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Questions related to Language Teaching
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Can anyone recommend a journal for submission? I am particularly looking for journals that (i) accept pieces in the 800 to 2000 word range, and (ii) that have no publication fees.
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Wiley also
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Dear fellow teachers,
I'm conducting a research project on the challenges of online teaching. Could you please devote up to 15 min. to complete an anonymous questionnaire? This questionnaire gives you an opportunity to express your difficulties and hopes related to teaching English online.
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  • Lack of interaction between teacher and students.
  • Lack of knowledge and distraction.
  • Internet connection problem.
  • Students are not able to learn with punctuality.
  • Technical issues.
  • Lack of discipline
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Will the development of artificial intelligence, e-learning, Internet of Things and other information technologies increase the scope of automation and standardization of didactic processes, which could result in the replacement of a teacher by robots?
Unfortunately, there is a danger that due to the development of artificial intelligence, e-learning, learning machines, the Internet of Things, etc. technology can replace the teacher in the future. However, this will not happen in the next few years, but this scenario can not be excluded in the perspective of several decades. In addition, the work of the teacher is a creative work, a social education, etc. Currently, it is assumed that artificial intelligence will not be able to fully replace a human teacher, because it is now assumed that you can not teach artistry machine, social sensitivity, emotional intelligence, empathy, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, the following question is valid:
Will the development of artificial intelligence, e-learning, Internet of Things and other information technologies increase the scope of automation and standardization of didactic processes, which could result in the replacement of a teacher by robots?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Ningún robot puede sustituir el papel del profesor en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje. El profesor piensa y tiene ltiene una memoria superior a cualquier robot.
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I am planning to measure teacher stress in my research. One valid and reliable instrument I believe I have found is Teacher Stress Inventory by Michael J. Fimian (1984).
I was wondering if this measure/instrument is in the public domain and can be used just by citing the author and publication or should it be purchased?
Moreover, where can I have access to this questionnaire?
Best,
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It can be downloaded here: https://bit.ly/2TOJCs0
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Due to the pandemic, online teaching is the best alternative we have. Now, we are facing questions about the effectiveness of online language teaching. How much is online language teaching effective?
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When learning a language, the main focus should be on practice (to communicate more in the language you are learning, even if you speak with small mistakes. Later, you will also achieve the correction of these errors) it is worth paying attention. Secondly, it will have a great effect on you if the people around you also speak this language. Most linguists (that is, language training specialists) do not initially pay much attention to grammar, what is important is that you can speak the language you want to learn.
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language teaching , language learning, covid19 pandemic
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I believe that the concept of teaching, in general, has radically changed. Language teaching has had the hardest blow. Language teaching depends on the four skills. With distance learning, these have turned into a mammoth task. It is very difficult to secure the language four skills with large groups mostly suffering because of the lack of infrastructure needed for any teaching.
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I've created a list of freeware software which was accessed by thousands of people in the last 4 months.
Can you recommend any other free software which can be useful for educators and learners?
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Language teachers at UTP (Language Department) are increasingly interested in the role of academic papers in the development of language (English) teaching practices. Research papers in Academic Discourse are attracting the attention on many language teachers interested in fostering their teaching experiences.
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Critical Discourse Analysis in Education and ESL Classroom
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Research in FLT has always been concerned with the role of memory in learning and the relationship between memorization and learning.
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I would like to say none. But that wouldn't be true. The more words you know the better you communicate in a language. Therefore, learning may be memorizing about 500 common words is perfectly possible. This and more is explained in The Word Brain by Bernd Sebastian Kamps http://www.thewordbrain.com/
But in Josh Kaufman's new book the first 20 hours, there does not seem to be a lot of memorization.
In today's digital world watching subtitled video even if you know nothing in the beginning seems really fast and a more natural immersion. For example, watching Spanish TED talks or Narcos with Spanish subtitles strangely improves both reading speed and pronunciation astoundingly. But we are talking many more hours than in a traditional classroom. The trick is how to integrate this technology into your courses
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Due to the pandemic crisis, institutions opted for an unplanned online teaching for the safety of its students.
While some believe that emergency remote teaching is as effective as other types of online teaching, others argue that this unplanned procedure diminished the effectiveness of distance learning and would hardly lead to ultimate success.
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Elearning "per se" is a teaching technique with a learning theory and a teaching philosophy, Prof. Jouhaina Ouachtati.
Emergent remote learning due to CoV - 19 is just a mess, at least in my country.
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Each method in teaching a language has its merits and demerits. Is there an ideal method by which the learners master the language easily and quickly?
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The best way is to develop skills and learn through tasting the text, treating it, and discovering what rules and rules exist, meaning not to learn the rules directly.
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English Business Communication and Soft skills became the necessary basis for doing business in the global digital era. Wherever business communication fails, the business loses money and becomes a failing business. Therefore the real-world communication cases for Professional and Business English should be the main focus of corporate training and university teaching.
Eventually, as teachers and trainers, we are supposed to get our students and clients prepared for the real-world scenarios of online communication, which is a basic acceptable level for Business Communication these days. Bringing students into the curriculum building process makes them co-own the learning responsibility and increases the involvement and satisfaction from the course, it works at corporate classes, language schools/departments and even in universities with strictly licensed curriculums.
In order to fight the possible uncertainty and impostor syndrome, getting to know who the students are and what exactly are their learning goals does help to create a crafted, authentic course. The problem with Teaching Professional English is always to understand and more importantly to make stakeholders and end-users understand that you are not supposed to be a certified Software Engineer, HR specialist or MD in Pediatrics to teach the specialists business communication tactics or practice how to use the immediate real-life situations and sources as learning leverage.
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Dear Yuliya,
Very practical discussion.
But the solution is very very problematic.
Learning any language to communicate for our daily needs is one thing.
And,
The language for a particular purpose is different.
I mean , we can learn English for communicating by a process and we need practice to speak.
But, whenever we think related to a particular subject based language, basically English , the terms used are totally different.
Each subject has its special terms.
Medical persons use medical terminology, Physics people use Physics terminology and so on.
It is not possible to know all these for any person ( I feel ).
Similarly, for business, there are different terminologies.
All the terms are there in 12 Vol vast Oxford Dictionary.
So, I think , there is a problem . This is for any language.
Thanks
N Das
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Grammar items can be acquired incedently through the natural use of language for communication, yet my learners do not respond well interaction-based activitie and they constantly ask for grammar based lessons where the rules are explicitly explained.
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Both form and function are important in order to be a proficient user of the language. However, I would say that the first goal for learners is to communicate. For that purpose, teachers must put students in scenarios where they really need to communicate in the target language, this is, use the language with a clear purpose. Teachers must provide the necessary vocabulary and structures to achieve the communicative goal. So function comes first, then accuracy and form come afterwards.
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Since the decline of audiolingualism, there was bias towards speech in language teaching for communicative ends. Though, the stress on speaking rather than writing produces fluent but inaccurate learners (Hughes, 1983).
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Learning to speak comes first, in all evolutionary terms for the human species.
Writing (numbers included) is there and emerged to solidify our language foundation and communication.
It has factually a mental function to be precise, exact and clear=understandable over a distance. However, as we know from language archeology, it is not an easy task to re-translate a written text into spoken language, if the line of tradition got somehow lost, e.g. we can read Plato, but have no authentic phonetics. This is especially critical with sacred texts, where authorities claim to be orthodox.
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I am looking for research or any names and books related to teaching English or any other language in multilingual classrooms.
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Here are some references to start with:
Danping Wang. Multilingualism and Translanguaging in Chinese Language Classrooms. Palgrave, 2019.
Ofelia García, Angel M. Y. Lin, Stephen May (eds). Bilingual and Multilingual Education. 2017.
Ofelia Garcia, Wayne E. Wright, Sovicheth Boun (eds). The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education. 2015.
Christine Hélot & Muiris Ó Laoire. Language Policy for the Multilingual Classroom: Pedagogy of the Possible. 2011.
Kathy Mills. The multiliteracies classroom. 2011.
John Edwards. Language Diversity in the Classroom (Bilingual Education and Bilingualism). 2009.
Colin Baker. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 2001.
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I would like to know what experts think about the current regulations of educational work and the influence that these laws have on the health of the education professional.
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Dear Mushtaq
I believe that these drawbacks that are manifested on a global scale are aggravated by the absence of more comprehensive theoretical studies that allow to adequately support the scientific direction of the work of teachers as a differentiated work group.
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I am looking for leading research reviews and state of the art on speaking and/or listening? In addition, I will be grateful if you could refer me to leading research on communicative approach in the first language teaching?
Thanks in advance.
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If your interest in the art of speaking & listening is pedagogical, you might find the following References of use to you:
Thang, Art. Reconceptualizing Speaking, Listening, and Pronunciation: Glocalizing TESOL in the Contexts of World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca. 2019.
Davenport, Eric. Communication How to Speak Effectively and Improve Your Relationships, Listening, and Social Skills. 2016.
Palmer, Erik. Teaching the Core Skills of Listening and Speaking. 2013.
————-Own Any Occasion: Mastering the Art of Speaking and Presenting. 2017.
Best Wishes
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Beyond needs assessment, what strategies do you use to encourage the sharing of more personal experiences and observations by learners during in-class discussions?
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I think it could be related to the need of an adult student, with some future employment opportunity in a country of a different language than the one of their origin. This experience could be integrated through student exchange programs between institutions that collaborate in making this type of link.
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In Algeria, many teachers of deaf children are the ones who have obtained a BA or an MA in any field ( e.g. art, history, sociology, psychology, mathematics ). In general, they may have zero experience in teaching and most of them know nothing about sign languages. In addition, interpreters are not involved during classes in order to facilitate communication between hearing teachers and hard of hearing/ deaf children.
The new teachers receive 15 days of training in which they learn about some basic information about sign Languages ( alphabets and few signs, for example)
Does this mean that these teachers are qualified to teach?
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I recommend thih link for you:
I recommend this link for you:
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Mixed-ability can refer to classes in which there are clear differences in language level, learning style, learning speed, aptitude, students’ background knowledge, and motivation. In this context, every student who is learning a language can be different in language level among other students. Thus, students may have different capabilities to grasp the lesson during the teaching process in the class. According to Ireson & Hallam (2001), “teachers need to recognize that a class is a mixed ability because children have different strengths and weaknesses and develop at different rates.”
In Indonesia, English is a foreign language which is taught and learned only in classrooms or additional English courses outside school. In this case, students may have some problems such as less proficient English ability because people in Indonesia rarely use English as a tool of communication. Also, teachers in dealing mixed- ability classes may have an ineffective learning classroom from both students and teachers.
Dealing with this issue, Mixed-ability students have their own learning style and preferences in learning a language. In this context, I would like to have your opinion of the following question:
What strategies would be effective to handle mixed-ability students in learning English as a foreign language?
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Always have a range of follow-up activities for stronger students, who may be paired together, which they can complete while lower level students are still working on initial activities. Stronger students may welcome more autonomy, but they also need to feel they are learning something from the lesson, even while you may be occupied with further explanation to lower level students.
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Hi everyone, I’m looking for responses To my question above. Moreover, In what way(s), do you think, these concepts can be applied in language teaching?
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Linguistic Competence By Noam Chomsky is somewhat similar to Saussure’s concept of language and parole. Competence, by Chomsky,refers to the native speaker’s knowledge of his language, the system of rules, his ability to produce and understand.. Performance on the other hans is the study of the system of rules; performance is the study of actual sentences themselves, of the actual use of the language in real-life situation. So the speaker’s knowledge of the structure of language is his linguistic competence and the way in which it is uses his linguistic performance. Refined as before, competence is an underlying mental system underlying actual behavior, linguistic institution ability to analyze language, ignoring mistakes, understanding new sentences, even producing new sentences. In short, competence is a set of principles which a speaker masters, performance is what a speaker does. As competence is a kind of code, performance is an act of encoding or decoding. Competence concerns the kind of structures the person has succeeded in mastering and internalizing, whether or not he utilizes them, in practice, without interference from the many of the factors that play a role in actual behavior. For anyone concerned with intellectual processes, or any question that goes beyond mere date arranging, it is the question of competence that is fundamental. Obviously one can find out about competence only by studying performance. In this ways the abstract, internal grammar which enables a speaker to utter and understand an infinite number of potential utterances is a speaker’s competence.
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I'd like to conduct my study using narratives focusing on morphological errors, use of complex syntax and narrative structure, vocabulary etc. Did you use CHILDES and CLAN? And did you compare your findings with which norms? So far I haven't found many documents useful to help me in carrying out this research with Italian children. The only norms I've found are American or Spanish. Can anyone please help me?
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Following.
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I am looking for papers (articles / chapters / presentations) which report on studies that examined the grammatical knowledge/awareness of teachers of English as a foreign/second language (ELT / TESOL) or teachers of English to L1 primary/secondary students. Please note that I am interested in the grammatical knowledge of *practising* teachers -- not trainee teachers.
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In order to correct the grammatical mistakes the EFLU has proposed a course where the people can learn and teach better way.
some scholars are doing research about this and they are in the progress.
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With coronavirus pushing education to use webcam-based classes, I would like to like to know how the learning ecologies and semiotics of language learning change? What effect does the change from face-to-face presence to virtual presence have?
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De mon cote je mise paradoxalement sur le cote interactif via le on-line. Ma strategie est, 1)classe inversee + 2)counseling en ligne pour préserver le cote humain et utile de l'interaction à distance. Contrepartie, divier la classe en petits groupes pour faciliter les echanges, comme on le fait parfois avec des classes a niveaux heterogenes. Chaque problematique nouvelle cree ses solutions.
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Dear Colleague,
It would be your generosity to respond to the questionnaires and also distribute it among your colleagues, students, and networks.
We would like to ask you if you would be so kind as to complete the following online questionnaires of a cross-cultural research study designed to investigate the relationship between CALL literacy and the attitudes of language teachers and students towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Teachers and students who have previously answered the questionnaire say that it took about 10-20 minutes to do so. Your help would be very much appreciated.
Be sure that all the personal data provided from the questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential in our reports. Your personal data will not be disclosed nor used for any other purpose than educational research.
As a cross-cultural study, I need a good number of data from different countries. Please circulate this post through your networks.
Your input is really important for our study.
If you are both a teacher and a student please respond to both questionnaires.
Thank you in advance for your help and cooperation.
Regards,
Dara Tafazoli
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
Cristina A. Huertas Abril
University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
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Gladly! And I'll convey your questionnaire to my students as well.
Interesting questionnaire although quite long, but I hope your project will benefit from that.
I wish you good luck with your research!
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You may have heard about Mindset Theory developed by Carol Dweck. The theory proposes that fixed mindset refers to the beliefs that one’s level of intelligence is immutable. In other words, it is something inborn and cannot be changed. On the other hand, growth mindsets are the beliefs dedicated practice and effective study skills help be develop intelligence.
What do you think as language teachers / researchers: If a teacher has a fixed mindset about language learning, that it, if a student has the talent, s/he can learn the language, is it likely to promote growth mindset in the classroom? Or if a teacher has a growth mindset, is it likely for him/her to change the attitude (and mindset) of students with fixed mindsets?
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I believe, not only possible, but the teacher has to be competent in mindset management.
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I am doing a quasi-experimental research in the field of second language teaching. Could any experts share some information on how to distinguish between multi-method and mixed-method. It would be better if anyone could share any articles/books on these two methods. Thanks in advance.
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Mixed methods means mixing both qualitative and quantative data together whereas multi method focuses on collecting only one type of data using more than one instrument.
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Aside from the teacher-centered, student-centered, and subject-centered approaches to teaching, what are the approaches that transcend 'centered classroom'? In other words, does the classroom have to be centered on one of the three angles of the didactic triangle (i.e., teacher, student, and knowledge)?
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without classroom none of these is possible. Classroom environment is consider in teaching and learning. Classroom is to be consider for better understanding.
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Hi everyone. I'm actually doing a study on the teaching of sociolinguistic competence. I'd like to know what you think of research on the area of sociolinguistic competence.
I noticed that more people focus specifically on speech acts. I understand that speech acts also falls under pragmatic competence (if you're referring to Bachman). I have an opinion that maybe people prefer to do studies on speech acts (and not other aspects of sociolinguistic competence) because they are more easily measurable and observable.
What do you think?
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Interesting question! Here are my thoughts (apologies if I misunderstood what you are after).
To begin with the obvious, ‘sociolinguistic competence’ should encompass something more than linguistic competence, i.e. mainstream accounts on grammatical skills, etc. ‘Something more’ here means social aspects within and beyond the speaking subject. This could be, for example, the social skill of knowing what to do with linguistic skills; that is, the speaking subject’s ability to make use of the resources s/he has acquired, in ways which others will find socially acceptable. I would recommend looking into the work of Hymes and Bourdieu, as they were among the first to break with purely linguistic accounts, so as to additionally account for the social. A lot of good research has later come out of that, I think. In my view, ‘pragmatic competence’, ’communicative competence’, and the like, are all sociolinguistic competences. It is thus a wide field of inquiry.
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Leaving 20 years behind in teaching profession, I have met various students with different personalities, talents, preferences and lifestyles. Now we have the millennials in our language classrooms and I find them quite different from the previous generation.
Do you find it challenging to teach Gen Z? What do you experience with them in your classrooms? What methods work best, what not? Any suggestions to teach them better?
I'd appreciate your contribution.
Thanks
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Thank you very much Alron Kevin Agapito Arzaga and
Debra Sharon Ferdinand-James
for your responses. Gen Z are in our classrooms right now, so Mary F. Rice I've used the wrong generation name in the question. Thank you for pointing this out.
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How it is possible to overcome while dealing with different languages in teaching learning process. In some countries different languages are used for teaching and learning. how its possible to deal without disturbing the local languages. In Pakistan Students have to learn One native language than one national language and the remaining two like English and Arabic are necessary as most of the curriculum are either in English or in Arabic. Can some one suggest the methods to deal with this.
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Hi,
The medium of instruction could be the vernacular language. However, the student should make himself aware of the exact technical terms of the concepts in the universally used language (English mostly). Else, coping up later would be a problem, no matter how strong you are technically; Effective communication would be a problem.
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Hello community,
I am looking for (recent) research underpinning (or just the opposite) the assumption that mother tongue/bilingual teachers are better suited to teach a foreign language or to teach other subjects in bilingual programms. I am focussing in studies in the setting where students/pupils are bilingual themselves and are enrolled in a bilingual programm.
Since most foreign language teachers in school service aren´t bilingual or teach their own language as foreign language (FL), I would love some help to find studies about how the age of foreign language learning effects the full acquisition of the phonetic and phonological repertoire of the target language.
Moreover, some help with studies which focus on didactic of FL and language ability of the teachers will be great.
Thanks a lot and have a good weekend!
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Isabel,
I have no research for you to cite, but I think that we need to reflect on the common assumption that native speaker teachers are always better, at least with respect to English.
In the past, I think it was the assumption that people learn English in order to be able to interact with native speakers. Today, however, the reality is that whenever people who speak different languages meet, English is likely to be a common second/foreign language in which they can interact.
This means being able to understand a wide range of accents and understand variable grammar/vocabulary. So being able to speak exactly like a native speaker is maybe not the ultimate goal of learning English today. Maybe the ultimate goal is to be able to function effectively across many cultures, or what Dörnyei (2005) called the "cosmopolitan international society."
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Hi,
I am working as a researcher in the field of foreign language teaching. I am planning to carry out a research and I need to auto-grade some sentences uttered by the participants. I was not able to find a website or an application for that. the existing apps do not allow filling in some sentences that I will be using for my research. Thank you.
Dr. Bora Demir
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There is nothing that I am aware of that will score overall pronunciation automatically that is actually reliable. The problems are:
sound leakage from headphones/speaker to microphone;
unless each candidate is in a soundproofed booth/room, you may have problems with sound carrying between candidates.
There is a web service called EnglishCentral.com that has learners repeat utterances and will grade according to it's own algorithm and output it as English phonemes. It is not free, however.
Hopefully you find a solution, but I imagine that you will have to do it the slow way.
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the possible ways to use literature in language teaching class in lower secondary school
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I think an important point to keep in mind when introducing literature is to provide the appropriate scaffolding so that students have a greater chance of comprehending the text when they read. When I teach literature in the foreign language classroom (I really believe in using authentic texts), I draw heavily on techniques and strategies from L1 literacy instruction. For example, I will do activities to stimulate students' background knowledge, to get them to make predictions about what the text will be about, and to connect the text to their personal lives. This creates an interest in the text and makes students want to read more. It is also important to include during-reading activities such as annotation, or asking the students to pause after each paragraph and write a brief summary in the margins. Of course, there are many, many after-reading activities that you can do to then extend the learning and have students create with their new knowledge. Several websites are available for more ideas related to literacy instruction:
www.colorincolorado.org (this one is specifically for bilingual education)
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I'm about to design a research project with my PhD student to measure the impact of digitalization on language teaching. I have dug myself into literature but I found hardly anything in this field. Any hints of any usable scales? Thanks.
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Dear Adel Bahameed, Thanks a lot. I've been working on it.
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I'm looking for scales to measure the effectiveness of language teaching. I'd be glad if you could recommend some valuable papers in this field. Thanks a lot!
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Dear Ma. Celine Calado, Can you use any online tools/solutions in your class? Can you combine traditional teaching methods with digital tools like e.g. course books and online materials etc. during your lesson?
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I'm about to design a research project with my PhD student to measure the impact of digitalization on the effectiveness of language teaching and learning. I have reviewed literature but I found hardly anything in this field. Could you recommend any usable sources? Thanks.
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Hi Szabolcs,
I think you need to narrow down the research area as is it looks very broad (therefore difficulty with finding sources because there are many). A few suggestions on how this can be done: a) by subject: foreign, second or mother tongue and /or language aspect (e.g. vocabulary, etc); b) by target population: adults, K-12 students; c) digitization also needs to be operationalized: do you mean specific technology, e.g. e-reader (see the above response); or an approach like CALL(computer assisted language learning) or games in language learning. In this regard, here are a few systematic reviews of research of ICT in l-ge teaching and learning (start. 2015):
Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E., & Yang, J. M. (2015). How effective are mobile devices for language learning? A meta-analysis. Educational research review, 16, 68-84.
Takacs, Z. K., Swart, E. K., & Bus, A. G. (2015). Benefits and pitfalls of multimedia and interactive features in technology-enhanced storybooks: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 85(4), 698-739.
Tsai, Y. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2018). Digital game-based second-language vocabulary learning and conditions of research designs: A meta-analysis study. Computers & Education, 125, 345-357.
Let me know if you want to discuss this more.
My very best,
Larysa
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What should such a vocabulary test include or look like?
I want to test if the intervention has an effect on vocab retention (foreign language teaching). I know about the statistics, but not about the creation of a valid SCIENTIFIC construction for creating the test itself (I do of course a lot of "normal" exercise tests ;-) What are important things to consider?
Help is highly appreciated. Thank you!
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Trying to answer your question without detailed information on your work can be difficult. The easiest way to test vocabulary retention would be by recalling. You simply ask learners to recall as many words as possible and you collection the answers. Then, you set your measurement , the number of words introduced and the number written by each student.
However, you need also to pay attention to the idea of words memorized and the ones are passively used. You can also device a second test where students highlight only the words you have introdrocuded. All-in-All, any test you devise needs to be provide quantitative answers.
Then , there is also the need for more qualitative look on answers , you can expect some errors and scratching all of which can provide you with more insight of what happens with learners.
For more details , do not hesitate to ask . I will be happy to help.
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I would be asking EFL teachers about their attitude toward communicative language teaching method by using (survey).
Can any one please suggest theoretical or conceptual framework ?
Thank you.
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The main impetus behind CLT is to get learners to interact in natural ways. Theoretically, task based language teaching (TBLT) by Michel Long and its closely associated counterpart cooperative learning are very effective in helping teachers to manage classroom dynamics such as group work and learner centered interactions which are a prerequisite to CLT.
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Regarding your experience and observations, what can you say about the reasons for teacher burnout? Is it something related to the working conditions, workload, student attitudes, families or financial concerns? Or is it about procrastination? Putting off things to the last minute and feeling overwhelmed in the end, which possibly leads to burnout?
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According to my experience, reasons for teacher burnout: Numerous new and veteran educators leave the calling every year in light of the activity related pre ssure brought about by everything from understudy conduct to absence of authoritative help. Knowing the causes and indications of burnout may help schools and school regions make activity intends to diminish the measure of pressure experienced by instructors every year.
The expression burnout implies that a representative is encountering a type of employment related pressure that is affecting his capacity to play out his obligations. There are numerous reasons for instructor burnout, more than can be canvassed in this short exercise. In any case, there are a few prime applicants that top the rundown with regards to setting instructors on a descending winding:
Classroom management issues, Poor morale and paperwork overload etc.
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Do the theories of education suitable for scientific subjects such as math, physics, chemistry, etc...?
It seems clear that most of the developing countries and some of the developed ones use the theories of educations and obligate their teachers to train on some of these theories, Do these theories suitable for non-literature such scientific subjects? Some trainers say that these theories could be used for scientific subjects with little modifications. However, from my experience in the real classroom, the 21st-century methodologies of education which based on gaming much more than traditional education show bad results in the students' knowledge and their academic background. In my opinion, the bad results are due to unsuitable or incomplete educational environments such as apathy of students as well as teachers toward education -teaching and learning-, teacher ability to control the classroom, and number of students per classroom versus the period length of the lesson and the activities amount that required to deliver the lesson.
What are the particular strengths of developed countries such as Singapore’s instructional regime that helps it perform so well? What are its limits and constraints? Is Singapore’s teaching system transferable to other countries?
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I taught at the National Institute of Education in Singapore from 2003 to 2008. All Singapore science teachers are trained at the National Institute. My area of interest was in primary science education (grades K-6) . The training of primary teachers focused on preparing them to teach a specific curriculum, the national curriculum. The Singapore primary science curriculum model aligned closely with the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) developed in the US in the 1960's. Science Content, Science Process Skills and Science Themes gave structure to the K-6 curriculum. Singapore adapted the SCIS model to make the science content more rigorous and strengthened both the science content and process skills by adding accountability through assessment. I believe the structure of the Singapore's primary science curriculum can be successfully adapted and implemented in other countries. One particular strength of the Singapore primary science curriculum is its success in preparing students to pass the high stakes, national, 6th grade leaving test. The problem solving ability required in this test correlates highly and often surpasses that required in many international exams such as the TIMMS. There are limitations, such as the narrowing of the curriculum to what is covered in tests, and cultural constraints. As you point out, educational environments and resources play a large factor in the successful transfer of such structured curricula and their underlying theories.
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I hope somebody may be able to help me - I have just registered with this website, Research Gate, but there is another Kieran O'Driscoll here, some of whose articles in the hard sciences are for some reason being credited to me, and I don't know how to rectify this situation - my own research is in the soft sciences, all linguistics-related e.g. translation studies, language teaching, etc. Any advice in remedying this situation would be really welcome as I wouldn't want anyone to think that I was trying to appropriate a colleague's research and pretend I'd written articles which I haven't - I'd be hugely embarrassed and upset if that were the case, or if I unwittingly caused offence to such colleagues. I am completely new to this website so still have to upload publications and more profile details as an ongoing project (I am already on academia.edu also, and have more information about my work on that site but am now most interested in this current site also). Many thanks. Kieran.
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Hi Kieran,
Does this discussion help?
One useful way might be contacting ResearchGate directly:
I had the same issue and I did the following:
2) Select the option "The wrong author is listed ..."
3) Click "provide details"
4) Then provide:
Profile link or name of wrong claimant: include the link of that wrong co-author
Publications incorrectly claimed: Include the link of your paper
After I submitted the above info., Researchgate fixed all of the issues after 3 days. RG also sent me an email telling me that it has fixed the issue.
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My work is concerned with improving first-year EFL learners linguistics related vocabulary i.e. The technical terms that are used in the linguistics course
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Since vocabulary knowledge can be at different levels of depth (form recognition - meaning recognition - productive), I would suggest you start by having a look at (the relativley simple to make) Vocabulary Knowledge Scale type tests:
Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (1996). Assessing second language vocabulary knowledge: Depth versus breadth. Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 13–40.
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  • Based on the model presented by Goh and Burns in "Teaching Speaking: A Holistic Approach" (Page 53), it seems that we have two sides of a bridge in terms of second language speaking competence. One of them is knowledge, and the other one is the skill. The "knowledge" phase puts the emphasis on teaching the components related to the knowledge of a language such as grammatical points, vocabulary, idioms, etc. Based on my interpretations of the first four chapters of the book, it seems that teaching the "knowledge" of a language is not going to result in competent second language learners in terms of their speaking competence. In fact, it seems that beginning the process of language teaching from the "knowledge" side is not going to reach to the other side of the bridge that is the skill.
  • If we investigate the other side of the bridge, the skill has some key features. A skill is unconscious, automatic, etc. Based on the mentioned model, moving from the bottom of the triangle to the top (from the skill to knowledge) might have better results in the sense of speaking competence. In fact, adding the needed knowledge to the already-gained skill might let the learners have access to the knowledge in a blink of an eye for negotiation of meaning while the needed knowledge without the presence of the needed skill might not be accessible for the negotiation of meaning. Metaphorically speaking, having a glass prior to pouring water in, is more logical than having water with no glass.
  • Having the mentioned points in mind, some language teachers limit the teaching a language to its knowledge. Now there are several questions to be asked:
  • 1. How can teachers move from skill to knowledge in practice?
  • 2. Do material designers consider such theoretical issues in designing coursebooks?
  • 3. Is there any relationship between the Interface hypothesis and the mentioned issues?
Reference
  1. Goh, C. C., & Burns, A. (2012). Teaching speaking: A holistic approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Sabri Thabit Saleh Ahmed Thanks for your participation in my discussion and your nice answer. In my opinion, the authors of the mentioned book intended to mention that teaching the knowledge of a language with the aim of reaching to the skill in the second step is not a successful path. Therefore, it seems that it might be better to change the initiation point to the skill side.
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When I finished writing my review of literature on language teaching, I noticed that both assessors were not satisfied with it. Although I mentioned all methods and approaches of teaching. They particularly interested in conceptual and theoretical framework. They asked me about the researcher's voice. I could not distinguish between them easily although I have read about them a lot. Still confused or uncertain ! Plz help
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There must be a touch to the researcher in the research, what is his personal opinion, his ideas and his proposals
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I would really like to find out the impact of music with lyrics on language competency as an academic research, because I myself as an English instructor and TEFL MA student have always been impressed and inspired by music, specially rock music in both my language learning and language teaching processes.
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When I was 16, the Titanic movie had gone viral due to Celine Dion's song 'My heart will go on', so I tried to listen to the song using a walkman and writing down the lyrics that was not accessible to me back to that time via internet. Music helped me along the years to develop my listening discrimination skill and so is my pronunciation because if the sound or the tone is well perceived this allows an intelligible production as well. The choice of the musical track has to be appropriate including high volume and less noise, rock music is not always helpful with loud musical instruments, but I think if the students listen to what they like they will achieve better results.
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See above.
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Dear sir,
You may implement CLT in your classroom. CLT is one of the current most effective methods/approaches of language learning. Good luck.
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What is your opinion on this topic? Are we in a post-method era where rather than methods we are just using other means for teaching a foreign language, e.g. macrostrategies understood as general plans derived from currently available theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical knowledge related to L2 learning and teaching. A macrostrategy is a broad guideline based on which teachers can generate their own location-specific, need-based microstrategies or classroom procedures. In other words, macrostrategies are made operational in the classroom through microstrategies. Macrostrategies are considered theory-neutral, because they are not confined to underlying assumptions of any one specific theory of language, learning, and teaching, discussed in Part One. They are also considered method-neutral because they are not conditioned by a single set of principles or procedures associated with language teaching methods (Kumaravadivelu, 2008:201).
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I follow
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Based on your experience during teaching English at University in EFL countries, what is your perception on using native language and target language? which do you thing better, full target language or bilingual Instruction?
Thanks in advance for responding my question
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Follow
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Thanks for your suggestions.
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I'd be bold and suggest that if you are using video you are inherently working in ethnographic processes and that few software are going to be able to automate the deep, nuance, reflective and context-specific analysis you need to carry out both in relation to yourself as an ethnographer and in relation to the participants' whose practice you are trying to explore from the inside. Neither will software enable you to weigh the complex ethical issues that need to be on your mind throughout such processes. The very creation of your codes, and their application in a meaningful way, require the ongoing reflection of an ethnographer that no software can provide you...
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i am searching for language teaching and learning theories and adult learning theories
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I recommed a stay with communication practice instead of theory.
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I have heard a lot of people say that Chinese is the most difficult language to learn. What are your views? Do you believe it is accurate to assume that Chinese/Mandarin really is the most difficult language to lean comparing to all the world languages?
Please share your thoughts!
Regards
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I totally agree with Nael Hijjo and I strongly believe that any serious linguist would. Nevertheless, it is always positive challenge to discuss about it. First of all, we should define "difficult to learn", in terms of oral aspect, written aspect, grammar etc. Mandarin Chinese is an analytical language (grammatically isolating), which uses little or no inflection to indicate grammatical relationships, so from this point of view it is considered one of the easiest languages to learn. But then we have tones, and phonetics and things get more complicated. So one should specify "difficulty" with clear scientific criteria. If we step out of the strictly objective scientific area, should I be asked to make a list in order of "difficulty", and following my own multilingual experience, Mandarin Chinese would definitely be in the middle. I would probably top list Japanese, Hungarian and Slovenian, for almost exclusively grammatical reasons.
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In your opinion, what is the single most important quality of a good students?
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Abdullah, since you are focusing your question in the single most important quality I choose among other relevant qualities the tandem curiosity-motivation (for me it is impossible to disentangle them).
Studying is about learning, discovering, exploring... Therefore it is about wanting to learn, it is an active process and it requires fundamentally the will to learn which I think comes from this tandem of motivation-curiosity.
Having this, other qualities enhance the learning process but without it there is a problem at the heart of it.
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To empower students teachers must emulate the behaviors they expect their students to acquire.
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A teacher is expected to make sacrifice in terms of personal benefits. The student progress and welfare should be the major priority of a teacher. The teachers' actions and in-actions must be channeled towards achieving this objective.
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Can we observe teacher motivation? Is it possible to know how motivated a teacher is by observing them in the classroom? Are there any observable cues?
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I agree with Kayode that a motivated teacher demonstrates skills and aptitudes in the classroom. The teacher will implement classroom management strategies that encourage positive behaviors and student success. Also, this teacher will have a smile and positive attitude at least when interacting and teaching students, maybe not with the paperwork.
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I want to ask about the use of purposive sampling technique, whether we can use it in experimental studies (conducted in the context of language teaching) or not? if yes, any reference please?
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The main issue is what population your sample represents. The basic idea with random sampling is that it represents the population that you want to generalise your findings to. Does your purposive sample represent a population, e.g. females, university graduates or people with blue eyes? If it does and is randomly sampled from that (sub)population, then you can generalise your findings to that (sub)population.
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Recently, I took up a course of Curriculum Development and Language Teaching as part of my postgraduate degree program. As part of this course, I had to go in field and ask various teachers about their awareness regarding curriculum. To my awe, hardly any teachers were aware of real meaning, function and application of curriculum. They are unaware of the idea itself. It is a common scenario in my context. Can you share your experiences from all over the world, what are curriculum practices and awareness in your context?
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I consider the issue from a senior language arts perspective, having taught classes in curriculum and instruction for twenty years. In all that time, even though I was dealing with English majors who had already completed their Bachelor's degrees, I rarely found a student who was aware that a secondary English teacher does more than teach literature; in particular, my students (numbering in the thousands over two decades) were largely unaware that the secondary curriculum in the American states and Canadian provinces expects teachers of English Language Arts to cover writing (not merely "creative" writing) and grammar. For people who would have to grade student papers on syntax, diction, and grammar, they showed very little understanding of English grammar and could not satisfactorily explain how to correct such common errors as a fragment, a singular-plural shift, and a dangling modifier. My conclusion is that, but for the teacher-candidates qualifying for French, most of my students had simply not been taught composition and grammar when they were in secondary school; rather, they were expected to pick it up by osmosis.
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Hello Everyone
I am conducting a research in the field of language teaching methodology. I use different sources of data collection. I intend to use observation checklist, semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. I use the questionnaire to answer the same questions that the two other instruments try to answer. My research is a case study . is it possible to use this quantitative instrument to triangulate the data in the case study ?
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Yes, using mixed methods can enrich your data sets. It is a matter of what purpose you want to achieve with your case study. furthermore, it depends on the research questions. You stated that your field of research for the case study is language teaching methodology.
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I am not a speaker of Spanish, but I teach media and am wondering about the dialect or accent of Spanish used in Spanish language media across the United States.
Is it based on the version of Spanish spoken in the region where the media outlet exists? Is there an overall preferred accent (like Midwest English is the preferred American English accent)?
What form of Spanish should a "Spanish Media" academic program in the US teach?
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I would doubt there to be one "preferred" dialect or "accent" because the hispanic population in the U.S. is incredibly diverse. The image that I attached to my reply is from the webpage whose link is separated below and shows origin statistics from hispanics in the US.
With regard to these statistics, even percentages like 3% need to be taken seriously because of the sheer volume of Spanish speakers in the U.S. (52,000,000 as of 2014, meaning Mexico is the only other country in the world with more Spanish speakers; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_where_Spanish_is_an_official_language).
There is likely to be a diversity of national origins and dialects within Spanish-speaking media outlets that is fairly representative of the nation at large. I say this, however, with one caveat. Some regions have many more people from certain origins. For example, most Cubans are in Florida, there is a high concentration of Puerto Ricans in New York, and there tend to be higher concentrations of Central Americans in large cities or near the gulf coast (https://collagegroup.com/2015/04/14/differences-spanish-dialects/). This could--and this is only conjecture--make it so that although Mexican-origin hispanics make up about 64% of all U.S. hispanics, there may be a percentage of Mexicans working in media outlets incongruent with this 64%. I say this because most media outlets are in larger cities, so I would semi-confidently venture such to be the case in places like New York and Florida, at the very least.
Why do I bring this up? I brought it up in order to highlight the diversity of origin/heritage in U.S. hispanics as well as other factors that could make Spanish-speaking media reporters even more diverse than a simple across the board look at the U.S. as a whole would seem to suggest.
With all of this in mind, however, and despite the origin/heritage of any given reporter, there most likely exists--and is currently evolving/being defined or led by big media players such as Univision as Mahmood pointed out--a sort of standard Spanish that reporters will gravitate to just like there is a very particular way for English-speaking reporters to talk.
All in all, I really doubt there is a "preferred accent or dialect" for Spanish language media beyond a striving for a the most neutral and universally intelligible dialect a reporter can muster.
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hello there!
i´m going to start a research and i want to know how can i i create a teaching sequence with writing and reading? please i need some authors or articles to take inti account, if you have please let me know.
thanks
hola todos!
voy a iniciar una investigación y quiero saber como puedo crear una secuencia didáctica desde la lectura y la escritura , por favor necesito autores y artículos referentes al tema, si tienen alguno que me pueden recomendar lo agradezco mucho.
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By learning programs that are special greetings
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-Spanish native speakers
-TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) 
-Hearing community
Which are your theories? Do you think it would be posible? How?
I would love to hear your responses, thank you in advance.
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Hello Samantha Applewhite,
Notably, Pre- Sessional English programs (PSE) are preparatory courses accredited by the British Council whose main objective is to satisfy the language needs of non native speakers who intend to  pursue an educational program in an English speaking country like England. As  an academic English language and study skills program, PSE prepares the targeted students linguistically and culturally for  future degree studies and helps them settle into university life without encountering serious communication problems.If I am not mistaken about the acronym, then the program is like any other pre-study course serving as English for academic purposes (EAP). These courses consider several important variables.
1) a thorough analysis of the targeted learners' needs,
2) selection of the related content and its gradation,,
3) choosing activities, exercises and tasks for presenting the content,and
4) deciding on forms of assessment and evaluation.
Best of luck,
R. Biria
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please help me find answers other than given in the Larsen's book
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I have no experience of language teaching.  However, take someone who was good at a subject (say French) in school, goes on to university to study the same subject  (French literature, theatre and culture) and then goes to teach that subject in school or college.  
The first mistake that many subject teachers make is to teach themselves.  That is, to do the things that they liked best in learning the subject.  This is likely to work well with the minority of students who are like them, who will get high marks both by taking in information and in preparing essays etc which fit in with the teacher's worldview.  Students who would benefit from a different approach, get lower marks, and may even fail.
This is common in universities.  Lecturers are hired for their expertise on the subject, traditionally with no formal instruction in teaching.  They are often "academic" rather than practical types, favouring formality and theory.
One of the most important things I realised as a beginning academic was that the students were not all like me, and so I studied teaching methods (in my own time).  Males may be different from females, ethnic or cultural groups have different cultural backgrounds and thus mental resources.  In addition, within these groups there are identifiable preferences for learning.  Thus I typically tried to introduce the same (new, difficult) concept in two or three ways.  I also watched out for students who were being less successful, and asked what I might do about it, rather than just blaming them.
I would therefore suppose that a conscientious language teacher would benefit from some knowledge of educational theory and practice.
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Does any one know of Neuro-linguistic program for use by individuals with dyslexia please?
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you can read this file
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I'm looking for recent research on augmented reality and language teaching/learning. I'd appreciate any contribution and also blogs where the topic is treated in depth. Thanks.
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Hi Laura, there are also some recently funded projects on AR. We have just received one entitled REDESIGN.
best,
stella
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In a previous question I asked, most people agreed that L1 writing ABILITY correlates with L2 writing ability.  This is my follow-up:
Are conventions for L1 writing in a given culture sometimes different from the expectations of the L2 culture?  If so, how can we help students take advantage of similarities and avoid the problems resulting from differences?
I am asking this because I am working with some students who have the thesis that conventions for writing in Mandarin Chinese are different from expectations in English writing, particularly in non-fiction informative and persuasive writing, such as would be used in classroom writing assignments. 
I look forward to your insights.  If anyone had relevant literature citations, I would appreciate them.
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Dear Professor Marek,
I would really urge to work with a more differentiated notion of "language", it is much to broad to speak of L1 and L2, this leads to overview differences in genres within one national language with effects on any acquisition process of L2. Some points to make this more clear:
  1. In German, there is e.g. the pervasive problem of students of non-German background (immigrants in 2nd, 3rd generation) well speaking everyday language but doing poorly at what Ingrid Gogolin calls "school German" (Schuldeutsch), which is NOT simply written academic German, it is characteristic to several forms of verbal interactivity at school, such as oral questioning of students in class.
  2. The genre notion crosses oral and written forms of language, so it is much too simple to work with the dichotomy : written = academic language, oral = non academic language.
  3. For native speakers too, acquiring academic writing skills is a challenge, everybody teaching at school and at the university can witness this. This is a very specific text genre with distinct features on the syntactical, and semantic level, in terms of text coherence and cohesiveness, as well as on the level of pragmatics, such as how to address the reader, how to put oneself as author into the text (as "I", as "we", as no person at all). This genre is then diversifying across scientific disciplines: writing a paper for a German philosophical journal is very different from writing a paper for a German journal in cognitive psychology.
  4. Further, academic writing is highly language and cultural sensitive. The same genre is quite differently realized across languages. The main difference I see is not on the proper linguistic level, but on the level of how the linguistic forms are made to work  for the pragmatic attitude appropriate for a writing community. Some main differences are in my opinion how the author appears in her text: use of "I", as "we", as no person at all (my experience with German, English and French academic writing).
  5. On this basis, the answer to your question is: yes, because the "writing conventions" are genre conventions, not simply linguistic ones. It is also true that acquired L2 convention can influence L1 writing conventions, as some colleagues mentioned in this discussion.
  6. Finally, it is quite important to be aware of the power relations between L1 and L2: these impacts the evaluation of both writers and readers. Skillful writing is considered a main positive personal trait in Western cultures (intelligent, thoughtful, precise, reliable etc., see also how handwriting is used as trace of the  self.), it has been a means to discipline and stigmatize people since the establishment of compulsory school attendance. See Elisa Alvarez.
  7. In sum, I would recommend to turn to a process oriented and pragmatic notion of writing, such as Andrea Karsten (2014): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269978652_Writing_Movements_of_the_self
  8. further, this notion must in my opoinion include the notion of genre. See the research done by Paul Prior, e.g. :Voices in text, mind, and society" (2001):https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240435529_Voices_in_text_mind_and_society
Thank you!
Marie-Cecile Bertau
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Looking for tools and methods in tenses' translation.
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I have come across an article entitled ''Tense and Aspect in Translation from Arabic into English: Azazeelby Youssef Ziedan as a Case Study'' available at: http://awej-tls.org/?page_id=272&lcp_page0=2#lcp_instance_0 in which the author discussion is more or less similar to all mentioned so far. I think adopting functional approach to translating present perfect might do the trick. It is important to explore what function the SL  will perform and similar one in the TL. As we all know Arabic and English cut linguistic reality quite differently and the translator has to find all possible solutions to master difficulties. English employs different functions for present perfect, the most two of which are perhaps to talk about an action that happened or never happened before at an unspecified time in the past. In such a case, the use of the Arabic particle qad may do the trick. The second function is talk about an action that happened at an unspecified time in the past and continues to the present and in such a particular case, simple past or imperfect present المضارع can do the trick.  
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I am trying to assess existing literature concerning the theory and practice of authoring, use, usability and any related issues in using paper worksheets in foreign language courses to primary and/or secondary students.
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You may try "fit for purpose" method i.e. covering whole and holistic aspects. For example, integration of four skills including thinking, cross-curricular, immediate learning environment, ZPD, variety of real life tasks and activities and teacher-learner involvement, assessment and monitoring. Worksheets developed based upon the above will help you and your students move the quality wheel of improvement moving. You may like to see Benchmarks of Good TESOL Teacher on my postings. I hope it helps!     
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I mean general information about multimodal learning in foreign languages teaching, some articles. I would be grateful if you sent some information about multimodal learning of some  images, sketches in ESP and ESL.
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Dear Ms Nata Kuzlo,
We are writing in connection
with  your questions. You are luky person,  becouse I read an interesting article on your topic during my preparation for doctorial disertation.
Please find attached article as a PDF file.
I hope i have been some of help.
Best regards,
Andrija
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I am interested in translators' education in the USA.
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You probably already have this one checked for your research, but just in case, it really helped me with my research on translator and interpreting training: https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/btl.47/main
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I want to find authentic data about the given topic, please help me.
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I was looking through older questions ans I saw this question.
CALL and MALL are tools.  I do not believe that we need a theoretical basis for CALL and MALL themselves. The Theory is the broader learning theory, such as Social Constructivism, student-centered active learning, etc.
As I point out in the attached paper, the the technology should be chosen AFTER the determining the instructional activities that will allow students to achieve the outcome goals. the technology is then chosen based on its affordances.
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I'm not quite happy with the levels we use, and I'd love to get a recommandation from somebody who's been using a system to assess student writing...
Thanks a lot!
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Have you looked at the Cambridge series? The Cambridge exam series have been benchmarked against the Common European Framework, they have a young learners series and they have contextualised the KET (Key English Test) and PET (Preliminary English Test) for schools. There are quite a lot of resources on their website http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams/general-english-and-for-schools/
Be interested to hear more
D
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I am quite interested in the learning motivation of students taking Chinese language programmes at tertiary level in an English-dominant society like New Zealand, yet most research and demographics I can find are concerned with Chinese classes at the school level. Does anyone know why? Am I heading for a black hole or it's just due to the lack of research on it? Many thanx!
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Yes Cherie, that is really a good way, and you remind me that the Confucius Institutes based in the universities seem also good places to probe into.
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It is quite difficult to impart academic writing skills effectively without exactly knowing the important components and sequence of components to include while teaching. 
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Dear Dorji,
One of the most practical ways of improving academic writing is the use of mentor texts. These texts are stylistically idealized writing tasks  which teachers use in order to show to the learners how a particular writing task can be actualized. I have tried them in my TOEFL classes and the results were exceptional.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Listening skill  has often been called the Cinderella skill of language teaching because it involves a number of variables that are too difficult to be operationalized within the allotted class time. A comprehensive model of L2 listening comprehension cannot be developed without a full account of the parameters dominating the process.
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Attached you will find a rubric I use for speaking proficiency.  If I were to create a similar rubric for listening comprehension, I might include the following sub-areas:
  1. Technical knowledge of the language -- vocabulary, grammar, etc.
  2. Ability to comprehend the accent of the speaker -- pronunciation of words may vary considerable across speakers with different native accents.
  3. Tempo -- Can the listener process the information in "real time" well enough to "keep up" with the speaker.  Some native speakers speak very fast, compared to second/foreign language speakers.
  4. Non-verbal -- Does the listener process non-verbal messages of the speaker accurately (facial expressions, body language, etc)?
  5. Construction of meaning -- Does the listener understand the meaning intended by the speaker with necessary accuracy?
  6. Nature of the speech -- Spoken thoughts tend to be more lengthy than written language and because they are constructed by the speaker "on the fly" meaning may be less clear or variable.  Comprehending someone speaking impromptu may be considerably different from comprehending someone reading a prepared text.
These are some ideas that come to mind for me about the factors influencing listening comprehension.
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Researchers for :Home language teaching, teaching of reading , Foundation phase and Early Childhood Education. 
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Hi Thembi,
The theories of reading acquisition/intervention are the same regardless of where a child learns literacy.  There are two primary theoretical stances....the behavioristic and code-oriented approach and the constructivist and meaning-based approach.  Given that behaviorism and it tenets have not held sway in human learning for about 60 years....the constructivist approaches is more defensible and works best for acquisition for all human learning...including literacy.  The whole literature in Emergent Literacy supports this approach.  The best to do is read to your child and make it a positive social interaction....generally done with a share reading approach.  I will attach several relevant pieces that will help.
Jack
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Nowadays, EFL practitioners are talking about post method conditions in language teaching. In point of fact, current professionalism requires innovative practices which force the teachers to break away  from the past traditions. What is your personal opinion about this?
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Helo, Reza,
   I am happy we can have this conversation. My view, over 50 years of experience in the field, is that the "eclectic method" is the best approach overall. Too many leaders and "experts" in the field swing from fad to fad, and insist that one approach is the best and solves all problems and fits all needs. In the process, successful methods are thrown in the dustbin as "old fashioned" and "not modern and up-to-date", without any evidence for discarding them in favor of "the newest thing". Traditional education for many years emphasized the importance of memorization, but Western educational "experts" denounced this and insisted that all learning must be by discovery and motivation. But Benjamin Franklin said that he had taught himself to write well by memorizing the essays of Addison and Steele, and practicing writing them out.