Science topic

Language Disorders - Science topic

Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
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One of my classes is requiring the students to create an E-Prime task. It cannot be a "Go No Go" task, which all we talked about in class. I am really confused on everything about E-Prime. I was thinking about looking at language in 22q11.2DS individuals. I am not sure how I would do this.
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It's better to know what procedures are designed.
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Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2017 Nov;32(7):382-392. doi: 10.1177/1533317517715905. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
Detection Test for Language Impairments in Adults and the Aged-A New Screening Test for Language Impairment Associated With Neurodegenerative Diseases: Validation and Normative Data.
Macoir J1,2, Fossard M3, Lefebvre L4, Monetta L1,2, Renard A5, Tran TM6, Wilson MA1,2.
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Abstract
To date, there is no quick screening test that could be used during routine office visits to accurately assess language disorders in neurodegenerative diseases. To fill this important gap, we developed the Detection Test for Language impairments in Adults and the Aged (DTLA), a quick, sensitive, standardized screening test designed to assess language disorders in adults and the elderly individuals. In Study 1, we describe the development of the DTLA. In Study 2, we report data on the DTLA's validity and reliability. Finally, in Study 3, we establish normative data for the test. The DTLA has good convergent and discriminant validity as well as good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Norms for the DTLA obtained from a sample of 545 healthy, community-dwelling, French-speaking adults from 4 French-speaking countries (Belgium, Canada (Quebec), France, and Switzerland) are provided. The development, validation, and standardization of the DTLA constitute a significant effort to meet the need for a language screening test adapted to neurodegenerative diseases.
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I have it. If you need it, I ll send it to you. Just write your email here.
Regards
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I am looking for someone who was part of a team that adapted the Bilingual Aphasia Test. I am mainly interested in who they used for drawing their stimuli?
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Following.
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Is there a diagnostic scheme for persisting receptive language disorder (ICD10: F80.28) used with (non-autistic) adults in adult psychiatry (or neurology or language/speech therapy)?
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Receptive language disorder – as a neurodevelopmental disorder - is usually underdiagnosed in childhood, as you can`t perceive it directly, contrary to expressive language disorder. Non-diagnosed, otherwise non-retarded and non-autistic individuals (therefore without speech therapy) won`t loose this problem when grown up. Nevertheless, there is evidence that individuals with (receptive) language disorders will perform worse in different fields of life as adults and have a risk to develop mental disorders. Is there any scheme to diagnose this disorder in late adolescence or adulthood (especially as a comorbid problem) – in order to model therapeutic and social interventions better?
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Hi Ulrich Rüth , I'm working in with a paediatric population, but you are absolutely correct, that Developmental Language Disorder (and other language impairments) can persist into adulthood for many individuals affected, and it is helpful for the person to (1) be aware of their strengths & weaknesses, (2) be supported to develop compensatory strategies, (3) continue to develop specific skills as indicated, and (4) be able to share relevant information about this with current/future employers, colleagues, and friends.
When I have worked with older adolescents around this issue, assessments by a psychologist & speech pathologist can clarify if the challenges are predominantly in the language domain. As a speech pathologist, we then collaborate with the client to identify compensatory strategies & approaches that will be helpful. There are resources that I use clinically, dependent upon whether the main challenges are in the academic area, workplace, or social (pragmatic) sphere.
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i am working on research on this topic. MT Dysphonia is my diagnosis. I am a teacher who is trying to overcome the short and long term effects of this silent disorder. I was first diagnosed in December of 2016. Education in school systems and in higher education needs greater awareness and tolerance of speech and language disorders and how they affect quality of life. Greater transparency and support needs to be mandated on a provincial level. If 1/3 people deal with this during their lifetime, I feel this needs to be further addressed in education and health sectors.
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Factors leading to muscle tension of what's called hyperfunction dysphonia are abuse and misuse of voice shouting screaming talking in background noise ,especially in non treated rooms acoustically
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Hi Christine,
The Gricean maxims can have an effective purpose by serving as a framework for descriptive analysis.  I employed them a number of years ago in two different assessment tools...though not commercially available, they are in the professional literature.  I herein provide you with several articles and chapters on the procedures. I have additional work (as yet unpublished) on Clinical Discourse Analysis and Systematic Observation of Communicative Interaction if desired.
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Looking into any disorders of:
language
memory
cognition
linguistics
processing
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Thank you
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I am looking for research evidence of effective specific SLT interventions for use with school aged children with cochlear implant and delayed / disordered acquisition of vocabulary, syntax and morphology skills.
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the information here was helpful to me too. i was not aware such techniques. will try to incorporate
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I'm creating c-tests for bilingual children in two different languages. Original texts are taken from books for children. I was wondering how I can measure the complexity of different texts, since languages are also very different: e.g. Italian and Slovenian. Is Type/Token ratio a good measure for this purpose? Do you know any other measure? 
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Hi Sara,
I'd also recommend this article:
Lu, Xiaofei (2010), Automatic Analysis of Syntactic Complexity. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15(4), 474–496.
It also evaluates English, but discusses 14 different text based metrics and addresses syntactic complexity in particular, which is ignored by vocabulary based measures. For some of the methods you'll need to parse the data, but at least for Italian that should be possible (not sure about the situation for Slovenian, I think there's a dependency parser for it though).
Hope this helps!
Amir
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I am writing chapter 3 of my proposal and I need an instrument to measure language development for low functioning autistic children. I will appreciate if any of you will allow me to use the instrument that you already have.
I am doing a quasi-experimental study and using a small population of 5 autistic students (3 to 5 years old). My strategy includes photographs of each child natural environment which will allow me to initiate conversation with each one. I use each child's IEP as a pretest and will use the measurement that I am looking for to verify progress in the post-test towards the end of the training.
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Communication Matrix focuses early communicative skills and has been used in studies Before. https://www.communicationmatrix.org/
Have you checked fx Solomon-Rice&Soto "Facilitating Vocabulary in Toddlers Using AAC A Preliminary Study Comparing Focused Stimulation and Augmented Input" for inspiration?
Good luck
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I am seeking information about: 1) the age ranges, and 2) the clinical nature of the normative information for the following tests. I did not find the information through a literature search and I do not have the corresponding manuals. If you have info about any of these I would really appreciate your sharing. Thanks!
• Aphasia Screening Test, 2nd Edition (AST; Whurr, 1996)
• Quick Assessment for Aphasia (Tanner & Culbertson, 1999)
• Boston Assessment of Severe Aphasia (BASA; Helm-Estabrooks, Ramsberger, Morgan, & Nicholas, 1989)
• Butt Nonverbal Reasoning Test (BNVR; Butt & Bucks, 2004)
• Comprehensive Aphasia Test (CAT; Swinburn, Porter, & Howard, 2004)
• Measure of Cognitive-Linguistic Abilities (MCLA; Ellmo, Graser, Krchnavek, Hauck, & Calabrese, 1995)
• Quality of Communication Life Scale (ASHA QCL; Paul, Frattali, Holland, Thompson, Caperton, & Slater, 2004)
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I think to get Normative sample for the above mentioned scales is not an easy thing. The reason is that the setting and the characteristics of the population where you are interested to do your study is difficult to match normative sample in general. You will be lucky if you find something to refer to within similar context of your study. good luck.
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I want to develop a Persian version of this approach
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Hi Hannane,
Yes you can. Minimal contrasts does not mean minimal syllables. Minimal contrasts in phonology are often referred to as minimal pairs. That is, you have two words that are opposed by just a phonological feature, which could be a toneme or a phoneme. In a tone language like the Yoruba for example, /bo/ on a high tone means to peel, but the same /bo/. on a low tone means to cover. At the same time, /ile/ on Mid/High tones means house', but on the Mid/Low tone it means floor or ground. Also, /pako/ on High/High means plank, but on High/Low it means chewing-stick. It is much like /table/ and /cable/ or /bat/ and /rat/. They are rightly minimal pairs or contrasts. 
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I am interested in knowing whether the ability to transfer properties from one conceptual domain to another is affected in all developmental language disorders regardless of their etiology (i.e. which gene is mutated) or their principal symptomatology (i.e. which components of language are more impaired). Specifically, I wonder if we should expect (or someone has already observed) that people affected by language disorders which do not involve conceptual abilities (i.e. dyslexia) still have problems with metaphor processing. Thanks a lot in advance for your help.  
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I do not want to overwhelm you, but I am attaching another paper of mine that I think may be of (more) interest for you. In it we discuss the problem of variation regarding language. The final part contains a characterization of disorders under the lens of Evo-Devo theories. This part tries to answer to an intriguing question: the number of disorders (at the clinical level) is quite small, but the number of aetiological factors is huge.
Best,
Antonio
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The reason for my question is given a) the wealth of research demonstrating that a large range of aphasic symptoms can be (partially?) explained in terms of impairments of STM/working memory, executive deficits (eg, inhibition, attention), praxic impairments (eg, apraxia of speech), perceptual impairments (eg, aspects of anomia), and b) the acknowledge dependence of language processing on memory (mainly STM/WM), praxis/action (programming of articulation), executive functions: 'language' is impossible without these 'horizontal' cognitive functions.
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Very interesting question! The answer depends, I guess, on whether an ability is defined by what it is an ability to do – quite conventional – or by theoretical constructs inferred to sustain this ability. ‘Aphasia’ is an impaired ability to use language for interpersonal communication. It has concrete behavioural manifestations in everyday life and in clinical assessment. So aphasia is a language disorder. Language can be shown to depend on a set of subordinate abilities, some of which are non-observable constructs and probably themselves further divisible into more fine-grained functions. However, it does not follow from this that aphasia is not a language disorder. Perhaps these subordinate abilities can be plausibly considered constitutive of normal language use, rather than eliminating language and aphasia by reducing it to its ‘horizontal’ functions?
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Bilinguals can be dyslexic in one language but not the other. Can bilingualism be the key to eliminating dyslexia or is it still too difficult for them to learn another language?
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Hi all,
Just wanted to add a few things.
One of the best examples I could direct you towards examples of dyslexia in one language and not another is:
Wydell, T. N., & Butterworth, B. (1999). A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia. Cognition, 70(3), 273-305.
There are two similar but distinct theories with regards to the manifestation of dyslexia in orthographies with varying degrees of transparency.
Wydell, T. N. (2003). Dyslexia in Japanese and the ‘Hypothesis of Granularity and Transparency’. Dyslexia in different languages: Cross-linguistic comparisons. London: Whurr Publishers.
According to the above hypothesis, orthographies differ in two dimensions: “transparency” and “granularity.” Along the transparency dimension, for any orthography whose print-to-sound mapping is directly one-to-one or transparent, Wydell suggests that there will be a reduced possibility of producing phonological dyslexia.
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: a psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological bulletin, 131(1), 3.
The psycholinguistic grain size theory states that the availability of different sound units prior to reading, the degree of consistency seen in the associations between the sounds and the symbols of the language and granularity of the language make up the three contributing factors regarding reading development across languages. However this theory is limited thus far to alphabetic scripts.
Hope this helps.
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Concerning another question I've asked here:(https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_language_impairment_in_autistic_children_be_explained_by_a_general_cognitive_impairment_low_IQ#share). I wonder if there are any communication impairments (language impairments in particular) in children with Asperger's Syndrome. As far as I know, these children - in comparison to children with autism - are described as to have good language skills.
In addition I wonder if children with AS show any social impairments comparable to children with autism.
Can you think of any papers giving an overview or something I could start with?
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This is why the DSM IV criteria for Asperger's Disorder were problematic: They were exactly the same as the criteria for Autism, minus the language impairment section (and disallowing any cognitive disability). Even people who don't like the blending of Asperger's into the DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis know that there are differences in the social use of language in Asperger's.
Differences and difficulties include: pragmatics such as how to enter a conversation and have it go back and forth and repair misunderstandings; difficulty integrating verbal and nonverbal strands of information during a conversation (and over time, developing general difficulty with nonverbals such as body language, tone differences that indicate sarcasm, and facial expressions), There are more differences, in each of the categories of social, expressive, and receptive language. Look to some of the literature on Autism, because some of the information you seek might not necessary carry the label of "Asperger's" but instead might be in research for "high-functioning autism" because language issues by definition preclude some researchers who were using the DSM IV, from applying the Asperger's label to their research subjects. That has of course changed with the publication of the DSM-5
I am concerned that your research might be sticking with DSM IV-TR thinking and information, so I'll make sure you consider: Because there is the new diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder, if we are talking about someone with Asperger's/Autism Spectrum Disorder, we should make sure we are talking about someone who also has the second category of symptoms, the restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors (which now includes sensory issues missing from the DSM IV). In the latter case, you're more likely to have the Theory of Mind and central coherence features, due to different brains or different preferences, diverted many kids in the Asperger's region of the autism spectrum from following the neurotypical path of development in the use of language.
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I have provided screenings for adults in several states using a standardized test that is useful for detecting changes in the reaction time of adults for naming (A Quick Test). General information about the test can be found at http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8237-269&Mode=summary. The instrument is useful for detecting changes in individuals' memory and word retrieval associated with Alzheimer's Dementia. When individuals perform with slower-than-normal or abnormal reaction times for single naming and/or dual naming, they are referred to their doctors for follow-up. However, since the focus was on a preventative, community service project, and not a true experimental study, I have some interesting information, without a home for publication. I believe I could write a discussion paper about screening for Alzheimer's, with emphasis on the role of the Speech-Language Pathologist, and the benefits of such activities. What do my colleagues suggest? I have data on monolingual and bilingual English-Speakers, 25 to 89 years of age. The data consists of the test results, detailed case histories with information on general health and educational level.
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Yes, read the recent issue of the journal CORTEX and look for the article on Alzheimer's disease, perseveration and memory, by Miozzo, Fischer-Baum, et al. Also follow up on the citations for the article as well. Hugh Buckingham
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What are the specific procedures to diagnose and treat language disorders in children with developmental disabilities, PPD and autism, TBI, CP and hearing loss? How do diagnoses and treatment differ between them?
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A good assessment should begin with a detailed questionnaire about the child's developmental, medical, educational, and family history including the languages the child is exposed to and speaks. This should be followed by informal observation in a couple of different settings and the collection of a naturalistic communication (for nonverbal children) and/or language sample. If a child is school-age, you should be speaking to the teacher or getting the teacher's observations, samples of the child's school work etc... after you have assimilated all of this information, you can decide what standardized tests to administer for the specific population you need. When you're assessing a child with CP who cannot speak for motoric reasons, you need to find a way to adapt the assessment to allow a different response mode - these children have very good comprehension of language but often cannot express what they know due to their motor speech deficits. When assessing children with TBI, you need to work closely with your psychology colleagues to get a good understanding of the cognitive deficits. In designing treatment for any of these population, a functional approach is most effective. Setting intervention goals that are developmental and will meet the functional communication demands of the child's natural environment are crucial.