Science topic

Latin America - Science topic

The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
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Hello everyone,
I am looking for links of Mexican datasets that can be used in classification tasks in machine learning. Preferably the datasets have been exposed in scientific journals.
Thank you for your attention and valuable support.
Regards,
Cecilia-Irene Loeza-Mejía
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Can you translate Vietnamese to Mexican datasets? https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_you_show_me_Vietnamese_datasets
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In the current energy context, which would be the best energy alternatives for Latin America and the Caribbean in the future? I very much appreciate your participation in this discussion.
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In short term future all forms of energy conversion into electrical energy should be considered, but more effectively renewable energy. Here in Brazil, there are several regions with better hydro, solar and wind power, which, even if distant and watertight, can still be easily integrated into the country's energy matrix and serve the country and its neighbors countrys in a broad way. That is until more efficient energy sources (Nuclear Fusion) are available in long-term future.
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Hello everyone,
I am looking for links of audio datasets of indigenous Mexican languages that can be used in classification tasks in machine learning.
Thank you for your attention and valuable support.
Regards,
Cecilia-Irene Loeza-Mejía
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Hi,
I would like to know different papers of this topic because I'm researching around it by my thesis.
If the papers analyze cases in Latin America, it would be better.
Thank you
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Two useful books:
PULLEN, Christopher & COOPER, Margaret. LGBT Identity and Online New Media. London: Routledge, 2010.
PULLEN, Christopher (ed.). LGBT Transnational Identity and the Media. London: Palgrave, 2012.
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In the current world energy scenario, the shortage of energy carriers and the low energy efficiency of industrial processes in Latin America have sharpened productive competitiveness in this region. In this context, do you consider that Small Modular Reactors (SMR) can be an energy alternative for Latin American nations? Please argue your answer. I really appreciate your collaboration.
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They certainly can, especially for those Latinamerican countries which already have experience with conventional nuclear reactors (Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico). Their main advantage is that they already have nuclear technology infrastructure, and the implementation of this new concept will be more accessible. Nevertheless, other countries without this experience can still benefit from the SMR concept. They can be more easily adapted to their national grid than the large Nuclear Power Plants, and the safety and non-proliferation requirements are less complex. In my view, SMRs can be a good energy alternative for many developing nations.
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I'd like to submit a research proposal on the potential of human migration as a vehicle of pathogen movements from South to North America. Basically I need a collaborator with experience working with migrants in the region. Thanks !!!
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Alex Córdoba-Aguilar can you explain it better? It sounded like we are bringing you diseases from our countries here in South America.
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Numerous countries in the global south, particularly in Africa, Latin America, and south Asia, have struggled to grasp the technology transfer process. In these countries, technology conceptions, incubation, and entrepreneurship, as well as startup drafts left on desks prior to initial trial and implementation— Why? Probably. Keeping in your mind the political ecosystem and economic instability are two issues that these countries frequently confront, while other world leading nations' occasionally face, too. What, in your thinking, are the causes behind this failure? And how do they uproot the root causes--either in collaboration or independently?
1.Why?
2. Why?
3. Why?
What lesson left over from Asian tigers catch up development to the rest of the world--herein?
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Dear Haimanot,
Yes, that's right. The key factor of economic development is the wealth of the economy and economic entities in particular categories of production factors, including production factors and / or resources enabling the offering of specific services. According to the first trend in the history of economic thought, the school of classical economics includes various resources, raw materials, processed factors of production, etc. classified under three headings: land, labor, capital, among the three key categories of production factors. However, during the 3rd technological revolution in the second half of the 20th century, the development of information technology, ICT information technologies, the development of information and other services based on these technologies, followed by the development of the Internet and other types of technologies, including Industry 4.0, technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution ( e.g. robotics, artificial intelligence, learning machines, Internet of Things, smart technologies, cloud computing, computerized multidimensional simulation models, Blockchain etc.) this three-element classification of production factors (factors of economic growth) has proved insufficient. In the context of neoclassical trends in economic thought that have been developing since the 1970s, the growing importance of such factors of production processes as: technology, information, data, innovation, entrepreneurship is indicated. In developing economies that aspire to become rich and fully developed economies in the future, having advanced, modern technologies of production and / or offering services is a particularly important development factor. Developing economies are also often knowledge-based economies. In knowledge-based economies, new technologies are becoming one of the key factors of production, economic development and comparative advantage. First of all, information technologies and Industry 4.0. As a result, international technology transfer is sometimes deliberately restricted. On the other hand, internationally operating forms of technology significantly contribute to technology transfer through direct investment carried out in other countries. The pandemic, through the increase in the scale of digitization and internationalization of economic processes, could accelerate this kind of cross-border flow of knowledge and information regarding the methods and techniques of production processes and offering services. Moreover, the ongoing economic and information globalization is also a factor accelerating the processes of cross-border transfer of new technologies. In addition, in the face of growing global problems, such as the health crisis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, the growing climate crisis caused by climate change, the progressing global warming process, more frequent droughts and forest fires, increasing environmental pollution, etc. international cooperation should be developed in order to increase the effectiveness of solving global problems of civilization development. As part of this cooperation, new eco-innovations and pro-environmental technologies should be implemented into production processes as soon as possible and should be disseminated on a global scale. The current and future climate change, the growing global climate crisis, like the pandemic, is a global problem. Therefore, solving this kind of key global problems of the development of civilization, creating new, effective instruments for solving these global problems should also be carried out at the international and global level. Therefore, new technologies that are used to solve these global problems should also be available to all countries of the world. In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic caused a deep economic crisis in the economies of many countries. The scale of the crisis was very diversified depending on the branch and sector structure of the economy. In 2021, thanks to the interventionist, anti-crisis instruments of public aid offered to enterprises and companies in crisis, it was possible to quickly lead the economies out of the economic crisis of 2020. One of the important factors of anti-crisis state aid are also targeted subsidies for the implementation of new investment projects in which modern technologies are used. Efficiently applied anti-crisis programs of socio-economic policy contribute to the growth of entrepreneurship and innovation of companies, enterprises and other types of economic entities. However, on a supra-national scale, international trade wars are still waged between some of the world's major economies, and barriers to the transfer of modern technologies and the flow of production factors are still applied. Such restrictive measures contribute to a slowdown in economic development and limited availability of new technologies for developing countries. On the other hand, globally operating international corporations and the information globalization developing thanks to the Internet contribute to the dissemination of technology on an international scale.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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Hi, I would like to focus my dissertation on the phenomenon of the public voting 'NO' to the Colombian peace treaties of 2016.
I have done some brainstorming:
Causes:
- Opposition campaign lead by popular ex-president Alvaro Uribe
- Cultural differences
- Historical background (suffering)
- People not interested in politics
- Media, propaganda coverage, fake news
- Difficulty in reading the peace accords
- The church involvement against the government
- Electoral victory of Alvaro Uribe
I was wondering if you had some theoretical knowledge I can link my research to? I would really appreciate some help narrowing down to have a more focused direction, thank you.
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Peace and reversing public distrust - antecedent crimes (...)
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I am still in the early stages of this, however I am thinking of exploring the potential football has, as a means to aid the integration of Venezuelan refugees in countries like Peru and Columbia. I am reading that similar to Europe, refugees are subject to racism and resentment. While also in Europe, football clubs have started to partner up refugee forums to help. UEFA recently wrote a report of their commitment to helping the cause. I also wonder if CONEBOL could implement the same action. Early indictors suggest their is a gap in the literature, when it comes to refugees and football in South America.
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Dear Dr. Ben David Anthony Bird, As a topic for a potential PhD, I think it's a great idea. Currently there are already footballers in Serie A.
To get an idea, take a look at the following page:
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I am developing my postgraduate thesis on the application of the i-Tree Hydro hydrological model with different scenarios of increase in urban trees and its ecosystem benefits compared to the increase in gray coverage in an urban watershed in Costa Rica. I would like to know if there are related studies in Latin America, since I only know one implemented in Colombia in 2019.
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Hello everybody,
do you maybe know some regional/global weather gridded-datasets (historical) specific for Latin America? For example, the precipitation dataset LATAMCOSCH.
I'm looking for precipitation specific datasets and not (temperature, relative humidity..) beside ERA5, NEMS, IMERG, CMORPH, CHIRPS.
Thank you for your help in this matter. I'm still new to the meteorological world.
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Hello, Irene
You can check the monthly precipitation for the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, provided by the Meteorological Laboratory of the Institute of Technology of
Pernambuco (Laboratório de Meteorologia do Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco – LAMEP/ITEP). The monthly series of precipitation, with time span from 1950 to 2012, correspond to records obtained from 133 meteorological stations.
More info in:
da Silva, A. S. A.; Stosic, B.; Menezes, R. S. C.; Singh, V. P. Comparison of Interpolation Methods for Spatial Distribution of Monthly Precipitation in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. J. Hydrol. Eng., 2019, 24 (3), 04018068.
gruesse dich, Hristo
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Hello all Research Gate community,
I would like to share my interest and enthusiasm for contacting with undergraduate women who are thinking in pursue a scientific career. Especially those ones from Latin America, or in general, women interested in S.T.E.M. I am from Mexico, graduated as Biologist, with a PhD in Biomedical Sciences, and several years of postdoctoral experience. Now, seeing the perspective of my career path, I realize that, women (and moreover those from under-represented countries) we need to support each other. If you are interested in this project, or if you know undergraduate or early-career ladies that would like to establish a contact, feel free in reaching me.
Many thanks!
Reyna Hernandez-Benitez
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Hello Reyna, I am an undergraduate student studying Nursing and would love to connect with you and collaborate on your work.
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Hello all, surprisingly (to me) most of the research on social networks and poverty seems come out of the Europe, Asia and Latin America. In addition to Robert Putnam, is there anyone else you know doing case studies in the USA?
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Julius yes. I teach in Baltimore and am working on a social mobiltity- related book.
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Odonata experts, nice to meet you.
My name is Jose Alejandro Cuellar, an odonate researcher from Colombia. I am sending you this email because I am doing a review article on Odonata migrations in Latin America. For this, I ask you in the kindest way to help me with his information. For this, I send you a few questions that you could answer in case you have sighted, documented, published, or registered any case of dragonfly breeding in Latin America or Spain.
Please answer the questions for each case of migration you have observed:
Question 1: What species or species have you seen carrying out migration processes?
Question 2: During what time of the year did you record the case of dragonfly migration?
Question 3: Where (Country, town) did you see the case of dragonfly migration?
Question 4: Towards what direction or locality considers that the odonates that were migrating are headed?
Question 5: You have seen this same process in a repetitive or cyclical way over time?
Thanks for your help, this information will help me too much with the preparation of the review document.
Sincerely,
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kindly see
Seasonal Migrations of Pantala flavescens (Odonata: Libellulidae) in Middle Asia and Understanding of the Migration Model in the Afro-Asian Region Using Stable Isotopes of Hydrogen Sergey N. Borisov 1,*, Ivan K. Iakovlev 1 , Alexey S. Borisov 1 , Mikhail Yu. Ganin 2 and Alexei V. Tiunov 3 1 Institute of Systematics and
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During the Alliance for Progress, roughly in the 1960s, US-universities engaged systematically in colaborations with Latin American universities. This went beyond simple mobility programs, in many cases, the US-missions developed courses, degrees, participated in institutional reforms. However, this chapter of international colaboration in higher education seems to be hardly studied. Do you know of any of those experiences or studies on them?
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Yes, Prof. Philipp Altmann.
Venezuela increased its research and university capabilities with the Alliance for Progress.
It was the second part of a new start (industrialization started before with P. Jiménez in the 1950s) but it served for all the industrial (mainly electrical and oil sectors) and university development in the 70s and 80s.
President F. Kennedy visited Venezuela in 1961 following the Alliance for Progress plan, when R. Betancourt was president.
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In some European countries, in Africa, in Latin America and even in the Caribbean, individual sanitation by dry litter toilets is practiced by some communities. The residues from these toilets are then composted and used in agriculture.
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I think this paper will help you. Best Regards.
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What would be the best method for analysing trends in species abundance in a single area in Latin America over a 15 year period? Could TRIM be used for this purpose?
I don't have data about several point-counts in the area over the years. All I have is total abundace per species per year in the area.
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I think TRIM is the most common method to study trend of avian population.
This method can help you in missing data.
Good luck,
Can i help you with doc on TRIM ?
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I am writing a study that does not use WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic) populations, in fact the study seeks to address populations in developing countries, mainly in Latin America, India, Africa and Eastern Europe. One of the problems we have had is how to call this population without being condescending and fully addressing what this sample brings.
At the moment we have the names:
Diverse population
developing country populations (or is it better "emerging countries"?)
I would like suggestions on possible ways to call this population.
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The findings, published in Nature tomorrow and Behavioral Sciences this week, raise questions about the practice of drawing universal claims about human psychology and behavior based on research samples from WEIRD societies.
“The foundations of human psychology and behavior have been built almost exclusively on research conducted on subjects from WEIRD societies,” says UBC Psychology and Economics Prof. Joe Henrich, who led the study with UBC co-authors Prof. Steven Heine and Prof. Ara Norenzayan.
“While students from Western nations are a convenient, low-cost data pool, our findings suggest that they are also among the least representative populations one could find for generalizing about humans.”
The study, which reviews the comparative database of research from across the behavioral sciences, finds that subjects from WEIRD societies are more individualistic, analytic, concerned with fairness, existentially anxious and less conforming and attentive to context compared to those from non-WEIRD societies.
Marcus Vinicius Alves search fot those theories and you will get more of the genre, sir.
All the best!
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Lately there have been several social outbursts in Latin America, first Peru, then Ecuador, Chile and now Colombia.
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Dear Marcelo Eduardo Rojas Vidal the levels of democratic quality in Latin America are affected by the political personalism that, based on its history, is supported by the “economic crisis” factors, which determines the rise of political figures that aim to neutralise democracy and occupy the space of the ideological discussion, placing themselves as the law and the public institutions. Kind regards, Ernani
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Global cases are now more than 16.4 million and died nearly 660,000 worldwide from COVID-19. USA has nearly 4.3 million cases, Brazil tops 2.4 million and India has more than 1.4 million cases. Russia has more than 800,000 COVID-19 cases and South Africa tops 400,000 cases. USA, Latin America and South Asia are still hot spots, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University.
Covid-19 is "easily the most severe" global health emergency the World Health Organization (WHO) has ever declared, the head of the WHO, Dr Tedros Ghebreyesus, said.
After six months of Corona crisis we have gathered more experiences from different countries from their mistakes and successes. World war has been started against a tiny virus and we actually failed in the initial stage. There is still chance to control the spread of coronavirus to save lives.
Data source: 27 July 2020, BBC & JHU
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Dear Muhammed Ashraful Alam the COVID-19 crisis is not just a health crisis. It brings numerous uncertainties that impact our societies, aggravating social inequalities, undermining progress on economic development on a global scale, generating political instability, obstructing objectives and programs on sustainability, and affecting adversely the livelihood of families and citizens, particularly, in vulnerable conditions. Kind regards, Ernani
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Beside dung beetles, I would like to learn more about the diversity of arthropods in silvopasture systems where livestock are kept on rotation. Also what about arthropods diversity in similar systems in temperate zones? Thank you.
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What makes you think that I, a modest Medical Anthropologist with some experience in medical aspects of people's migration, am an expert in this particular matter?
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How could Latin America overcome its structural crises (political, economic, social)? What are its main obstacles?
The economics of Latin America and the Caribbean in the XX century is one key to understanding the problem, but not the only,
Secondly, the political systems in Latin America and the Caribbean plagued of populism, militarism, technocracy and its influence on democracy, guerrillas and dictatorships.
Finally, globalization, and the spread of social models of consumption that have led to the degradation of ecosystems.
What are the most pressing problems for the continent? What are the recipes or those that should be avoided?
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Get Castro's Cuba system down, get the commies. As simple as that, Prof. Pablo. Once forever. No Mercy upon commies!
The joint of populism and militarism are new gained skills for internacionalistas + the lack of attention from US policy during Obama and previous administrations.
El patio trasero se les lleno de basura, no les interesó en lo más mínimo lo que nos pasaba a lo interno en nuestros países, ahora la tienen en su propio jardín.
US South command recently joined the slogan "enduring promises" with most Latin American countries. I guess is too late. The commies are everywhere, unfortunately.
Observe lo que pasa en Perú, donde sendero luminoso vuelve a hacer atentados, el nobel a Santos fue un tiro al piso y un cheque fácil.
La FARC y el ELN vuelven a arremeter con fuerza en Colombia y Venezuela, y vendrán más eventualidades pues el encierro debido al virus los favorece.
Ellos no duermen. El continente está plagado de intelectuales de izquierda. Eso creó.
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Former US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Dr. Tom Frieden said on Fox News that although the US is doing more testing and hospitals are better prepared, “this virus still has the upper hand.”
The increase in cases in Southern states is the result of reopening too fast and it “is going to continue to get worse for weeks,” Frieden said.
Frieden estimated that in the next month, the US will see at least 15,000 more deaths from Covid-19. He also said cases will continue to rise.
Latin America has more than 2 million cases and already lost more than 100,000 lives. South Asia is approaching towards 1 million cases although the deaths are less but under reporting is a major concern. Inadequate testing, tracing and poor health system can take them anywhere based on severity.
If the virus "still has the upper hand in the US" then, just imagine what might be the situation in Latin America and South Asia. Need to be united to make an urgent solution.
June 28, CNN
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The consequences of the coronavirus in Latin America will be devastating, not only in terms of morbidity, mortality, and impact on health systems but also in economic activity and population mobility. This consideration reveals the need for responses in multiples and coordinated levels of governance I would like to invite to access my e-book:
Kind regards,
Ernani
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Latin America is the current epicenter for COVID-19 with more than two million cases and Brazil has already lost its total control with collapsed economy.
At least 7.8 million Brazilians lost work between March and May, according to new figures released by the country’s statistical agency on June 30, 2020.
June 30, CNN
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Dear Muhammed Ashraful Alam the IMF predicts that the world will enter into a recession worst than the Great Depression of 1930, with a preliminary estimation of the economic impact of the crisis at US$ 2 trillion. The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that approximately 25 million people could be unemployed and those in informal activities would suffer most from the absence of social protection.
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Recently, the Aymara intellectual Silvia Rivera Cusicanquí (Bolivia), has pointed out that "the decolonial is a fashion, the postcolonial a desire and the anti-colonial a struggle." Through this, she posits that in the face of the exhausted epistemological horizon of Eurocentric modernity there is a renewed interest in the knowledge that emerges in the context of the struggles for decolonization, however, there is no real political commitment on the part of scientists. The author points out: "the decolonial is a very recent fashion that, in some way, usufructs and reinterprets those processes of struggle, but I think it depoliticizes them, since the decolonial is a state or a situation but it is not an activity, it does not imply an agency, nor a conscious participation. I put the anti-colonial struggle into practice in fact, in some way, delegitimizing all forms of objectification and ornamental use of what is indigenous by the State. All of these are processes of symbolic colonization. "
I am interested in hearing and reading critical opinions about the decolonial turn in academic fashion. My question arises from some observations:
a) Epistemological violence in the social sciences that is claimed to be decolonial continues to be exercised from the Eurocentric "epistemological ratio". Where Latin America becomes a simple field of study. And where those of us who reflect from within the struggles for decolonization are erased from the map of knowledge production, since our texts are not referenced or academic extractivism is simply generated stealing local knowledge, exercising new forms of "indigenous folklorization".
b) The main references of decolonial thought are located in universities in hegemonic countries. The intellectual activists of Latin America who have a conscious ethic and struggle with social movements are excluded from the circuits of intellectual debate.
c) An important fracture of decolonial studies occurs in the defense of the Nation State and the progressive left governments of Latin America, such as Evo Morales and Maduro, and a rejection of radical left or indigenous proposals that are raised from anti-state perspectives , libertarian and autonomous.
d) The depoliticization and lack of ethics of many researchers who claim to be decolonial, who through practices of academic extractivism seek to scrutinize indigenous knowledge, have been financed with multi-million dollar research projects, financed by companies and state research corporations (Por example mitzubichi corporation), and whose impacts have contributed nothing to the struggles of those who dispute the territory.
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Speaking as an early career academic from the Global South, Africa to be specific, I think characterizing decolonial (decolonisation/decoloniality) scholarship as a fashion is very simplistic. Decolonial scholarship is a war/struggle for epistemic freedom. It is a struggle to have multiple centres of knowledge. It is about unlearning the predominantly Eurocentric forms of knowledge and methodologies in order to learn inclusive methodologies, to be able to have our own styles of writing and framing our knowledge perspectives. A lot of our knowledge and scholarship is sidelined in the knowledge industry that follows a Eurocentric script. We need to be acknowledged as centres of knowledge instead of exporters of raw data and importers of theories.
The biggest challenge we have is that we were produced by the very same Eurocentric system that has taken away our epistemic freedoms. That is why we have to continuously unlearn in order to learn. So there is agency in the decolonial scholarship, it is not fashion at all.
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July was started with nearly 10.6 M total cases and around 7 million cases increased in a month to make it nearly17.5 million global cases at the end of July, 2020. USA is the epicenter and Latin America and India are other hot spots. Brazil and Mexico are tired to find out anymore larger graveyard. Peruvians are crying for oxygen. Indians don't find anymore empty bed in hospitals. Although Europe was considered as safe zone in July but unluckily the new outbreaks in Spain, Germany, Belgium are alarming. New outbreaks in Australia, Hong Kong, Japan and China are almost similar to second waves of cases. Cases in Africa are rising gradually and South Africa has lost its control with huge number of COVID-19 patients.
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Thanks for sharing dear Alphonsus Nwoye
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It started with just above 3 million cases at the beginning of May and end the of the month it passed 6 million globally. USA & Europe at last have shown success to control the spread of pandemic and started to reopen with few behavioral guidelines. Latin America is now current epicenter for Covid-19 and South Asia is another hot spot. Brazil is struggling the most to find out anymore larger graveyard. Peruvians are crying for oxygen. Indians don't find anymore empty bed in hospital.
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Brazil is over A MILLION infected now and deaths are over 50 THOUSAND. Situation is spinning out of control and in some states non-essential businesses are reopening. Brace yourselves for numbers of 6 digits in the death toll here by the end of July if no serious strategy against the pandemic is taken. That's the situation. Updates in a couple of weeks if I am not the next.
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Latin America and South Asia are now current hot spots for novel Corona virus. Centralized oxygen delivery system and ventilators are required in severe cases. Urban-rural disparity in health care management is not a new issue but during Corona crisis it seemed to be more prominent due to extreme inequity with poor healthcare facilities in rural areas.
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Urban populations are always going to be at greater risk. The fact that the population is physically closer and interacts more creates a breeding ground for the virus. This can tend to make authorities home in on these areas in order to control a fire like spread of the virus. However, this can lead to rural communities once hit with the virus slow to respond because the ability for the recognition its a community problem and not a individual one takes longer to filter through. A bit like lots of little fires spread over a greater distance. The urban spread has multiple fire fighting facilities while the rural has one fire engine running around trying to put them out.
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Dear colleagues, I would like to know if your university has a centre for the study of Latin America. If you have contact with the people who work there, and if this center has grown in recent times
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Nuestra Universidad fue creada para eso, fundamentalmente bajo el impulso del ex presidente Lula. Yo trabajo en el Área de Relaciones Internacionales e Integración y coordiné hasta enero un Programa de Posgraduación en Integración Contemporánea de América Latina. Allí fui supervisor del posdoctorado de tu compatriota el querido amigo Willy Soto Acosta del cual tenemos una entrañable memoria. Tenemos muchos grupos de investigación trabajando diversos aspectos.
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Global economy will take at least 2 years to recover from Corona virus, says economic body (June 10, CNN)
All the sectors more or less affected by COVID-19. All the goals of SDGs will be influenced by the adverse effects of COVID-19.
Developed country can cope up quickly but about the low and middle income countries after the crisis?
Today's global cases top 7.3 million and USA has more than 2 million cases.
What about the Latin America? Brazil has more than 700,000 cases and nearly 40,000 deaths. Mexico is crying for larger graveyard.
Think about India, Pakistan, Bangladesh too.
Africa is not yet in scene.
(10 June, JHU&CNN)
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It will take decades.
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I need literature (monographs, articles, strategic documents, etc), rather basic, to receive understanding about geopolitical developments in Latin America.
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It's my pleasure... Many thanks for initiating the discussion...
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Among the 20 most unequal countries in the world, 8 including Haiti, come from Latin America (IDB, 2019). How to reduce inequalities? Can the study of territories help to better identify and reduce disparities? Personally, I think that yes, through the living areas that make them up, territories are an important part in understanding the phenomenon of inequality and building adequate solutions.
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Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically. In todays world (Wermuth, L. A. (2003). Global inequality and human needs: Health and illness in an increasingly unequal world. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. )
Social inequality could linked to economic inequality, education inequality, racial inequality, wealth inequality or health care inequality.The fact is we are living in increasingly Unequal World. Some form of inequality can be related to corruption While others
Indeed, The study of territories can help investigate the mechanisms by which social inequalities are produced and reproduced at the local level and reduce disparities .
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Eating insects in many tropical countries in Africa, southeast Asia or Latin America is a well established practice. Could this become a viable farming activity for countries in the northern hemisphere? What would be then insect species that may be successfully grown in north America and Europe?
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Dear professors and researchers from Latin American universities:
I am conducting this research in 4 different metropolises:
Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Bogotá, and Lima.
If you are concerned about the quality of life and economic growth in one of these cities, would you help me to help you?
Simply enter the link, answer the questions (3 minutes) and spread it among your colleagues, students, family, etc. No personal questions are asked. Total safety, and ethically responsible.
We can make a difference! For all the people who help me to help these cities, I will share the database with 'Fresh Evidence' Thank you!
Prof. Aurelio Hess
Business and Economics Research Center
+55 11  2609 8713
+55 1198948 4940 Cel. and Whatsapp
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Always interested in your ideas and works, Prof. Aurelio Hess!
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I am a Communication and Science and Technology Studies PhD student at UC San Diego researching this topic from another angle. My research involves national innovation and development goals (which often aligned with United Nation development agenda) and digital fabrication and its networks in Latin America, specially Peru and Mexico. Do you have any information on this?
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What do you mean by digital fabrications?
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Dear Colleagues:
I am seeking advice about which countries globally have contracting and de-privatizing higher education systems? I am focusing on Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Estonia – but there may be more. I am looking for systems which used to have large private sectors which are now contracting – or which are moving away from fees in the public sector? Or both.
The aim of this strand of my research is to test the usefulness of the concept of “de-privatization” (Marek Kwiek, “De-privatization in Higher Education: A Conceptual Approach”, Higher Education, 74(2), 259-281) in higher education in the empirical context of Central Europe and elsewhere globally of the last decade. Moreover, it intends to explore how this new concept could be useful in global higher education studies.
Privatization processes as defined here include: (a) private-sector growth (external privatization) and (b) the increasing reliance on cost-sharing mechanisms in the public sector (internal privatization). External and internal privatization are viewed in this research as privatization agendas that include different processes for change that are dominant in various national systems. A privatization agenda refers to higher education provision (provided by public or private institutions) and funding (from public or private sources).
Clearly, there can be privatization without the emergence of private-sector institutions, e.g., privatization in the public sector only. By way of analogy, de-privatization processes in higher education refer to (a) private-sector decline (external de-privatization) and (b) the decreasing reliance on cost-sharing mechanisms in the public sector (internal de-privatization). However, external de-privatization cannot exist without the prior existence of the private sector in a system.
Empirically observed trends of de-privatization (and contraction in enrollments) run contrary to global trends of privatization (and expansion). De-privatization processes mean a decreasing role for the private component in the changing public-private dynamics in higher education funding and provision.
The critical issue defining the uniqueness of these countries is the privatization/de-privatization-demography link: privatization tends to be on the rise in expanding systems (almost everywhere in the world in the 2010s) and to be in reverse in contracting systems with heavily declining demography. However, demography is not the only factor involved; other factors include national academic traditions, social and political priorities, and national spending priorities. The four countries seem to value their public sectors highly and subsidize them accordingly—and they seem unwilling to subsidize their private sectors, demonstrating traditionally pure public and pure private sectors with limited cross-sectoral blurring in provision or funding.
We can imagine countries with decreasing reliance on fees in the public sector – for political and other reasons!
If you find any analogies globally – let me know about the particular countries!
Thank you in advance!
Marek
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Hi Marek hocam,
Turkey presents a highly different picture in terms of de-privatisation in HE sector. TR has two uni types, public and (non-profit) foundation unies, and no legal allowance to establish private/profit-oriented unies. The TR government also provides free HE education in public unies (including associate, undergraduate, master and doctoral education programmes) for a long time, almost last 15 years. Moreover, the government basically funds everything in public unies, including salaries, student credits (for life expenses), R&D budget, etc. Interestingly, the TR government is also the main funding body for most of foundation unies. However, a couple of months ago the government announced the draft of 11th national deveopment until 2023, the centenary year of TR. This draft includes the item on the possible legal arrangement for private unies. As a result, the government is still funding around 90% of HE sector in TR. Now, we are waiting to see what will happen after 11th development plan and the potential private unies in TR.
Given above, I can comment that a high internal de-privatisation generated a sort of privilege for HE sector, while no need for intensive external de-privarisation in the composition of TR HE.
Best,
B.
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researcher in anthropology of religions in Latin America. I published four books and more than one hundred articles. I don’t know well your kind of
organization. If you can give me more details, It would be welcome.
Cordially.
Marion Aubrée
(anthropologist in CRBC and CéSor in Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris)
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Why the latin american ornithology comunity isn't that impactful?
I am from Mexico and in my exchange program at Galicia, Spain, I observed that in Europe, there are a lot of scientific ornithology associations. There is even one per country.
I searched for the Mexican Ornithology Society, but I think recently it shut itself down.
Where can I network about ornithological topics in Mexico and Latin America?
What are the main Ornithological Societies in Latin America?
Do they fund PhD projects?
Thanks!
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Dear Oscar,
I suggest you to consider the Association of Field Ornithologists who promotes several research in Latin America
and also the Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia
Best
Michele
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Currently there is a tremendous debate in social networks around this issue, fueled by AMLO's request that the Vatican and the Spanish Crown apologize for the crimes committed during the Conquest.
The question is: did the colonizers killed millions of inhabitants of this continent or not (I exclude the millions who died from the diseases they brought, including the penultimate Inca, who died of smallpox without having seen a single Spaniard)? Then, if they were killed: was it genocide or not? There are those who use technical arguments to suggest that there were deaths, even many, but it was not genocide. Others say that you can not judge what was done then, with today's criteria; In all this, the centuries of exploitation of the resources of the continent with manpower, largely native, is not much discussed.
So here is the debate ...
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Since we judge the elimination by the Osmans on the Armenians as genocide, since we judge the war of the Germans vs the Herero tribe in 1904 in German Southwest Africa (today Namibia) as a genocide, then obviously the conquest in America was a genocide...technical argument
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The studies carried out by different scholars show that, in both Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), innovation processes, in their scientific and technological context, are ineffective. Therefore, it is difficult to create an appropriate environment for the development of new and better products and services in such a way that the whole helps the social and economic growth of these countries (de la Torre, 2014; Lederman et.al. 2014, CAF, 2013, World Bank, 2014). Despite some scholars describe the problem as systemic, is Wicked Problem (Rittel, 1973) an adequate framework to formulate these difficulties?
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Perhaps could be useful to read the following paper: Scientific systems in Latin America: performance, networks, and collaborations with industry https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10961-017-9631-7
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The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), also known as the One Belt One Road (OBOR) or the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road, is a development strategy adopted by the Chinese government involving infrastructure development and investments in 152 countries and international organizations in Europe, Asia, Middle East, Latin America and Africa.
The BRI is twelve times more than the Marshal Plan. Do you believe this initiative will change the world? Is your country joining this initiative? Why do you think the BRI is good or bad for your country?
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It depends on how you define the word "change". If you are referring to the life condition of people in certain areas, then probably this program will do. But if you mean Chinese government will be the new leader of the world, then definitely NO. China is by far unable to produce any cultural hegemony to confirm its status as a world leader. Look at Chinese people themselves. Aren't they trying hard to learn English so that one day they can go to study or even live in the USA?
If China cannot come up with its own system of cultural hegemony which is made up of a series of dominant discourses, BRI will be money down the drain. But it is still a good attemp to challenge USA, making it more aware of what it is to the world.
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I am working on a toolkit of social protection (SP) policies and programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean, and I am interested in knowing more about SP tools that have proved effective to protect individuals, families, and communities from the consequences of natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, etc.), especially in a developing country context. Thanks.
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it is a very broad topic. I would start with disaster risk reduction, which includes early warning, preparation and similar. Other issues are crops insurance for farmers and support for others in case of damages to properties. I also would check, if literature about the importance of social capital is available. This seems to be a very important field, which often is left out.
Maybe follow also the conference below, which will provide space to discuss case studies around this topic:
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Bario is famous for its rice. However, one of Bario’s hidden treasures is its salt, made from salt spring but sold in very little quantities at the local marketplace that its existence is not commonly known outside of Miri, even for the Sarawakians.
From a geological prospective, the more intriguing question is - where is the origin of the salt? The Late Charles Hutchison had suggested an evaporate origin but I believe so far there is no detail scientific investigation has been conducted on the mineral and isotopic composition of the salt, nor the brine that may have geological and climatic implications and shed some light on the tectonic evolution of the complex Sarawak hinterland.
Therefore, it would be greatly appreciated if friends and colleagues in RG can share some thoughts on the subject, or point to any publication available for references of other altiplano or highland salts found in Latin America’s Bolivia, Mexico or in Tibet.
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Franz-Luitpold Kessler Thanks for the feedback, hope to get more data from other highlands for comparison.
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There are few publications on overcrowding in the emergency department, especially in Latin America. NEDOCS is an instrument used frequently, but not applicable to our hospital. What other instruments can be applied.
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Are there studies about the importance of stock markets and their impact on the economic growth of Latin American countries?
Thanks for your help.
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please consult to finance-growth nexus!
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There are lot of scientific works and contributions on the cultural identity of Europe, Africa, Latin America, etc. What makes the Mediterranean different and how can be defined this Mediterranean identity?
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Definition is (a logically coherent) restriction. It means that features shared among many (or all) cannot serve as a starting point. It would be much better - and much more correct - to proceed with the definition of "identity" first.
Or, if not, we stay at the "Mediterranian diet" (with the exception of pork) as a basic conclusion.
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I have seen in the last decades in Latin America, that countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia, have move to try to organize national systems of research, in which the classification of research groups as well of researchers, is officially made in a periodical way. E.g. in Colombia, research groups, after criteria-based measurement (based mainly in article and other products historic and recent performance), classifies them in four levels: A1 (highest recognition), A, B and C. Also researchers as: junior, associate and senior (highest recognition). Then, my question is in which other countries, a national science agency classifies and certifies the research groups and researchers officially?
Recent results (2017) of classification of research groups and researchers in Colombia by the national agency Colciencias (in Spanish):
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Senior Researcher,
Research Group Public Health and Infection A1,
Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira,
Colombia.
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David you did not read my question in detail:
" I have seen in the last decades in Latin America, that countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia,..."
"In which other countries, a national science agency classifies and certifies the research groups and researchers officially?"
I am Senior Research of an A1 group, by Colciencias.
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Propose a discovery or hypothesis for the first time is important in science. Frequently, pioneering research is published in abstracts of scientific meetings (for example, the abstracts of the Society for Neuroscience). In these meetings, new, preliminary and / or controversial ideas are more welcome than in the journals and they are defended face to face...
Therefore, the publication of the title and the date of the abstract in the references of a paper is very important.
Is this a good reason to convince reviewers that they should accept abstracts in the references?
Why do some reviewers not accept this easily?
How many publications have really been withdrawn or rejected because of disagreements on this issue?
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Hi,
The mention of an abstract in the reference is important, mostly because not always a full research paper follows this abstract, and it is well known that abstracts are rarely cited, and if the abstract is not mentioned in any reference, its priority could be lost.
It is difficult to say how many papers were rejected on this issue , or why some reviewers do not accept this easily, maybe they are not aware what a rejection of this type of reference could cause.
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There is increasing evidence that, particularly after the 2007 crisis, land has become an important form of investment alternative to financial assets. The presence of large-scale land acquisitions in the Global South has important consequences on both environmental degradation and food security in the region.
There is also some evidence that wealth concentration has played an important role in the demand for risky financial assets which led to the 2007 financial crisis (e.g., see Goda & Lysandrou, 2014, "The contribution of wealth concentration to the subprime crisis". Cambridge Journal of Economics 38: 301-327).
I am interested in exploring whether, after the 2007 crisis, wealth concentration has been playing a role in the phenomenon of land grabbing in the Global South (particularly but not exclusively in Latin America).
Thank you all for your help!
Graziano
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Hi Graziano,
in Peru, the research has been mostly focused on the acquisition of large scale rural land by agricultural corporations and the subdivision of rural plots. You can see a publication in spanish in this link:
I also suggest to contact CEPES (http://www.cepes.org.pe/), which is an organization researching this topic and runs the Land Property Observatory (http://www.observatoriotierras.info/vigilancia/concentraci%C3%B3n-de-la-propiedad).
There are many big corporations involved on agro industry and urbanization at the same time, which is something curious. However, as far as I know, there is no recent research on urban land grabbing.
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Special issue on Mineral Deposits of Latin America and the Caribbean (Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana)
Heads up! We are intending to publish a special issue on Mineral Deposits of Latin America and the Caribbean in the Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana (BSGM, http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/). The BSGM is a completely free access semi-annual journal, the oldest strictly peer-reviewed journal on Earth Sciences in Mexico and one of the oldest in Latin America, and is included in the Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports, SciELO, Scopus, and in many other instruments. We do not aim to restrict our scope to any type of deposits or type of studies, and all contributions related to the formation of mineral deposits in Latin America, the Caribbean or conterminous regions are most welcome, from the regional to the mineral-association scales of observation and analysis. Both original research papers and original thematic reviews are welcome as either full-length papers or short notes. Both Industry and Academia authors are encouraged to submit their contributions. Contributions focused on mineral deposits from Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela and the Dominican Rep. are so far lined up! The guest editors to this special issue are · Joaquín A. Proenza (Universitat de Barcelona), · Lisard Torró (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú), and · Carl E. Nelson (Recursos del Caribe S.A.). All inquiries associated with this special issue or the journal itself are be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief of the BSGM (Antoni Camprubí, camprubitaga@gmail.com). Contributions can be written in either English or Spanish, and must adhere to our instructions to authors (http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/index.php/instrucciones-instructions). We apply no restrictions with regard to number of pages, number of figures or tables (other than those determined by our valued scientific reviewers), and we do not charge for coloured figures of for any other matter. First, we need to have a precise idea of how many contributions can be effectively expected for this call for papers; therefore, we need the interested contributors to kindly provide a tentative title, a list of authors (with their institution names and contact emails), and a 300-word synopsis of their intended contributions. Important dates: · November 3, 2018: deadline for submittal of tentative title, author list and synopsis. · May 31, 2019: deadline for submittal of original manuscripts · August 31, 2019: deadline for all revisions by peers of submitted manuscripts. · October 31, 2019: deadline for submittal of revised manuscripts. · April 30, 2020: deadline for online publication of all accepted contributions. The dates above are only tentative and may be corrected depending on the amount of contributions to this issue. Any changes in schedule will be notified to all contributors as soon as necessary. Do not hesitate to forward this message to any colleagues you may consider to have a potential interest in this special issue. We will surely be most grateful to you for your help in disseminating this information.
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It is all about mineral deposits of any type in Latin America and the Caribbean and that is the only restriction we have thought of. One may send contributions at any scale of study regardless of their focus, whether it is mineralogy, the characteristics of mineralizing fluids (or their sources), timing of mineralization, local metallogeny, regional metallogeny, etc. Or all the above at once.
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Actually, we are developing a research based on the theme of smart cities for latin american settlements and specially informal settlements, with an specifical methodology for upgrading quality of life and housing through technology in this areas. This question is a main-core research question and seeks for a general approach of researchers, architects and urban planners on how we can come to an agreement, facing different aspects, always taking in account the idea of sustainability in smart cities and neighborhoods. Thank you very much.
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Hello Kamila, oh thank you very much for your kind words, in fact community participatory approach and co-creation would give appropriation and a sense of meaning on its citizens life's, a very meaningful way to build a community in a neighborhood. Best wishes...!
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Are there any researches about preschool childcare in Latin America? Next year I plan to start a project about preschool childcare systems in different countries and their influence on the economic development. There are a lot of information about the Asian and European countries and few articles about Latin America.
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An interesting reference:
Early Childhood Education and Development in Latin America
R Mejía-Arauz, G Quiñones - International Handbook of Early Childhood …, 2018 - Springer
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There is increasing evidence that, particularly after the 2007 crisis, land has become an important form of investment alternative to financial assets. The presence of large-scale land acquisitions in the Global South has important consequences on both environmental degradation and food security in the region.There is also some evidence that wealth concentration has played an important role in the demand for risky financial assets which led to the 2007 financial crisis (e.g., see Goda & Lysandrou, 2014, "The contribution of wealth concentration to the subprime crisis". Cambridge Journal of Economics 38: 301-327).I am interested in exploring whether, after the 2007 crisis, wealth concentration has been playing a role in the phenomenon of land grabbing in the Global South (particularly but not exclusively in Latin America).
Thank you all for your help!
Graziano
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Will you have plans to extend your work in Latin America? Please, I am at your disposal if you wish to work in Venezuela
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Thanks Andrew. I have just forwarded on the email I sent in September to the addresses you have provided. I look forward to hearing from you.
Best wishes
Adam
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Yesterday the Brazilian courts upheld the corruption charges against Lula the front runner for the looming elections:
Also recently the Spanish courts upheld the imprisonment of the victorious Catalan nationalist leaders:
Questions:
Are the courts independent?
Are the charges against them 'politically motivated'?
Do we see a trend emerging here around politics and democracy?
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'political judgements cloaked in the language of constitutional principles'
yes indeed!
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I have done similar regarding security policies in Latin America.
Adrian.
Resumen.
A partir de consideraciones sobre la metáfora e instalados en la perspectiva de la fenomenología de la percepción de Merleau-Ponty y de Ch. S. Peirce, que sugieren un sustento conceptual para el análisis de la seguridad en sus dimensiones objetividad y subjetividad, el propósito de este ensayo es el de demostrar que el ensanchamiento o acotamiento de la hermenéutica de la seguridad se inscribe en el dominio de los procesos analógicos del concepto y su transposición a dominios intersubjetivos que permiten la vinculación de lo objetivo con lo subjetivo a partir de su concreción en racionalidades textuales ¾interpretantes¾que instauran mundos posibles de la individualidad a la colectividad y viceversa: el ciudadano, la sociedad, estado.
En este encuadre, el objetivo del artículo es dar respuesta a la interrogante ¿Cuál es la racionalidad del uso de las fuerzas armadas en el combate a la inseguridad en América Latina y cuál es la percepción de confianza ciudadana en estas? El soporte no reside sólo en la hermenéutica del objeto de seguridad convertida en ley, se sustenta en procesos textuales jurídicos temporales y topológicos que transitan de la objetividad a la subjetividad y a la intersubjetividad convertidos modalidades jurídicas que responden a circunstancias securitarias específicas. De ahí su fortaleza política y social.
Para dar sustento a estos supuestos, el estudio examina las normativas primarias y secundarias securitaria que dan soporte a las políticas de seguridad y justifican el uso de las fuerzas militares en el combate al crimen organizado. El universo empírico del estudio lo conforman México y diez países sudamericanos.
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Are you kidding?
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Hi,
We are looking for some information on the traditional and folk medicinal uses of the plant lemon verbena (Aloysia citrodora, syn. Lippia citrodora) in Latin America. Can anyone help? All types of documents including articles, books, theses, and unpublished data would be helpful.
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There is increasing evidence on the effects of deindustrialization in middle-income economies, particularly in the countries of Latin America. These countries affected by deindustrialization are increasingly faced with declining share of GDP in their manufacturing sector and the share of manufacturing employment due to changes in their economic policies and practices (Palma, 2005).
Additionally, in recent decades, some advanced economies have recorded a significant decline in manufacturing sector's share of GDP and the share of manufacturing employment (Tregenna, 2011).
Trade and financial liberalization have caused problems to developing countries in terms of an inverse relationship between the employment in the manufacturing sector and income per capita.
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Premature de-industrialization is a current debate in Brazil. I would point out, offering a less gloomy view, that this is a natural consequence of the decrease of the industrial sector share in the total GDP, as a country continues to grow. There is a non-linear relationship between GDP per capta and industry as a share of GDP. As a consequence, resources, including labor force, might be transfered out of the industrial sector toward activities, such as services. This is also a natural consequence of urbanization, following industrialization. The challenge of these transition economies is to foster a more productive service sector so that the de-industrialization brings about a service based economy, based in high end and knowledge intensive activieties. Thing about IT and logistic sectors, which are service based. Trade liberalization, although might contribute to shuting down innefficient industries might spur demand for other kind of manufacturing goods, for instance, capital goods, that may end up helping several industrial activities.
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I am starting research on the costs and benefits of small to micro-grid scale renewables electrification in off-gird rural regions of developing countries, in particular Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa.
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hi
Kanase-Patil, A. B., Saini, R. P., & Sharma, M. P. (2010). Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area. Renewable Energy, 35(6), 1342-1349.
Urmee, T., Harries, D., & Schlapfer, A. (2009). Issues related to rural electrification using renewable energy in developing countries of Asia and Pacific. Renewable Energy, 34(2), 354-357.
Ahlborg, H., & Hammar, L. (2014). Drivers and barriers to rural electrification in Tanzania and Mozambique–Grid-extension, off-grid, and renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy, 61, 117-124.
Byrne, J., Shen, B., & Wallace, W. (1998). The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: a study of renewable energy in rural China. Energy policy, 26(1), 45-54.
Nguyen, K. Q. (2007). Alternatives to grid extension for rural electrification: Decentralized renewable energy technologies in Vietnam. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2579-2589.
Beck, F., & Martinot, E. (2004). Renewable energy policies and barriers. Encyclopedia of energy, 5(7), 365-383.
Mahapatra, S., & Dasappa, S. (2012). Rural electrification: optimising the choice between decentralised renewable energy sources and grid extension. Energy for Sustainable Development, 16(2), 146-154.
Winkler, H. (2005). Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity. Energy Policy, 33(1), 27-38.
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Dear all,
Just a question about civil war in Latin America. Did Nicaraguan civil war (1979-1990) and Guatemalan civil war (1960-1996) take place across their whole territory?
Btw, is it correct to call what happened in Nicaragua and Guatemala as civil war but what happened in Colombia (FARC) and Peru (Shining Path) as low-intensity guerrilla war/armed conflicts?
My reasoning is that the relative intensity of the wars in Nicaragua and Guatemala is heavier than those in Colombia and Peru.
but I am not sure if I am right.
Thank you!
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Dear Yue,
Re: your first question about the territorial scope of the armed conflicts in Nicaragua and Guatemala, I would say that both conflicts did not encompass the whole national territory. Rather, they were regionally focused, although the regional dynamics changed of course over the course of the wars. In Guatemala, for instance, the 'scorched earth' strategy of the military and military-sponsored governments of the late 1970s and early 1980s, which implied massive human rights violations, was focused on the indigenous highland regions north of Guatemala City. In Nicaragua, most of the fighting between the Ejercito Popular Sandinista and the 'contras' took place in the northern parts of the country, though there was also a violent challenge to the Sandinista regime in the south. I analyse these wars in some depth in my book 'Pacficacion y poder civil en Centroamerica', which is on ResearchGate.
Re: your second question, in my work I conceptualize the wars in Guatemala and Nicaragua as 'anti-regime wars', which I believe is more accurate than the term 'civil war'. The armed conflict in Colombia, by contrast, has been conceptualized by French scholar Daniel Pecaut as a 'war against society' (guerra contra la sociedad). This term speaks to the hybrid nature of the war in Colombia, which evolved from its beginnings in the 1960s to something quite different in the 1980s and 1990s, when the insurgents began making an appearance on the national scene and drugs and drug trafficking (and US-led counter-drug 'efforts') started hitting the country hard, alongside the emergence of the infamous paramilitaries. As is clearly shown in the Basta Ya report of the National Centre for Historical Memory (2013), most of the more than 220,000 fatal victims of the armed conflict in Colombia are civilian (and millions more were displaced and otherwise victimized). They were killed by the paramilitaries, the insurgents, organized crime and the state armed forces. Were the wars in Nicaragua and Guatemala more 'intense' than the one in Colombia? It's difficult to say. In terms of ratio of fatal victims/population, probably yes, especially in Guatemala. But then the wars in the isthmus represented quite different types of wars when compared to the Colombian conflict. I would think that the Colombian conflict was - and is - more 'complex', in terms of the actors and interests involved as well as the historical moment in which it has been playing out - than the (end of Cold War) wars in Central America.
Hope this is helpful.
Markus
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In the 1950s, many Latin American countries experienced pro-poor reforms implemented by populist parties, like the Justicialist Party in Argentine, the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement in Bolivia, and the Brazilian Labour Party.
So can I say that the 1950s is a "golden age" for Latin America in terms of welfare and development?
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That is an interesting question Yue.
I am inclined to agree with Maria Amparo and Nikola but.....
The 1950s were not the disaster that later economists in the 1980s said. Correct
But we cannot go back to the 1950s either, so maybe a golden era but not necessarily relevant today?
Please see Chapter 4 in the attached book which tries to evaluate the 1950s but also before and after
Best wishes for your research!
Ronaldo
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My Spanish translator and I are trying to find a good, neutral Latin American translation for "kickbacks." In Mexico, I translate it "moche." She identifies "coimas" as more widespread. If you live in a Spanish-speaking country in Latin America, please tell me how this term is usually translated where you live. For clarity, an example: a kickback is employed when a public servant (or firm employee) receives a percentage of a contract's value, in exchange for assigning the contract to the firm that pays the kickback.
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Pablo is correct
Formal: Soborno.
Less formal: Coima.
But I think any discussion of corruption which is what we are talking about starts from establishing the high level operation of this phenomenon in Brasil for example and the local 'low level' supplementing of the salary by low paid civil servants. They are qualitatively different socially, morally and politically.
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I am a researcher, educator, counselor and Cognitive Behavioral Therapist. interested so see what is done in this field in Mexico and Latin America. I currently serve as President of Universidad Hebraica in Mexico.
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Research on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Mexico and Latin America
Please let me know if these references/sites are helpful to you:
1. Redalyc.Is Culturally Sensitive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy an ...
by LT Benuto - ‎2015 - ‎Cited by 6 - ‎Related articles Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and ... (whereby “culturally sensitive” was defined as any study that included a ... using conventional cognitive behavioral therapy; 3) there is little evidence ...... Utilization of health services by Mexican immigrant ....
prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br04.pdf. 2. Redalyc.Open Access Scientific Evidence of Cognitive Behavioral
www.redalyc.org/pdf/1332/133248870010.pdf by L Gómez-de-Regil - ‎2016 - ‎Related articles
Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal ... Fibromyalgia, Psychotherapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, CBT, Open Access. ... Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de la Península de Yucatán, México ..... (Sánchez et al., 2012)
http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/337/33723038003.pdf.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Recently, I was surprised because in my city, a private university, has funded a project which title/objective is to assess the efficacy of an antimicrobial therapy for an indication which has been demonstrated effectively enough for more than 3 decades, even included in multiple systematic reviews and meta-analysis (included Cochrane), as well clinical evidence-based guidelines. Then, the only justification is in the city this has not been done, but, what would be really different from the rest of the World, Latin America and other multiple cities in Colombia???
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Sometimes it can be a matter of a new perspective to an old problem. It happens, in example, when a phenomenon has been extensively approached in quantitative means but lacks of qualitative explanation (o viceversa).
Under that understanding I would provide funding.
Also when basic but not aplied knowledge is vast in a certain theme, it would be enoughly justified to provide funding to actually develop applied research for problem solution.
But in the absence of a new approach or a new topic, funding would not be pertinent.
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I have been asked this question several times. My answer was (more or less) that there is no real difference concerning the theoretical background - it is more about the geographical place, where the different ways of thinking were developed. The decolonial branch is Latin-american, closely tied to the "Grupo Modernidad/Decolonialidad" (even if it does not exist, as its members claim) around people such as Mignolo or Quijano. The postcolonial branch is older and has been developed in India and/or by Indians, tied to groups such as the "Subaltern Studies Group". What do you say? Is post-colonial and decolonial thinking basically the same? Is the decolonial branch a copy, an adaptation of the Indian theories?
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The obvious difference is that while both theories criticize colonial rule on the so-called "Third-World" countries, each theory emerged in different socio-historical contexts. But the more important difference is that Decolonial Theory takes on a more profound approach to Colonialism than Post-colonial Theory. Among other things, Decolonialism proposes that "Coloniality of power" (Quijano, 2000) did not end with Colonialism, that is to say,  the Modern capitalist World-system imposes a racial/ethnic classification of people around the world as a basis of its power structures, and that directly relates to the international division of labor where places like (what is now called) Latin-America take on the roll of exporting primary resources. This process goes on long after direct Imperial rule (political rule) is abolished.
Capitalism is viewed as a system that only came to exist thanks to the colonization of (what is now called) Latin-America and the exploitation of its natural resources that served as the material basis of Europe’s industrial revolution, and also thanks to the construction of an “otherness” different from the white European subject that came with colonization, interpreting capitalist power structures as a "heterachy", not like a base/superstructure system in classic Marxist Theory, nor like a cultural significance system, like in Post-structural/colonial Theory. Here, Decolonialism is influenced by, on one side, Latin-American Marxist Dependence Theory and World-system Theory, and, on the other, by Post-colonial/Post-structural discourse critique, while at the same time challenging them for being rooted in Cartesian dualism that draws a binary opposition between discourse/economy and subject/structure. Culture and political economy are always intertwined, one is not derived from the other (Castro-Gomez, 2007).
Decolonialism also proposes that Coloniality is "the other side of the coin” of the European Modenity proyect, that territories like what is now called Latin-America are not “premodern”, but rather have been included in that same Modernity proyect but in a “subalternized” (not sure if that’s the correct word for it in English) position. Modernity cannot exist without Coliniality, just like in Capitalism there cannot be a wealthy class of people without a simultaneously empoverished class, and that happens at both the national and international level.
From the critique of European Modernity from this position, emerges a critique of political, economic, social and cultural thought constructions influenced by European epistemic criteria and a call for the construction of a new epistemology "from the South". Post-colonial Studies are challenged by Decolonialism for maintaining European points of reference (the above mentioned Cartesian dualism) even though they also criticize Modernity, with authors like Santiago Castro-Gomez calling for the need to “decolonialize postcolonialism”.
There are a lot more things to say about the differences between Decolonialism and Postcolonialism (for example, Decolonialism's roll on the critique of Development Theory as a whole) but I think these are, more or less, the main elements.
PS: Rajamanickam's comment (with all due respect) is a very good example of what Decolonialism criticizes. It also shows a fair amount of ignorance of Latin-American history, or better yet, a very colonialized knowledge.
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China's systemic penetration in the region.
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As perhaps you know from my publications, I would recommend starting in Peru. It is a relatively small economy (or medium-sized for Latin America) but has special conditions that make it an interesting case, and has become something of a "poster child" for China's engagement in Latin America.
Methodologically, I think it is vital that you look at China's foreign policy and its priorities globally, because the idea of "systemic relation" seems to presuppose a number of things that may not fully explain China's world view.
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I've made an intercise review about the principal debates on youth in the field of sociology, however I've found just some discussions regarding the importance of the topic for the social sciences, and some reflexions about it. But I still can´t find any current author or school who has a solid theory about it. What are the current theories for childhood and youth studies?
The others variables with which I'd like to study the theme of childood and youth, are the socialization processes, the sub-cultures or values of the youth, the migration and communication, mass media and the social networks. 
Thank you in advance!!!
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Kevin, here are two sources but they will lead you to many other sources:
If you have other questions or would like other resources, I will dig into my own library.
MHC
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The phrase 'mulata toribia' refers specifically to Encarnación Ezcurra de Rosas, the wife of the notorious dictator, Juan Manuel de Rosas. It was used as an insult by her enemies, the Unitarians. 'Mulata' refers to her dark hair and skin but 'toribia' is not as easy to define. I have looked at some explanations suggesting that it means 'controlling', 'domineering', 'spiritually aware', 'intelligent' and 'determined', but I am unsure as to whether any of these translations are accurate. Any further advice on this matter would be much appreciated. Thank you. 
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Is the 't' in toribia in lower case? As I am sure you know, Toribia is a proper name. There is even a beate of that name. Although I do not know if the reference belongs to a certain person, I venture to suggest as a starting point for your research that such names were mostly given to people of the lower social classes (as it still happens today), so that it must have been somewhat of a pleonasm or generic term to call someone a mulata Toribia, something akin to calling someone an "india María"
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I am studying the promotion of Social Innovation in Latin America as a enabler of social inclusion and the consequently decrease of urban violence.
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I can think of a friend of mine in Brazil who is familiar with this topic: Carla Cipolla (you can find her through Researchgate). You might also want to look at the cases of CEPTED.
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I am studying the Latin America economic policies using the complexity perspective. My hypothesis is that in the cases of Neoliberal policies, there is a universal primacy to the market, but much differences in the other dimensions of the public policy. I attribute those differences significantly to the degree of complexity of the society. 
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America Inclusion, Visual, Socialism, Investigation
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Yes, I am from Colombia, I read Spanish
What do you recoment me?
Visit web page from Argentina and Brazil?
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This question aims at comparing impact of climate change on household in different continents. What is the most most recent finding?
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I know well about the fate of the Kiribati islanders who has relocated their homes many times away from the rising seas. They have lost their limited crop land. They have imported garbage from the USA (including old school buses) to build sea-walls that have proven to be no match for the rising seas; they are going under water, too!
I understand there is no consensus on how much the sea has risen recently.
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I have a list of threatened birds of Peru and Colombia, but I need of another countries
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thank you Rafael
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