• Claudia Garrido asked a question:
    Is it possible to give an average proportion of certain pollen types foraged by honeybees?

    It may be very variable in natural or semi-natural habitat, but what about intensively managed agricultural landscape? For example, in northern Germany there is almost nothing else than oilseed rape in some areas. Would honeybees (try to) maintain an almost variate pollen diet or would they increase the proportion of OSR pollen? What about the relation quality/quantity? Thank you.

  • Emile Faye added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with TIR images of natural landscapes in the tropics?

    Hi there,

    I am looking for any thermal infrared images of natural landscapes (any landscape that do not include non-natural objects, crop fields accepted) taken in the tropics (the closest to the equatorial line) from 0 to 6500 m.a.s.l. under clear sky conditions (no clouds) between 10:00 am and 3:00 pm. I will need the exact location of the picture. Any format that I can read and access temperature data: best is .csv attached with the .tif image in false colours. 



    Emile Faye

    Dear James, 

    I'am working on the spatial distribution of microclimates... And I was more awaiting for thermal images acquired with hand held thermal cameras.


  • Paula Vandergert added an answer:
    Will the resilience of socio-ecological production landscape contribute also to its sustainability?

    The relationship of resilience to sustainability.

    Paula Vandergert

    Dear Jhoanna

    To add to these interesting responses, I and colleagues have been studying approaches to resilience and sustainability in the urban context, and addressing gaps in the resilience literature in relation to issues of environmental and social equity. We have just published a paper analysing this through the adaptive governance lens and suggesting how that framework could be strengthened by engaging with institutional theory. Our approach seems to complement that of Micah and colleagues.



    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Adaptive governance is an emerging theory in natural resource management. This paper addresses a gap in the literature by exploring the potential of adaptive governance for delivering resilience and sustainability in the urban context. We explore emerging challenges to transitioning to urban resilience and sustainability: bringing together multiple scales and institutions; facilitating a social-ecological systems approach and; embedding social and environmental equity into visions of urban sustainability and resilience. Current approaches to adaptive governance could be helpful for addressing these first two challenges but not in addressing the third. Therefore, this paper proposes strengthening the institutional foundations of adaptive governance by engaging with institutional theory. We explore this through empirical research in the Rome Metropolitan Area, Italy. We argue that explicitly engaging with these themes could lead to a more substantive urban transition strategy and contribute to adaptive governance theory.
      Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • Micah L Ingalls added an answer:
    What is the definition of landscape? like as a spacial scale, natural resources level, functional level or as environmental point of view...

    according to my research area in peri-urban zone, i focus to analysis peri-urban landscape oriented planning and management, so i need to know what are those definition of landscape?

    Micah L Ingalls

    Dear Mustiafiz,

    I recently addressed this question in a piece that I did. I extracted some relevant part of the text-- let me know if any of the references in it are of interest to you, and I can find them. Here it is:

    "Defining what is meant by a landscape, or what may constitute a particular landscape in praxis, is perhaps particularly difficult, owing in part to the impossibility of precisely defining any complex system in time and space.  Landscapes, as explicitly spatial objects, depend upon their spatial contiguity (Allen and Hoekstra, 1990), are (definitionally) heterogeneous along at least one dimension of interest, whether in space or in time (Pickett and Cadenasso, 1995), and may be defined as “spatially heterogeneous areas that are characterized by structure, function and change” (Lepczyk et al. 2008). As such, a landscape must comprise of both a structural component (conceived of as a set of hierarchically nested ecosystems within a particular space) and a functional component (e.g. flows of materials and energy). While the concept of the landscape is explicitly spatial it is, like the concept of the ecosystem, nevertheless scale-independent in that a landscape may range in size from a single stand of trees (Gaucherel and Houet, 2009) to thousands of square kilometers, provided that it incorporates more than one structural and functional element (Bolliger et al. 2007). In practice, a particular landscape should be bound by the limits of the ecological processes and structures of interest to the study or management objective (Wagner and Fortin, 2005)[1]. As within any term which seeks to encapsulate real-world elements of complex systems, a precise definition may not be attainable and, indeed, may be primarily of scholastic interest with limited usefulness either in research or environmental governance (Seppelt et al. 2009).  

    [1] In a metastudy of landscapes within the published literature, Pfund (2010) found that most “landscapes” were somewhat larger than 100km2.

    Hope this is helpful! Again, please let me know if you would like any of the references above.

    Best regards,


  • David Wright, Urban Designer added an answer:
    Who is writing about tessellation with respect to impact geology for asteroidal or comet events?

    I am looking for literature on regional landscape patterns that look at the fractal quality of how rocks are broken apart in cosmic impacts, and the footprints they leave behind on the present landscape.  

    David Wright, Urban Designer

    Thanks!  It seems I am onto something very new, so looking for anyone with pertinent ideas.

  • Fadel Djamel added an answer:
    In the field of landscape are there parameters that can influence the base value of the view (V)?

    See above

    Fadel Djamel

    Dear All . Thank you for your answers to my question

  • Ibrar ul Hassan Akhtar added an answer:
    How will a remote sensing data spectral library work if we work on MARS topographic analysis?

    How will a remote sensing data spectral library work if we work on MARS topographic analysis?

    Ibrar ul Hassan Akhtar

    Thanks agains!

    Light spectrum will not change but spectral signature based on current sensor and satellite technology will need entire shift because the specific wavelength passing through atmosphere  will change. For example we use very common NDVI as indicator of vegetation health on earth surface but what if Near InfraRed could not reach the surface of the MAR?

    Lets wait together


  • Charles Anukwonke added an answer:
    Can anyone provide literature on landscape Conservation and Management?

    I am in dire need of useful literature on landscape conservation and management to enable me develop and actualize a task. Thanks

    Charles Anukwonke

    Many Thanks Colleagues for your valuable contributions here.

  • Denis Bocquet added an answer:
    What are the issues of Waterfront in Geelong in terms of landscape design principle?
    I kindly need your visual opinions and comments as visitors of Waterfront (joggers, artists, etc).
    Denis Bocquet

    Dear Majid,

    I think that one of the main issues is the continuity of the waterfront public promenade, its urban quality and its connection with the neighbouring programmes of commercial and residential urbanism as well as with public transportation. In such contexts, the work of urbanists, planners and architects has to integrate the micro-dimension of daily uses and trajectories as well as the more macro-dimension of the connection with the rest of the city. It is in my opinion this ability to play on both scales that allows (among other factors like the negociation with private developers of the extent and nature of public spaces) a project to acquire a specific value in terms of urbanity.

  • Frederik Sachser added an answer:
    Are we able to link structure and function at a large spatial scale in seascapes ?

    Does the increasing resolution of marine habitats' maps and the data collected on marine species' distribution allow to produce some real seascape ecology analysis, i.e. linking structure and function at a large spatial scale?

    Could it be possible to use the tools recently developed in landscape ecology, e.g. landscape graphs, and apply it to marine habitats?

    Could it be the opportunity to develop new conservation tools intuitively comprehensible for managers ?

    Frederik Sachser

    Hello Arnaud,

    not sure but maybe this publication could be of interest for you:

  • Dileswar Nayak added an answer:
    Methods for modeling apple landscape using remote sensing and GIS?

    We would like to know a detail step by step procedure for land suitability modeling for Apple in higher mountain range. 

    Dileswar Nayak

    Thank you all for valuable suggestions

  • Dhananjay Sant added an answer:
    Can anyone explain landscape configuration and landscape composition and their importance in landscape ecological studies?

    Remote sensing ,landscape studies 

    Dhananjay Sant

    Landscape is an assemblage of various landforms having different origin interns of processes and time. each landform therefore have different sediment sequence and thereby different thickness of soil profiles locally. Group of flora and fauna would have their preference in growth and occupancy. When one undertake ecological studies one needs to tie up characteristics of occupancy and habit of flora and fauna with landscape.

  • Philia Wang added an answer:
    What kind of urban landscape is suitable for "water birds"?

    Does anyone know that what kind of landscape is suitable for "water birds" in urban areas?

    I have a result in my research shows farm/total area proportion exhibits a high correlation with water birds.

    And what I'm thinking is, what kind of impact will happen to water birds distribution if we change rooftop area into urban farms? I am not sure whether high altitude of buildings will be a detrimental factor.

    It will be great if there are any good references to this topic. Thank you!

    Philia Wang

    Thank you Tiago & Eyal! Really helpful!

  • Carola Haas added an answer:
    Landscape metrics for fragmentation and heterogeneity?

    I want to quantify heterogeneity and fragmentation of two different agricultural land use that have different crop types and area. Which landscape metrics could quantify landscape heterogeneity and fragmentation without redundant information?

    Carola Haas

    You might find helpful information in the documentation for FRAGSTATS software that is used to calculate a variety of landscape metrics.

  • Nicolas Salliou added an answer:
    Are agricultural landscapes emergent structures?

    I wonder whether agricultural landscapes can be described as emergent structures. Are they more than their individual components (crops, forests, hedgerows, orchards and meadows)? 

    Is there some work about emergence and agricultural landscape?

    What are the properties that one can describe from agricultural landscape emergence?

    Nicolas Salliou

    @ Davide : Thanks for your answer. This is very interesting. I was quite baffled by the following assumptions : " the land-use succession in a given place depends only on the land-use successions in neighbouring plots"

    The result of the map is quite good but I still don't get the way this assumption works as I feel that in a landscape some plots LUs are absolutly not defined by neighbors when they are not from the same farmer/Owner.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    What are the opportunities and challenges in adopting ecosystem-based approach for managing degraded ecosystems in semiarid landscapes (Ghana)?

    Role of local knowledge practices.

    Climate change and variability impacts.

    Abhishek Raj

    Hii Yaw Agyeman

    You may look a case study on "Adaptation Learning Programme in Ghana: Women take lead in tackling climate change" in CareClimateChange under Climate change information centre. (link:

    Also see an attached file for more valuable information

    + 2 more attachments

  • Closed account added an answer:
    How might forest and farm producers best be represented in the myriad multi-sectoral platforms that decide things on their behalf?

    The Forest Farm Facility is strengthening forest farm producer organisations - in part to help them engage in decision-making (see attached report) - but what experience do you have about which platforms it is best to engage and how (Food Security, REDD+, FLEGT, landscapes etc) ?


    Thanks all for these very useful and insightful comments. The challenge does indeed seem to be how to focus the understandably multiple needs of forest farm producer groups with the usually monotypic agendas in these policy platforms. The challenge of helping both sides to understand each other and have a useful interaction is no small task. Pre-briefing representatives of forest farm producer organisations about exactly what can be negotiated in particular platforms seems ever more essential.

  • Ted Swift added an answer:
    What are potential research implications of landscape community genomics on stream/river ecology and riparian ecology?

    Landscape commuity genomics is related to eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments, such as stream and riparian ecosystems. However, its framework is not clear at the moment, because we don't know how genomic variation is affected by dynamic interactions between abiotic (environmental) and biotic (community) effects..

    Ted Swift

    Thanks to Francis for linking in Hand et al.'s essay. Very interesting, and one of those concepts that's obvious...after it's pointed out. As Edward Tufte reminds us "It's More Complicated Than That!". The research implications? As usual, it's a case of a big idea that needs to be translated into testable hypotheses on scales that can be studied on practical levels. In riparian corridors, you might expect -for example- genetic variation to be more highly correlated along the corridor, where conditions are similar, than across a stream-to-upland gradient. Or maybe the opposite, depending on the organism.

  • Trine Bekkby added an answer:
    Are you aware of Harris et al. and their worldwide map of marine geomorphology?

    This is more an update, not really a question. But did you know that Harris et al. (2014), doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.01.011) have done a great job with making a worldwide map of marine geomorphology? The map may be downloaded (as zipped shape files) from

    Trine Bekkby

    Then you can add it to your GIS project as wms,

  • Ana Loureiro added an answer:
    Is there a scale (could be a short scale or some items) for evaluating the perceived naturalness of scenes (e.g. landscape, neighbourhoods, gardens)?

    this is for a pretest of some fotographs of houses (with and without plants nearby) and gardens (with more or less plants and other natural elements).

    we want to find out which of the stimuli are evaluated by participants as being most natural and which are least natural.

    I'm not talking about scales like Perceived Restorativeness Scale.

    Ana Loureiro

    I am referring to the Lang (1980; see also Bradley & Lang, 1994) SAM scale (for arousal and valence/pleasure), adding complexity and type of environment  (natural or urban).

  • Khatir Benhanifia added an answer:
    How do I perform an image difference between TM and OLI vegetation index layers?

    I'm currently trying to find the change in value between two dates for a couple vegetation indices generated from two different types of Landsat data. The first image is a TM image from 2011 and the second is a 2013 Landsat 8 OLI image. Both images are georegistered and converted to atmospherically corrected TOA values. While doing some preliminary investigating, I found that the values for unchanged landscape features are significantly different between dates. I'm wondering if this is a result of the difference in radiometric resolution between the sensors (8bit vs 12bit). The Landsat 8 values appear to be lower in a number of areas compared to the TM. Whats should I do to accurately difference the images?

    Khatir Benhanifia

    If the study aimes to compare spectral values in different times, in this case atmospherical calibration is mandatory. Even if it aimes to establish change detection supervised post classification of NDVIs guves acceptable results.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Is there any survey that critically assesses the pedagogical position behind different Intelligent Tutoring Systems?

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems are very important in current landscape of AIED. However, I am not able to find papers discussing the pedagogical positions behind different ITSs in a critical way. 


    Krishnan Umachandran

    No tutoring system can be as intelligent without a "real tutor interface". All IT enabled teaching and learning systems are confined to a particular set of knowledge base attached to it, being probed by a "Keyword search" or a "string search" options into the knowledge database.
    Over a period of implementations it can be fine tuned.

    with regards to motivation, it should be an economical advantage to the "content contributor". However, in a business model, the content provider is paid and forgotten as the site goes alive and the technical team takes charge of support and maintenance.

  • Mehdi Rakhshandehroo added an answer:
    Which are the best journal articles and books on green infrastructure?

    I am working on my doctoral dissertation on Green Infrastructure of the Rural Settlement and its Surrounding Landscape, while considering all components of the rural green infrastructure - (green spaces in school gardens, cemeteries, church gardens, town centre, streetscapes, lakesides, accompanying vegetation of watercourses and roads, trees at objects of small sacral architecture in the landscape, etc.). I have done literature reviews and bibliographical research since 2012 but I do not want to miss any good recent journal articles or books. Do you know some? Maybe you have recently published something on the same or similar issue.

    Looking forward to interesting references,

    Best regards from Vienna,


    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo

    Dear Attila Toth 

    you can have a look at the following paper

  • Aliyu Salisu Barau added an answer:
    Why categorical maps are used in landscape fragmentation analysis?

    Why most of landscape fragmentation studies use use categorical maps to depict patterns of fragmentation rathern than conventional topographical maps?

    Aliyu Salisu Barau

    Thanks a lot Sivia for sharing your knowledega and suggestion of the reference.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What role does effective landscapes play in the sensory development of children with Autism?

    Improvising and narrowing down my previous research question to get a better clarity

    Anthony G Gordon

    "Children with sensory sensitivity should not be exposed to sensory-challenging environments that use artificial stimulation, to answer Anthony's question."

    I do not think the answer to this question is simple, or that it can be answered theoretically.  Empirical data are needed.   Do we say that a congenitally deaf child should not be exposed to weak and distorted auditory input?   An adult with a vestibular disorder will do better by exposing themselves to vertiginous environments in order to learn compensatory strategies.

  • Fadel Djamel added an answer:
    Does substainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape design?

    How does sustainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape innovate design in Australia and China in past decades? What will be the trend in mainstream of water-­‐sensitive landscape development?

    Fadel Djamel

    The landscape is dynamic in the human pulse. In the case of the aquatic landscape where aggression on trophic chains could have a global influence on said landscape. The man is a predator, sometimes daunting for any ecosystem therefore change the landscape of this ecosystem.

  • Ahmet Karakoç added an answer:
    Are there any standard distances from the edge to core area in a landscape patch?

    I know that there are some indicators about core area being the beginning (rare plants etc). If there is no change from edge to core, i.e., homogeneous pattern. How should I determine core size? An example is 5 km square grassland.

    Ahmet Karakoç

    thank you very much Fadel Djamel..

  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer:
    How can I plot a fitness landscape when using particle swarm optimization?

    Hi all,

     I made a comparison between different types of optimization techniques, among them was particle swarm optimization..

    My question is how can I plot heat map or 3d plots to show what the fitness landscape look likes?



  • Alisha White added an answer:
    What are the Journals supporting Art and Design Research?
    The purpose of an arts research degree is arguably to train makers and producers to develop closer links between theory and practice; and ultimately to contribute to the social discourse in the field. Are there any journals that you find continuously interesting and worth reading as artist researchers? Are you submitting to interdisciplinary journals or specialist interest journals? What is hot, what is not and where do you find the best international mix, or the most interesting dialogue?
    Alisha White

    The facebook page for a/r/trography often posts journal calls so you might check there. The visual arts series of Intellect publishing has many that would be appropriate, such as Visual Inquiry. Critical approaches to Arts-based Research. Art/Research International: A transdisciplinary Journal. Also check out a new one Artizein: Arts and Teaching Journal.

  • Brian Braginton-Smith added an answer:
    How can I access available ASTER, SPOT or IKONOS time series Satellite images for the ITC Zone of Africa?

    I am doing a literature review for a research proposal, and intend to assess temporal changes and expansion of farmlands in a forest landscape with shifting cultivation as predominant rural livelihood strategy.

    Thank you in anticipation for your suggestions.

    Brian Braginton-Smith

    I have a group that performs spectral analysis of satellite imagery that could provide enhanced resolution false color mapping and identify a myriad of botanical and geographical data however they do not provide this capability as a free service.   It is amazing what can be observed, identified and tracked utilizing the geospacial network.  I find it puzzling that it is not utilized more broadly in ecosystem analysis, community infrastructure planning and tracking earth changes.  I believe that this is what my colleagues are attempting to do with their business model.          

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