired probation officer, but after working as a victim advocate I currently work with the offenders in hopes of stopping the violence at the source--I have written a curriculum and train facilitators to stop using "shame-based" programming and instead use the evidence-based interventions which show the ability to change people’s thoughts, beliefs and behaviors. I find that many abusers “justify” their abuse by blaming the victim because inherently they KNOW their abuse is “wrong”.
Having the criminal justice system send a “message” that DV is a crime opens the door for dialogue and provides the opportunity for avoiding the negative consequences of arrest and incarceration because they can be ordered into a DV program—where we can help them examine their underlying beliefs and personal experiences so we can teach more positive behaviors to deal with their situations.
Thank you both for the great service you are providing as a fellow partner in stopping DV 😊
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Are there scientific evidence and studies on why do some people seem not to care at all about spreading the virus to others, and how many they may be?
The UK press discusses the case of a famous senior government adviser who travelled from London to the North, 260 miles, knowingly at high risk to be infected since his wife was, while the UK had a travel ban
BBC News - Coronavirus: Dominic Cummings rejects calls to quit as PM's chief adviser
In Scotland a health minister had to resign for having infringed the travel ban to visit her second house.
The message given, as the press sees it, is that Law makes exceptions for some, who are well connected, but hits hard on normal citizens
More significant at statistical level was the massive travel from Milan to Southern Italy, by Milan residents. They carried the virus South, in deprived areas where hospitals had not anticipated the Milanese flow...
Data is available for this exodus from Lombardy to the South of Italy.
Strange behaviour...
Do we have figures on this anti-social behaviour, "homo homini lupus" where the man is a wolf to other men (image used by philosopher Hobbes).
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Italy: sharing link on exodus from North (wealthy, many hospitals) to the South (unemployment, fewer hospitals)
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We would appreciate someone installing our authentication system, and giving us feedback on various aspects like ease of installation, user experience, bugs (hopefully, none...).
We will give you a free licence for an unlimited number of users and unlimited number of installations. Ideally, we'd like to test with about a hundred users, but any number will do in practice.
You'll need to have a Linux or Sun (SPARC) Solaris system for the main server, but user connections can be from any device, running any O/S - including smartphones, tablets, etc.
You'll also need an Oracle database. You can download Oracle 11g from their website, for free.
Installation takes about an hour, plus the time to migrate any existing users - for which we can supply a free tool.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Mark,
You may like to read "Analysis of Authentication Techniques Adopted by End Users in Real-Life...", published in Proceedings of International Conference on ICT for Sustainable Development pp 99-107. This may be useful to you. Link is as under:
With best wishes,
Dr Kuntal Patel
Author: Self-Study Websites
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An important step towards more compliance in companies was taken: Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law (the so-called Whistleblower Directive) was published in the EU Official Journal of 26 November 2019. The directive now introduces an EU-wide minimum standard for the protection of whistleblowers. Under the new rules, companies with more than 50 employees will be required to set up secure channels for reporting breaches. The scope of the Directive is limited to reporting violations of EU law. Member States may, however, go beyond the minimum standard when transposing the Directive so that the national legislator has the possibility to extend the scope to breaches of national law. How do you assess the situation in your country? Will the possibility of extending it to national law be used?
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That's good and up-to-date Directive for the EU. However, not many countries will go beyond the minimum, primarily the EU-15 member states will do. Agree with Maryam.
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Is there a public order online? And how can we measure it?
In our study mayors in cyberspace we found that many mayors and practitioners indicate that there is such a thing as an online (public) order. In most cases, however, they do refer to physical effects. Not surprising in itself because the powers of mayors and the legislation are focused on physical effects. The question is whether there is also a separate order online. And to what extent is this space public?
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I think there is certainly an order & discipline online, otherwise, by now we would have had chaos!
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What is animal cruelty? Is there any limit to it?
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Thank you
Diary R. Sulaiman
!
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Corruption in police departments: Undoubtedly subject matter is concerned with the government of the state but representation was submitted to the accountable public functionaries of state and senior rank officers in the state and when the aggrieved didn't get justice then he preferred to submit the application before the central government as justified in the federal system where central monitors the activities of the government through its agent i.e. governor and his office and this agent gives its report to centre that whether the government is running in accordance with the framework of the constitution or not? Consequently, the central government takes action in order to establish the machinery of the state in accordance with the framework of the constitution if the state does not support then centre may also take action against the government of the state. Here applicant is aggrieved with the lawlessness and anarchy in the state so wants to seek interference of the appropriate public functionaries in the matter against the unlawful step of the public functionaries of the state but incompetent staffs of the government of India habitually as made practice, sending the matter to state in the name that matter is concerned with the state government which is reflection of lawlessness, anarchy and chaos in the system. When our courts have been unresponsive, then where to seek justice a common man is a burning question?
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Nhrc filled case when police is failed to do it.
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1. What I meant by theories of globalization is the World System Theory , World Polity Theory and many more.
2. What I meant by debates on globalization is the attitudes towards globalization which include the hyperglobalizers, sceptics and transformationalists perspectives.
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An excellent advice by Kumar
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Please, feel free to give more examples and to share your experiencies and/or opinions.
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I think The ICL faces numbers of challenges with modern technologies.
  • One of them, the evidences;
  1. The difficulty of gathering evidences and Electronic Evidence. For example, the talented people and experience able to browsing and log on banks account with unreal IP address as we as they can send mail from my email or any email they would. They can make a phone call from your own number to your bank or business to do transfer money, cancel contract or crucial meeting while they live in different country. They can do all of that and over and over covertly without catch any evidence.
  2. Secondly, examining of Electronic Evidence and verify its credibility. It is not easy to do that without high experience that is mostly quite costly. For instant, the talented people and expert can create fake photos, clips and voice recorders; or modify real one to deceive others who cannot know that is just a fake unless there are experts who tell them the truth.
  3. .... etc,
  • Second of them, the scarcity of specialised investigators
  • Third, the scarcity of expert judges
  • Fourth, a few reliable laboratories around the world & high cost of its services
  • Fifth, the difficulty of tracking suspects around the world
  • Sixth, the required legislation is complex. This field needs legislation related to the regulation of communications and its standards and the flow of information rather than criminal legislation. Because some of jurisdictions in several states are sufficient as well as some other states have effective legislation to enforce justice. But could be there is need to "Special law" for Electronic Evidence Collecting, verifying and admissibility.
  • ...etc
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Dear colleagues,
I would like to point out one thing, which I may not have insisted enough on, which explains a lot of criticisms that may be made of the Dolos list and other efforts against predatory publishing. These criticisms also go to threats and public attacks (but I'll come back to it another time, meanwhile you'll see for yourself that the Dolos list can cost me my image on the internet - fortunately, on non-scientific websites).
Please read the entire text before answering, the title question serves as an introduction to the topic.
First, the usefulness of a scientific publication
I may not be exhaustive, but for the moment I think of three main objectives:
- The ability to quickly share research results that can help other research teams in their work.
- The professional benefits generated by these publications (we will not lie to you, the career of a researcher is measured as much by the quality as by the quantity of his publications, not to bet on one or the other) .
- The opportunity to leave to Humanity a better knowledge of the Universe, of Life, of its own technological capabilities, ...
And these are the last two points that interest me here.
What the Dolos list has already done
I have often heard that once an article is in the hands of a pseudoscientific journal, nothing can be done.
First of all, be aware that one of my articles has already been hijaked by OMICS, which I was able to bend, at the cost of a long wait which considerably slowed down the publication of my article on the evaporation of black holes (thanks to my lawyer).
Then, I would like to share with you a news recently reached to me: Our team managed to fold a thirtieth journal in favor of a researcher (you know how much I care about the safety of the researchers who contact me, you will not have his name). I also thank the authorities of his country, who are strongly concerned by this type of case, which enabled us to make it clear to the journal that, in the event that we could not get it to bend, the authorities concerned had already confirmed to us that they are able to prosecute this journal. This was of great help to the scammed researcher, whose article was removed more quickly, even though it had already been published. I think the law enforcement authorities are well informed about the problems posed by predatory publishing. We assured the administration involved that we would not specify the nationality of the researcher or journal. The Dolos list is not there to convey the bad image of a country or a researcher in terms of scientific rigor. In this regard, we will remain in less precise geographical observations and will try as much as possible to remain benevolent in the use of these results.
Finally, I would like to give you a personal point of view: I think that the greatest weakness of these pseudoscientific journals is their bad publicity. They will always prefer to sell an article, rather than go public for petty and fraudulent businesses.
Why was it important?
The three main objectives of the Dolos list are:
- Identification of sources of false scientific information.
- The defense of scientific rigor and ethics.
- The protection of the individual and collective interests of researchers.
In this context, so that quality articles do not fall into the "lost science", because they are ignored because of the journal in which they are published and because these journals do not have a very long life expectancy long (for many), and so that the reputation of the researchers does not suffer from these publications, it is important that the Dolos list helps the researchers in their procedures of suppression or interruption of the publication process.
And now, what should we do?
Since it is possible to unblock an article so that it is submitted in another journal, I propose you to provide me with methods that would allow to massively and legally empty these predatory journals of the quality articles which are there. This method should make it easy and fast for a researcher to unblock his article so that it can be published elsewhere.
This method will remain, of course, complementary to the initial objectives of the Dolos list. Naturally, if your solution involves the Dolos list, it will be my legal and financial responsibility.
I would like to remind you that these procedures for deleting and interrupting publication are free for researchers and that you just have to contact my team to benefit from them.
I remain very open to your solutions. For the moment, I do not have one. It must be massive, effective, and free for researchers.
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I want to suggest that what many people consider the objectives of academic publishing are really the objectives of academic research. Publishing's main objective should be to communicate with other academics, to find out novel results, to express concerns about the state of the field, and so on. Unfortunately that's largely not the case anymore, as I suggest in my paper on the call to research format:
That's why I'm happy to see ResearchGate, Open Science Framework, and other technologies that are helping us freely and quickly exchange ideas on a wide array of topics.
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OSINT generally refers to the acquisition of publicly available big data and conduct analysis of it for the purposes of intelligence gathering. However, it's also possible to use OSINT as an additional tool for criminal investigations. Since the resources of law enforcement agencies have always been scarce to the extent that they barely manage to deal with cases "physically", some bits of the investigations might be provided by the online community in the form of crowdsourcing. Such a crowdsourcing system requires additional and stricter safeguards than the commercial equivalents have. But that's the subject of another question. I wonder whether a similar idea was actualized before. Please don't mention one-time efforts like the investigation of Boston bombings.      
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The 850 nm wavelength is standard for most applications, including CCTV.
The light source does produce a faint red glow at direct exposure, but otherwise it is not visible to the naked eye. Most of the true Day/Night cameras with removable IR cut filter have great sensitivity to 850nm wavelength, that’s why they are so widely used for IR illumination.
The main advantage of the 940nm wavelength is that it is completely invisible.
The light source doesn’t emit any glow. This is imperative for law enforcement, military, traffic and railroad applications where red light can be interpreted as a signal. However, only a handful of cameras are sensitive to 940nm wavelength. The illumination range is 30–40% shorter, compared to 850nm wavelength. While selecting the 940nm IR illuminator, be sure that you really need it, and will be able to use it.
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following
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People who work in a "classified" environment are obliged to secrecy regarding their work (defense industry, law enforcement, therapists, etc ...)
Is there any evidence that these workers are also sparse in their communication outside the work environment ? For example, is it more difficult for them to communicate with their spouses, compared to non-classified workers?
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Shalom Yaron Shlomi,
if we are speaking about the secret research work, we must know that all researches will be the property of this organization and the diffusion of notices about these researches will be illegal. In this case worker (researcher) must to control his contract. As for me the worker's wife mustn't to know that information and for this reason he will have more distance from her. In russian literature of KGB agents there are a lot information about this situation, but the scientific reports are absent or secret. I had one research in Ukrainian Army in 2014 : evaluation of homophobia in front's soldiers. The officers said that this information I will can to publish only in 2019 (after 5 years). I hope that I helped you in some mood. Bogdan Tuziak, MPy, BJur, BPhil
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Are you considering law enforcement against wildlife trafficking as a conservation action?
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That is just one part of the purpose of law enforcement efforts in the area of enforcement.
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I would be interested to learn whether North American colleagues in particular find that museums are adopting more rigorous criteria before accepting temporary loans of archaeological material. Should the appropriate law enforcement agencies be contacted if suspect material is identified?
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Yes, especially today.
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What are the biggest challenges, obstacles, barriers that researchers have faced when attempting to study human trafficking.  The issues of the hidden nature of human trafficking and unreliable data have been covered in the literature, but are there others?  Studying NGOs, studying survivors' experiences, studying perpetrators' experiences, studying donors, studying law enforcement?
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.As so many of you have stated, it is difficult to gain accurate data on the topic. I have pull statistics from a wide range of sources dealing with different aspects of the topic, but in many cases, the numbers reported are fairly broad-based estimates. I have found about the best I can do is establish trends
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I am assuming a salient causal link between personal economic stress (i.e. household has poor or working poor income) and job performance, especially in high-stress occupations such as law enforcement. I'd appreciate any definitive studies or review article suggestions.
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Hi Charles,
Perhaps these links may be beneficial . . . though they're primarily from the perspective of socioeconomic status.
Have a great day!
--Adrian
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Hello,
I am doing a research regarding bike and law enforcement. I decided to create a questionnaire for this purpose and I believe it will not take more than 5 minutes of your valuable time. Please find the questionnaire and respond. If it is possible, please share this questionnaire on your pages to increase the number of respondents as it makes the results more accurate.
Best Regards, Sasan
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I filled out your questionnaire.
Best regards,
Dražen
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DNA analysis is the process in which genetic sequences are studied. It is used by law enforcement and medical personnel to identify a particular person or species.
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Recent recombinant DNA technology has provided some novel and powerful methods for forensic science application. Human genomic DNA can be analyzed directly for individual identification and paternity testing on the basis of variations in its sequence. The analysis of DNA isolated from forensic biological evidence provides valuable information relating to the identification of the source of the sample. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) testing, using a combination of single locus probe (SLP) that vary highly among individuals, produces a DNA fingerprint or profile. The PCR method using STR (microsatellite) and mitochondrial DNA analysis (mtDNA) is suitable for examination of the forensic biological samples (bloodstains, hairs, seminal stains, bones, tooth). For sex identification of bloodstains, bleached skeletons and teeth, Southern blot hybridization with Y-chromosome specific probe (pHY10; 3.4 kb) and PCR amplifying with sex chromosome specific fragments, can be used.
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Why or why not?
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No, not in the least. I think of government like a big condominium association. It's not in the least some sort of father figure. That would be pathetic. Government is people wanting to make sure that what the majority prefers is honored, even while leaving others as free as possible to do their own thing.
People are government. We don't want our neighborhood trashed, so we establish certain basic rules that the vast majority want.
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In their quest for innovation, financial private actors are eager to use artificial intelligence, big-data & data-mining and several others technologies. As a result, financial markets are now focusing on Fintech, which represents  a new challenge for regulators. However, using these financial technologies, the regulatory framework could be enhanced too. But how ? And what are the current analysis among private actors, regulators, and scholars regarding the rise of Regtech ?
Many thanks !
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RegTech could improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of compliance. The cost of non-compliance, e.g. legal bills and compensation is estimated at £19.5 billion over the past year for the UK alone )Standard & Poor's). Similarly, the cost of compliance is a heavy burden on the industry,
.
RegTech solutions can help in several ways. They can be adopted to anticipate potential issues and risks, e.g. real-time tracking of risk issues, to detect and deter non-compliant conduct
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I am conducting a quantitative dissertation using a correlational design.  I will have Likert scale results from a stress survey and "Years of Experience" (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20+)from each participant. 
My current professor suggested: ""You will need to use Laerd to identify your variable types and approach. A traditional correlational study will not work here because of variable types and also distribution of numbers."
I located recommendations to treat my Likert scale variable results from the Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey as Ordinal, while converting the Ratio variable of Officer Years of Experience to an Ordinal as well to allow for correlation. Does this seem like an appropriate course of action?
 Additionally, I am unclear what type of modified correlational study would be required, and how distribution of numbers relates in this case.
Any suggestions or clarification anyone can offer?
Thank you in advance!
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Hi, Robert,
I am quite reluctant to appear to disagree with the advice your professor offered, but I might suggest that there is a miscommunication of some kind. Pearson r is clearly not the correct statistical test for you data, but Spearman rho is fairly robust the testing the association of ordinal scale variables.
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Are there any new empirical studies of police (or other governmental) compliance with the fourth amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures? One remedy for such violations is the exclusionary rule, which excludes illegally obtained evidence from the criminal trial of the person whose fourth amendment rights the police violated in obtaining the evidence. I am particularly interested in studies about the success or failure of the exclusionary rule to deter fourth amendment violations.
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Tony is right. I was a cop for 30 years before I became a full time academic. For 2 1/2 of those years I commanded the law enforcement academy. We always taught our trainees that excluded evidence was NO evidence. Making it even worse, any evidence that stemmed for the excluded evidence was also excluded because of the "Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine".  You could easily ruin a whole case that way.  Cops who frequently have evidence excluded quickly gain a bad reputation and their integrity is not trusted by the courts. 
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I am looking for survey measures of community-police relations. An ideal measure would be brief, have reliability and validity evidence for multiple perspectives (e.g. adults, youth, and law enforcement officers), and have evaluation utility (e.g. can be used as pre-post test).
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Hi, Charles,
You may want to check out the 24-item Likert scale Attitudes toward the Criminal Legal System. My students have used it twice with decent reliability.
Martin & Cohn (2004) Psychology, Crime & Law, 10(4), 367-391.
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Child abuse materials (CAMs) share some characteristics extensively. They mostly take place indoor settings, victims' face or genitalia is visible and there are few visual clues about the abuser(s).
For the known CAMs, there are methods and projects to detect and remove them automatically such as PhotoDNA of Microsoft Inc. and Baseline project of Interpol. However, detection of new CAMs still heavily relies on outdated and inefficient methods such as user reporting of ordinary people.
Unfortunately, till new CAMs are registered to the related databases as known CAMs, they spread all over the Internet. From the viewpoint of a practitioner, there are millions of known CAMs which may enable the supervised machine learning to recognize a possible new CAM.
Is it possible to use cutting-edge technologies such as machine learning and computer vision in this area effectively? if not, what are the limitations at the moment?
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A disclaimer first: I follow the field and have background in AI, but I have little hands-on experience with machine learning (ML), so some caveats apply.
I would say that detection of CAM might be borderline possible (with a significant error rate, but much better than random), but I would not advice on doing so. There are three main reasons:
1) Ethical implications: the same technology can be used to search for CAM by consumers, you are storing and manipulating a lot of sensitive data....
2) Current ML approaches to image/video classification are unreliable and would likely produce a large amount of false positives which may be a problem in itself - most content is not CAM, so even misclassifying 1 in million items wrongly will lead to huge amount of investigations into innocent people.
Worse, ML approaches can be tricked by an adversary (see e.g., https://openai.com/blog/adversarial-example-research/ and http://www.kdnuggets.com/2015/07/deep-learning-adversarial-examples-misconceptions.html) This could allow people distributing CAM to avoid detection by fooling the system to flag their content as 100% clean. An even worse problem is the potential use of materials that look OK to humans but are classified by the algorithm as CAM to put someone else in trouble. E.g, send someone modified cat pictures by email and then notify the police that the recipient has CAM. If the cat pictures were modified skillfully, the algorithm would confirm it is CAM, warranting further investigation of the recipient. "10 files on the computer of prime minister flagged as CAM" would make a sweet headline.
A nice example of similar (but simpler) effect in practice is unlicensed content on YouTube. YouTube has algorithms to discover when someone is posting copyrighted content. So the illegal content distributors started to modify the videos slightly (stretch, blur, letterbox, adjust audio...) and they get along mostly fine. And this is without using any of the sofisticated methods to fool the system that were mentioned above.
3) ML has bad reputation for repeating biases in the data. For example, if the training set CAM feature predominantly white/caucasian victims, the system may  easily learn that videos containing people with different skin tone are highly unlikely to contain abuse. Skin color is such a simple feature to learn that it is likely to be picked up if it correlates at least slightly with the target label. This could then result in systematic negligance in fighting CAM featuring victims from ethnic minorities.
More generally: implementing ML for such a task could be counterproductive, as it will reroute resources and focus from classification by humans. But the increased confidence of "we have an algorithm to find CAM" may easily prove unjustified as the criminals adapt to the way the system works.
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To get even more meta, it would be nice to have some interviews with police on their interviewing of suspects.
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Thanks Roger!
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I am seeking suggestions for obtaining unbiased answers from respondents within the custody of the department of corrections. I feel that there should be a form of payment, as to offer or deny payment based upon the custody status of an individual could possibly elicit results that are biased.
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Having worked in both a correctional institution (1.500 bed county jail) and as an academic, the rules for research are a little different. Common to both is the need to have the support of the correctional institution's administration. In an academic institution, Jason is right IRB approval is a must. When we did research with the National Gang Crime Research Center at the Sedgwick County Jail in Wichita as a part of a nationwide survey on gangs we had both. We offered participating inmates a bag of chips (with the approval of administration on where and how we did this in accordance with security regulations to participate. Inmates were provided an anonymous survey and got the bag of chips when they filled it out and returned it. The main issues were security of survey staff (they had to be accompanied), institutional security (anti-counterband rules) , and inmates being either illiterate or semi-literate (objectivity)  There was no penalty for non-participation by inmates (you just did not get the chips).
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Community service orientated police articles
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The International Association of Chiefs of Police is a good source. The International Association of Law Enforcement Trainer's Association is another good source. So is the National Sheriff's Association. 
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I am conducting a Training and Needs Assessment study for the California Peace Officers Standards in Training (POST) to explore the possibility of designing a course for law enforcement personnel in CA. The goal, if the need is found to be warranted, would be to educate and train law enforcement managers to reduce the stress of the line staff positions (officers, dispatchers, etc.). If you have done research in the area of Organizational Stress Management, please contact me. I am looking for SME's.
Thank you!
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I don't have any name, but I know there is a lot of research on the topic that I found when I did the research on my Masters project. I am following you because in that project, I wrote about POST LD 32 that relates to health. POST does a poor job of talking about stress and/or the effects of mental health. Being an ex-police officer in California, I would like to have that changed for the academy training. If you have the time, you can read my project here in my RG account page. I am working on my doctorate in the same area. 
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This past weekend it occurred to me that based on what I witnessed from one crisis center in a suburban US area, the suicide rate in this one county might be 2-3 times higher but for police intervention. On one weekend evening alone law enforcement officers (LEOs) intervened with an adult male with a shotgun who had just e-mailed a suicide note, pulled a 17-year old girl from the path of a commuter train, and transported a woman who swallowed a bottle of Rx psych meds to the ED. All subsequently were evaluated by a psychiatrist and found to be in imminent danger of suicide. Incidents like this happen 5-6 times weekly in addition to the approximately 1.5 to 1.7 suicides that occur weekly on average in this county. While the county is not necessarily representative of the US, it is still mind-boggling to think that emergency action by LEOs may be keeping the annual number of US suicides from being in the 84,000-126.000 range yearly. There are stats on US suicide deaths, some national survey data on attempts, but nothing on  rescues before any medical injury ensued. 
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Hi Tony,
Good to hear from you. It's always interesting to hear news from the front liners. I just came upon this article from RG (from psychology perspective). It goes a level deeper than just depression into what they call "mental pain" or "psychological pain" - the complicated emotions people may be going through during the last hours. On the positive note, it does indicate that some suicide may not be a very impulsive act. They are going through the darkest period and pain (which can also fluctuate), and as the article described may be trying to "escape" from the "pain". It's a process ... and it may provide some time for intervention - for the immense pain to subside a bit ... and we save one life. There was a paragraph where the researchers mentioned they managed to intervene through telephone ... to bring that person out of the height of pain and the thought of suicide becomes weakened. This goes in line with your estimate that perhaps the rate will be 2-3 times higher if not because of police intervention. It may also indicate that not all people commit suicide quietly and quickly, and it's always too late to reach them, i.e. there is intervention time and opportunity. Come to think about the dedicated response team or crisis intervention team that are properly trained and equipped with resources, it can be something possible, more so given the high rate now (and compared to homicide, etc.). If a county or a small town can afford to have a dedicated fire station with stand-by resources to save some property (of course sometimes they save lives), wouldn't it make equal sense to invest in such resources to save lives? Regards. BobLew@AsiaCrux.com 
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I am researching on the relationship between the preambles and the body of EU directives in the context of workers' rights to transnational information and consultation (specifically European Works Councils, but not exclusively). While it's obvious the body of the directives needs to be transposed on national level, the binding force of preambles is a point of discussion.
The questions I am looking at are:
1) Are Member States bound to transpose the content (concepts, not necessarily individual provisions) of the directives? The general opinion is: no, they are not. But, maybe other views or dissenting opinions are known to you?
2) If reply to the former question is negative then another question occurs: what's the role of preambles and if it is to stipulate 'the spirit of the directive' (legislator's intentions, goals, reasons, etc.) are national courts obliged (free?) to refer to preambles when deciding on national matters?
All arguments and references to papers/articles/research, etc. in favour of the importance/'binding' force of preambles are welcome (also in legislative areas other than EWCs/workers' rights).
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Hello Romuald,
This is indeed a very just and interesting question. Some remarks as to binding effect of the preamble of the community act have been presented in the CJEU judgment dated 24 November 2005, In Case C-136/04, Deutsches Milch-Kontor GmbH and in the CJEU judgment dated 2 April 2009, in case C-134/08, Hauptzollamt Bremen. According to these judgments: “the preamble to a Community act has no binding legal force and cannot be relied on either as a ground for derogating from the actual provisions of the act in question or for interpreting those provisions in a manner clearly contrary to their wording”.
I hope it will help in your research. 
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Police are agents of the public. Field officers are agents of the police chief. As we might ask for any public employee on a salary, what motivates police? What are they trying to maximize? The question seems a natural starting point for knowing how to regulate police.
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Not sure your agency principal model applies in every jurisdiction Richard, at least not in a legal sense.  In the British model, a constable of police is an office under the law sometimes described as a ministerially appointed officer of the state exercising an independent discretion.  If you search for case law on police discretion, vicarious liability and the like, you should find cases such as Commissioner of Police for the Metrpolis; ex parte Blackburn, a celebrated case on the independence of police discretion. 
Understanding how the police perceive themselves is probably a reasonabl starting point for understanding what motivates them.  Here is a hint.  As the third generation in a four generation cop family, each generation had different motivations, going all the way back to the Depression, when having a state job meant security through to my son, who is motivated by both family history and adrenaline.  We are hoping the adrenaline will eventually wear off.  One thing is for certain though, none of us did it for the Commissioner!
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I am particularly interested in the role of the UN in post-colonial constitution-making processes, not so much in its post-Cold War activities. Thank you very much indeed!
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Hi Felix, 
I don't know what you've find so far but theses books can help you even though they're not directly related to constitution-making-process.
Beigbeder Yves International Monitoring of Plebiscites, Referenda and National Elections
Ralph Wilde: International Territorial Administration: How Trusteeship and the Civilizing Mission Never Went Away. 
If I have any other ideas I'll come back!
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I have collected good number of snare location data (presence only) following standard gird sampling approach. I wonder if I can model them incorporating other covariates to predict likely areas of snare placement so that patrolling/law enforcement strategy can be developed accordingly. Any experiences or suggestions be appreciated. Thanks
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Dear Prakash,
Thanks for responding!
I have recorded snares with even animals trapped in and those snares were set for target animals in the area surveyed. Due to sensitivity of the data, I am not disclosing them in details for now.
Best regards,
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I am specifically interested in reductions in use of force with the incarcerated mentally ill population.  Also, andy analysis of cost savings resulting from the use of this approach.
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The National Institute of Correction (NIC) has tons of articles and training booklets that are implemented with correctional officers. You might want to try there. Thet will send/email you free of charge
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I am seeking to develop a thesis to investigate how project management principles can be applied to police work or a police organisation in a Caribbean state (Trinidad and Tobago) which has a high crime rate but low detection and case solving rates.
I believe that, as an organisation, the Police Service can adopt a project management approach to solve cases and also manage various special interest projects
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Gyasi, In my research, and professional experience, project management is critical to effective implementation. Police Forces in the UK use project management tools (such as Prince II) at times, however these tend to be for technical projects (ie the implementation of a new crime recording system. My own view is that if more informal project management systems were used, policing could be more effective. It could be argued that the SARA model (from Problem Oriented Policing) provides this type of approach. In my book (Effective Policing: Implementation in theory and practice) I look at this issue in more detail and put forward some more options. I also put forward when good project management (ie UK government gun crime initiative) is used, better results follow. Good luck, Stuart
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 What problems arise in practice (concealment of crimes etc) and possible ways of solutions?
Thank you very much in advance!
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you may like to see Indian penal code, code of criminal procedure and Indian Evidence act. see pib.nic.in
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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Community Crime Perception (CCP) is a survey prototype found on line from SurveyShare that gauges community and social concerns relating to police departments from a public perceptional stand-point . They have one survey containing 21 questions about crime and policing perceptions. Example question:
  1. Do you feel there need to be more police patrols, about the same number of police patrols, or less police patrols in your community?
  2. How safe do you feel going out at night in your community?
Check out the attached link it may give you some ideas.
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Are the anti-corruption activities by the US department of state ethical or interest motivated activities?
Below is a link for the "Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL)" under the department of state web site show an article about the US effort for 'Combating Crime and Corruption'.
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Are there any existing tools of enforcement?
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This paper is useful, even if it isn't not so recent...
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Various models exist for strategic decision-making about resourcing and priority-setting in the police field. Centripetal and centrifugal impulses are the main options. The principle of subsidiarity requires decentralised processes of governance. Testing the effectiveness of the devolved alternative is vital to find out if and how public safety is being improved and how disorder is being tackled.
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The problem lies in the accountability of the police virtually no control over the judicial system by the non-governmental organizations and independent public organizations. In the above links are only established the possibility of controlling the police itself or government agencies police property that leads to the development mechanism "understand because he is."
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I am looking for reasearch papers that address the efficency of Simmunition (or any other Non-Lethal Training System) compared to Live-Fire Training in the Law Enforcement or Military sector.
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There might be something in this book: _Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm-Discharge Review Process_ by Bernard D. Rostker, Lawrence M. Hanser, William M. Hix, Carl Jensen, Andrew R. Morral
Try:
Seibel, S. J. A. REALITY-BASED TRAINING: Skill development in Survival Stress Responses.
Jones, A. V. (1994). A comparison of officer behavior when training with blanks versus Simunition.