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Land-Use Management - Science topic

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I want to carry out land change prediction, is there a way i can easily do that on ENVI 5.1?
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In ENVI, image differencing and thematic change detection methods are available which are very easy to use. The image differencing method is used for change detection using raster images such as raster indices images.
Thematic change detection method uses classified initial and final mages.
It is reported in different studies that this method provides better accuracy.
Both methods provides detail change statistics.
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Different transportation, land-use, environmental, and other corresponding planners propose their work for new city urban plans in order to address the existing problems by identifying the major gaps they had. The existing land-use was following bad planning principles and it is already a failed plan. When planners integrate their proposed spatial plan to existing land use, they will have a real challenge in aligning. So, as a planner, what would be your choice to align the proposal you have with the existing land-use?
  1. Shall i follow the standard plan i have and remove the existing unplanned land-uses( NB: the compensation cost may be too large) ? or
  2. Shall i accept the existing situation as it is and compromise the planning standards?
What is your suggestion?
Any help is appreciated very much.
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From a southern perspective, I will go for option 2. Like @Luis Fernando indicated, we need to rethink our understanding of city making especially in the global south. Obviously the city is being shaped largely by the people as opposed to 'our plans' - let's plan from the peoples perspective (inclusive, participatory planning). Miraftab's piece on 'insurgent planning' will offer you a clearer insight of my point of departure. Hope this helps
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In the United States, along roadsides and on Federal lands since the coming of the European peoples with their European exotic seeds, those exotic and invasive seeds have been sown in America's wild lands and along the roadsides, causing permanent "Spatial Extinction" of the local native plant populations across hundreds of millions of hectares.
For example in the USA, our Bureau of Land Management has annually sown an average of one million pounds (about 1/2 million kilos) of exotic seeds onto Western wild lands between 2000-2015, without ever doing an environmental analysis under our environmental laws (NEPA), to consider the permanent environmental damages being done to the native plant ecosystems, when BLM already has the least environmentally damaging alternative available, of using local native seeds instead?
Our State highway departments sow so many exotics along roadsides, that my 1997 Megatransect across the West showed massive Spatial Extinction of the native ecosystems, and in many cases the intentionally-sown exotics covered 20-30X more area than the exotic weeds covered, at http://www.ecoseeds.com/megatransect.html as follows--State highways, percentage of roads with intentionally sown exotics--Colorado, Idaho and Nevada 10%, Idaho 21%, South Dakota 28%, and Wyoming 35%.
SO, THE QUESTION IS--Do the government agencies need to immediately stop the use of exotic seeds along roadsides and on wild lands, and that includes the use of "cultivars" of natives, when they are sown outside of their original ecotype zone areas?
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My Forest and many or all that I know about do not or would not intentionally justify using an invasive exotic plant any more. The change over started to occur about 2 decades ago. We even went so far to discuss and go against state BMPs when the published seed mix included grasses considered invasive like Bahia grass, Serecea lespedeza, tall fescue, etc. In our seed mixes, we have continued to allow for some desired non-native ANNUALs that typically last a year as quick cover, as some of our native grasses are slow to germinate. It’s very expensive to grow plugs and then transplant. Any new forest plans and most if not all written in last 10-20 years are going to prevent use of non-native invasives. Where loblolly pine trees were planted off-site decades ago, they have been or are still being removed to make way for native species. Our timber, road, fire control activities require equipment to be washed to avoid inadvertent spread of invasives. But as mentioned, some areas are very erosive, so rapid cover annuals in the mix like brown top millet are still used as well as weed free straw when needed. Many of the Native seeds established, even sparingly at first, respond well to prescribed fire, a management tool used with some frequency within extensive portions of the SC National Forests. Invasive plants are actively treated, but as suggested, the presence of undesired persistant or invasives such as Bahia grass, Serecea lespedeza, tall fescue and others along roads and old gully treatments and home sites within a mixed ownership landscape creates long term issue where continuing identification and treatments to invasives are expected. Unfortunately, not all agencies, activities, ownerships and nurseries are on the same page as USFS, but I expect and believe the educational emphasis and discussions of concern may have them headed in the right direction through time, but certainly not fast enough. As suggested, unless this issue were to be legislated, it Is voluntary to all but the most conservation oriented. My concern with the pure legislation route would be many of the native grasses that we were familiar with were slow to establish and grow. A few species did respond well such as switchgrass and partridge pea, but erosion control needs a reasonable amount of cover, and using too much seed of annuals or excessive mulch also is bad due to competition, etc.
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I want to understand how transitional probabilities are calculated for land use change modelling, given four (4) state land use types for a previous period (T1) and a new period (T2) spanning ten years.  
Please, using the above percentages how do I derive the transitional probabilities for the two periods. Make the answer simple.
Thanks for your assistance.
Sam
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See my answer to your personal message. Also look at the excel example there and on the previous answer above. Note you have to have the SOLVER ADD-IN activated in EXCEL. The idea is to have an objective (like minimize costs) and constraints.
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For the best land use management in benefit of soil, what is the best method for deciding to choose the best land use occupation?
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There is a classical work LAND EVALUATION by Sys et al.We can refer this protocol...
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Hi everyone,
I want to make an econometric estimation in a land-use model. I will apply it to the evolution of land dedicated to grassland, compared to other corn crop, among polycropping-livestock managers. To sum up, there are farmers who have lands with crops, and livestock, and they manage both production together (they can harvest the crop and sell it to the market, or give it to the cattle, or if it is grassland directly put cattle to pasture on it, on harvest the graze and sell it on the market too).
I assume uncertainty plays a important role in the farmers choices. The more a land use is uncertain in yields, the more there are frictions that limit the land conversion.
I have two potential databases:
- The first gives the average yields for around 100 departments (equivalent to US counties, in France, but bigger in size) for maize dedicated to cattle, temporary grassland, and permanent grassland. It is a panel of approximatively 15 years. It has also the surface of lands dedicated to these different uses.
- The second is a micro dataset of around 20K farmers, observations by parcels, among which a lot have diverse maize crops, pasture grassland, harvest grassland etc. I have yields and parcels area on around 5 years only.
First matter: I do not know which database is the best to use. I guess the second do not have enough years, but there are a lot of observations and the variable are totally desaggregated, that are great advantages. But the second looks more like usual datasets used in this kind of study, and there are 15 years (a bigger timescale is better for estimating uncertainty). Problem: it is really desaggregated thus I will only outcome average county level results.
Second matter: Can I just measure the level of uncertainty, assume it as a random variable and attribute it to each observation, and regress the proportion of land dedicated to each use by this variable? Third matter: I do not really understand what assumption are associated to the Brownian motion. Can we just assume that it correctly approximates the variance of yields, thus the level of uncertainty across time, and attribute it like an observation for each year?
Fourth matter: my datasets are limited in variables. I do not have any data about farmers' livestock. Neither about their different costs. But I guess it is sadly a usual problem in econometric study...we cannot have everything we need!
Thank you very much for your advices.
Best,
Camille
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Your other issues.
1. I put in the same "ad hoc" region all the department which have significantly the same level of means and variance in yields.
In my opinion, with 15 years data you have limited scope for the standard tests and models. So you need to focus on the substantive question about farmer behaviour and develop your own methodology. You hypothesize that farmers change their approach to land use based on risk and risk is revealed by variability in yield of maize. (I note that the output from maize in France is both silage and grain but I infer from the context that the data for yield refers to grain.)
Maize as grain has specific climatic and soil needs that may be revealed more by mean yield than variance in yield. So you could try using mean yield to group your departments. You would test the difference in means as a criterion using the F-test and you might impose a distance restriction to avoid disparities in environmental variables. If it is possible to group departments in this way, then you have another method to test Brownian motion. Within a group of departments that appear to form an ad hoc region, what is the pattern of change in yield from year 1 to year 15, trend, random walk, mean reverting? As I understand the theory. Brownian motion would give a random walk. If you get a similar pattern for the departments in an ad hoc region, the there would be a low probability that random walks would have the same profile over time. You could aggregate the data for a ""region" and apply various tests to determine if the patterns differ significantly.
2. Testing the proportions of land in various uses.
Let us say that you have 4 uses. If you attempt to assess all 4 land uses that would mean you have only 3 degrees of freedom. In my opinion, you should begin by testing each land use independently. If you hypothesize that excess risk may drive farmers away from maize as a grain crop, then you are not obliged, at least in the first instance, to say which alternative activity they adopt. Instead, you can break the analysis into two steps.
1. Do farmers shift out of maize-as-grain production in (a) a systematic way over time in groups of nearby or contiguous departments, or (b) does the process appear to be based on the variance in yield and lack of coherence in the pattern of grain yields across departments over time. A shift based on (a) might indicate environmental factors ( We are all in the same boat / Le soleil brille pour tout le monde) , while (b) might indicate pure risk random or without specific cause (Everybody for hinself / Sauve qui peut).
2. When farmers shift away from grain production do they shift to the same suite of alternative productive activities? When they shift away from maize as grain, do they shift to the same activities in the northeast, northwest, central, southeast or southwest. If not, why not?
I am biased by my training as a geographer, In my opinion, the FAO map that I referenced previously, indicates that France is large enough in extent, both latitudinally and longitudinally, that soil, temperature, rainfall, elevation, etc. vary widely. My experiences in Ontario Canada and Ohio and other parts of the American Midwest lead me to think that you may need to use explicitly some weather data for the 15 years of your study.
As I recall maize-as-grain has specific requirements (though hybrid varieties modify the particulars): 200 days growing season, 1000 mm of rainfall per annum concentrated in summer. At the latitude of France, elevation above a couple of hundred meters would be a negative,. The same for dry summers in the south. Thus, the marine climate of the northwest and the Mediterranean climate of the south coast would also be negatives. If the micro-climates of France rate as a risk factor, I would expect that farmers would switch from maize-as-grain to maize-as-silage. especially in the northwest.
Actually, you might approach your study by the inverse method. The evidence of the direction of land-use change might lead you to determine if and where the process is driven by environment and where it is driven by pure risk.
You have chosen a fascinating study. In my opinion, the most interesting aspect is that the process driving land-use change may be partly Brownian (pure risk with no specific cause) and partly systematic (climatic variability). There may be no standard way to approach the question, so you have to invent your own approach,
For climates of France, this map may be a good start and might be a way to develop ad hoc regions. My suggestion would be to form study regions on the basis of climate categories and to determine if land-use changes within these regions is based on pure risk (Brownian i.e. not coherence across departments over space and time) or if there are residual systematic drivers of shifts in land use, i.e. land use shifts from maize-as-grain to some preferred land use.
Koppen climates of France:
Belda et al have updated the Koppen / Trewartha classification. There is a little wet bias in the data they used, but probably not significant for France.
_www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v59/n1/p1-13/
To sum up all of this, I suggest from experience of my own hypothesis-driven research, to focus rather on the economic issues. I suggest that you explore the data to determine to what extent various models might "explain" what we see in the real world.
This way all the work that you will do has a better chance of producing something useful that if you decide upon the hypothesis and then try to see if the data fits. If the data does not fit, you end up with a negative, a risky way to spend your time.
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Osallistu joukkoistamiseen täällä: www.opal.fi/joukkoistaminen
Kestävässä tehostamisessa pellonkäyttöä optimoidaan kohdentamalla tuotantopanokset oikein: tarvittaessa lisäämällä niitä korkeatuottoisilla lohkoilla ja taas vähentämällä heikkovasteisilla lohkoilla.
Ympäristöllisesti, taloudellisesti ja sosiaalisesti kestävällä tuotannon tehostamisella on mahdollista pienentää satokuiluja hyvätuottoisilla pelloilla ja laajaperäistää huonommin tuottavat tai kaukaisemmat pellot esimerkiksi viherlannoitusnurmiksi, reuna-alueiksi, luonnonhoitopelloiksi tai riistapelloiksi. Näillä toimilla voidaan saavuttaa mm. ilmastohyötyjä, kun voimakkaasti muokattavan peltoalan osuus vähenee ja ympärivuotisen kasvillisuuden osuus kasvaa. Nämä muutokset tukevat myös monimuotoisuuden ylläpitoa maataloussektorilla.
Lue lisää: www.opal.fi/hanke
Katso videot kestävästä tehostamisesta: http://bit.ly/2wEdLwe
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Will you please send English translation
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When the invasive species is scrapped off the land , what are  the control measures should be done to keep the invasive species  off from further spread 
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It is more and more clear that the solutions for a sustainable human development and also for a mitigation and adaptation to climate change have to follow a territorial strategy ( a territory as a landscape with people, thus a social process). The Millennium Ecosystem Approach in the proposed scenarios for 2050, shows that the adaptive mosaic development strategy, is the one that better supply the population with ecosystem services. In that sense a climate smart territory has to be managed in a way that contributes to sustainable human development and to climate change mitigation and adaptation.
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The paradigm of integrating territorial, value chains and livelihoods, as sure pathways to sustainable development based on approach for food, nutritional, health and livelihood security through climate smart territorial concept.
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What is the role of green land in cities and rural areas? the role of botanical gardens and sanctuaries?
What is the role of forest extension officers and land restorators?
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Botanical gardens act as a way of conserving some of the useful and endangered plant species. In so doing the land cover controls soil erosion in addition to conserving some of the highly valued but threatened species
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If anyone have recent data of  land use change status of Nepal available please post for me ?
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Hy Deepa, you can download the land use change from Global Forest Change (Hansen, et atl)at 2000-2014. there is deribated form Landsat (30 m) and iots veru good for a country or region.
This is the link:
Best regards
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How to get access to Wharton Residential Land Use Regulation specifically, and is there a state-level data in this database?
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Typically in the US, municipal or county governments control land use and zoning regulation and decision making.  Some States have overlay or resource protection controls that are very much land use and planning requirements, however, most states do not go beyond resource protection issues when it comes to land use, planning or zoning.  The state legislature typically adopts a statute that gives these local governments limited authority to adopt ordinances and make decisions on land use and zoning.  The authority typically comes with limits, such as the requirement that the local government adopt planning tools to show how future growth will occur.
Because of this, it is very difficult to put together comprehensive data on the national level.  At most, a state will likely have a list of local government codes put together by its State Planning Department or by the Bar Association group of attorneys that work in this area of the law. I do not think many will have a comprehensive index, but will identify the local code.  The local codes will each have their own index.  This is not comprehensive, and word usage may also vary, so the ability to "search" throughout a state or region is not likely possible.  There are national planning and zoning treatises that teach, generally, how the system works on a national level, but those will not give specifics as to what is done in a particular county or town.  Only the local codes give that kind of detailed information.
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Dear Colleagues  
We know the range of NDVI for barren lands is approximately less than 0.1 or 0.2, or for sparse vegetation is between 0.2 to 0.5 and for dense is >0.6, but for this research, in some of area we have dense gardens that after slicing, these gardens are named sparse vegetation! Probably, we don't know the difference of between poor or barren lands or sparse and dense and....
Yours Sincerely
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Hello dear brother
Gangs that are usually in the realm of 400 to 700 nm because the plant is not appropriate in this dark realm.
The sensor TM: bands 4 and 5 are
Of course, better to eliminate complications such as albedo effects of topography and vegetation to detect ratios of the band.
If we vegetation appears bright for about 700 to 1,300 nm, located in the territory of gangs that gangs in the territory of 400 to 700 or 1300 to 2500 nm are preferred.
The sensor TM: the bands TM4 / TM3 are appropriate. The ratio of TM5 / TM7 are also suitable. But because most of the clays are clear in this territory their use is not recommended.
with respect
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We really appreciate your opinion by taking a very few minutes to complete this online survey.
The 15th of December 2016 we release the second round of this survey. This new version is the result of gathering and analyzing the expert opinions of nearly 60 researchers from all over the world. With all this feedback, we have improved the list of candidate variables to be proposed as ESEFVs (Essential Social-Ecological Functional Variables). However, we still need your expert knowledge to make progress on the list configuration. Please, check, punctuate and comment the new list [the link is below].
Learn more about the E&SEFT Project in functionaltypes.caescg.org.
Thank you for your time and help!
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Hi Manuel
I found this article really useful, specially in thinking about practical examples of some of the "tenets", if you wish, of social-ecological systems. 
Liu et al 2007
Some other more recent work by the same group goes in detail about some of these issues:
Cheers
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What analytical framework will you advise for study are study?
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Look up expert publications by UNDP on the topic
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Hi.
I have developed an index of suitability for a specified land use activity based on a spatial multi criteria analysis approach (continuous raster dataset with values 0-255); additionally, we have empirical data showing where this activity presently occurs and the intensity at which it occurs (present use) (also normalised continuous raster 0-255). The assumption is that this virtual space has not yet been fully exploited, either spatially or in terms of intensity, for this activity. Given this assumption, the problem is how to statistically describe the agreement (or lack of) between the empirical (present use) and predicted suitability datasets? This seems identical to an invasive species habitat modelling problem, where comprehensive presence and absence data may not available (where a habitat has not yet been fully exploited) to evaluate model output (false presences/absences (?)) - any ideas how I could deal with this in my example?
Thanks in advance for any advice.
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Hi Craig, you have to evaluate predicted land use suitability versus empirical data, can take the diffrences about de hectares or kilometers and calculate the accuracy in %.
Regards
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The suitable spatial metrics to quantify at class and landscape levels for evaluating landscape fragmentation using FRAGSTATS in a mountain area? There are only four classes (Forest, Pastures, Farmland, and Bare surface). Thanks
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I would recommend ht-index, as an alternative metric to fractal dimension, to characterize landscape fragmentation. It help overcome some limitations of fractal dimension, yet is able to capture the underlying complexity of geographic features.
What underlies the notion of ht-index is a fractal way of thinking:
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I want to study land use change and for that I need LANDSHIFT software or may be any software similar to it. 
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Hi Namita, the LandSHIFT modelling framework was developed at the University of Kassel. One of the authors of the attached paper / links should be able to help you.
Regards, John
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Can any one give a detailed explanation about land-use/land cover map preparation and what are the softwares are good for to prepare the LULC map preparation.
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Assuming you have acquired your RS scene with enough spectral bands there are several ways but what I usually do: :
1. Geo-rectify image if it is not already done (UTM WGS 84)
2. Run an unsupervised classification (you need to decide how many classes you want)
3. Take output of the unsupervised classification and go out to the field with your GPS unit to define these classes
4. you can merge classes if they are the same
another alternative is to create a training sites where you are 100% about each class
and then run a supervised classification
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I am working on LULC change detection by applying change detection techniques like image differencing, image rationing, PCA, Tasseled Cap transformation which produce change or no-change binary output. After that I have done supervised classification of original image and then applied post classification. Now I want to do cross tabulation between  the change detection results derived for different techniques against the post classification data. But I could not understand how to do?
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 I will advise you to same way: Erdas imagine Accuracy assessment tools to evaluate your LU/LC also you can use kappa index but it is not usefull at latest studies. You will use maximum likelihood algorithm and accuracy measures like 0.82, 0.90  ....
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For presentation lulc mapping there must be higher percentage of accuracy. For this some new techniques  must be applied to obtain it.
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Recommended paper: "Death to Kappa: birth of quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment", by Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr & Marco Millones: 
Cheers
AG
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Land-use change is exerting pressure across the globe, but where are the tipping points? We ought to focus our research there... but where, and what issues are most important to you?
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Environmental change impacts more on poor persons and countries. Change in the use of the oceans (including seabed) and the atmosphere, the global commons, may have more impact both for the global and local community. And our knowledge and institutions seem less developed for mitigation of negative impacts.   
Just a little practical case as example on the disparate attention to land versus ocean from an economic and ecological perspective (attached). 
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Land use planning, Spatial optimization 
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Economic location criteria are then all about transportation and access costs. I cannot at the moment, think of any single article that would cover all these, but search for location theory and transportation cost models. Transportation here would include persons, goods, power, water, garbage, and sewage.
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To be possible improve search capabilities of our application Smart Point of Interest http://sdi4apps.eu/spoi/, we are looking for available open maps borders  of regions and cities. For Europe there is one options NUTS regions. Do you know anybody, if is there some address, where is possible to download all NUTS 5 data for Europe.
But the problem, is outside of Europe and also maps of some natural regions like Balearic Islands  or Alps etc. Any suggestions?
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Hi Karel,
I agree that it can be quite painful to find the (geo)data that should be provided by official agencies. I think that you can extract the data you need for EU from Eurostat web pages - there are official geodata sets of NUTS and more particularly also communes, from which more detailed levels can be extracted.
You can also check Diva-GIS and GADM.org for other boundaries but I am not sure whether they are in the desired scale. It also might be possible to extract data from OSM.
Please see the links for details.
Regards
Lukas
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The concern of salinity/sodicity development makes us to identify alternate land use and management options for sustainable agricultural production. We are interested to specifically develop simple crop growth model or use/calibrate/validate some already existing models. 
The salinity/sodicity effects on soil and crop processes, specify alternate management options  and assess subsequent growth and yield have been demonstrated in the field conditions, we need to develop the technical coefficients for fitting into the crop growth model, which needs to be addressed
regards
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In 2013-2014, I conducted a study in partnership with the International Water Management Institute in Vientiane, Lao PDR using biochar-induced treatments on soil quality, crop (water spinach) growth and yield, irrigation groundwater quality for agricultural productivity specifically factoring the effects of soil-water salinity (pH, EC and TDS) and soil sodicity (SAR). The results of our study demonstrate that biochar-induced treatments significantly reduce salinity and sodicity. For this study, biochar were produced from one of the common agricultural biomass (feedstock) in the region - rice husk. Visit my page or find me at www.academia.edu and read some of our reports. I would suggest that using biochar that are sustainably produced (from agricultural waste) would make more sense.
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RAN, INEGI or other data representing distribution of private property parcels and federal property (not protected areas) in SE Mexico.
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hi
yes why not
Hossam
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We are working on a project to assess land use intensification and its impacts on a tropical rainforest over a 40 year period.We are particular interested in knowing if the forests have changed,what has changed and what is pushing this change?We are as well interested in knowing the livelihood adaptive capacities of the indigenous communities as per these changes if any.
Thank you.
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Hello Mukete,
It is important to keep in mind that the procedures and methods used to detect change and monitor an area of interest can be different for highly vegetated areas (such as your site I believe) than for those used in not so highly vegetated sites (e.g., arid to semi-arid landscapes).  At times change detection may be more successful if the analyses includes looking at not only differences in the spectral characteristics but also the spatial characteristics at local, intermediate, and regional scales (with the same spatial resolution images; for example, using Landsat TM --- or World View or whatever --- look at the spatial information of a 5x5, 31x31, and 101x101 pixel windows --- so not different resolution data sets).
One last thing: for change detection radiometric calibration (including atmospheric corrections) can be very important (can be absolute or relative).  Below are links to two  papers within research gate related to =: 1)  spatial variability differences in the NIR and Visible bands and 2) atmospheric correction and how a simple DOS can be as good as, or better, than most other methods for highly vegetation areas.
Shows that the spatial variability in highly vegetated areas is higher in the NIR band than the Visible bands --- this is important when the area of interest is highly vegetated and the application is for both spatial and change detection analyses:
Image based atmospheric COST correction model and shows that for highly vegetated areas that a simple DOS type correction does as good as, and at times better, than most other techniques for visible bands --- important for change detection using visible bands for highly vegetation areas of interest:
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Hi
Which is the the most recent techniques or methods for Modeling of land use changes?
area: 110 square kilometers ,
Land use: agriculture, urban, pasture, forest, water, desert
Data Source: Maps and satellite images, etc.
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Dear Zahra,
Most of the LULCC models available in literature are case specific. Hence, not of much use in other areas, as no model can be taken as standard model. However, since the spatial extend of your area of interest is small, better to use Land change modeler as given in IDRISI. But before using the module, you must create LULC map for two time period having common LULC classification, using high resolution satellite data of the same month or season.
If you are used to statistical analysis and GIS you can develop your own model for land use dynamics in your study area. 
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The EC-funded project INSPIRATION – http://www.inspiration-h2020.eu – is to formulate an end-user driven Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for land-use, soil management and spatial planning and the related, impacted compartments of the Soil-Sediment-Water (SSW) system in order to meet current and future societal challenges.
In a series of bottom-up stakeholder engagement activities across EU nations the project gathers Research and Innovation (R&I) needs related to the INSPIRATION scope (land and SSW-system use and management), including topics such as:  
  1. What are the strategic research topics? 
  2. What are experiences regarding connecting science to policy/practice?
  3. What are national and transnational funding schemes to implement such Research?  
To complement these activities, I would appreciate your view and contribution! What is your view on the research and innovation needs and opportunities? Do you have a vision on, and what is your insight in upcoming knowledge demands (short, middle and long-term)?  
Collecting input from you is crucial for the project in order to help us describing the state-of-the-art as input into the European research agenda.  
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Interesting project, question and approach to use research gate for this. 
I would argue for research which contributes for assessing the efficiency of land use from the point of view of sustainable development. Many policies (including those that explicity aim for SD goals) have implications for land use: protection of BioDiv, Bio fuels and use of bio based raw materials, renewable energies, organic food, etc. Is all this coherent? How can efficiency of use measured and inform decision making, while considering also non-monetary values (or alternatively improving the data base for monetarization). 
Best Klaus 
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It seems GLTN website link to download the software is broken. I have also seen the Github repository but it is quite difficult to get it right with out any instructions.
Thanks
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I would also like to get a workaround this.I have been trying to install the STDM but I haven't gotten around it. My problem is I already have a working QGIS and Postgresql and I would not like to remove them. How do I get the STDM working in this case? I will appreciate any help.
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Someone mentioned to me that Uruguay has land use legislation that takes into account the capability of soils to render certain services. Apparently, this legislation places restrictions on what can be done with prime agricultural land, for example. At the core of this legislation is a very innovative, older piece of legislation that links property taxes to the potential of soils, not to their use.
I am wondering if similar land use legislations exist in other countries. I have heard that Denmark has something along the same lines. Are these the only two countries that have done something in this area?
It would be nice to document such legislations in detail, to encourage other countries to follow suit... So if you have documents that relate to soil-protective legislations in other countries, feel free to send them to me . Thanks!!!
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Hi Philippe,
In France like in most countries national law requires to protect land use for environmental reasons but do not take into account agricultural values.  At the next level, making land use plans is a competence of local governments.
Poland has restrictions related to the agricultural value of soils, aiming to avoid the consumption of high quality soils for urbanization.  A good specialist is Anna Bielska, university of technology Warsaw: a.bielska@gik.pw.edu.pl
Kind regards
Anna Geppert
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So far I have only been able to find selective documents that express state specific (NSW) policies involving the sale of 'Crown Land' in Australia. A document or paper than involves any number of policies would be of great significance to me.
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Hello Brittany,
                                      i am sure you can get some useful information on this site belonging to the departments of Land, Australia on the sale or lease of Crown (State) land : http://www.lands.wa.gov.au/Crown-Land/Sales-Leases-and-Licences/Pages/default.aspx
Regards,
Banson
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land managment
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Land suitability of any area including hilly tracts depends upon the texture and structure of soil, fertility status, topography, water availability and soil and water conservation possibilities through terrace, contouring etc, possibility of human and mechanical power use, suitability of land for crop and livestock enterprises etc.
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Hi, I am looking for information on work being done that examines carbon dynamics in seagrass / eelgrass and salt marsh ecosystems in Canada.  I am undertaking some work to determine carbon accumulation rates on the Pacific coast and am interested to see if other work has been done in the region and in Canada.
Thanks
Marlow
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Thanks Xiaoguang.
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The energy-land use nexus provides a useful framework for defining policy to minimize points of conflict between energy goals and land conservation.
We are looking for software algorithms or open source software programs developed to optimize the parameters and interrelationships between land use and energy production and consumption, especially in the context of green energy developments. Anyone aware of such developments? 
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I concur with Nathan that Marxan or a similar program could help with this. I would also add that once the data is prepared and an objective function is defined, one could use optimization in any program (such as R). The key would be to get the spatial information together in the required formats, which is what Marxan and other programs provide assistance with. 
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Do you know documented experiences (scientific papers, book chapters or technical reports) in which spatially explicit ecosystem services models have been used for decision making (eg. public policy, compensation for infrastructure or land use management)?
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Hi Nicolas,
I am currently working on a European project called recharge green, whose objective is try to assess the impact of renewable energies on the ecosystem. For this purpose we estimated several economic benefits of ES and put them into maps, to be integrated in a spatially-explicit decision support system that allows a better power plant siting. We have some papers in review and a technical report will be available online by the end of this week. If you are interested I will send you the report as soon as it is ready, in the meantime I atatch the link of the project website: http://www.recharge-green.eu/
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I fail to differentiate where I can group the informal settlements, in customary or it should stay independent?. Because I find it in Urban and mostly in peri-urban area. I don't understand in creating a tree diagram for this.
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Hi,
As Sayed noted, your question is a bit unclear. However, concerning informal settlements in general, there is no universal definition for these locations/areas. What is considered informal in one location may or not include land tenure. Sayed also notes that you should first start with a definition based on location and then move on from there. Its important to note, and I'm not discouraging you in any way, that acquiring information on the locations of informal settlements is often quite challenging for a number of reasons e.g. sensitivity of locating human populations, inefficient systems in governments providing for the disbursement of such information and of course, and most population I think, no information has been collected. These areas can exist both within (e.g. India) and the outskirts (e.g. Iran) of cities. History has a large part to play here because of previous colonialism in many developing countries casted poor communities to specific locations. Of course much have changed since then, but then again, we are often still in a state of stasis well after independence in many parts of the developing world. Each community has its own individuality just in case you venture further into comparison of inter community differences. The United Nations "The Challenge of Slums" report may be worth reading if you work with informal settlements.
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I have read literature on the above topic, I wish to develop a practical 3D cadastre in 1000Ha piece of land. 
What steps do I need to take, what combination of  software can I best use? What are the expected challenges? 
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For a hundred hectares of land, I suppose the Land should be vacant, without building on it. Therefore, Use DGPS in RTK mode for you data captutre, then you can process the data using surfer software and also AutoCAD. That will suffice for the preparation of the Cadastre of the land. Well, one hundred hectares is not a small land, therefore the field work will take you like two or three days, pending at what interval you want to pick your height details.
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Some factors such as distance to road and to facilities are influential in price of land. Can anyone tell me what are environmental factors that can affect the price of land?
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Dear Mohammad ,
As natural factors I mention: topography, distance of flooding areas and proximity of green areas.
As urban factors: the presence of infrastructures, services and residential use of high income.
 Best Regards,
Vanessa
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We monitored irrigation groundwater quality for agricultural use by measuring the daily EC, TDS and pH concentration with a temperature compensated multi-parametric tester (HI 98129) produced by Hanna Instruments.
We also sampled 1500 ml of the water for detailed chemical analysis, from which we computed SAR using the laboratory results to measure sodicity and the analysis shows that SAR (0.174), which is < 3 meaning that sodicity is not an issues.
My main point is, using the daily measurement of EC & TDS, which would you most prefer to better estimate soil salinity at the root zone of water spinach (Impomoea aquatica) ? 
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Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability to Irrigated  Agriculture in Coimbatore District,Tamil Nadu, India
SAR= Na/ (Ca+Mg)/2 (where, all ionic concentrations are expressed in milli equivalents per litre.) There were no much variations in SAR concentration between 2005 and 2008. In 2005,in pre­ monsoon period SAR values are >26 in north eastern portion and the lowest ratio locations of <10 were observed in north western, southern parts of the District and it stretches further west to eastern parts of the study area.
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We are currently writing a paper on land use changes and CO2 emissions by oil palm in Mesoamerica (two sites in Mexico and one site in Guatemala). We would like to link these results to findings from the rest of the region or the continent. In Central America, we have found so far only results in Spanish for Guatemala and a bachelor thesis for a specific region in Honduras. We are interested in all kinds of publications or reports in any language derived from remote sensing or local surveys. Thanks in advance.
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Dear Colleague,
You might find it useful to compare your computations with national-level estimates made by FAO for every country in the world, in relation to GHG emissions from drained organic soils. While drainage of organic soils is linked to different types of cultivation, in the areas of your interest the link with palm oil plantation is fairly robust.
You can begin consulting estimates of CO2 and N2O emissions here:
you can also check emissions from degraded peats on the land use part of the database--also in part linked to land use change for palm oil.
If this is of interest, you could contact us for access to the more detailed GIS-based info underlying the national-level numbers.
Best,
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Governance is a major challenge in natural resources like multiple use open water bodies, where multiple stakeholders operates simultaneously. the water use of different users differs with the use. what are the various methods of governance analysis in these waterbodies?
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Using Decision Support Systems such as MicroLEIS you can evaluate natural resources within two major topics: (i) strategies related to land use planning at a regional level: segregation of agricultural lands, restoration of marginal areas, diversification of crop rotation, and identification of vulnerability areas; and (ii) those related to land management planning at a farm level: organic matter restoration, formulation of tillage practices andworkability timing, optimum machinery use, and input rationalization.
See below publication:
De la Rosa, D., Anaya-Romero, M., Diaz-Pereira, E., Heredia, N., Shahbazi, F.
2009. Soil specific agro-ecological strategies for sustainable land use. A case study by using MicroLEIS DSS in Sevilla Province (Spain). Land Use Policy, 26, 4.
Anaya-Romero, M., Abd-Elmabodab, S., and De la Rosa, D. 2010. Soil erosion and contamination risks for identifying and management of water quality vulnerability zones. A planning approach by using MicroLEIS DSS in Andalucia region. Ambientalia Special Issue “Ten years of the Water Framework Directive” Section V: Water and Spatial Planning.
Anaya-Romero, M., Pino, R., Moreira, J.M., Muñoz-Rojas, M., De la Rosa, D. Analysis of soil capability versus land-use change by using CORINE Land Cover and MicroLEIS in Southern Spain. Int. Agrophysics 25(4), 2011.
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Which method and product ?
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There are multiple drought indexes developed in USA to evaluate the drought effects. You can check them in this link: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/drought-tools.php
Just using seasonal vegetation index (VI) from remote sensing may not be enough for evaluating the drought effect. You may want to use climatology data and long-term remote sensing VIs to find the anomaly of the vegetation. Besides VI, soil moisture, surface temperature observed from satellite can also be used for drought monitoring. But they will require more complex processing, usually with models.
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Our findings revealed that people may generate rules of inclusion and exclusion for the use of common land.
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Even without active management, mobile pastoralists in North Cameroon avoid a Tragedy of the Commons, by distributing themselves following so-called Ideal Free Distribution. You may have a look a various papers in my RG profile, of which I just refer to two examples 
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In developing countries, it is difficult to find mentor/supervisor for PhD students who want to pursue their research(s) in new areas such as VGI, SDI, Spatial Data Mining, Spatial Agriculture, m-governance and crowd sourcing etc. The reasons include brain drain. Therefore, to reduce digital divide in a sense, researchers/scholars/institution who can contribute to advise students especially of developing countries voluntarily are requested to help out.
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Yes, there are volunteers to be advisors if not supervisors for PhD students in developing countries. I agree with this statement and also @ Prof.Olena Dubovyk, @ Pro. John Jennings and @Prof.João Paulo Hespanha answers all are very nice one.
Thanks Prof.Asmat Ali for your valuable question please. 
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I've been working in a peasants community that had no land to cultivate (67 families), and now the government is creating a rural settlement where they will live.  I'd like to ask if there is any methodology for planning the settlement at landscape level (the hole area has 1500 ha), for better use and preservation of natural resources, such as water and vegetation.
I have already made some maps of the area, such as: land use/cover, topography, euclidean distance from the rivers, riparian forest, land use around the springs and the division of the lots .
Now we shall try to design resilient agroecosystems  and to plan a better way for land and water use, but I have no idea from where to start. Anyone had done it? Any article?
Thanks for helping!
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Polasky et al. 2008. Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns. Biological Conservation 141: 1505-1524.
Groot et al. Exploring multi-scale trade-offs between nature conservation, agricultural profits and landscape quality - A methodology to support discussion on land-use perspectives. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 120: 58-69.
 
Do you have any soil maps of your area. That would be very important, and a good place to start. Soil and topography are going to be essential to the flow of water, and the stability and productivity of soil.
 
 
 
 
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How do I use HYDATA? What type of data does the model use? Are there manuals whether pdf/word/video tutorials?
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I'm interested in approaches to valuing agricultural lands for conservation in the face of energy and urban development. I would like to compare numerous models to help stakeholders formulate their own approaches to conserving their agricultural lands.
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He Wendy,
We have had work on a similar research questionnaire (Project: PIROL at the University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck / Germany, 2004 – 2009).
We have an internet-pages, but mostly in Germany (sorry): http://www.pirol.hs-osnabrueck.de/13625.html
I check the public and found a poster, that probably can answer a little part of your questions:
Best regards from Osnabrueck, Stefan
 
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Based on a previous question of last week related with the existing (possible) technological gap of GIS applications (software and hardware) between developed and developing countries, I understand that some projects (national or international) have promoted new aspects and objectives of Geospatial Technologies to certain, developing regions of the planet. Knowing and comprehending the value of GIS applications within such projects could give a pool list of further information, add-ons, experiences, ideas and implementation opportunities to other scientists so as to support the scientific community that currently is trying to develop projects with similar scope to other parts of the world and maybe, they are not familiar with the existence of and adjacent, helpful project.
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There are thousands of projects going on all over the world that involve the use of GIS tools for rural and urban development. We used GIS tools for implementing an integrated water resources management projects in Africa which was financed by USAID.
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What are the hot topics?
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Dear Marc Oliver,
Thank you very much for very informative comment and the interesting link. CityGML3.0 seems to be a great project.
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What is the state of art? Which methods do you think have potential to be used?
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I thank everyone for the suggestions.
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Most land valuation approaches in Indonesia are being conducted using market prices based on transactional value of property transfer. And its more subjected approach by finding the arranged prices to transfer the property land between buyer (willingness to pay) and seller (willingness to accept).
Meanwhile, the land itself still has other benefits, such as social and ecological functions. For example: agricultural areas not only have market value but also ecological value, for supporting the role of water management, etc. Grasslands also have ecological value, but this is not included or considered in the price negotiations.
Has anyone experienced this? How do you apply alternative methods or approaches of land valuation? How can it work for national land policy? How do we tax the land which has more productive uses which are not calculated into the market value?
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Here, in Indonesia, we try to valuate the land using non market valuation and try to adjust the land value using total economic valuation method. Here is the example study and still need to be developed:
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I'm interested in gyttja, peat and mineral soil. How do the properties of soils change after dehydration? How does land use in the catchment change?
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Land degradation in the Zoige alpine wetlands and its effects to soil organic carbon: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.020
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I am interested in studying the impact of long term land use change in a watershed on the dynamic of water quality in a reservoir using remote sensing. So, I will have long term land use data and long term water quality data (both studied using remote sensing). How to relate these two time series datasets? How can we make sure that such changes in the water quality are caused by the land use ?
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Have you tried to convert your data series into signals so that you could work in the frequency domain for instance, using Fourier or wavelets. It won't tell you what triggers what, but it will allow you to have an idea if your dataset are related and at which scale (the idea with the wavelet analysis, allowing you to remove let say a general trend or noise...etc in your signal).
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I modeled urban growth in a city for 4 different scenarios. How to optimize the results of the modeled land use in (say) 2025 and choose a best one? Basically, I want to evaluate the scenarios quantitatively. I have the city master plan demand for 2025. Is it good just to compare the results with the master plan map or we can adopt any other method?
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Dear Chitrini,
I think that you should carefully differentiate two types of scenarios:
1. Exploratory scenarios (what could happen?)
2. Normative scenarios (what is your desired future?)
As far as I understand, you have developed 4 exploratory scenarios and you have one plan, which could be seen as a normative scenarios. Comparing both products can obviously be useful, but please keep in mind that the master plan has been developed by someone with some kind of exploratory scenario (probably a Business As Usual) in mind. As such, you are comparing apples and pears. An explanation of the method that I have used can be found in:
Kok, K., van Vliet, Bärlund, I., M., Dubel, A., Sendzimir, J. 2011. Combining participative backcasting and explorative scenario development: Experiences from the SCENES project. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 78(5): 835-851.
I hope this is helpful!
Kasper
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Is there a model to calculate the land demand based on different years of population?
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Thanks Max. I used both Idrisi Land change modeler and DynaCLUE for my modeling. However, both do not include the demand calculation with projected population. However, DynaCLUE suggests using system dynamic model for its non spatial part and calculate land demand based on population growth. I am trying a system dynamic model using STELLA now. Thanks for your reply and the links. As I observed, most of these land use models provide spatial land allocations for the given land demands. I am still trying to find other methods to calculate land demand based on spatial as well as non spatial inputs of population growth and projected population.
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Is quantitative data necessary to assess the conservation status of species?
How can we analyze the impact of management without this data?
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By the way, Caroline: "Ke" is a half of my given name "ke Chung"; how would you like to be called "Caro." Aside a classification of species' status, it is necessary to monitor the status of "important" species or species of concern that includes pest species. In most cases I got involved with major problem is to "monitor" the species without knowing what you have in a community or ecosystem of your interest. Thus, it is necessary to start with having the baseline information of the system which contains your target species along with its ecological cohorts. Such assessment should open up your curiosity for the state of species in relation to the structure of a monitoring unit. Such data should help you understand the status of its biodiversity ass well which makes community ecology very fascinating. Ke Chung Kim
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I am trying to predict land use to the future based on the past changes and factors influencing the changes. Now, I have 2 transition periods: 1989-2001 and 2001-2011 (I will use only one for modeling). Both transition matrices are quite different since the rate of change of the classes were different (also the underlying reasons). In this case how should I decide which transition period should I choose for the modeling? I think even if I choose 1989-2011 (as a whole) I need a reason why I chose that. Any kind of help is really appreciated.
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Avit Bhoumick has shown you a easier way but it is academic, useful in completing an academic project. Kasper has shown you a right way if you intend to predict really. I am showing you the way assuming that you are on task of planning and want to reach implementable conclusion.
Firstly future is unpredictable. In history we do not find any example where the prediction was done in land use simply because transitions depend upon numerous variables of development in future. e.g. Govt. policies to people's attitude to technological development. YET PREDICTION IS MANDATORY FOR PLANNING THE FUTURE.
Hence the best way is to try to study THE PRESENT TREND INSTEAD OF TRYING TO SURVEY THE PAST TREND, that does not really help. Primarily because the trends do also change, forward backward, left right. One should take up a huge survey and opinion collection of a huge no. of people from various walks of life. PARTICULARLY NEW GENERATION. Their aspirations, expectations, direction of thoughts, govt. plans, Success and failure of plans, Corporate sector, International scenario, Agriculture, expansion of urban areas, whether the migration may reverse (Strong reversal trends are seen in some regions where rural development in form of rural industries is taking place fast) and what not. IT IS A HUGE TASK. But in my opinion there is no other realist way. To collect information, to find a futuristic trend out of it, predict periods, directions, scale etc. is further difficult and should be done with collective analysis. (Not by a single brain) You will have to live long to see the extent of success of your planning done on the basis of these prediction. EVEN YOU SUCCEED 10% YOU SHOULD PAT YOURSELF.