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What is the current consensus among historians and other scholars? Apart from his alleged relationship with Mrs. Crawford that compromised his political career, did Dilke have other clandestine romantic liaisons?
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Sorry,I don't konw this history.
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I would like to know what experts think about the current regulations of educational work and the influence that these laws have on the health of the education professional.
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I believe that the legislation on educational work isn't friendly to worker health
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In my opinion, when judgments are made in court, a number of factors play an important role in their formation. On the one hand, there is, of course, the application of the law, the observance of established case law and, depending on the context, an interpretative framework. It is precisely in the latter case that the pre-understanding of a judge is likely to have a relevance that should not be underestimated. Is there any literature or empirical studies on this subject?
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What a good question that is!
We are a bit narrow minded in Germany, mind.
The international research is rather broad and well published.
Two examples:
That is the result of a quick google search. I daresay that there is a rich body of work (even online) available...
Best,
Carsten
NB: I am a magistrate in Germany - a lay judge that helps to form a real view in the mind of the the professional judge - in the case of a decision a lay judge has the same say as the professional judge in Germany. And since we are two lay persons and a judge we may even rule him over in rare occasions...
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In the legal field of custody pending deportation (Abschiebungshaft) in the Federal Republic of Germany, errors happen more frequently in the lower instance, the district court. Above all, it is procedural errors that lead to decisions later being found to be unlawful, for example, a lawyer who can be seen from the files is not contacted or there is insufficient language mediation. In terms of reasons for this, the lack of time and the density of court proceedings are often put forward first, leading to a lower qualitative examination. In the same way, legal ignorance can sometimes be observed in the legal field of custody pending deportation.
I am interested in whether there are other areas of law in which similar errors can be identified at the lowest level? In other words, procedural errors that happen again and again.
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Are there any instructive and recommendable studies about the preunderstanding of a judge?
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Corporal punishment, violent communication, humiliation...by parents and teachers.
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Most welcome sir
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While the regulation of artificial intelligence (AI) is still at its infancy in the EU and the US, it is already becoming apparent that there are different approaches among countries on how to regulate AI. Does this mean that an international agreement will become necessary later on? What are the pros and cons of such an international regulatory approach?
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The advantages of this organization are to give ideas to all countries about how to legislate this issue in their internal laws and ways to address the obstacles that face this issue. From one country to another, and the conclusion of such agreements may negatively affect these differences in ideas, cultures and social customs and tries to unify them, contrary to the desire of the behaviour of the members of those countries.
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I am interested in the usefulness of zero knowledge proof in verifying an algorithm (for bias, privacy, data processing, and general deployment process). Have you come across examples of it in regulatory compliance?
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Hello, good day.
Please I'm working on a project which needs a "review of relevant theories" of the study "medical negligence behavior"
I found 2 theories relating to this study (conflict theory and theory of negligence), but they are not enough.
Please can I get more theories concerning medical negligence?
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There are four legal elements which must be proven: a professional duty owed to the patient; breach of such duty; injury caused by the breach; and (4) resulting damages.
In general, malpractice claims are adjudicated in state courts according to laws (e.g., USA), which typically require three elements for a successful claim: the patient suffered an adverse event; the provider caused the event due to action or inaction; and 3) the provider was negligent, which essentially entails showing that the provider took less care than that which is customarily practiced by the average member of the profession in good standing, given the circumstances of the doctor and the patient. Collectively, this three-part test of the validity of a malpractice claim is known as the “negligence rule.” In theory, this rule should provide compensation to iatrogenically injured patients and lead doctors to take appropriate precautions against accidental harm. In practice, however, the rule performs poorly on both dimensions.
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I need details on the IDA-R scoring method.
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Does anybody know if the IDA - R is free to use? I am doing a study at University and would like to use it as my DV
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Is there any constitutional or statutory provision ensring multiparty politics in your country? Or Is there any anti-floor-crossing law in your country? I need to run a comparative study on this.
Anti-floor-crossing laws restrict members of the parliament from voting against their party's stand.
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نعم صحيح هذا الشي الاحزاب هية المسيطر على خيرات البلاد
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The South Asian legal systems are still bearing colonial heritage of the British Indian empire inside its important laws. Basic laws in the field of evidence law, civil procedure, criminal procedure, penal law, contract law, personal law and so many other fields. Larger portion of these legislations are based on either the principles of Roman Law, Common law.
Most of these outdated and socially irrelevant laws are causing severe damage to the judicial systems and the societies. Complex laws are creating case-backlogs, laws with socially irrelevant remedy and lack of deterrance in punishments are creating social disorder.
Moreover, from a jurisprudential perspective, we can not expect a portion of victorian age legal system to be applied into some modern heterogenous societies having high opportunity of socio-economic prosperity.
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Altough my opinion can not be but an external point of view, because I am not immersed in the culture of the South Asian countries, nor have I had experienced their history, I agree what Montserrat Gas-Aixendri wrote: «The changes should depend more on the fact that the laws are not adequate to reality, than on whether they come from a colonial government».
In Latin America, where I live and work, even when some figures (still on force) descends clearely from Roman Law, our legal systems were not precisely inherited from those ruling in the times of european empire's domination, but imported from codes, institutions and political arrangements conceived under the strong influence of liberal ideals, also brought from Europe in the times of French Revolution and intensfied with the example given by the United States' Independence. Probably, we could regard them as colonial inheritance, but they have been well assimilated in our political culture and our legal thinking.
Nowadays, after two centuries, the same basic constructs support our normative frame and, even in the recognizion of the several ammendements operated time by time, globalization is impelling us to equate legal figures and procedures to those existent in developed countries, in order to attract business and investments. So, I think, there is a worldwide phenomenon concerning legislation: its tendency to be homologated.
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Are there any law regulating cybersecurity in medical devices?
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In Poland it could be a pure hacking and additionaly it might be qualified as causing direct danger to health or life. Besides, data protection regulations may be applied.
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As much as I understand, the case will be decided by the jury, which consists of people who are not experts either in law or in medicine. Why is this good?
Would you be happy if you were tried by people who know neither the law nor the mater which the trial is about?
Why do law school exist, if a jury of non-experts can decide in the most difficult cases?
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Judges decides as per the laid laws whereas jurys decide as per the fact / data made available to them.
Noone will be happy if he is tried by the person who does not know the law.
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Most of the current laws within this sphere were designed before the rapid progress of digital agriculture and therefore they can be interpreted differently. Most of the farmers using benefits of digital agriculture are concerned about data use (or theft) since they are no ICT experts and the data can be used for various reasons. Is it really a data theft then, since some of that data could (and should?) be used by the local (of national) agriculture authorities to monitor the agricultural process or production of the farmer (in case of governmental incentives)? For what else can it be used in that case? What if the software is freeware as a part of the agricultural incentives for farmers? To what level the farmer should be informed about it since there is no possibility to guarantee what will happen with that data in practice?
How do you see the advancement of the law in this field? How do you assess the current situation? Let me know what do you think.
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Agriculture is a sea of opportunities, where the farm laws are helping to create digital opportunities. Digital agriculture requires data and skills to proceed so, it is developing at slow pace. Digital agriculture is sustainable tool but good things take time !
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Hello, I am wondering whether there is any legal regulation about the duration of the non-compete agreement between influencers and advertisers or not. It is well-known that It is not uncommon for an influencer to work with other companies. Some companies may offer the same or similar products or services. It is crucial for the parties to discuss the exclusivity. If the company requires the influencer to be exclusive, they may require a non-compete agreement. Definitely, this noncompetition should continue during the main agreement. Nonetheless, is there any legal regulation which can indicate that the duration of the noncompetition might be extended after the expiration of the main agreement?
Thanks in advance.
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The regulations on non competes can vary by jurisdiction. Check your jusrisdiction/state laws. Considering this is a newer field, i think getting professional advice is necessary.
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In Brazil at a seminar sponsored by the special committee of the Chamber of Deputies, the consensus was that the hardening of punishments applied to juvenile offenders would not be the solution to reduce the practice of criminal acts of the same.
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Exactly, the only thing that is gained from calling a 14-year-old child a criminal is a further decline in the overall structure of the social environment. The system is terrible and beyond repair...worldwide.
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What do you think what is the difference between Mandatory Overtime and slavery? and where is the line? Should it be allowed on the legislative basis that in some scenario employers would have a right to have mandatory not paid overtime requests > that employee can not refuse?
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very good question
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As far as I know, Egypt is the last country which enacted the Data Protection Law on 13 July 2020. Accordingly, the total number of countries with data protection law is 143. Is there any update other than this?
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Thanks for this interested question. Agree with
Syed Hassan
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Mercury is a chemical used in several areas … It has an impact on health and the environment.
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Mercury emissions know no national or continental boundaries. Mercury emitted into the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth in rainfall or in dry gaseous form.  Kindly check the following link:
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protect environment from the problems of tobacco product that have proven the facts and studies that it cause degradation of ecosystems, which led to pollute many regions in the world by toxic waste and first that have occurred .
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Agreed with dear Abdul Aziz
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I would like to anticipate the idea why research activities in the academe is not usually adapted or been used by third parties in behalf of its purpose: I mean the purpose of their research. Consequently, college and post graduate schools require thesis products for graduation requirement intents, but, the idea is just for the compliance purpose of the course program; and what about being endorsed to important third parties such as government institutions as to be used as basis for policy making. I see the lapses in that point and that it is ironic that some educational institutions are better and very hard working dealing on their research activities and publications and yet their studies are minimally recognized by their government for policy making and protocols, in which, in this way, the idea or the effort of scholars doing such ingenuity will be usable as it get beneficiaries in hand. Studying is not that easy, why not support or maybe the university or educational institution must endorse their research products to nearby jurisdictional policy makers for the better and best of the community in nearby future. I am just wondering why that research products are treated that way not on the exact way that studies and experiment of these experts must be commended for being excellent in such field they had chosen as proven by the research studies they have done. Is it because it lacks support from their respective government? Is it because their government does not appreciate the efforts of their research scholars and enthusiasts? Or maybe, Do these research products are not totally important in the political maneuvers of their place?
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الهدف تطوير الأداء الأكاديمي والبحثي وتعزيز مكانة الجامعات وزيادة قدراتها على أداء دورها الحيوي، وهذا الامر يسهم في تحديد الرؤى والأهداف واستشراف المستقبل وإثراء رصيد الجامعات في خدمة المجتمع وتعزيز مكانتها وسمعتها وتمكنها من الاستمرار في المنافسة والتقدم بخطى واثقة ومدروسة ، وطبعا تطوير هذا القطاع سوف ينعكس على تطوير سياسية السلطة الحاكمة داخل الدولة
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As all of you may know, we can take the experience of Trumpism(November 2016-January 2021) in the USA to explore questions such as when a democratic contest can lead to partial and permanent authoritarianism. The failure of the USEXIT/Trumpism to persist by losing reelection means that we just witness temporary authoritarianism, but it could have been worse as one more step was needed to move towards permanent authoritarianism in the USA and the lost of the most relevant normal democratic system in the world. Which raises the question, When can permanent authoritarianism take hold under majority rule liberal democracies?. Any ideas about what the missing step was to transition from temporary to permanent authoritarianism in the USA in 2020. Feel free to share your ideas.
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Sometimes science fiction can turn out consistent with science.... Those scenarios of authoritarianism can be framed through parallel schemes where the two main components are effective targeted chaos (ETK) and legal loyalty to individual/party when in conflict, not to country/democracy, a situation that leads to either temporary or permanent authoritarianism....
Temporary authoritarianism comes from a shift from normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome(e.g. Trumpism) where the legal system remain loyal to country/democracy,,,,,,
Permanent authoritarianism can come in two ways, i) one step(shift from a corrupt normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome) or ii) two steps process(shift from a normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome; and effective targeted chaos soon after gaining power aimed at to transform the legal loyalty to democracy/ country to legal loyalty to party/individual for when there is legal conflict....
These dynamics have been on since 2016, but the main parties and the general population cannot see that clearly yet as under paradigm shift knowledge gaps it is difficult to know how to act or how to react so the normal democratic outcome becomes hostage of the extreme democratic outcome, ....When a shift takes place, paradigm shift knowledge gaps are created….
To persist after coming to exist, the extreme democratic outcome needs to win all cost, even when it loses; and to win even when it loses it needs to have courts with legal loyalty to party/individual, not to country/democracy.
To persist after a loss the extreme democratic outcome needs, not political loyalty only, it needs at the last result the sealing touch....legal loyalty to party/individual....
In his coming last ditch to win when it has lost, Trumpism may win a political loyalty test in congress/senate, but when it reaches the loyalty to country/democracy courts at the supreme court, the normal democratic outcome(Biden) win WILL BE RETIFY in the supreme court or the supreme court will not even hear the case as show of independence.....
If the USA supreme court were to put party/individual loyalty to country/democracy loyalty, it will be the end of president Lincoln dream of "a government of the people by the people for the people" and become a " government of the minority by the minority for the minority" and the end of democracy in the USA as the seeds for permanent authoritarianism would be in place, where win or lose, the extreme democratic outcome or Trumpism persist....
Assuming that the USA Supreme Court is still an independent body that puts country/democracy before party/individual it will reject fake facts and require facts and proof, this first try of Trumpism is done....
Assuming that the last 3 judges added to the supreme court during Trumpism transformed the court into a corrupt court that puts party/individual over country/democracy by accepting fake facts and leaving the facts and proof aside, then Trumpism will persist, and real widespread chaos will begin to force Trumpism out....
Sadly, as Trumpism requires loyalty to party/individual, it does not care about the political, social, and economic cost inflicted to the country/democracy, it only cares about PERSISTING...
Understanding the dynamics that rule the shift from normal democratic outcome to extreme democratic outcome ; and the conditions needed for them to persist or to be neutralize is important to properly safeguard democracy/country in the future….
I am just right now putting together a set of articles to be published in 2021 bringing out the ideas related to the structures of democracy that ensure the persistence of normal democratic outcomes and democracy under independent rule of law….and make it difficult if not impossible to have the conditions that allow extreme democratic outcomes to persist…
Thank you for your comment and the links to science fiction to the question at hand.
Respectfully yours
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In academic and professional level.
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Why or why not?
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Am in line with Aparna Sathya Murthy
Pim Janse brought an important 'gap' into the discussion, if we move from the micro-level or personal action to the macro-evel of political decisions.
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The Astana and Alma-Ata declarations shaped the characteristics of modern primary health care. How the public health system has improved and how it has not? In view of the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
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Vrasidas - Alma-Ata was an important 'gathering' and set the foundations for the later Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion which, in turn, set a new direction for public health services beyond the traditional, reactive acute medical model more towards preventative social models of health. Both types of public health system have come to the fore to help address and combat Covid-19 - to varying degrees depending on approach.
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Usually, research in legal disciplines is theoretical. A legal scientist has to read tons of papers (primary sources, doctrine etc.) and apply logical methods.
However, do you think is there a field or questions where a legal scientist can apply empirical approach? - experiment, surveys etc?
I am interested in legal science in a strict sense, not areas connected to the law, but falls into criminology, sociology etc.
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That's a difficult question. In my knowledge, the closer to that is sociology of law from the legal science perspective (not from sociologist's view). In this case you are examining the law as a social phenomenon not the social powers that ''produce'' the law. I think that you should check this article Legal Theory and Empirical Research by Denis J. Galligan. The title fits your description.
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Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide is reported in the 2017 published articel here in 
I am interested to know if seed dressings  with neonicotinoid is really forbidden. A) in which crops and
B) in which countries especially in USA.
Who has a survey what is going on?
Thanks.
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many thanks ....
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Certainly, the commercial environment has been affected due to Covid 19, in which those who think that the effects are positive have contributed to the development of the commercial environment, and on the other hand, there are those who believe that trade has been negatively affected.
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Unemployment, inflation, high trade deficits, eviction risks, volatility in stock market, overall, a grim outlook for the economy.
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After considerable research, I have found several use cases which can be used to exemplify some implementations of AI on law firms. However, there is clearly a disadvantage for this segment when compared to medium or large law firms.
Now for the question, are there key components that we can identify in law firms that have succesfully adopted AI? If so, can these be directly implemented on small firms or are we to find a specific set of methodologies for this group?
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Major law firms are preparing to incorporate AI at a speedier pace than ever before in 2019, as the anticipated industrialization of legal services picks up steam. Client pressures have been mounting on law firms—often slow technology adopters—to address concerns that old tech is keeping bills unnecessarily high. Clients are demanding that firms use AI-infused tools to speed work, lower costs, and provide better information.
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Sometimes, it is not required chemical or nuclear weapons for mass destruction, and unsafe storage of chemicals such as Ammonium nitrate is good enough for the mass destruction. Massive damages at the Ports of Texas in 1947 and Beirut in 2020 are bitter examples of unsafe handling of chemicals such as ammonium nitrate.
Therefore, unsafe storage and handling of such chemicals within the boundaries of international ports should be regulated.
Since this is an international concern, I would like to discuss this matter with relevant experts.
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Thank you.
Do you think that the present international low is enough to handle these types of issues?
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Media discourses around the coronavirus pandemic tend towards metaphorical expressions such as the war against an invisible enemy, of the ecosystem balance so that the Earth returns to its original status. For this reason, expressions of legitimization of police and military violence have been seen to achieve social isolation. There are dangers in these metaphors since they do not focus on health education, but exacerbate autocracy and state violence.
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Very interesting discussion...👍.
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I am looking for competitions/benchmarks in the field of e-discovery. My objective is to understand the state of the art in this field.
I found TREC (https://trec.nist.gov/) but their last legal track dates back to 2011.
Any idea? Thanks
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Nice Dear Muhammad Ali
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If a company organize a prize operation, issuing utility tokens (considered as vouchers) which can be spent in some differents sales points/stores/seats of the company to have discounts on the purchase of goods and services, which is the legal status of theese tokens in EU?
It's possible to know if is there a regulation about this situation?
Thank you
This is an example of the service which I'm talking about: https://tokend.io/loyalty/
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It is truth that these kind of token are still not regulated in EU, but beyond this issue, you must take into account the question regarding the treatment of the personal info of each user. It is a such a special protection layer, and GDPR comes into action. Be aware that yo fulfill the legal requirements about it, actually there is a discussion within the EU institutions about how to proceed with specific regulation for distributed ledgers. You can ask for more specific info from INATBA: https://inatba.org/organization/
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Do you think Data Protection Officer should be a lawyer or an infosec expert? Since it is very hard to get 2 in 1 in one person, do you thing that DPO should be a team of at least two people?
GDPR says:
The data protection officer shall be designated on the basis of professional qualities and, in particular, expert knowledge of data protection law and practices and the ability to fulfil the tasks referred to in Article 39.
Article 39
Tasks of the data protection officer
1.   The data protection officer shall have at least the following tasks:
(a) to inform and advise the controller or the processor and the employees who carry out processing of their obligations pursuant to this Regulation and to other Union or Member State data protection provisions;
(b) to monitor compliance with this Regulation, with other Union or Member State data protection provisions and with the policies of the controller or processor in relation to the protection of personal data, including the assignment of responsibilities, awareness-raising and training of staff involved in processing operations, and the related audits;
(c) to provide advice where requested as regards the data protection impact assessment and monitor its performance pursuant to Article 35;
(d) to cooperate with the supervisory authority;
(e) to act as the contact point for the supervisory authority on issues relating to processing, including the prior consultation referred to in Article 36, and to consult, where appropriate, with regard to any other matter.
2.   The data protection officer shall in the performance of his or her tasks have due regard to the risk associated with processing operations, taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing.
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Thank you very much for a comprehensive and helpful answer! I myself am an Information Security Manager, and also an Operational Risk Manager in my institution and I am pretty much familiar with your experiences. So I think, definitely, a lawyer and an infosec manager should make a DPO team. Lawyers know the legislation and infosec managers know standards and data protection side of the story. It's like two sides of the same coin, both necessary for a good privacy management.
Dear Mr.
Syed Hassan
Thank you very much for good wishes! All the best to you too in the coming year!
Best Regards,
Rajko Sekulović
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On 1 July 2012, the preliminary reference procedure was introduced at the Supreme Court of the Netherlands. When lower civil courts face controversial points of law, they may refer a question of interpretation to the Supreme Court and request a preliminary ruling. This way, the Supreme Court should be able to provide legal practice with a faster and more specific response to pressing legal questions than through the ‘ordinary’ procedure.
This preliminary reference procedure is not a modern invention. It was already known in Rome, existed in a specific form in France (référé législatif, where a question of interpretation was referred to the legislator), was used at the Italian Corte Costitutionale and has been a powerful tool for the development of EU law by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg (see the attached blog and article). Furthermore, Protocol 16 to the ECHR will allow highest courts of states that have ratified this Protocol to refer a question of principle to the European Court of Human Rights for an advisory opinion.
I wanted to use ResearchGate for a small comparative exercise. Perhaps you would like to answer the following questions. May lower courts in your country refer a question of interpretation to the highest court(s) in your country? Did such an instrument once exist, or is the introduction of such an instrument currently under consideration in your country?
I am also interested in literature on this subject and in other relevant international examples.
Your help is greatly appreciated,
Ruben
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The Curia of Hungary, as the highest instance judicial forum of the country, has the constitutional duty to harmonise the administration of justice within the Hungarian judiciary, mainly by means of rendering uniformity decisions. The Curia renders uniformity decisions in cases rasing issues of theoretical importance in order to ensure the uniform application of law within the Hungarian judiciary. Such decisions are binding on all Hungarian courts. The operative parts of uniformity decisions – as brief summaries – are accessible hereunder:
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Let me say a bit more. A starting perspective MUST be core-observation _AND core-principle founded, and grounded on that which is minimally clearly related to directly observable overt phenomena. These are absolute requirements for empiricism, for science. And remember: _your Subject, NOT YOU, should in-true-effect define every word and concept and the structure and nature of every set of concepts (much of all this following new observation and NEW DISCOVERIES). A strict, abiding, perspective of this quality is REQUIRED FOR ANY AND ALL SCIENCES.
If you do not start like this and stay like this, your sets-of-hypotheses/theory AND your approach will be contaminated (specifically: false w/r to reality) in some ways, and more and more, and lead you away from finding things as the really are.
[ P.S. NO need to try to "define" terms (providing generalities) or to define "realities" (boundaries). THIS IS NOT THE "JOB" OF A SCIENTIST _AND_ IS ACTUALLY NOT POSSIBLE to any notable extent through thinking alone. And yet, with this (doing as I indicated), there can be some real and good science related to anything ... ]
There is no reasonable and sound counterargument or major perspective. I actually view this Discussion (so far, as I have presented it) as quite beyond discussion. I see it as a foundational Law of Science. (Yet, there are those who seek science, or seek to progress their 'science', who violate this LAW every day.)
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What concept and discussion I will present, at first it must be clear and presentable for me. Then I will present it.
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As well known, the complete similarity affinity laws are derived from the dimensional analysis techniqe of seven parameters that describe the pump performance; density, viscosity, D, speed, Q, h, and P . The analysis is based on a fixed length scale ratio that the conditions of the machines are geometrically similar. The complete affinity laws were developed which provide the three famous basic nondimentional coefficients, CQ, Ch, and CP. Here, one can change speed, size, or both, and predict the new performance parameters while keeping the pump efficiency mostly fixed according to the system behavior. However, to reduce costs pump casings are designed to accommodate a number of different impellers while keeping the same shaft. This leads to incomplete similarity as we don’t have a fixed length scale ratio for all pump components. Hence, the nondimentional coefficients are somehow expected to be changed.
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HEAD - CAPACITY characteristic curves . The entire aspect of designing of a centrifugal pump along with choice of procurement .
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Do you consider mediation or other ADR method (alternative dispute resolution) as an efficient and suitable method for settling international trade disputes with pharmaceutical products? Why? Pro & cons arguments?
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Dear Colleague,
ADR proceedings are ideal for a highly technical are of expertise such as pharmaceuticals in general. This is because you have more often than not that presumed plaintiffs and defendants are both seasoned traders in the same sector, who understand well the ins and outs of the industry the dirty tactics and the legitimate manouvres of the players in the market, therefore, they will be talking business within carefully articulated and constructed legal arguments within the confines of the law, in the language and the mentality they are bound to understand. At the same time the lengthy legal procedures in a court of law cost money, in ADRs procedures are more expedite at the same time you have technical experts that are making the talk. Unless not presiding on procedures in special courts the adjudicators most often are not technically competent in the field they are requested to submit thier relevant judgment. Moreover, both parties in the contentious dispute do sometimes clearly understand the profitable and viable compromise both have to reach, therefore litigation in court apart from being costly, and lengthy, walking in the dark woods of legality may result in an outcome which although legally valid and correct, will not result in the most suited or convenient outcome. Apart from the fact that it is a fiction to ever consider a law complicated and detailed as it may be, gapless. This means there may be moot points in the law, or situations that the business world may create that the law is unable to solve neatly and unambiguously. In ADR proceedings contemporary usage and business sense of both parties can result in a workeable solution for instances that are not necessarily possible to resolve without arbitrary interpretation of the law. Ideally, mediation is the best option, because psychologically both parties sit down round a table as equals. Arbitration is another alternative, but it can be complex and costly especially when a compromis has to be agreed upon, with the richer party having an upperhand and cunningly doctoring the outcome of the arbitration proceeding. ADRs, are to be explored and analysed within the context of globalised trade, and the jungle of arbitration clauses, most often cropping up in arbitration procedures. In mediation it is most often the norm to speak the language of the jurisdiction where the issue of concern has occurred, in view of reaching an amicable settlement.
However, I still believe that the choice between ADR proceedings especially mediation and court litigation rests on the overall command over the journey a company is pursueing and the readings of the signs of time. If one is envisaging the destination in his vision and wants to reach it as quickly as possible, ADR proceedings have to be pursued, if on the other hand, a company is seeing that it is a defaulting party and legally its position is written on the wall, and it needs to buy time because it is to blame for a percieved misdoing, then judicial litigation can be the option, especially, if it can get away with murder because of a technical loop hole for example.
As is the case in business generally one has to leave his/her options open and choose the appropriate strategy according to the exigencies of the companies business goals and ambitions.
I hope this was of help,
Stefan Vella
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If we want to keep using technologies we must abandoning Artificial intelligence. unless we found a way to control it which is unlikely to happen. Some rules must be adopted to band or control AI the issue here is do we have the right to make rules to band or control the AI in the name of law?
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I'm working on new course book on international law and looking for reference on the subject matter mentioned above. Any view, info, paper welcome and will be referred to in the course book
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Study purposes
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Hi, 
I'm looking for physical properties of Gazoline or Gazoline test fluid (such as Exxsol D40/D60) at various temperature and pressure on order to add into an hydraulic model. Particularly, I need data for bulk modulus, viscosity and density.
Thanks
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Dear reseacrhers,
Have a nice weekend with your family...
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I'm participating in a MOOT COURT competition and I need some help looking for jurisprudence to support the idea that the fact thatthe product was not discharged from the vessel is the buyer's responsability since the contract was signed unde Incoterms 2010 CFR. The Convention is applicable.
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ameer hjazia
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The world witnessed a marginalisation of normative perspectives in disciplines and an emphasis of positive perspective as the norm upon which disciplines should be developed. This caused much destruction in material and non-material sense. What does the future hide from us?
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I've often heard people say things like, "That's not a moral issue, that's an economic issue". To me that's always sounded confused. What such people are implying is, that we ought to base a decision on economic principles, or that it is better to base a decision on economic principles, which to me sounds like a moral decision or a normative stance after all. What I think is going on underneath is some sort of view of morality being limited to some set of fixed rules, whereas in reality such rules are just rules of thumb that can be overridden in various circumstances. Morality at it most general level may converge with economic principles as expressed by a utilitarianian calculus -- theoretically, anyway. The problem is that too many things of value are often left out of consideration in classical or typical cost-benefit analyses. It's not so much a positivistic lack of normativity as a narrowly conceived set of values.
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Without wishing death or misadventure upon any sitting U.S. Supreme Court judge, suppose that President Trump at 11 a.m. tomorrow were to have occasion to make another appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court. Could the President - "by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate", to be sure - appoint an artificial intelligence system to that office? The "Appointments Clause" in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2, clause 2) states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint ... Judges of the supreme Court". There does not appear to be any requirement that the appointee be a human being.
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Michael,
Whilst I obviously have to agree with you if you narrowly define the term "could" to the context that society "could" appoint a crocodile, or an AI system, as the next U.S. Supreme Court judge if they so wished; I would merely argue that they "should" not, as neither choice would be in the best long-term interests of society.
An AI system based on current technology could (with much effort) be devised combining the capabilities of both "expert systems" and "deep learning" pattern matching systems to make simplistic legal judgements based on very rigidly formatted input data and a large database of (carefully formatted) prior case data.
However, I have tried to explain to you that current AI does not embody any powers of "ethical judgement", and that it does not "understand" the data it is processing in any meaningful way, and that these human capabilities CANNOT be imbued in the AI system simply by letting it do more and more pattern-matching based on data such as prior legal judgements.
The legal judgement that the AI produced would often be technically correct, but would frequently and randomly be eggregiously unfair, biased, wrong, or appear ethically abhorent to any reasonable human observer.
Essentially, the system could provide law, but it could not provide justice.
The sytem would not improve its sense of ethics over time, nor would it gain any deeper understanding or insight into the legal case data over time. That's simply not the way AI works.
Current deep-thought style AI isn't actually intelligent in any meaningful or anthropomorphic way like it is portrayed in popular media. All it can currently do is generalise and group data into categories, and then match new data into one of those previously learned categories.
The purpose of my previously appended reference to the chatbot was to to give one real-world example of how AI systems only learn from the data they are given, and they do not infer, extraplolate, consider, self-reflect upon, or contemplate what that data actually "means". Current AI is fundamentally incapable of those human modes of thought, or of self-improvement to aquire them.
If they are given bad data that contains unethical or biased content, they will mindlessly repeat it forever, with particularly stagnatory implications for any society which gave such a system law-making powers.
Current AI is an unthinking automata, and we must carefully avoid anthropomorphising its capabilities.
Despite spending my long career trying to make it otherwise, there is still no ghost in the machine.
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Without wishing death or misadventure upon any sitting U.S. Supreme Court judge, suppose that President Trump at 11 a.m. tomorrow were to have occasion to make another appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court. Could the President - "by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate", to be sure - appoint an artificial intelligence system to that office?
The "Appointments Clause" in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2, clause 2) states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint ... Judges of the supreme Court". There does not appear to be any requirement that the appointee be a human being.
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Your thinking on corruptibility of an AI system may or may not be correct, but you seem to have ignored one other important factor. You talk about an AI system as if it was an independent agent, which in my opinion is a major fallacy. AI system is a product that is made by some third party. Appointing such a system as a judge means that you have now allowed this third party to influence a judicial system - indirectly, but still. This is an egregious violation of the principle of judicial independence.
In a perfect, utopian world, this would probably be a good idea to make sure the judges are all independent and impartial (I can imagine this scenario degenerating into a dystopian one, but that's a different story). However, in our dirty and real world that is hard to imagine. Good AI systems are usually very complex (vide: the already mentioned Watson), and complex systems are difficult to validate. By that I mean: it would be very difficult to ensure that such a system is indeed independent and contains no custom code, serving some third-party purpose (a backdoor, if you will).
Personally, I really hope that such an idea will not ever be seriously considered.
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Which is the better for the researcher, studying various topics and making a research for each one, or studying one particular topic and making a series of researches related to it?
Please reply, and share us your opinions about the discussion
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I would like to thank all researchers for their sincerely opinions, it is very useful to me.
Best Regards
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Please, feel free to give more examples and to share your experiencies and/or opinions.
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I think The ICL faces numbers of challenges with modern technologies.
  • One of them, the evidences;
  1. The difficulty of gathering evidences and Electronic Evidence. For example, the talented people and experience able to browsing and log on banks account with unreal IP address as we as they can send mail from my email or any email they would. They can make a phone call from your own number to your bank or business to do transfer money, cancel contract or crucial meeting while they live in different country. They can do all of that and over and over covertly without catch any evidence.
  2. Secondly, examining of Electronic Evidence and verify its credibility. It is not easy to do that without high experience that is mostly quite costly. For instant, the talented people and expert can create fake photos, clips and voice recorders; or modify real one to deceive others who cannot know that is just a fake unless there are experts who tell them the truth.
  3. .... etc,
  • Second of them, the scarcity of specialised investigators
  • Third, the scarcity of expert judges
  • Fourth, a few reliable laboratories around the world & high cost of its services
  • Fifth, the difficulty of tracking suspects around the world
  • Sixth, the required legislation is complex. This field needs legislation related to the regulation of communications and its standards and the flow of information rather than criminal legislation. Because some of jurisdictions in several states are sufficient as well as some other states have effective legislation to enforce justice. But could be there is need to "Special law" for Electronic Evidence Collecting, verifying and admissibility.
  • ...etc
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In my country, the benefit from a specific paper is proportional according to the sequence of the researcher’s name in the paper, where (100%, 80% and 70%) for the first, the second and the third researcher respectively, and if there are additional researchers, then they will not get any benefit from the research.
Please reply, share us your opinions about the discussion
Thanks
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With you, son of my country, in the same case. I am looking with you, to dear colleagues contributions .
Regards.
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There are wide differences in the template from one journal to another, why this differences, do you agree that the template of the journals should be unified or not? Why
Please share us your opinions
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I do not think that magazines are interested in what the researcher wants because the magazines are the strongest authority and researcher is the one who needs them. There are no weaker dictates conditions on the strongest! In addition to the magazines run by different companies with different directions and visions.
Best Regards.
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A content analysis of Canadian arbitration cases over the past 10 years, would be the most effective way to gather documented evidence on how social media related human resources issues are being ruled upon by arbitrators.
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Any law contains rules for discipline and dismissal of employees, and the employer may, in accordance with his disciplinary authority, sign the penalty of dismissal in accordance with the provisions of the law and with due regard for the legal guarantees; the information collected through the websites or other information must be well checked and presented to the worker. The worker's behavior should negatively affect the interest of the labor (Egyptian labor law).
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Sometimes during preparing for a specific research, the results which obtained may be unsatisfactory or negative, what will you do in such case?
Please, share us your sincerely opinions
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Dear Dr. Mohammed,
It would be frustrating. I will try to modify the research idea or publish the negative results as they are. Negative results may help other researchers not to try again in the same way.
Regards
Rama
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It is surely an art to keep your readers Intetested in an technical article till the end.
Could you recall the best article, why it was best for you. Originality, good English, and readability are essential but not enough to keep people interested in the article.
Please list the factors that you think make a good article excellent.
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There are lots of factors such as:
1. The figures should have a good quality.
2. Always you start with basics.
3. It should be like a story and all paragraphs carefully connected to each other.
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I am continuously amazed when seeing a high numbers of (let’s name them useless) calls for conferences (organised by universities), anywhere on the web (to a much lesser extent here), when 1) participants are requested to pay a fee; 2) what comes out of participation is far from clear.
Now, I tend to be tolerant to a) the pressures put by universities on academics to get external money; b) the easy way of getting such money by putting forward 2-3 ideas for a ‘conference’ call or for a ‘summer school’; c) the demand of the legal profession that their members get useless ‘credits’ by going to ppt’s presentations; d) there is some sponsorship (at least by big players) of employees participating to useless conferences; e) the increased demand for ‘educational’ or ‘leisure’ tourism; f)-z) whatever…Therefore I can understand why anyone crowds to get some easy money on this silly enterprise.
However, for me things works a bit differently. First, I am not interested at all in ‘summer schools’ (not even in those organised at Hague...especially because these are targeting a very different audience), irrespective of the ‘big names’ one propose (If I really want to have a conversation with a big name, there are others, less expensive and more interesting possibilities). No matter how hard I try (at least for now) I cannot develop more than 2-3 good ideas per year. Obviously, I can frame these ideas to fit the requests of 100+ conferences but conference participation is an expensive (money & time) endeavour, so I became picky. I tend to eliminate from start conferences that request a fee (with the exception of probably one, maximum two per year) and tend to choose conferences where is very clear what is ‘in’ for me and not for the organisers.
I am curious how other academics select their ‘preferred’ conferences
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Authors choosing the conference, in addition to (or above all) the location and field of science, are guided by conference proceedings publishing.
It is desirable to publish articles in journals with a high IF index,
or in conference materials (eg. https://www.sciendo.com/services/conferences ) indexed in the most popular databases, such as Scopus or WoS.
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Dear colleagues,
I am reaching out to the scientific community, to safeguard the intellectual property(IP) rights of an unpublished novel proposal idea.
While published work can be claimed for plagiarism, there are no such rights available for an unpublished novel proposals, that you spend months preparing for and finally sharing it with a supervisor(SP)/host organization that promised to submit it on your behalf, but eventually pulled out of it on the very day/or close to submission day.
Needless to say that it is an abuse of the time and effort of the applicant(AP) and a sham on the name of science. While it is certainly my belief that nothing goes wasted in life and one eventually gets compensated in ways that He/She doesn't realize at that time, there has to be some organized way to safeguard the rights of aspiring scientists, that share their aspiring ideas in blind trust to the SP (in good standing mind you), only to be cut out of it at the very end.
So, is there any organization academic/industrial that is working to protect the rights of the AP?? so that the AP can claim his IP and prevent the SP or any other party for non-consensual usage of IP for funding or otherwise.
I look forward to your responses and personal experiences in this regard.
Best wishes
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You automatically own the copyright in your text once you have written it. One way to protect your interest is to get a copy of it signed, dated and witnessed and then deposited in a safe place, say in a bank or with a lawyer. Then, if you think your text has been passed to a third party without your permission, you have the proof that you wrote it first and you own the rights to it, and can sue for infringement. But what you cannot do is force someone else to forward it to, say, a funding body.
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le to share my paper on RG ,it closed access on the journal?
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Last year RG has announced clearly, that it will take no responsibility to the research items, articles, that a scholar shares (either privately or publicly). I would say it is totally your responsibility to confirm from the journal and publisher whether you can share an article here on RG. Otherwise copyright claims from the journal can have adverse effects on RG in general and the scholar in particular.
Hope this helps.
regards
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If I were to discuss or conduct a series of lectures on human rights issues relating to Islam, Muslims or Muslim dominated, Asian countries like Malaysia, what are the issues that you would probably want me to talk about?
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You cannot avoid talking about women's human rights in muslim countries. situation of women compared to main women's rights conventions
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We are looking for specialists for research cooperation with the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic.
The project aims to create and support a long-term sustainable system for the development of public administration employees’ competencies in the field of their protection against workplace bullying/mobbing and to implement it into practice.
The project will be realised in cooperation with the State Labour Inspection Office of the Czech Republic and the Office of the Ombudsman of the Czech Republic.
The main purpose of the research is to take over the practice of prevention and resolving of workplace bullying/mobbing cases in the public organization context.
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https://www.equalitylaw.eu/ may be of help (European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination; limited number per country but they may be able to advise of others if not them).
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There are many predatory journals online available and also growing day by day. How to detect that the journal is predatory, As I found there is site where there is list of predatory journals but how we will come to know these sites information is correct or not?
Any other way to find out?
As there is continuous threat that somebody may waste their data in publishing in these journals.
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The best, I found with all the information, that we check with thompson reuter.
Please follow the link below for the all journal list, which are peer reviewed and indexed with Thompson reuters
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Generally, we fit Curie-Weiss law for thermal inverse magnetic susceptibility (calculated from M(T) curve). If the straight line intersects negative T-axis, we say that there is long-range antiferromagnetic ordering, but I want to know that how we can identify the different types of antiferromagnetism (A, C or G)?
Thanking you,
Dinesh
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it is easy to identify that material is ferri/ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic from the shape of Magnetization curve but one cannot say wither it is A, C or G-type AFM.
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The question based on the scaling process of MOSFETs
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Germanium.
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Please explain the rationale for your view.
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There is no one answer to this question. Specific uses must be considered, since a scientific find that cures a horrible disease does not carry the same moral weight as things like testing makeup brands on animals. Further, the moral weights given to animal rights vs. scientific discovery differ by moral universe. In the ethics of more biocentric religions, such as Buddhism, one often finds moral dismay regarding the uses of animals in science, like one sees in the work of the current Dalai Lama. The rights of animals not to suffer outweigh considerations of human benefit. Within religious universes that tend more toward anthropocentric outlooks, such as with ethics stemming from the Abrahamic religions, harming animals in science for human benefit remains more tolerated and pursued. Of course, things are not neat and tidy regarding this, since one still may find a Buddhist who supports experimentation on animals and a Christian who does not. You might check out Tom Regan's classic work, <Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science>, and the work that he, Jeff Masson, Lisa Kemmerer, and others have done since. You might also look into the essays found in <A Communion of Subjects>.
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Why or why not?
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Killing for mercy is difficult to differentiate from murder; for killing is synonymous with taking life or homicidal. The difference could be if there is an authentic intention to take the life of a fellow who suffers and for mercy it ends this suffering.
On the other hand, in murder, an intention to harm is inferred, to deliberately kill with a perverse intention; where whoever is killed is not suffering and could suffer at the time of the murder.
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Some aspects of morality are indeed legislated. So how do you determine which aspects are legislatable and which are not?
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Perhaps this question is related to yesterday's question regarding theology and philosophy? Moral obligations are frequently, but not always, based on a religious moral code. Whereas legal obligations are based on a secular "moral code," which certainly draws from religious beliefs, but is a distillation of these, and is allowed to evolve over time.
How to determine which rules are legislatable? I think maybe a short answer is, rules that reasonable people (hopefully in Congress) can agree benefit society as whole, are legislatable. Rules that depend on nothing more than faith in the precision of an ancient religious text, not so much. So, something like, "first, show me the clear benefit, then we might legislate."
Take, for instance, tithing and holy days of obligation. The secular laws do not make such practices either necessary or "moral," because they have been replaced with secular laws, independent of any religion. Tithing was replaced with "paying your taxes," and holy days of obligation were replaced with government holidays. So, reasonable people determined that the religious practices had merit, but without having to be tied to any religious rigor. For instance, taxes vary, depending on circumstances, regardless of what ancient religious texts might have prescribed. for tithing
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Hi, I am currently brainstorming ideas for my dissertation. I am thinking of focusing on
1.Digital identity under international law
2.financial, social and political inclusion for refugees - a holistic approach.
3.privacy and data protection laws
4.environmental aspect of using blockhain
I could use some pointers or any help what else should I focus on anything else I should mention?
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I would focus on points 1-3 and in the case of 4 I would try and analyse on how , if at all, block chain technology and fintech does help to enhance the socio-economic integration of refugees...
The fourth topic as proposed by your good self opens up a totally different discourse that can put you off track...
good luck with your dissertation
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Can we consider internet usage also having paradoxical effect of the law of demand and supply.
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Dear Uma, perhaps you need to specify your paradox more explicitly. Classical microeconomics derives equilibrium price based on the assumption of upward sloping demand and downward sloping supply.
However, internet is a bit different. It has scale economies. For provider high fixed cost is important, while variable cost is almost zero. So the average cost is downward sloping (contrary to many other supply curves). There might be a multiplicity of equilibria or no equilibrium in this case.
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The first known empire may have been established by the oldest real city of Uruk, although it may have been a trading empire that spread cultural influence. From Uruk we have gained so much-professionalism, kingship (?), marraige and law. The first clear political empire was probably Akkad (although how much of their triumphs were made up is still being scrutinised). The entwinement of religion and empire ensured the global growth of Abrahamic religions as a consequence of centralising processes, authoritarianism (after initial periods of anarchic behaviour or/and dominant communal ethos) and concentration on the written word: first Christianity through Rome, and then the military/religious empire of Islam. Write on!!!
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Empires by heir nature not only promote globalization but also help in the transfer of technology and culture.
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Research shows that medic legal apprehension is a big factor contributing towards the continued practice of routine preoperative testing. [doi:10.4103/ija.IJA_92_17] Whereas it is very much evident that routine preoperative laboratory testing is unnecessary and is not recommended.
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Attempt to change the laws in your country.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Why or why not?
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Who is the arbiter of whether a law is unjust or not? There are inescapable grey zones. If civil disobedience enters the culture, it will soon be hijacked by every interest group and every disgruntled citizen towards their own ends.
History is replete with ghastly laws (such as laws mandating torture), which in the end were born from and the reflection of immature, coarse societies. The proper answer is not civil disobedience, but a culture of respect for both the law and the people - something that History shows cannot be improvised overnight but is the culmination of a long maturing process.
Perhaps the only way is to quickly build both a culture and an economy which obviate the possibility of unjust laws being passed.
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Why or why not?
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This happens all the time, and the problem is your definition of "correct." The most obvious example being, of course, religiously-motivated terrorism. And religiously-motivated mutilation. Or how about arranged marriages? Many people find these practices to be morally correct. That's the problem.
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Why or why not?
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No, not in the least. I think of government like a big condominium association. It's not in the least some sort of father figure. That would be pathetic. Government is people wanting to make sure that what the majority prefers is honored, even while leaving others as free as possible to do their own thing.
People are government. We don't want our neighborhood trashed, so we establish certain basic rules that the vast majority want.
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hi.Would you please help me?
I'm studying an article on composite shear walls .The article is done with Diana. The bond-slip law used in the numerical simulation is shown in attach file. With considering the set of equations defining the bond stress for different segments of the curve ، is there in built contact element to model bond-slip behavior between concrete and steel or how can i do it in ABAQUS?
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Hi,
You can do this, using UINTER subroutine.
If you are unfamiliar with this subroutine in ABAQUS, with use the documentation, it also contains an example.
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Thorndike was one of the early psychologists who tried to interpret learning by connecting links or linking stimuli and responses. He saw that the most distinctive forms of science in man and animal alike is learning by trial and error. This type of learning is evident when the learner encounters a problematic situation that must be solved and overcome To a goal.
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Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) was a professor of American Psychology, a disciple of William James who developed a series of laws about trial and error learning. Thorndike's theories are considered as the precursors of American behaviorism that would find its maximum exponent in the figure of Skinner, father of operant conditioning.
 
  1. Law of the preparation, that affirms that the preparation or disposition of the subject contributes to the learning. In other words, that the own expectations of the subject constitute the intrinsic reinforcement of all action.
  2. Law of the exercise that sustains that the exercise or the practice of the appropriate response contributes to strengthen the connection between the stimulus and the corresponding response.
  • Law of effect. This is considered the most important. According to this law, the succession of stimuli and responses is not enough for learning to occur. For the learning to happen, reinforcement is needed. This is that when an act is followed by a reward it tends to repeat itself, whereas when it is followed by a punishment the probability of its repetition decreases.
regards
Jose Luis
Edward Lee Thorndike (1874- 1949) fue un profesor de Psicología americano discípulo de William James que elaboró una serie de leyes acerca del aprendizaje por ensayo-error. Las teorías de Thorndike son consideradas como las precursoras del conductismo americano que encontraría su máximo exponente en la figura de Skinner, padre del condicionamiento operante.
  1. Ley de la preparación, que afirma que la preparación o disposición del sujeto contribuye al aprendizaje.. En otras palabras, que las propias expectativas del sujeto constituyen el refuerzo intrínseco de toda acción.
  2. Ley del ejercicio que sostiene que el ejercicio o la práctica de la respuesta apropiada contribuye a fortalecer la conexión entre el estímulo y la respuesta correspondiente.
  3. Ley del efecto. Esta es considerada la más importante. Según dicha ley la sucesión de estímulos y respuestas no basta para que se produzca el aprendizaje. Para que ocurra el aprendizaje se necesita el refuerzo. Esto es que cuando un acto va seguido de una recompensa tiende a repetirse, mientras que cuando va seguido de un castigo disminuye la probabilidad de su repetición.
Saludos
José Luis
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I am working on Massive MIMO and I wrote algorithm to reduce the effect of pilot contamination, I used the matlab code of DR. Emil (which used in “Massive MIMO with Non-Ideal Arbitrary Arrays: Hardware Scaling Laws and Circuit Aware Desigrn”. Actually I have two questions. (for co-located antenna)
1- According to the matlab code that used in the above paper, the maximum rate per user (Rate per User VS number of BS antennas) is around 2.5 bps/H (for the conventional Massive MIMO, reuse factor=1) whereas it reaches to 4.5 in some papers (I used the same parameters, log normal shadowing fading=8dB, number of cell=7, number of users per cell=8). But when I sit log normal shadowing fading=0, the maximum throughput=4.5.(Which one is the correct)
2-How can I plot the relation between 1- CDF and minimum uplink SiNR. 2- CDF and mean achievable rate.
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You can reach any number of bit/s/Hz per user. It all depends on the simulation parameters that you select. In practice, if you use 64-QAM with 5/6 code rate, then the you achieve 6*5/6=5 bit/s/Hz. This is the maximum spectral efficiency in some version of LTE. With that I want to say that any number between 0 and 5 bit/s/Hz are reasonable numbers in practice, it just depends on how good your channel is.
If you want to plot a CDF curve, then you need to obtain many independent random realizations of the thing that you are interested in. Then you can put these numbers in a vector and use cdfplot in Matlab to plot them.
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I am carrying on longitudinal permeabiliy estimation by CFD method. In my opinion, the permeability should be a inherent property of the material. However, the value calculated by software changes with the variation of the length in longitudinal direction, under the same presssure difference between the inlet and outlet. This means I used Darcy's law, and ∆ p is a constant while L is changed. Is this the problem of the CFD method or since the ∆ p/ ∆ L is not a constant? Thanks!
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Permeability is similar to conductivity in case for electricity and it does not changes with length or the voltage applied however the conductance change which you are looking in your results.
as length will change the discharge will reduce if all other things remain same.
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I heard that is recorded by a camera..In Hungary it is a personality law issue..
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Thank you!
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In science and in law English is becoming evermore the dominant language in the world. This is of course nothing to do with modern Britain but reflects England's past colonial influence (see attached article)
Is it not a little ironic that English as a language goes from strength to strength while England as a nation withdraws ever more as a nation of influence?
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If you want to reach a world audience, write in English. Every language offers a rich and unique insight into different ways of thinking and living as well as into the history of the myriad of cultures and peoples across the globe. Yet I think, English remains an important due to its unique international status despite globalization.
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Quantum theory demonstrates that observation affects reality. In this case, our perception of the universe is far from "real". the universe becomes another universe due to our observation ... is what observation by thought can influence energy and therefore space-time itself .... How to ensure that the laws of physics are really laws (repetition so law)? and if ever can we be creatures that create our universe by integrated cognitive functions? to evolve according to a strategy itself inscribed in the real universe.
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Hello,
Theories are all statements about various realities; they are subjective interpretations of particular scientists about their interaction with specific phenomena in the world. As you have rightly pointed out, observation affects reality. No two individuals ever observe the reality of an object in the same way. Meta systems and systems defining one's beliefs, values, and philosophies creates a special lens through which s/he observes the realities of the world in particular ways. As such, observations and statements about certain realities have been refuted by further evidential bases which prove the inadequacy of definition criteria in describing the phenomena under scrutiny.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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How do I analyse roughness height of atmospheric boundary layer (Law of the wall)?
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Law of the Wall
Please let me know if the following references/sites are helpful to you:
1. Law of the Wall - Dr. Christopher Earls Brennen Web · 
It is known as the Law of the Wall and is derived by assuming that. the turbulence near that boundary is a function only of the flow conditions pertaining at that wall and. is independent of the flow conditions further away. For the non-dimensional analysis we can identify the.[PDF]
2. Law of the Wall and the Velocity Defect Law - Texas A&M ... Web · 
OCEN 678 Fluid Dynamics for Ocean and Environmental Engineering S. Socolofsky 1 Law of the Wall and the Velocity Defect Law Learning Objectives:[PDF]
3. Chapter 20 Boundary layer turbulence - MIT OpenCourseWare Web · 
https://ocw.mit.edu/.../lecture-notes/ch20.pdf
Chapter 20 Boundary layer turbulence ... we expect both the law of the wall and the velocity defect law to apply. From eq. (20.10) we expect that, du ...
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Hello,
I am working with a colleague on a paper exploring the representation of the mother in law in English literature. Does anyone know of any research/published work(s) on the same or close topic?
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Your topic is very impressive. Try Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales: The Man of Law's Tale. Try also some English translations of the Arabian Nights. Good luck.