Science topic

Language Development - Science topic

The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
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Hello! We are researchers from Anglia Ruskin University, the University of Central Lancashire, and the University of Sheffield and we are conducting an online study to investigate language development in babies aged 10-24 months who are exposed to more than one language in the home environment. Specifically, we are looking for both parents/carers and their babies who are living in the UK to take part in the study. Specifically, we are interested in infants who are learning two languages in the home (for example, mum speaks to the baby consistently in Greek and Dad speaks to the baby consistently in Portuguese OR Dad speaks English and Grandma speaks Italian to the baby). The study will be conducted online, and each parent/carer will take part in two sessions: (1) Session 1 will involve parents/carers completing an online questionnaire and (2) in Session 2 parents/carers and their babies will complete a short language game online. We’re looking for families where two caregivers from the child’s home can participate in the study and we offer a £10 voucher to thank each participant for their involvement. You can find the Participant Information Sheet here: https://rb.gy/npacqz. If you’d like to participate, you can easily sign up here https://rb.gy/ezc1j9 and if you have any questions, feel free to email the team at bilingualbabystudy@gmail.com.
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I have been a father ten months ago. I won't raise my child in bilingual household but as I am an English teacher but my mother tongue is Bangla, I have planned to teach him both languages from the beginning so that he can adopt both languages easily and comfortably.
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Hi! We are developing a research about adult-infant interaction and language development. We need to acquire cameras that can be used head-mounted, so we can record from a first person perspective. Any advice about specific types or models? Any comment or suggestion will be highly appreciated!. Thank you
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Thank you Mohialdeen Alotumi .
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Children of different genders have great differences in the development of language skills at any time between 2-5. How should K1~3 education deal with this difference?
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There are lots of theories on child language development and individual differences are one of the issues these theories have focused on. I do recommend that you refer to Rod Ellis's work on L2 acquisition or even Krashen's Monitor Theory.
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I am working on a project that includes the creation of two technologies for learning languages. I decided that adapting a new instructional design model from scratch will help implement these technologies: the model will be followed to develop the instruction needed for learning languages.
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You should not select the technology first. You should use an "Educational Engineering" process to first identify your outcome goals for the class, and their measurements of success...and then the kinds of learning activities that can allow students to achieve those goals. Only after that should you select the technology by which those learning activities can be performed. See this book chapter:
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I am investigating the possibility of gaining first person data on inner speech
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I am also searching for the questionnaire. Any luck so far?
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Whereas there are many academics and researches on the lack of language proficiency towards teaching the Deaf learners, I would like to know if there has been anything said about the good use command of sign language and its impact on Deaf learners' academic achievements.
Deaf bilingualism and its impact on the development of language and academic achievement of Deaf learners. These will help me to understand the correlation between lack of language proficiency and the adequate knowledge by the teachers of the Deaf and HH.
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Sign language in any country for deaf usually make same sign for one word thatswhy it is going to b good impact for deaf ,therefore deaf people use those signs with deaf people who live in different areas.
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Mixed-ability can refer to classes in which there are clear differences in language level, learning style, learning speed, aptitude, students’ background knowledge, and motivation. In this context, every student who is learning a language can be different in language level among other students. Thus, students may have different capabilities to grasp the lesson during the teaching process in the class. According to Ireson & Hallam (2001), “teachers need to recognize that a class is a mixed ability because children have different strengths and weaknesses and develop at different rates.”
In Indonesia, English is a foreign language which is taught and learned only in classrooms or additional English courses outside school. In this case, students may have some problems such as less proficient English ability because people in Indonesia rarely use English as a tool of communication. Also, teachers in dealing mixed- ability classes may have an ineffective learning classroom from both students and teachers.
Dealing with this issue, Mixed-ability students have their own learning style and preferences in learning a language. In this context, I would like to have your opinion of the following question:
What strategies would be effective to handle mixed-ability students in learning English as a foreign language?
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Always have a range of follow-up activities for stronger students, who may be paired together, which they can complete while lower level students are still working on initial activities. Stronger students may welcome more autonomy, but they also need to feel they are learning something from the lesson, even while you may be occupied with further explanation to lower level students.
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Dear Research Colleagues,
Are you familiar with studies on language acquisition in early simultaneous trilingual children that show whether there are any delays in their language development? I am familiar with several studies on early simultaneous bilinguals indicating that such speakers are not significantly delayed in language acquisition. I wonder if trilinguals differ from mono- and bilinguals in how fast they acquire their languages.
I will appreciate your feedback.
Thank you.
Pleasant regards,
Monika
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Hello everyone,
I am new in the area of Developmental Psychology and I am looking for a good description of the standardization process of a test for cognitive and/or language development. For example, can I find information about the standardization process for BRIEF®-P (or any other cognitive / language development test)?
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Usually the finest details of the calculations in validation are not provided in the published articles for the sake of parsimony. Therefore, the best way to find a good description would be looking into a Measurement in Psychology textbook. After being competent with the basics, the articles become more understandable. Having stated that, two examples related to BRIEF-P may be at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/09297041003679344?scroll=top&needAccess=true and https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1087054712466439?casa_token=ZK5NHWDCQ3UAAAAA%3AUVKv8IO63j82TDPrK82WijZYwXxL4kfZ8OmEhLe5eN_mEFqkTAf99LREMEgxZRUFnOhXEX4PQ3HI
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Hi,
I am currently doing a study about using and learning English in multilingual cities (e.g. Sydney, Australia; Auckland, NZ). I am particular interested in how the big L1 community and frequent exposure to the L1 using environment could influence people's English language development when studying and living in a multilingual city.
Is there an existing theory of framework about this topic or learning and using English in multilingual society?
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A book that might help you with some of these issues is Rose, H & Galloway, N. (2019) Global Englishes for Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.
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Hi,
What is the best measuring test in SPSS as I have data of a student taking a language test every academic year.
The plan is every freshmen enrolled in Fall of each year will be taking a standardized language test in Fall of each academic year until graduation or scoring the target score for each level (FR, SO, Jr, or SR).
This is to measure if their skills (language skills) are developing according to our scale especially after progressing in their studies and attending a mandatory 3 weeks intensive training workshop once a year.
I have records of freshmen's reading , listening , writing , speaking and overall score in Fall 2018 and again in Fall 2019 and I don't know which test will be suitable? and I am not sure how to correlate between taking the workshop and progressing or digressing
Please advise
Iman
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thank you for your reply. I want to prepare the report for only two sets of data for the same students. will ANOVA still be a choice?
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Grammar, syntax, and morphology can be seen as autonomous levels of language development from other cognitive domains or language is part of various cognitive nonlinguistic features such as auditory perception, general intelligence, hierarchical structuring abilities? So, language is embedded in more general cognitive abilities?
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Yes, but they consider that (the faculty of) language is syntactically pre-structured, so to say, whereas this part of the activity is plainly neural. Languages disorders come mainly from the (final) motor part of the activity: when biology meets culture, precisely!
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I’m looking for advice for creating an Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm setup that could be moved to different locations relatively easily.  Basically, I would like to run the IPLP at multiple locations that have a room to loan me for a few days at a time but not permanently.
Any tips, precautions, or ideas you could share with me from your experience would be greatly appreciated.
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I also did IPLP using portable eye tracker on children with hearing impairments (cochlear implants), and it works.
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Hi, I am a german university student (business administration and psychology) and I am going to write my bachelor thesis.
I would like to research a correlation between stress and the language. For the following points I need your help:
- differently option for stress induction
- or unsolvable tasks for stress induction
- or questionnaire for stress induction
I know about the trier social stress test and the socially evaluative cold water stress test, so I need other options. The best way for me is, to have a computeraided stress test.
I hope you can help me and make my student life a little easier :-).
Best regards,
Timo Köhler
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You might like to try a variation of the unsolvable tracing task used by Roberts et al (2019). It's more typically referred to as a 'frustration tolerance task' or an 'ego depletion paradigm' than a stress induction per se, but it serves a similar purpose. Other challenging cognitive tests (e.g. serial sevens task) can also be used in the same way.
Source:
Roberts, A. C., Yap, H. S., Kwok, K. W., Car, J., Chee-Kiong, S. O. H., & Christopoulos, G. I. (2019). The cubicle deconstructed: Simple visual enclosure improves perseverance. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 63, 60-73.
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The Internet is now global. Language barriers could present a challenge to users and as a result an Internet based language becomes necessary to ensure that transactions can be done without challenges among people who speak different languages.
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May be
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Can an individual have more ‘natural talent’ to learn only a certain second language or type of languages, yet being unable to learn others? Besides motivation, identification and/or exposure what other factors may enhance or hinder foreign language learning success?
As I would like to use the arriving responses for a study, please specify if you agree your response to be used anonymously or with your name in it. Thank you very much!
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Language acquisition is a multi-factorial, multi-dimensional and multi-stratal phenomenon. If you focus on one aspect, the approach is at the expense of excluding other aspects. A big question as is asked entails a vast reply, the whole scholars in the universe are trying to answer just a portion of what is considered as the most complicated faculty of human species_language. Don't dismay. Btw, plasticity is sth that belongs to pre-puberty. After puberty it is claimed that the plasticity vanishes. Man is stuck in a hard shell rather than a flexible all-absorbing ability. They can master lexico-grammar and also discoursal aspects yet for people after puberty acquiring native-like pronunciation is claimed to be very hard, out of reach or impossible. Notions and factors such as the individual psychology, neurology, physiology, internal motivation; social , cultural, historical factors; power distribution; class, age, gender, ethnicity; natural vs classroom environment, authenticity real life example vs artificial classroom exposure, learning styles and learning strategies; input, intake, and output and still a longer list of factors all have an impact on SLA. We are all on the route to know just part of the system or mechanism , yet there is no conclusive answer. We can easily pose a very short question such as "What is the treatment for cancer?" but the answer is neither conclusive, nor utterable. It involves a huge pile of information concerning numerous factors inspected through various perspectives, "signifying nothing." Yet, as human beings we try to quench our curiosity. In this activity, we are fortunate enough to have a collective curiosity; that is, all the thinkers in applied linguistics collectively try to find a way to better understand SLA. From antiquity, Plato, and Aristotle , to F Saussure, Chomsky, Hymes, Halliday, Gass, Ellis, and many other important scholars they have tried to grasp some aspect of SLA and expand human knowledge on the quest for language learning /acquisition. ... you see, this is not yet finished.
Best wishes. Dr Babak Majidzadeh (PhD)
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In Turkey, translation is used in the multiple-choice format in language proficiency exams. I wonder if there are any other examples around the world.
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In China, a standardized national EFL test, College English Test Band 4 & 6, includes translation items. Students are asked to translate a paragraph from Chinese to English.
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This question must be accompanied by provisos. One particular proviso simplifies the task. Assume that the problem solving used throughout the development of language was of the same kind that has at all times occurred since. In other words, assume that it is valid to use averages over time, at least for the time period under consideration. In 2009 I used ideas relating to statistical mechanics to estimate, on certain assumptions (a language-like call `lexicon' of about 100 calls), that language began between about 141,000 to 154,000 years ago in a couple of articles, and
). at p. 74. The work in those articles is over 10 years old and there have been developments since. One involves dispersion of phonemic diversity (Atkinson 2011). Are there other approaches?
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I read the 2011 paper by Atkinson on phonemic diversity in May 2019. It had not occurred to me in 2008 or since that there might be a way to find a rate of phonemic change. So the Atkinson paper is very interesting. Unfortunately, I could not find a way to align Atkinson's ideas with those in the 2008 lexical growth paper and in the 2009 intelligence paper, mentioned in the question above. But I did find a 2015 paper, Detecting Regular Sound Changes in Linguistics as Events of Concerted Evolution (Hruschka et al) and was pretty amazed at some of their data. I have thus added a paper on phonemic and lexical change which might be of interest.
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IELTS test (academic version) most challenging part is the writing part, even for the English native speakers.
Do you think that people who achieve better results in the IELTS Writing part do actually have a better academic writing experience?
I am interested to hear your opinion on this..
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Do you think that people who achieve better results in the IELTS Writing part do actually have a better academic writing experience? Not necessarily. Experience, from a broader point of view, matters.
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Dear Sir/Madam,
At this moment I'm currently working in my dissertation project. The question is "in which way is the teacher of portuguese as a foreign language conditioned by his culture in teaching portuguese in asian context" and I'm asking your help in order to have more essays about psycology of language and the teach of portuguese in asia.
Thank you in advance for the help.
Best Regards,
Sara
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Psycholinguistics and emotion attached
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Hi everyone! I'm preparing an ERP study of written sentence processing in school aged children. My target population are children between 8 and 11 years old, and I'm aiming to examine N400 and P600 effects after semantic and syntax violations. Sentences will be displayed on the center of a computer screen, word by word (rapid serial visual presentation). I wanted to ask your opinion about what would be the optimal SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony) to maximize the probability of actually seeing the language-related ERP effects, as it has been shown that presentation rate may affect the magnitude of these potentials, at least in certain populations (like L2 and older adults).
Thanks for your kind attention!
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Hi Angel Tabullo --really neat study design! In our study of typically developing children this same age and slightly older, we had them "read sets of three sentences presented word-by-word with a target word, either real or novel, as the last word in each sentence. Sentences were presented word-by-word with each word appearing for 500 ms and a blank screen between words appearing for 300 ms. The blank screen directly preceding the target word was presented for 600 ms to establish a baseline for analysis of the novel word. The target word was presented for 600 ms" (Abel, Schneider & Maguire, 2018). I would also recommend Hagoort, 2003 "Interplay between Syntax and Semantics during Sentence Comprehension: ERP Effects of Combining Syntactic and Semantic Violations" for guidelines in study design (i.e. start-up and wrap-up effects) that I have found most useful for my own studies of semantic and syntactic processing in 8-12 year olds. Look forward to reading more of your work in the future!
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There are different approaches to diagnosing and intervening in autism across the globe. What do you think? Your opinion matters!
We are running a survey of practitioners and researchers working with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in low-resource settings and low- and middle-income regions/countries. Please, take it and share!
#autism
#ASD
#neurodevelopment
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Commonsmlc@gmail.com has a diagnostic tool the says what the developmental state of the child is and where to intervene. At the moment it is free.
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I would like to ask if you have any suggestion for global early screening tests which create a baseline in language development and if Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development-R or Early Lang Milestone Scale belongs to this category...
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Thank you for your answer. 1) Could you please give more details about why Wellcomm can be translated up to 3.5 years, since I would like to know more about this test...2) the PLS is probably is refered to Zimmerman etl al (2002)?
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I am looking for a suitable topic to do my undergraduate thesis on, and one idea I have at the moment is to perform in-situ hybridization in order to detect expression of certain genes related to language development in model organisms such as mice or fish.
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hi. consider the practicality of your project, its generalizability and usefulness. your samples should be the representative of the population. How?
best regards
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If blended learning aimed at enhancing language development, so which of theses learning theories are more relevant ?
Thank you
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Hi Haba!
I see connectivism as a kind of constructivism - as also social constructivism is an emphasis under the broader label of constructivism. And do not forget constructionism, which is also highly interesting in relation to ICTs and learning, and something else.
However, I think all kinds of learning theories and connected pedagogies and didactics are in a way rather neutral to the use of both classrooms and ICTs and their possible combinations. Owning Ipads does not implicate constructivism, but Ipads can help design a course in a constructivism manner. You can do very oldfashioned or even evil or stupid teaching / learning designs with ICTs or without. ICTs instead broadens our possibilities to design teaching and affect student learning under varying circumstances of all kinds. No more magic than that (but highly important anyway).
If you only have your own oral voice (no books, paper, blackboard, Ipads, LMSs or other ICTs) and 50 students to teach under the shadow of a tree - you cannot do much adaption or variation to student needs, and the teaching /learning process is probably not very effective (it is hard to even give homework).
See this thought experiment:
and this interpretation of blended learning, focusing on time and process instead of technology or place:
which simplifies thinking of blended leanring versus learning theories.
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Hi, I am looking for references concerned with language transfer or interference from foreign language to mother tongue.
We would like to test how sensitive are Croatian speakers fluent in German to German morphosyntactic features in Croatian (e. g. verb at the end of the sentence, use of indefinite articles etc.), but are not entirely sure how to design the psycholinguistic test. We believe the language transfer would influence the translation procedure into mother tongue.
Neurolinguistic studies are also very welcome.
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Thank you all very much!
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Does any one know of Neuro-linguistic program for use by individuals with dyslexia please?
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you can read this file
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I want to see, if there are any relations between the consumption of digital media and the speech development or rather the vocabulary acquisition.
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My simple advice to all non-English native speakers (including me!)  to convert or switch their electronic computers, mobiles, social media accounts, TVs, etc into English mode, I think is the simplest way to gain more vocabularies and be default to communicate by using English language.
Emad
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The use of translation/students’ L1 in second/foreign language teaching has had many ups and downs during the history. From its heydays during the Grammar Translation Method, to its total rejection by the advent of the Direct Method, to its recent revival as a potential pedagogic tool (Guy Cook, 2010).  Based on your teaching experience, I want to know if you think the use of students’ L1 in foreign language classes can be facilitative or harmful for foreign/second language learning. If your answer is positive, then, for which age group(s) and language skill(s) the use of L1 can be more beneficial.
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I would rather think towards translanguaging as the guiding concept. I feel the strict view on not using any L1 at all is not up-to-date anymore, but pros and cons would have to be considered carefully for the very teaching situation;
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Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) and Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) are measures used to gauge the language development in pre-school children. However, can they still be used to assess language development in school-age children age between 8 to 11? What would be the right tool/tools to measure language development in school age children?
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Thank you to all for the answers provided. I really appreciate them
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What do you think about "The relationship between L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and L2 Vocabulary use" according to Paul Meara? indicated in Macaro's Continuum companion to second language acquisition book. Kindly share your ideas/comments/references.
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As previous RG members pointed out, word use would not be accessible unless a range of word knowledge is gain. However word knowledge itself is controversial issue since it includes:
1. The spoken form of a word.
2. The written form of a word.
3. The grammatical behavior of the word.
4. The collocation behavior of the word.
5. How frequent the word is.
6. The stylistic register constraints of a word.
7. The conceptual meaning of a word.
8. The associations a word has with other related words. 
The controversial issue is that some learners are able to use their knowledge earlier than other, they gain all various knowledge ( from 1 to 8); however some others behavior is different. The last word of mine, less performance in any context (exam or real communication) can not mean that a person does not have the knowledge of word.
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I am interested in possibly researching one of the following areas of children's writing:
-Figurative language / imagery
-Nominalisation
-Sentence structure
-Description / detail
Are there any instruments often used for writing analysis that may help?
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Dear Brett:
You ask for quantitative instruments for analyzing children's writing. I know of no formal and global quantitative instrument for analyzing children's writing, mainly because children's witting may analyzed from several perspectives, such as a morphological, grammatical, and semantic perspective. Note also that children's writing may refer to a six-year-old child, a eight-year-old child, a ten-year-old child and even older children. In addition to this, children's writing may be analyzed, for example, in terms of words per sentencetype of words employed (concrete words, such  as chair, table, desk, and the like, or abstract words such as false, good, beautiful, and the like), sentence structure (correct or incorrect), level of linguistic development (e.g., egocentric language or socialized language) and so forth.  
To count  the total number of written words per sentence and the type óf words employed is a relatively usual and easy quantitative way of assessing children's written fluency and proficiency..
You might appeal also to a qualitative procedure. I am thinking of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and its relation to verbal development. As far as I know, he appealed, for instance, to three types of "Why" children (and leaners)  may employ in their writing and speaking. Psychological whys, physical whys, and logic whys. "Why have  you beard?", a child asks. " Because I like to have beard", an adult responds." "Why do you like this?, and so forth, the child adds.These are examples of the first type of "Whys". As you easily could see, the child at hand is playing with words and, in the end, s/he is not interested in any true explanation. "Why does water freeze in the fridge?, a child may ask. "Because when water is subject to a low temperature it ceases to be lliquid and becomes solid", an adult answers.This example substantiates the second type of whys mentioned above. "Why 2 + 2 makes 4?", a child questions. "2 +2   = 4 because 1 + 1 = 2", an adult responds. This is a simple example of a logic why? 
Contrary to what happens in adults' socialized language (written and spoken), in their egocentric language, writing, and speaking  children under 5-6  years approximately, often use psychological whys, and few, in any, physical and logic whys. The qualitative procedure just mentioned could be applied to other words, such as if, although, and so forth.
Needless to say, a qualitative procedure can be analyzed  in quantitative terms. For example, one might count the number of  times each type of why appears in a written/spoken production.
As language has also a semantic level, which is not the case, for example, of computers. I think that children's writing in any language can also take into account such level. Of course, children's writing may be analyzed in psychodynamic terms. Such analysis can shows us, for example, the extent to which a given child is experiencing a certain affective conflict. This little digression shows us, as Reza says, that children's writing is a wonderful topic for research.  
Needless to say, the more holistic rather than  dualist or reductionist we want to be while analyzing children's writing, the more we should appeal to both qualitative and quantitative procedures. A dualistic and positivistic stance is adopted when, for example, one opposes quantity to quality. Science whatever often appeals to dualistic perspectives, such as nature vs. nurture, social vs. individual, biological vs. psychological, fluency vs. proficiency, and so forth. Fortunately, this sad reality is being replaced  by dynamic and relational systems approaches to action, thinking and felling.
I hope I have got your question(s)  and that my considerations my be of help to you.
Best regards.     
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I'm collecting data for my speech therapy degree. I'm building a three-test battery to gauge speed and accuracy in adults with former developmental dyslexia.
One of the tests is a lexical decision task, which needs to be made harder by shaping it in a tachistoscopic presentation, and I therefore need to estabilish a basic amount of time for the stimuli to be recognized (and not only detected). 
In literature it can be found a rather large range of intervals for the minimum amunt time of the stimulus recognition, from about 20 ms to about 200 ms, accordingly to word lenght and some other variables, however over all in studies about visual analysis  
What I am seeking, is very specific data on the very baseline of the recognitizion of words, i.e. data on the reading abilities in normal subjects.
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If you are focusing on dyslexic learners, I think then see two aspects. The words they can and they words they cannot recognize. These students have diverse reading problems. So keeping 'can' aspect let them attain maximum speed and recognition and calculate the time. Moreover, you have to sort out the extent and variables involved in this process. Otherwise, it will be leading to a generalization. I hope it helps!
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I'm researching on the factors  that influences African parents to only use English with their children at home.
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Hope this can be useful;
Have you applied any survery or interview to your participants?
Colonialism plays a great role on these kind of situtions. Globalization has another important part (world Englishes).
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We are doing research about a gesture system called Visual Phonics.  The hand shapes, corresponding to sounds, can be useful in literacy instruction with young children, both with and without disabilities.  The individual hand shapes are fairly abstract initially, but, with repetition, do take on meaning.  Does this indicate a shift from one type of gesture to another?
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No. Iconic symbols must be perceptually similar to their targets (possibly in a broad way) and presumably at least partly understandable out of context. When an abstract symbol takes on a conventionalised meaning it does not change its nature.
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We are designing a Sentence Repetition Task for Spanish children from 2 to 4 year-old and have been gathering info
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Could you send to me that chapter, Isabelle?
Best 
Sonia
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I was thinking of teaching swearwords/swearing/cursing  to my FL students so that they will be able to swear back if someone swears at them, but I am not quite sure if it is right, as much of expressions are so abusive  and very rude that can offend others. What do you think?  Are there any safe ways of teaching them? Thank you.
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In part perhaps because of George Orwell's "1984", and also because I've seen the attempt in East Germany to curtail both the number and the meaning of words in the lexicon of the German language (in the DDR's Eastern Duden Dictionary), I am very very leery of any attempt to limit vocabulary (I am also appalled at the paucity of the 'English' used in many international institutions, which curbs thinking and kills nuances of thought. Even ignorance of simple grammar rules limits meanings - cf. the frequent misuse of the word 'the' in RG discussions, which garbles meanings.)
So-called 'swearwords' usually have great pedigrees, and have become 'swearwords' only through temporary happenstance or even ignorance. Here are a couple of examples:
Toilet - not a word in very high standing these days - was used by the British aristocracy to describe euphemistically a loo - it was a French word meaning 'little cloth'. Of course, the original highborn nature of the word is totally lost today.
'Humanity' - a PC word most often used to replace the supposedly sexist 'mankind' is rooted in slapstick ignorance: 'human' meant specifically a male person (akin to the Spanish hombre or the French homme), whereas man in mankind meant a 'human being', cognate with the German Mensch of the same meaning. Furthermore, the adoption of humanity to mean mankind leads straight to an impoverishment of the tongue - 'humanity' used to mean, and should continue to mean, 'the essence and quaility of being human', or even 'humane-ness'. Mankind is a perfectly good word to express what it means, demolished by ignorant PCness.
Even the worst swearword in the English language has a noble lineage and meant 'to procreate, to generate offspring', as reflected in the modern Dutch word 'fokken', meaning to breed (as in 'breed horses', e.g.)
I say, teach all those words within their historical context, and above all, do not willfully impoverish languages and/or lexicons. 
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Ideally looking at pre 5 language development and language supported through play.
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Some literature on playing, gender, and
some on language development.
Regards,
Joachim
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Here seems to be some evidence to suggest that (though some might say that the evidence below is just a typo):
"Arrangements were being made on Monday as to where the players would GATHER WATCH (emphasis mine) the match with Albrighton admitting it will be difficult viewing."
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I do not know what you mean by "SVC" but I think that this is just an example of a typographical error, i.e. leaving out "to." 
Because of the extensive sharing online and high work tempo in many places of employment, I am seeing more and more errors on news stories that SHOULD have been caught by proofreading or copy editors.
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When we use a video of flashing light in the headturn preference procedure during familiarization and test, infants fail to discriminate our target words. However, when we use a more engaging visual stimuli, a video of spinning colorful pinwheel in HTPP, they succesfully discriminate the target words. It sounds like using a more engaging stimuli reinforces infants' discrimination at test. Why does it not detract from processing of the sounds?
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I suspect it improves their interest in the task, which increases their attention to the stimuli, rather than it reinforcing their discrimination per se. It may be that the timing of those features could be where it detracts, but otherwise increasing attention will probably just be a good thing.
Hope this helps!
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what is the impact of mothers work on the language development of their children compared to non working mothers
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Hi,
We have recent data on norming study of Infant communicative development assessed with the European Portuguese CDI short forms. We considered effects of socioeconomic status (SES), which are related to parental profession (and to the fact that the infant has a working mother). We only found a SES effect for vocabulary comprehension in infants (8 to 18 months), with an advantage for infants from medium-qualified families relative to infants from families with lower or higher levels of SES. Given that in most cases the medium and higher levels of SES corresponded to working mothers, this suggests that the mother's working status may not be the only (or even the most) relevant factor. The role of other factors needs to be explores, such as the actual kinds of input the infant is exposed to.
Best,
Sonia Frota
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I think all the questions are interesting, BUT your approach is skewed.
First of all, learning process in done in brain and its interaction with environment, So children will adapt to any tool. That's why babies can handle a tablet better than a older citizen, because they see it as a tool. Just like we saw a pencil or a pen.
New Technologies do not change the brain, brain responds to evolution, changes in the environment. Human brain is just one part of the long chain in evolution. Species need to evolve, so brain is not static. It's not something a tool like technology can damage because is dynamically changing in order to keep us alive as specie.
If pencils are not necessary tools, brain won't be damage, it will use that motor information to something else. Brain don't keep in memory something that doesn't use. It's called cognitive economy.
I can add another topic: Reading and writing are NOT programmed cognitive skills in brain. Language is programmed, but not reading and writing, because those are brand new cultural inventions in the cosmic calendar.
Finally, studies about dyslexia, find that children with dyslexia can read better on screens because they see a small amount of information, and they can go up or down slowly or even make the text bigger. 
My idea is: don't think learning based on a tool, but based on brain and how it learns
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One of my colleagues remembered reading an article that states that beginning learners are sometimes better at producing segmental sounds than advanced, due to different reasons like motivation and also focus. Beginners will focus more on details of phonology than intermediate or advanced speakers, since they would rather make sure that their whole utterance is correct and understood, therefore paying less attention to the segmental sounds.
Thanks a lot!
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Dear Robert, I can refer to my personal experience as a multilingual speaker. I find it rather easy to imitate a sound sequence without acquire the phonological system. But this is not acquiring the language. I do not speak Spanish, but I can say Ola and Vale in a way that Spanish speakers continue to talk to me in Spanish and have difficulties to accept that I do not understand them. This seems to be at least related to the phenomenon you are after. Charles
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I am looking into the benefits and effectiveness of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) for children with ASD for my 4th year Speech Pathology research review. I have started some preliminary review of literature and have found there to be some great gains on communication and social behaviour. I am wondering what other researchers on this topic or Speech Pathologists view points are to this approach? Has anyone seen this delivered in practice? 
Belinda 
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Belinda
I am sending alone a short version of an explanation on how we (my daughter Chana and I) view AAT.
I think this would be better than the chapter, for your purposes.
Stanley
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I am looking at research on infants ability to speak and whether or not teaching an infant sign-language can help develop their verbal ability.
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You may consider looking into research on bilingualism and the cognitive and language benefits that come from learning two languages. Sign language does count as another language so looking into research on bilingualism may be a good place  to start.
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Such models or theories help linguists to reconstruct obsolete lexical items believed to exist in the presumed proto-language. 
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1. The language organ- proposing the biological genesis of language.
2. Proto-world & the monogenesis of current languages.
Again, as above,  the nature-nurture dichotomy seems to be the predominant strands of thought. One can situate arguments quite reasonably along one of these veins. Citations have been given by some in this forum.
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Development of tasks to foster  autistic children's figurative language, inference and comprehension.  
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Dear Dr. Bahman,
Thank you very much.
best wishes
ali
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I'm looking to rate words used on early childhood assessments as low or high Age of Acquisition (AOA). I'm also looking to identify words recognized by 75% of 3-, 4-, and  5-year olds.  Any specific information on available resources or how to best use CHILDES database would be helpful. Thank you!
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I have found the database by Kuperman et al. (2012) to be especially informative for determining AoA in children older than the 30 month age limit provided by the CHILDES.  You can access that database via this website: http://crr.ugent.be/archives/806
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The Common European Framework plays a central role in language and education policy worldwide. Has it enhanced foreign language learning/teaching across Europe since 2001? Your opinions and findings are very welcome.
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To borrow Widdowson’s (2015: 359 - JELF) words, the specifications of the CEFR never question “the old orthodoxy that the objective of learning can only be the acquisition of competence defined as conformity to native speaker norms”.  Baker (2015: 135 - Lang. Teach.), for example, quotes the following specification among many similar ones: “Can sustain relationships with native speakers without unintentionally amusing or irritating them or requiring them to behave other than they would with a native speaker” (Council of Europe 2001: 122).  It may be argued that such specifications make it difficult to prepare students for real-world international and intercultural communication in a multilingual setting.
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I am interested in knowing whether there are researchers who are researching the application of bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language in adults.
The bootstrapping theory of language in L1 language development is well known. In recent research my student and I conducted in adult learners using prosody, sentence and paragraph as inputs suggested that the bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language might also be possible. I wonder whether there are people who are working on this question.
Felicia Zhang.
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 Hi Felicia
In general, once any L2 learner gains a certain level of ability in processing the L2, which inevitably depends upon acquired L2 knowledge and skills, we could define them as having "bootstrapped" their language learning. However, I don't think this is often the perspective taken by L2 and SLA researchers and I have never seen any SLA research framed this way.
I am also very interested in this idea of "bootstrapping" in SLA, but am currently taking it from the perspective of language learning aptitude and language learning aptitude enhancement. The research is early days yet.
If you hear anything, please let me know!
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I'm creating c-tests for bilingual children in two different languages. Original texts are taken from books for children. I was wondering how I can measure the complexity of different texts, since languages are also very different: e.g. Italian and Slovenian. Is Type/Token ratio a good measure for this purpose? Do you know any other measure? 
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Hi Sara,
I'd also recommend this article:
Lu, Xiaofei (2010), Automatic Analysis of Syntactic Complexity. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15(4), 474–496.
It also evaluates English, but discusses 14 different text based metrics and addresses syntactic complexity in particular, which is ignored by vocabulary based measures. For some of the methods you'll need to parse the data, but at least for Italian that should be possible (not sure about the situation for Slovenian, I think there's a dependency parser for it though).
Hope this helps!
Amir
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I am writing chapter 3 of my proposal and I need an instrument to measure language development for low functioning autistic children. I will appreciate if any of you will allow me to use the instrument that you already have.
I am doing a quasi-experimental study and using a small population of 5 autistic students (3 to 5 years old). My strategy includes photographs of each child natural environment which will allow me to initiate conversation with each one. I use each child's IEP as a pretest and will use the measurement that I am looking for to verify progress in the post-test towards the end of the training.
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Communication Matrix focuses early communicative skills and has been used in studies Before. https://www.communicationmatrix.org/
Have you checked fx Solomon-Rice&Soto "Facilitating Vocabulary in Toddlers Using AAC A Preliminary Study Comparing Focused Stimulation and Augmented Input" for inspiration?
Good luck
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The ultimate goal of teaching English as a Foreign Language is to graduate people who are able to communicate in English fully, yet most graduates lack this ability. So, what are the main reasons that underlie this inability?
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As an English teacher I can list the following reasons:
1)      learners’ different starting point to learn language, which leads to the next reason
2)      Individual differences – ( e.g. I assume for introverts it’s harder to communicate than for extroverts)
3)      Lack of speaking practice
4)      Lack of reading for pleasure/ lack of input
5)      The complex patterns existing in mother tongues different from English
6)      Lack of learner’s motivation, confidence
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I'd like to find a source for the population so the Ethnologue can cite it.
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In fact that, when we talk about "Mông" in Vietnam, it's presented for Hmong people. In other country, they have another name such as Miáo (Chinese) or Maew (Thai). I'm not sure whether Hmong Do is a subgroup of H'Mong or refer to H'mong. However, if you are know that they are live in Ha Giang, Lao Cai and Bac Ha province, Dong Van and Meo Vae district (which province?), then you can look up on the file I gave you. It presented the H'mong people depend on their location. If you have the trouble with Vietnamese, I can help you sort this data.
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Where can I compare and contrast the elimination of phonological processes between English speaking and mandarin speaking children?
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It may be also worthwhile to have a look at Professor Sharynne McLeod's work e.g. multilingual website
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I am studying the use of underdog narrative by politicians in Indonesia. I'm now trying to find references on the historical use of the term underdog in politics. Anybody has read anything about it? Most references I have are within the marketing field. Thank you in advance.
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It is a reference to dog fighting, which was popular in the United States in the mid 19th century. It is tied to the term "top dog". "Top dog" is the winner and "underdog" the loser or the one beaten down by the "top dog". The use of the terms for people probably dates to the beginning of the 20th century when many social movements were fighting opression. These terms lend themselves to such a context and that is an area I would investigate.
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I know of Schieffelin's (1990) and Gottlieb's (2004) ethnographies, the Ochs and Schieffelin language and development-centered collaborations, and a few of the textbooks. I'd welcome any and all suggestions.
Recent and Classic ones are all good. Course Syllabi/Bibliographies/Articles are excellent too! 
Thank you :)
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POTENTIAL SOURCES ON CHILD-REARING PRACTICES ACROSS CULTURAL BOUNDARIES
Aghajanian, A. (1979). Economic contribution of children and fertility in rural
Iran: An overview. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 3,
21-30.
Aghajanian, A. (1988). The value of children in rural and urban Iran: A pilot
study. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 19, 85-98.
Ahmed, L. (1992). Women and gender in Islam. New Haven: Yale
Bradley, C. (1984). The sexual division of labor and the value of children.
Behavior Science Research, 19, 159-185.
Brown, J. K. (1970). A note on the division of labor. American Anthropologist,
72, 1073-1078.
Buckle, L., Gallup, G. G. Jr., & Rodd, Z. A. (1996). Marriage as a reproductive
Day, R. D. & Mackey, W. C. (1986) Children as resources: A cultural analysis.
Family Perspective, 20, 251-264.
Demos, J. (1986). Past, present, and personal.
Hewlett, B. (ed.) (1992). Father-child relations. NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Lamb, Michael (ed.) (2010) The role of the father in child development 5th edition. Wiley
Many individual ethnographies provide information on a specific culture: To wit:
Men will systematically provision their own children. A cross-cultural universal is that men will gather resources — food is an excellent example — from outside the perimeter of their camp/village and then return to the camp/village and share that resource with particular children (the men’s children) as well as with the men’s wives. The pattern is highly predictable (Hewlett 1992, Hewlett & Lamb 2005, HRAF #22 - #26, 1949; Lamb, 1987; Mackey, 1985, 1986, 1996; cf Stanford & Bunn2001) and occurs across societal structures and across ecologies (Murdock, 1957, 1967) viz. the Yanomamo (Chagnon, 1977), China (Chance, 1984), Tibet (Ekvall, 1968), the Tiwi (Hart & Pilling, 1960), the Dani of New Guinea (Heider, 1979), Eskimos (Chance 1966), Japan (Norbeck, 1976), the Ainu (Ohnuki-Tierney 1974), the Yuqui (Stearman, 1989), Australian aborigines (Tonkinson, 1978), the Dobe !Kung (Lee, 1984). The provisioning is not totally exclusive. Systematic food sharing has been ritualized in many, if not all, societies. Rarely can a hunter claim a large kill for only his own family (Coon, 1971; Lee, 1982, Tonkinson, 1978; Chance, 1966).
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I particularly want more information on its effects on children below 5y. Thanks.
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Essentially none, I would think. There might be a rare exception where anxiety or severe perseverative behaviors are a barrier to language development and Zoloft would treat that specific symptom, but I don't know anyone that would start Zoloft with the specific goal of accelerating language development.
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I mean how to mark/measure fluency in a piece of writing that gives valid, reliable results.
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I think you would need to do a content analysis with a rubric and multiple coders to achieve good inter-coder reliability.
I use rubrics adapted from the 6+1 Traits model developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Attached is a document with their original model for evaluating writing, and an example of how I adapted their model to oral proficiency.
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How would one handle research intended to explore how text/genre based approach using tablet computers may enhance language development in primary schools?
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Can you give a little more description about what you are considering when you say "text/genre based approach?"
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I want to develop a Persian version of this approach
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Hi Hannane,
Yes you can. Minimal contrasts does not mean minimal syllables. Minimal contrasts in phonology are often referred to as minimal pairs. That is, you have two words that are opposed by just a phonological feature, which could be a toneme or a phoneme. In a tone language like the Yoruba for example, /bo/ on a high tone means to peel, but the same /bo/. on a low tone means to cover. At the same time, /ile/ on Mid/High tones means house', but on the Mid/Low tone it means floor or ground. Also, /pako/ on High/High means plank, but on High/Low it means chewing-stick. It is much like /table/ and /cable/ or /bat/ and /rat/. They are rightly minimal pairs or contrasts. 
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It seems that many now agree that in early versions of the Chinese script 人千身仁 and 年 are all in the same xiesheng series. But, my question is if, what are the _semantic components_ of these various characters. I don't necessarily mean this question in terms of 'what are their kaishu' transcriptions, but rather 'what other examples of say the "belly" semantic that distinguishes 千 and 身 in the Chu script?' etc.
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Perhaps the "Zhuan Zhu" 转注, from traditional "Liu Shu" 六书, could be used  to understand the structure of these characters. There are not necessary to treat the characters as a combination of phonetic and semantic parts. It's kinda like Zhi Shi指事, making difference by adding a stroke, but in Zhuan Zhu, or in the cases you mentioned, the new created scripts are as well phonetically related to the original ones.  
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The following example explains what I mean by input alphabet-dependent cipher:
Plain text in language that is using the Latin alphabet can be encrypted, but plain text in language that is using the Cyrillic alphabet can not.
The following example explains what I mean by input language-dependent cipher:
Plain text in English can be encrypted, but plain text in German can not.
Thank you in advance.
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Hi Anton
I am not sure if this is what you want, but given below are two links to a language-cum-mathematical cipher kaTapayadi system, usable only with Malayalam alphabet and originated in Kerala, India
Narayanan Bhattathiri
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This is an open question, in relation to the new national curriculum what is the most relevant role?
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On the surface it seems like a relatively simple question. But like most ......it begs more questions.
"Digital literacy" like technology itself can really only be considered in its wider socio-technical context. The term is often conflated with "Computer skills", which was current in the 1980s as the PC appeared on every desk. More recently much of the popular debate surrounding the NC PoS has seen "Digital literacy" as the capacity to use "Office software", often to complete work related tasks.
In my view this narrow and anachronistic psudo-definition has failed to accommodate the emerging complexities of the relationship between the individual - society - digital technologies.
If we examine the emerging nature of the above relationship we find that we need to move beyond the narrow vocationally based notion of "digital literacy" to a broader and more inclusive model of what it means to be a "digitally empowered" individual.
In seeking to consider such a complex socio-technical paradigm I try to use a relatively simple PETS framework. This is useful in that it provides a model of engagement which allows us to disentangle the various aspects of the issue - but!! we also have to be aware that the "boxes" of the framework don't entirely do justice to the inextricably entwined nature of the soci-technical realities of our real engagement with technologies.
Four PETS headings are:
Political - e.g. How do digital technologies impact on our political engagement e.g. discursive democracy and the issue of Jurgan Habermass's 'public sphere'.
Economic - e.g. How do digital technologies impact on our relationship with the economic world e.g. the formation of 'human capital' through technology supported education.
Technological - e.g. What is the "nature" of this particular technology in terms of it's capacity to feedback into itself e.g. AI .... which suggests that our "digital literacy" has a moral and ethical dimension.
Social - e.g. How do digital technologies support the formation and realisation of social capital......or we might even conjecture that Castells notion of a "network society" points in the direction of a new sub-divide of "network capital".
So - "digital literacy" can really only be dealt with in a wider socio-economic-political context where our question in relation to the school curriculum is "What is it in this 'digital world' that we need our citizens to know, understand and be able to do? 
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Most teachers believe that knowledge of idioms are important to language learning. How do you evaluate idiomatic use, either for classroom assessment or research?  
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Philadelphia, PA
Dear Marek, 
It strikes me, somewhat paradoxically, that idiomatic language is a regular element of any language--the peculiarity being that it is not compositionally regular. So, if in teaching language or the language of some particular field, the idioms are not taught then something important has been left out. This is particularly important in English, I believe. Part of the reason is that the use of language involved in establishing greater intimacy or distance between people in conversation or discussion depends on the frequency of more formal and less formal elements. Often, the less formal elements have greater frequency and carry greater emotional force, while more or less the same thing can be said using more formal language --say Latinate or Greek borrowings--though the point will be less emotionally charged and, apparently, more abstract. Languages which involve an opposition of intimate vs. formal terms of address (as with "tu" vs. "Vous," say) can better afford to be more compositionally regular.
Lacking English idioms, I suspect, the learner will be more regularly "left in the lurch," though there be, as we tend to think, literally no "lurch" about --in which the learner may be left. I'd suggest an analogy. Not knowing the idioms of a language is somewhat like knowing all the regular verbs but none of the irregular verbs. Still, one might get along of a time fairly well in that manner. 
H.G. Callaway
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Not Language Acquisition, but bi-literacy or methodology
It can be pedagogy in language centers, families, private or tutoring, community centres.
Not academic setting (preschools or primary)
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Hi,
Of course there are many theories relating to child language acquisition. However, your question is not sufficiently clear. can you really demarcate acquisition processes for a child between school and non-school at that age? Also, I fail to see why you would think that general language acquisition theories might not be useful here. I do not think the setting matters. Rather, it is the process. Starting from Chomsky's general language acquisition theory through his (LAD), to more sociologically inclined theories of recent years, I am sure you will find something worth looking at. I attach twoi links to resources focusing on child language acquisition specifically. You might find them useful
Cogeco (2002) `Theories of Child Language Acquisition` Internet access @: http://home.cogeco.ca/~monicafitz/theories.htm
Cogeco (2002) `Stages in child acquisition` internet access @:   http://home.cogeco.ca/~monicafitz/theories.htm
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How do you maximize space for families?
How does it affect the development of language, interaction and communication?
Are there any published papers on this topic?
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See
Strasser, K., & Lissi, M. R. (2009). Home and instruction effects on emergent liter- acy in a simple of Chilean kindergarten children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(2), 175-204. doi: 10.1080/ 10888430902769509
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Second dialect acquisition and critical period.
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The critical period is still a point of debate in language acquisition. According to period, the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. Otherwise, further language acquisition becomes much more difficult. However, research shows early childhood is marked by critical periods — times when the brain is intensely adaptable to new sights, sounds, tastes, and touches. The brain might undergo changes that could everlastingly adjust future functionality.
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Views differ on the effectiveness of IWB in developing writing skills, particularly at undergraduate level.
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The use of IWB (Interactive white board) in the classroom is gaining overwhelming popularity in the era of  technology cult.  More and more academic institution are integrating smart board technology despite the fact it is expensive.  Research shows that bringing IWB into the classroom means to connect the learners with the whole world, particularly when internet is used to have an access to the online knowledge and information.  As for English language teaching and learning, IWB function as a catalyst to enhance communicative skill.  Listening, speaking and reading skills are marvelously augmented. Writing at lower level , particularly for small children is also aided by the use of IWBs.  But at higher level, writing skill, is a different phenomenon.  I have also explored research data on the net and I have found very few paper regarding the effectiveness of IWBs for writing skills. So this area needs to be explored and that is why I have put forth this question.
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I am looking for researchers who are involved in African language development and corpus planning for universities. What are the main obstacle? Linguistically? Socio-culturally? Politically? 
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I think Russel Kaschula has a Sarchi research chair on this issue.  You should give him a tinkle.  Also, Kristina Riedel teaches Swahili at Urbana-Champaigne and may be able to give you some pointers: she's very knowledgeable.
Mark
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I'm looking for data on consonant confusions for in-congruent (McGurk-like) stimuli. I have found several studies that use a small subset of consonant pairs. Is there anything close to exhaustive? Something that pairs each English consonant with each other English consonant? 
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Dear Kaylah;
I'm not familiar with any past McGurk study that was exhaustive in exactly that way. But I  wanted to pass on that, given your interests you might like to check out Norm Erber's work - maybe it can satisfy some of your needs;
Erber, N. (1972). Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual recognition of consonants by children with normal and impaired hearing, JSHR, 15, 413-422. 
Erber presented the consonants /p,t,k,b,d,g,m,n/ under A, V, and AV conditions, to children with varying degrees of hearing loss. The paper includes confusion matrices for all of the stimulus - response pairs.
Hack, Z., and Erber, N. (1982). Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perception of vowels by hearing-impaired children. JSHR, 25, 100-107. 
Hack & Erber presented 10 AE vowels under A, V, and AV conditions, to children with varying degrees of word recognition skills. The paper also includes confusion matrices for all of the stimulus-response pairs. 
I realize that these were not McGurk studies, per se, but thought that they might be interesting to you given the question you posted. Along the same lines, I wonder if you would like Lynne Bernstein's work. If you find a paper that is a McGurk study of all AE consonant pairs please let me know!
Best regards,
Carrie
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Language development and language promotion virtually 'always' is linked to some kind of political agenda. I am interested whether any studies exist that aimed at showing that language promotion may be able to be de-linked of politics. 
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Stephanie,
Unfortunately we cannot avoid ideology. If I say for example Gutten tag or hola, or Shalom I am actually giving information about my social status ( accent ) my character ( am I social or anti social for example) and even my gender. The point is that homo sapiens , in general, are ideological by nature.  Actually, the great semiotician  Jacob von Uexkull makes a nice differentiation between the animal world which he calls Umwelt  wherein  the interpretation of objects is either  desirable (+), undesirable (–), or “safe to ignore” (0). And what he call the lebenswelt whereby humans add this subjective/cognitive  side to the environment around them. In other words, ideology makes us human and language ( in the sense of being dually patterned , creative and pragmatically oriented) is the very essence of our humanity.
Trying to find an apolitical way for language promotion is political in itself.
The best way, to my mind, to ensure the highest level of objectivity is in eclecticism. The more the educational plan is open to all competing theories the more it is likely to be close to the impossible ideal of neutrality.
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For some time I've been doing reseach among teachers at university level of education concerning the mentioned issue.
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I feel that most courses, masters, etc., related to second/foreign language teaching are centered in Grammar (not a bad thing) and classic teaching skills (e.g. how to apply the communicative approach). However, in an autonomous approach the teacher needs to be a coach too to encourage the students and know how and when take an active role and when the teacher needs to wait and let the P2P work so that it builds strong dynamics in the classroom.
I myself don't really like how coaching is "sold", but it's the way to understand and learn the skills needed in a more free and autonomous learning environment. Maybe we need a more serious approach to coaching (or I am the one who needs to learn who is a quack and who is a professional -I admit that) and integrate this discipline in teacher training courses to develop the required skills.
I think that it's -and will be- important not only in classic (physical) classes, but also in online courses, MOOCs, etc., where the students are not only autonomous but mostly alone and independent or without the positive & direct feedback of a teacher and their colleagues. In this kind of teaching it's even more important to build dynamics between students and to know when to take an active role without breaking those dynamics but also not letting students get too loose or let an error spread between them.
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I am looking to use / put together a milestone checklist, so any references would be very helpful to understand the developmental stages.
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Archer, D., Aijmer, K., and Wichmann, A. (2012). Pragmatics: An Advanced Resource Book for Students. London and New York: Routledge would be a recent and a good source of info
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I want to have some information about this issue.
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This has been a focus of linguists and biologists since systematic study of language and organisms began in the 19th Century.
It is difficult to conceive of a process of language change that is has not been considered in relationship to biological change, from language (or language family) to species (or genus) down to phonemes to codons.
This difficulty is apparent in the very nature of the discussion. The proposition that diverse languages were related to each other by a formerly existing language came as early as the late 16th century, when Europeans in India noticed resemblances among Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek. From the beginning, this was conceived of using biological terminology: the languages were part of a family, with parent languages giving birth to child languages through the same basic processes that would later become processes by which speciation was believed to occur. Primarily, geographical barriers to continued communication, linguistic or sexual, especially founder effects in previously uncolonized areas; and the development and/or exploitation of niches within a geographical area with no practical physical barriers to continued interchange of words or genes.
In addition to the language used, the graphical representations were very similar. Tree diagrams with an arrow representing time from trunk to branches to stems and leaves. Which of course were correspondent to family records of ancestry and inheritance. And, in turn, the oldest of these family records of ancestry and inheritance themselves provided the data regarding how the language used to record them and the names used within the population changed over time.
This was not unnoticed by scholars. Early linguistics innovators Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm devoted attention to the relationships. Early biology innovators such as Charles Darwin did the same from their side of the tree of knowledge.
Iceland is the ultimate example. There were nearly no inhabitants prior to the Norse colonization in the 10th century, and those who were there were Irish monks not prone to breeding. This resulted in a double founder effect.
The colonizers of Iceland were literate, and their naming system was directly dependent on ancestry - a child was given a personal name and a patronym, there were no family names as in many other cultures. Thus, our most famous living Icelander is named Björk Guðmundsdóttir. Her father, a prominent politician and author of textbooks on electrical engineering, is named Guðmundur Gunnarsson, whose father was named Gunnar Guðmundsson. This requires careful record keeping.
Iceland was also a very poor place in economic terms until the 20th century, with almost no immigration and a low population. This has resulted in having detailed records of the ancestry of nearly everyone who ever lived in Iceland, and texts recording this history that exemplify the changes in the language over the past 1000 years.
The questions that remain unanswered are the extent to which apparent similarity in structure, whether the language used to discuss two things, to graphically represent two things, or to mathematically represent two things, indicate that the phenomenon underlying these observations and representations by humans are in physical reality similar in such ways, or if they are a complex system of metaphor and analogy.
Note that no one really knows what "physical reality", "metaphor", or "analogy" refer to in such a way that they have successfully convinced other highly relevant parties that they that are correct.
So you have your relatively accepted analogies, such as comparisons of models of genetic drift to phoneme change in the form of glottochronology being used to date the divergence of two language populations in the same manner as changes in codons in areas of genetic material believed to be not under evolutionary selective pressure are used to date the divergence of biological populations.
You also have comparative analyses of islands as nature's experimental laboratories to study both language and genetic divergence (as well as use of mountains and rivers as similar barriers to exchange of information).
And there are serious investigations of historical records of language over time being calibrated with known or inferred population changes and movements. One prominent theory connects the spread of Indo-European languages from Anatolia into Europe and through western Asia into India with the spread of agriculture. On the other hand, another theory links the spread of Indo-European languages from the area north of the Black Sea in connection with the domestication of horses, which creates a huge change in military matters whenever cavalry are introduced to areas where no domesticated horses exist.
Note that both of these theories link the divergence of the Indo-European languages with changes in biological species, that of domestication. And it was analysis of the process of domestication that was one of the major sources of inspiration and argumentation for the theory of biological evolution.
A major question for the past several decades has been whether there is, in humans at least, another form of inheritance analogous in critical ways (i.e., a meaningful unit of information that can be replicated with less than perfect accuracy that is under selective pressure that impacts the likelihood of survival) that functions on a linguistic or cultural level. Also of major concern is whether this "second replicator" can act in ways that have a negative effect on likelihood of genetic replication and transmission.
Lucca Cavalli-Sforza, Robert Boyd, and Peter Richerson are prominent among those who provide more robust methods of investigation and evidentiary standards to support their theories that there is such a second replicator. There are others as well.
They tend to be trained in genetic and/or evolutionary biology or anthropology rather than linguistics or the life science areas that directly and traditionally focus on the brain, its contents, and the impact of those contents on behavior (the behavioral, cognitive, and neurosciences). Linguists and brain/behavior researchers are generally more skeptical of this process of analogy.
There is also a large population of academics and enthusiasts who more or less assume that this second replicator exists and engage in speculation about what that means for various aspects of human culture and thought.
So there is about 200 years of studies of various aspects of the relationship between language change and biological change, including much research on the language-species level of comparison.
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Does anyone know of research on child language acquisition and compounds concerning the question if children when learning a language with no productive compound system ever attempt to form compounds?
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Thank you for your answer. I will look into the relevant litterture you are suggesting and see if I can ger closer to the answer of my question.
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Concerning another question I've asked here:(https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_language_impairment_in_autistic_children_be_explained_by_a_general_cognitive_impairment_low_IQ#share). I wonder if there are any communication impairments (language impairments in particular) in children with Asperger's Syndrome. As far as I know, these children - in comparison to children with autism - are described as to have good language skills.
In addition I wonder if children with AS show any social impairments comparable to children with autism.
Can you think of any papers giving an overview or something I could start with?
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This is why the DSM IV criteria for Asperger's Disorder were problematic: They were exactly the same as the criteria for Autism, minus the language impairment section (and disallowing any cognitive disability). Even people who don't like the blending of Asperger's into the DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis know that there are differences in the social use of language in Asperger's.
Differences and difficulties include: pragmatics such as how to enter a conversation and have it go back and forth and repair misunderstandings; difficulty integrating verbal and nonverbal strands of information during a conversation (and over time, developing general difficulty with nonverbals such as body language, tone differences that indicate sarcasm, and facial expressions), There are more differences, in each of the categories of social, expressive, and receptive language. Look to some of the literature on Autism, because some of the information you seek might not necessary carry the label of "Asperger's" but instead might be in research for "high-functioning autism" because language issues by definition preclude some researchers who were using the DSM IV, from applying the Asperger's label to their research subjects. That has of course changed with the publication of the DSM-5
I am concerned that your research might be sticking with DSM IV-TR thinking and information, so I'll make sure you consider: Because there is the new diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder, if we are talking about someone with Asperger's/Autism Spectrum Disorder, we should make sure we are talking about someone who also has the second category of symptoms, the restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors (which now includes sensory issues missing from the DSM IV). In the latter case, you're more likely to have the Theory of Mind and central coherence features, due to different brains or different preferences, diverted many kids in the Asperger's region of the autism spectrum from following the neurotypical path of development in the use of language.