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This group is intended to spread ideas and share knowledge about labour markets and labour economics among its members.
Questions related to Labor Economics
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How Labor hour lost due to climate change can be calculated? I am interested in different equation along with description.
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to count the labour hour lost due to climate change.
First, we need to calculate the average productivity lost sector-wise. Then we could proceed towards labour productivity lost and convert the average labour productivity lost into labour hours lost.
Secondly, I could think of 'Labour hour lost due to illness' If there is a method to quantify this then it could be helpful to understand the problem you pose.
Different valuation methods in Environmental economics contextualised to the problem raised with new parameters indices could be another way forward.
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At the moment, I have one explanation in mind. If labor productivity is high, firms may focus more on reinvestment prospects instead of repaying loan installments. But I cannot find any prior literature in support of this claim. I would appreciate it if you can provide any other explanations or refer to any relevant literature.
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Dear Atiqur Rahman, I would like to give you an example from my Polish market and my experience as a business analyst. Well, at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries in my country, you could see a lot of small and medium-sized companies with a very high rate of growth in revenues and market shares. In many cases in small family businesses, as a result of the investment process and implementation of new technologies, work efficiency increased quickly, but what I found many times when analyzing these "star" companies, such rapid successes in terms of the dynamics of revenue growth, market share and EBIT operating profit caused new challenges and the emergence of internal problems in companies as well as reactions / counter-actions of stronger competition on the part of large international corporations. Well, the best employees who contributed to the increase in the labor productivity index and were directly involved in departments using modern technologies, immediately demanded or expected a salary increase or promotion to a higher position or left the competition. On the other hand, the management of such small family businesses, stating that the company is developing very well because its work productivity increases, immediately tried to use these positive signals to win new orders and to workload its experienced and efficient employees to an even greater extent. Therefore, according to the theory of neoclassical microeconomics, small, fast-growing companies in Poland tried to expand the use of the labor factor, the productivity of which was increasing and overburdened employees with work duties (one of the highest rates in the world of the number of hours worked per month and year per employee according to ILO). This means the macroeconomic environment, that is: high unemployment on the market, low level of social benefits, no possibility (before joining the European Union in 2004) to emigrate to another labor market with better social protection and higher salaries per hour. Entrepreneurs who started using strategies to maximize the use of the labor factor accepted too many new orders and borrowed from banks, taking high-interest loans (high loan costs) and were doing worse and worse in rebuilding the company and adapting to the new conditions of a higher level of production. The news about "squeezing" out of employees as much as possible, while the employer did not raise wages and bonuses, meant that employment in such a company was avoided (employment barrier) and such a company began to lose the most ambitious and experienced people and problems with handling large orders, based on deferred payments in time (typical are construction and assembly works, infrastructure projects). Problems with financial solvency also emerged quickly, as the focus on maximizing the use of the labor factor with high indebtedness in terms of investment loans led to problems with paying the loan installments on time.
Best regards DG
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At present, the economies of developed countries are entering the period of the fourth technological revolution known as Industry 4.0.
The previous three technological revolutions:
1. The industrial revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, determined mainly by the industrial application of the invention of a steam engine.
2. Electricity era of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
3. The IT revolution of the second half of the twentieth century determined by computerization, computerization, the widespread use of the Internet and the beginning of the development of robotization.
The current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is motivated by the development of the following factors:
- artificial intelligence,
- cloud computing,
- machine learning,
- Big Data database technologies,
- Internet of Things.
In every previous technological revolution, the same question was repeated many times. However, economies developed and changed structurally and labor markets returned to balance. Periodically, short-term economic crises appeared, but their negative economic effects, such as falling income and rising unemployment, were quickly reduced by active state intervention.
It seems to me that self-malting and robotization, IT, artificial intelligence, learning machines will change the labor markets, but this does not necessarily mean a large increase in unemployment. New professions, occupations, specialties in these areas of knowledge and technology will be created. Someone, after all, these machines, robots, etc. must design, create, test, control, and implement into production processes.
Therefore, I am asking you:
Will the technological development based on self-mulization, robotization, IT development, artificial intelligence, machine learning increase unemployment in the future?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Dariusz Prokopowicz What you stated is true; everytime there is technology revolution; there is hugh fear of unemployment. What I believe it that all above technologies would great new employment opportunities; however challenge this time would be for human workforce to come upto speed with transition. Since with the combination of AI, Robotics, IOT and so forth; solution development life cycle would be shortened; and new solutions would come up in much shorter timeframe; makes sure that existing once soon become legacy. So we as humans will have to buckle up and also prepare our future generations!
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From the beginning of the industrial revolution and the description of the functioning of enterprises in the conditions of market structures, in the trend of classical economics, three types of production factors dominated in the production processes defined by three slogans: land, labor, capital.
However, successively with the development of industry and technological progress in the 20th century, other categories of production factors, typical for economies largely based on information, are added to these classic factors of production.
These factors of production, whose role in many industries has been growing since the 1960s include: knowledge, information, technology and innovation.
In view of the above, the current question is: In what branches of industry such production factors as knowledge, information, technology and innovation are currently or become the most important?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Alhaji Ahmadu Ibrahim,
Yes, intellectual capital is one of the most important success factors for many business entities and projects implemented in various spheres of human activity.
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Many studies cover the positive relationship between women's education and participation with GDP growth. however, very few studies covered the effects of women's participation on wages, and these few studies are usually very general and do not cover specific sectors.
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Many developing countries has female labourers specifically garments or RMG sector depends on the participation of women. So women are creating a huge impact on GDP growth.
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I remember reading many years ago (perhaps more than 40 years ago) that Antonio Gramsci wrote somewhere about the time awareness of workers who originated from Sardinia. According to my vague memory, he argued that Sardinian workers had more loose time awareness than workers who grew up in Torino and its suburbs and it reduced their labor productivity.
Does someone know where Gramsci made this kind of argument? If possible, I want to know the exact argument he made and the circumstances of this argument. It is possible that I read it someone's paper other than Gramsci himself.
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It was in A. Gramsci. I quaderni dal carcere (his letters from jail, several editions), namely a letter dated March 26, 1927, sent to his sister Teresina Gramsci Paulesu. There are nowadays more than 400 of these letters published and you will find several addressing the special culture of Sardinian workers.
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Hi everyone!
I´m writing my bachelors thesis and originally wanted to study the effect of tuition fees on socioeconomic/intergenerational mobility. I couldn´t find any suitable theory so I´ll have to figure out a new subject.
I´v now thought about the following themes and would be extremely thankful for recommendations on theory or another interesting subject/viewpoint.
  • The effect of an additional year of schooling on intergenerational mobility; the relations theory and actualization during years 19XX-20XX. (I`ve found a dataset for mobility and would like to use STATA or R for the empirical chapters)
  • The effect of compulsory secondary/upper secondary education on intergenerational mobility
  • Interrupted work careers and subsequent earnings; gender earnings gap
  • The obligations/binding nature of unemployment benefits and its effect on the employment rate( comparing Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, USA, Denmark. Obligations on a scale from 1-5)
I`ve studied each subject, but am most familiar with economics of education and social/socioeconomic/intergenerational -mobility.
Stay safe!
Br,
Koskelo Sara
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Thank you for your question. Not finding a "suitable theory" doesn't mean that you have to change your topic. Just start with the empirical part and then figure out the theory on the fly. For a Bachelor thesis this should suffice.
Good luck!
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I was curious about the possible Machine Learning methods or approaches for outlier (anomaly) detection in labor economics.
I tried to search for this matter, but could not find any pertinent research to this problem. It would be a pleasure if anyone knows any scientific thesis, paper or survey about anomaly detection in labor economics.
Best.
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Dear Prof. Naghavi,
I am providing reference to two of my papers based on fuzzy techniques for outlier detection.
Vasudev Sharma, Abhinav Nagpal and B. K. Tripathy: A Fuzzy Constraint Based Outlier Detection Method. In: Huang DS., Huang ZK., Hussain A. (Eds) Intelligent Computing Methodologies. ICIC 2019, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11645. (2019), Springer, Cham, pp. 515-527.
Vasudev Sharma and B. K. Tripathy: High Dimensional Fuzzy Outlier Detection, ICONIP2019 Proceedings, (2019), pp.45-55
Hopefully the techniques will be useful to you.
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Has the relocation of large factories from highly developed countries to countries with cheaper labor costs caused unfavorable situations of rising unemployment in some regions in your countries?
It turned out that from the global financial crisis of 2008, those countries in which the domestic industry was more developed faster.
Some industries, including large factories, have been expatriated to countries with cheaper labor costs.
For a corporation that decides to move such assembly plants, it is a business goal of saving labor costs.
However, in the city from which this factory emigrated, unemployment is rising. If it was a small town and the factory was the main employer, the problem of a significant increase in unemployment on the local market arose.
In some countries, restrictions have been introduced to limit the scale of this process of emigration of large production factories and sometimes entire branches of the economy to other countries.
How do you feel? Should the governments of individual countries regulate these issues, should liberalization be in this matter or should it be under the control of the state, i.e. the government of a given country?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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True. Textiles has moved from India to Bangladesh & Vietnam.
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How could one measure changes (improvements) in conditions of employment across many countries and over periods of several years? Are there any datasets readily available? And what specific indicators one could seek (assuming increase in wages would be one such obvious indicator, what else?} And is there any literature on this topic you're familiar with?
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So what?!
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Everyone knows intuitively that technology, especially one that can develop its "intelligence" through learning, displaces and will displace people from the labor market. How do you think what other legal or social consequences, besides losing a job, may result from this? Will it affect every country where international production takes place? Will there remain places where it will still be profitable to use the work of human hands?
Thanks in advance for any thoughts.
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Because due to the implementation of artificial intelligence in manufacturing processes in enterprises, to improve logistics systems, improve the provision of information and other services offered via the Internet, so many people may lose their jobs over the next few years. Therefore, the employment law regulations should be updated with the above-mentioned problems. In addition, it is important to create legal regulations that will shape the functioning of enterprises in which all production processes will be carried out by robots equipped with artificial intelligence. An important issue is updating the tax law in accordance with the answer to the question: How should enterprises be taxed in which all manufacturing processes will be carried out by robots equipped with artificial intelligence.
Regards
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The technological revolution Industry 4.0 is currently one of the major determinants of the economic development of highly developed and developing countries.
Therefore, the issue of Industry 4.0 should be introduced as an additional subject in studies in the fields of management, administration, economics, IT, master of business administration, etc.
In view of the above, I am asking you: What new professions will be created on the labor market in the future due to the development of the Industry 4.0 technological revolution?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Dariusz Prokopowicz Depending on the requirements of the developing industry, new professions are formed day by day. With Industry 4.0, it is expected that there will be significant changes in the job descriptions and types as well as in many areas from the industry to the management organization. I have compiled the 10 professional groups that are planned to be brought with Industry 4.0.
1. Industrial Data Science
2. Robot Coordinator
3. IT / IoT Solution Architecture
4. Industrial Computer Engineering / Programming
5. Cloud Computing Expertise
6. Data Security Expertise
7. Network Development Engineering
8. 3-D Printer Engineering
9. Industrial User Interface Design
10. Wearable Technology Designer
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I am working on wage differential between immigrants and natives and I see in the literature mostly hourly wage has been used to identify the earnings of individual I am just curious if there is any theory or intuition behind that.
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Dear Taghi,
In the case of economic history the following considerations may be relevant for hourly wage:
We come to man-hours from several considerations. It a more stable measure than say a day’s labor. It appears as a more standard measure of value than say an ounce of gold to measure/price different skills such as:
2 hour work of a jeweler = 1 hour work of a common laborer. Again:
Beaver killed per hour of hunting = Deer killed per hour of hunting.
It appear that Marx would argue that that capitalist buys labor power, and then decides how many man-hours the workman should work.
The classics/neo-classics moved from a wage-fund theory to a marginal productivity theory (MPT). If appears that the MPT would breakdown if a fall in man-hour leads to an increase in efficiency.
In the case where immigrants are low-income, the use of wage-hour might be pragmatic, that is, the minimum wage rate is per hour.
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Discouraged labor are economically inactive, because they are not working and they no longer look for a job, as they have given up hope!
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Prof. Dr. Atheel Jomard, (2000). Has write a book in Title: " DISCOURAGEMENT VARIABLE AND THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY RATE OF THE POPULATION IN JORDAN".
As a result of the economic depression, the rate of job creation and the probability of obtaining a job by an unemployed individual have both declined. As an outcome to that, many unemployed individuals became "discouraged", stopped their job search activity, and thus automatically (by definition) left the labor force and joined the economically inactive group, at a time when the economic activity rate of the population was already among the lowest in the less developed countries.
The analysis in this study revealed a number of important results, one of these is : The study revealed that discouraged individuals were not homogeneous in their marginal attachment to the labor force. The analysis identified two groups of such individual: the discouraged – aware and the discouraged – apathetic. Those who were left of the economically inactive individuals, after excluding the discouraged individuals, were termed as withdrawn individuals (Jomard, 2000: pp 2-3).
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Actually, I am about to estimate the effects of educated labor force supply (or better to say production) in higher education, on the unemployment rate. To do this in an strong way, it is necessary to start the discussion in a macro- or labor economic background and specify the relationship through a mathematical framework (e.g. similar to Jones [2002]), However, most of the similar studies -as far as I have seen- have not provided such a background.
I would be grateful if anyone can introduce the required framework.
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you can capture education through the theory of human capital and its role in economic growth. there are heaps of literature out there discussing the relationship though human capital
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Traditionally, economists have approached international trade and technological change from the perspective of countries as a whole. In contrast, recent research has emphasized cities and their local labor markets as the appropriate “unit of observation” when studying these issues. This regional approach is critical to understanding the heterogeneous effects of trade on labor markets in large countries, such as the United States. In the last few decades, a select group of U.S. cities such as Boston, New York and San Francisco have become emerging centers of global comparative advantage in new knowledge-based sectors, while other formerly industrial cities, such as Cleveland and Detroit, have lost their comparative advantage in traditional manufacturing sectors and experienced broad declines.
To promote research on these issues, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), with the support of the Smith Richardson Foundation, will convene a research conference in Cambridge, Massachusetts on October 25-26, 2019. The conference will be organized by Edward Glaeser (Harvard University and NBER) and Stephen Redding (Princeton University and NBER).
The conference aims to draw together researchers from labor economics, international trade, public finance, urban economics, and related fields to address a range of issues concerning cities as centers of comparative advantage and other related themes:
§ How has globalization contributed to urban decline in some cities, and urban renaissance in others? How has it affected city-level labor markets and economic activity more generally? How has technological change influenced the nature of economic activity in urban and rural areas?
§ Why can some cities, like Seattle, successfully transition from an industrial to a post-industrial economy? Are labor market differences important contributors to this variation? How have transportation and industrial technologies shaped the spatial distribution of economic activity?
§ What are the implications of heterogeneous local labor markets for wage and income inequality? To what extent has there been an increased sorting of workers by skill across cities? Why has migration from poor places, like Detroit, to rich places, like San Francisco, become so sluggish? To what degree does trade in goods and services reduce the need for labor mobility?
§ How do public policies affect the growth of urban areas? Which place-based policies improve labor market outcomes for urban workers? What are the possible responses to the decline of industrial cities and industrial heartland of the United States? What policy issues emerge from the agglomeration of economic activity in new centers of comparative advantage?
Papers are welcomed on all aspects of cities as centers of comparative advantage. Both theoretical and empirical research, and combinations, are welcome. To be considered for inclusion on the program, papers must be uploaded by Sunday, August 25, 2019, to the following site:
Submissions from authors with and without NBER affiliations are welcome and submissions from early career scholars, and from researchers from under-represented groups are especially welcome. Please do not submit papers that will be published by October 2019. Decisions about which papers will be included on the program will be announced in September, 2019.
The NBER will cover the hotel and economy class travel cost for up to two authors per paper included on the program. All co-authors are welcome to attend the conference; space permitting, other participants are also welcome. Please direct questions about this project to confer@nber.org.
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Dear
I hope the conference out comes will be shared with the research gate community. Good luck with your deliberations.
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How is women participation in labor force in your country? What is the ratio? Generally, working at which sector?
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Too high rate in different fields of work
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Your country's workforce ready for the changes in Industrial Revolution 4.0?
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Dear Rafiq Idris,
The current technological revolution described as Industry 4.0 is motivated by the development of the following factors:
Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
Best wishes
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These types of questions have appeared many times in every era of the technological and industrial revolution, the period of accelerating technological development. These types of questions have already appeared in the periods of increasing the scale of objectification, arming technical human labor, from when the processes of manufacturing goods in manufactories transformed into mass production. This was the case during the Industrial Revolution of the XIX century, when the invention of a steam engine significantly accelerated the development of industry and mass production. Then, the introduction of tape production in various branches of mass production in the early twentieth century. In the second half of the twentieth century, ie in the era of subsequent stages of mechanization, automation, then the computerization of the production of many mass goods, this question appears again. Through these periods of technological progress, national economies have been transforming structurally from agricultural, industrial to modern-day domination of services. At the same time, the importance of new generation factors, which include information, technology, entrepreneurship and innovation, was gradually growing. Some branches of industry were shrinking, others were growing in the whole production of goods in the economy. At the same time, new professions, professions and specializations of human work were created, related to information, IT, analytical and technological services related to the development of new fields of knowledge and technology. So the earlier fears about the lack of work for people in connection with the technical progress that took place over the last several hundred years turned out to be essentially exaggerated. However, currently the same questions reappear: Can the development of robotization and computerization cause a significant rise in unemployment in the future? If such questions arise, then we are dealing with another era of technical progress or another technological revolution. The attributes of this revolution are also increasingly added to the development of new online media, computerized computing techniques, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Big Data, etc. in the applications of such areas of knowledge and science as biotechnology, metrology, ecology, energy, communication, medicine and many other fields of life science and new tech. In connection with the above, please answer the question: Can the development of robotization and computerization cause a significant increase in unemployment in the future?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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If such development would be accompanied by greed and selfishness (which is usual, unfortunately), then definitely there will be an increase in unemployment. All technology development accompanied by ethics shall ensure development to humanity, including effective employment (as new business shall be born as mentioned in question and answers ).
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The theory of optimal taxation is often based on the neoclassical standard model of the labor market. That model includes the assumption that a household can choose freely how much to work and how much to enjoy leisure time. In such a framework, households derive utility from consumption c and leisure time z: u(c,z), where total time T is divided between labor l and leisure z, i.e. T = l + z. The time spent on labor is remunerated at wage w, so that households have an income y = wl that they can then consume.
In reality, however, households do not have the freedom of that continuous labor-leisure choice. It's rather the binary choice to accept a job or not. Moreover, for example, the neoclassical model predicts that a minimum wage causes unemployment. We do not observe this in reality.
Given the shortcomings of the neoclassical model of the labor market, how useful is it for a) advancing economic theory on optimal taxation and b) informing policy making? Is there a better alternative?
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Dear Max,
Taxes are not only on wage income, wL, but on other income such as capital income as well, say I. So your budget constraint should include the I term as well to read:
Y = WL + I.
So, tax effect should be written as Y = (wL +I)(1-t)
According A. Atkinson and J. Stiglitz, book, “Lecture on Public Economics.” Princeton, 2015, the choice is wider than between just leisure and work, to include “market versus home production,…taxed versus untaxed pecuniary returns.” (p. 47) From the broader views, income and substitution effect come into play, and any prediction of tax impact is ambiguous. One then has to resort to empirical evidence to find out the impact.
The classical alternative model provided by Adam Smith is based on perfect competition. One labor economic text states it this way: “…labor market participants in search of their own selfish goals attain an outcome that no one in the market consciously sought to achieve.” (George Borjas, “Labor Economics, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2005, p. 163)
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As an economist and secondary education economics professor interested in education and labor economics I want to understand the phenomena of skill development in both the educational system (with an special focus on secondary and higher education) and the workplace, and their interactions.
This knowledge will be useful to improve educational and job-market related policies.
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Dear Carlos Cercós-Pérez ,
Just a short email to inform you that I read an interesting book on your topic. It is the book: Brenda Judge, Patrick Jones and Elaine McCreery (2009) Critical Thinking Skills for Education Students, published by Learning Matters Ltd.
I think that the book gives you the basic knowledge about relationship higher education and skills.
I hope I have been of some help,
Yours sincerely,
Andrija
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Hi everybody,
does anyone have a good idea for an instrument for unemployment rates? It should be enogenous to GDP growth and crime rates. Any references to literature would also be appreciated, so far I only know of the Raphael and Winter-Ebmer paper from 2001 that use such instruments.
Best regards,
Tim
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The Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC) at Curtin University, together with the Economics Society of Australia’s Women in Economics Network (WEN) are pleased to announce the Australian Gender Economics Workshop.
We are also delighted to confirm our keynote speakers: Professor Alison Booth (Australian National University) and Associate Professor Betsey Stevenson (University of Michigan).
While substantial progress toward gender equity has been made over the past decades, key gaps in various life aspects relating to family, education, employment, wealth, security, voice and agency remain. There is a need for new insights to better understand the role and impact of gender on all economic and social domains, and to translate these insights into actions. The workshop aims to help fill this gap.
This workshop will provide researchers with a forum for presenting and discussing innovative research incorporating gender analysis in all areas of economics. We invite both theoretical and empirical contributions to the workshop, but priority will be given to papers that can inform policy-relevant questions.
The workshop will include a special policy session involving senior influencers from government, research, industry and not-for-profit communities. The purpose of this session is to draw research insights from the workshop together in ways that will actively shape policies to enhance the status of women across the full spectrum of economic and social outcomes.
Submissions
Researchers interested in participating in the workshop should submit an extended abstract or a full paper by email to Astghik Mavisakalyan (http://bcec.edu.au/about/people/astghik-mavisakalyan) by November 17, 2017. Notifications will be sent by November 24, 2017. If accepted, the authors will be required to email their full paper to Astghik Mavisakalyan by January 19, 2018.
Practical information
Authors who are invited to present their papers are expected to participate in the entire two day workshop. There is no registration fee for presenters however they will be responsible for covering their travel and accommodation expenses. Practical information will be emailed in due course. Meanwhile, inquiries related to travel to the workshop and other practical matters should be addressed to Kelly Pohatu (http://bcec.edu.au/about/people/kelly-pohatu).
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Best wishes for the conference. I can send paper on Promoting Gender equality in LDCs through sharing domestic work by the use of electronic instruments.
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I am working on a project called "Diversity and Team Performance: Evidence from Indian Premier League." There might be some endogeneity in the team diversity as the players are not randomly assigned to the teams. I am sure that, the endogeneity issue here must be minimum. However, the referee will definitely ask for it when publishing. So, I  am looking for a good Instrumental Variable (IV). Anyone have any idea about it?
By the way, i tried the 2009 problem of not playing Pakistan players. But the change is very small. And if it is, it might have affected 2009 and to minimum 2010 season. I am looking forward to your suggestion. 
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Perhaps one possible IV could be the auction price of the players/budget of the teams.
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Many cities and states in the United States are pushing the Minimum wage higher and higher.  Many have a goal of $15 an hour or more.  
As the Minimum wage goes higher and higher, what are the negative consequences (drawbacks)?  
Do you believe their is an Upper-limit to the minimum wage, where the negative effects are greater than the benefits?  Why or why not?
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The issue of the effects of MW on labor market is highly controversial, both in theory (competitive LM model versus monopsony) and in practice (Card & Krueger vs. Neumark & Washer). I think that the empirical consensus is that there are relatively small negative effects of MW on some groups of  low-skilled workers(e.g youth). Most existing studies, however, studied relatively small MW hikes, 20-30%. But what if we double MW in some country, region, or city? And this issue is close to the issue raised by Paul. Unfortunately (or fortunately) such examples of doubling MW are rare. What we found for Russia (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs40175-016-0051-0) is that the effects in fact are not dramatic. We found a very modest decline in youth employment and increase in informal employment as a reaction to MW hike. Of course, it is difficult to extend these conclusions to USA , (e.g., due to different strength of enforcement of MW legislature, tax morale, inflation rate, informal sector, etc) but still this suggest that the 'upper limit' is much higher than may be expected according to classic competitive LM model.
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As far as I know all countries are currently experiencing gerontogrowth, but not all countries are experiencing population aging. This is the case of Mozambique. Is there anybody investing this difference, besides obviously Gérard- François Dumond, as I acknowledge in a recente paper? see: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1V4z3,oK5hcTAi
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Perhaps Productivity Commission, Australian Government, Canberre
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I am afraid not.
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I have the data of NBA Players of 10 years including their age, experience, games played, assists, field goals, minutes played, salary, positions, nationality, free throws, offensive rebounds, defensive rebounds, steals, blocks, points etc.
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Some references:
  • del Corral, J., Maroto, A., & Gallardo, A. (2015). Are Former Professional Athletes and Native Better Coaches?: Evidence From Spanish Basketball. Journal of Sports Economics. http://doi.org/10.1177/1527002515595266
  • Moreno, P., & Lozano, S. (2014). A network DEA assessment of team efficiency in the NBA. Annals of Operations Research, 214(1), 99-124.
  • Radovanović, S., Radojičić, M., & Savić, G. (2014). Two-phased DEA-MLA approach for predicting efficiency of NBA players. Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research, 24(3), 347-358.
  • Lee, Y. H., & Berri, D. (2008). A re-examination of production functions and efficiency estimates for the National Basketball Association. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 55(1), 51–66. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9485.2008.00443.x
  • Zak, T., Huang, C., Siegfried, J., “Production Efficiency: The Case of Professional Basketball”, The Journal of Business, 52(3) (1979) 379-392.
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Worker cooperatives, labor societies and self-managed enterprises are present in all democratic societies. They are generally larger and older than their capitalist twins, pay higher wages, produce stable jobs, and dismiss less during economic crises. Their employees also suffer less preventable health problems, are less stressed and live longer. However, their presence is small in both numbers and participation in GDP, although it has been increasing since the 2008 crisis. This raises the question of how to encourage the creation of new democratic enterprises?
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just an idea after reading a piece in the FT (saying that in recent years shareholders are increasingly unwilling to vote in favour of huge pay for CEOs). The idea is to look at pay differences in the company (top vs work floor), and see how these correlate with health, stress, job stability, etc.
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Hello,
I am designing an experiment in economics that will have subjects do a real effort task. The task will be to find pairs of identical letters in a text.
This type of task has already been used in other experiments in economics, yet I am unable to find what text is usually given to subjects - I suppose there must be a "standard text" to permit greater comparability between studies, but I can't find anything.
Do you know what material is generally used for tasks where subjects have to find pairs of identical letters in a text, please ?
Thank you.
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Ha, actually I read about the slider task a while ago but I completely forgot about it. I'm not sure about this one because I read an article which said that women perform worse than men in this task, which might induce a gender bias.
Anyway, thanks for the suggestion, I will definitely consider it.
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for example:
GDP= Trade openness + POP+ FDI + INF+TECH(dummy) + e
I want to use the technology as a dummy variable if the technology adopted in the country then we use the value 1 otherwise 0.
Kindly help me as per your expert opinion.
Thank you
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Dear Rana.
The dummy approach you are working on is usefull if you want to know if a certain method is present or absent. Say during a trial or period a new method or machine was introduced, then you can use "ones" when its is present, and "zeroes" when it is absent.
In general, capturing technological effect on GDP (Output) is done in a log transformed model, whose coefficients have implications for economies of scale, such as in a Cobb-Douglas or CES specification. A major contribution in the 20th century was the residual method of Robert Solow (MIT Laureate Professor). More modern approach tries to dis-aggregate the residual into technology, human capital, education, and health etc. You can find these discussions in an intermediate book on growth theory, macroeconomics or trade.
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Hello,
I would like to do my graduate research on Rate of Return on Education. I've thought about the mincer model but I have some concerns.
1. I will survey employees online using online surveys, is it an appropriate approarch to select a random sample? (micro data needed aren't available for my country)[I'm in a Gulf country where there are no people below poverty line and about 92% of population uses internet that is even publicly avaible) Info will be spread through instant messaging and emails (asking university to send the email to staff and students who may pass it to others and other national social media accounts)
2. Due to some time limitation and in order to meet graduation deadline I can collect about 150 to 200 replies. Is it workable?
3. The variables I am thinking about are (Salary and Wages, Working Hours, Educational Level, Years of working experience, average base starting salary after high school, training program length, gender, parents education). Are they enough to conduct the research?
4. What are the programs I can use to process data for this model
5. Suggestion on applying this model or another model.
Thank you very much
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1. Sounds good. Mention the 92% internet usage in your thesis, with a reference.
2. You may approach 200 potential respondents,but what will be your estimated response rate? How can you improve this with a "reward"?
3. Yes. The gender one should prove interesting.
4. Just use Excel to do a regression analysis.
5. Use the Mincer model as it is unless you find that the fit is poor.
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Would expanding the levels of flexibility for movements of talent between firms and within firms result in a positive productivity impact (refer section 1, page 5 on Policy Document attached). On a scale of Very Low, Low, Neither Low nor High, High, Very High, what productivity impact would most likely be the result ? Are there empirical data to support your assertion ?
Policy perspectives aimed in favour of unshackling SME’s of unnecessary strictures and empowering SME's to achieve talent-driven, outwardly-focused global competitiveness should  feature flexibility to respond to market dynamism.
Flexibility covers a wide range of issues including:
a)     Labour force training should be flexible in its delivery and not be rigidly tied to historical sectors and industries.  Training content and packages should rather be dynamically adjustable and malleable to suit emergence of new sectors and industries.  Responsive repackaging should be a key feature
b)    The picking of winners and locking in / redirecting training resources to those ends is to be discouraged.  The identification of areas of comparative advantage and repurposing  training resources to those ends is also to be discouraged.  Preference is for flexibility to be able to match market demands.  Where appropriate, then time-limited Tax Incentives may be dynamically deployed to encourage training in emergent new sectors.  However, there is a danger of having these incentives becoming institutionalised and remaining on the books way past their useful and value-enhancing period.  Constant policy and legislative re-calibration would therefore be required.
c)     Certification and training of the labour force should seek to produce an outcome where human talent is flexible and have the trained / certified individual be imbued with the capacity and capability to respond in a dynamic way to the varying job opportunities that will emerge over their lifelong working cycle.
d)    Hire and Fire practices should be reviewed to eliminate rigidity and so adjusted to build in higher levels of flexibility in order to
(1) allow for easy and smooth movement of talent dynamically between firms and sectors, reducing stickiness and enhancing responsiveness as market demands change;
(2) allow for smooth movement within firms.  As staff transition through their individual life cycles, job cycles and task cycles, Personal Productivity Performance changes and impacts their work output.; in some cases, upwardly and in some cases, downwardly.  As individuals yearn for differing work-life balance states, then the SME firm needs an ability to flexibly treat with these employee desires in order to retain talent, or attract talent.   Both individuals and firms need the capability and flexibility to adjust the form of engagement in order to align to these changing conditions.  Where, on the other hand, the firm faces declines due to market conditions they will need flexibility to change talent engagement from one form to another (eg from flat-fee compensation base to a performance-fee base). Further, as the skillset of the talent becomes mismatched with market needs, then flexibility will be needed to enable enhanced responsiveness through training and development but also through job and task modifications.  Rules for engagement, disengagement and modification of engagement would need to support innovativeness, productivity and competitiveness.
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It depends (as a favourite answer of the economists)...
Rostislav Kapelyushnikov, Andrei Kuznetsov, Olga Kuznetsova, (2011),"Diversity within capitalism: the Russian labour market model", Employee Relations, 33(4): 395 - 412.
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Is there a positive benefit to aligning compensation systems to firm productivity ? (refer section 3, page 8 on Policy Document attached). On a scale of Very Low, Low, Neither Low nor High, High, Very High, what productivity impact would most likely be the result ?
Are there empirical data to support your assertion ?
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An empirical work on performance related pay (PRP)and its effect on firm productivity was carried out by (Federica Origo) where he found that the introduction of
collective performance related pay significantly increased productivity by around 3-5 per cent, but such effect varied greatly by firm size, industry and union density. He also showed  that the design of the PRP scheme – in terms of number and type of parameters used – were also relevant for firm productivity.
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In Jamaica, unemployment among the 14-19 age group is reported as 49.0% and among the 20-24 at 33% (STATIN 2014 LFS). Paradoxically, these age cohorts represents the population of millennials and digital natives are hence are supposedly the most tech savvy segment of the population.
Rapid evolutions in ICT has resulted in radical changes in the nature of work. A mobile computing device, pervasive internet connectivity shortens the distance between demand and supply poles for certain types of work; particularly short-term service-type jobs aka micro-work or e-lancing. (refer section 7, page 11 on Policy Document attached).
On a scale of Very Low, Low, Neither Low nor High, High, Very High, what productivity impact would most likely be the result ? Are there empirical data to support your assertion ?
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This lancing business will bring in more productivity at lower cost; with energy saving to the country and resource (time & money) savings to the employee. In the hind sight, many of the work would become de-skilled as operational and "lower cost' contracts will be substituted or hired.
Socially, Rich will prosper by outsourcing projects, poor will be happy working and earning at home. Trend projection will be a ramp for the work provider while the growth to poor employees will be horizontal
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In the context of a pre-existing labour force with 66% untrained and uncertified members, would expanding the pool of available talent in the labour force result in a positive productivity impact (refer section 2, page 7 on Policy Document attached). On a scale of Very Low, Low, Neither Low nor High, High, Very High, what productivity impact would most likely be the result ? Are there empirical data to support your assertion ?
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If we measure average productivity as output per hour worked, then holding other things constant such as the 66 percent of the workers being untrained in your example, then adding skilled workers would likely increase average productivity.
When we are looking for greater precision, measuring the marginal product of each worker group becomes more interesting. For example, examining changes in the marginal product of skilled workers when adding more of them might be quite revealing. This assumes the skilled workers are doing different tasks than the untrained workers, of course.
I hope this helps.
Rob
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For this project we need information (literature) about theoretical and empirical comparisson of two alternative methods of workforce intimidation: high unemployment rates vs. highly (mass media) emphasized collective layoffs (e.g. is a 20% unemployment rate as intimidating as 100,000 (temporally concentrated and mass media disseminated) layoffs, in a 7% unemployment rate economy?). Conservative governments apply both of them but recent examples of Latin American Countries (most of them with wage-led demand) confirm a bias towards the second.
Any suggestion will be very welcome!
Thanks a lot.
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Perhaps the 'demonstration' would come from the argument that begins with the observation that sustained maximisation of profit in a changing world requires a constant focus on the minimisation of transaction costs, however they may be constituted.  It follows from this that minimisation of the transactions costs relevant to the sustained provision of an effective labour force requires that labour force to be acquiescent and compliant at minimum cost and least damage to their motivational profiles - they have to be de facto complicit in the supply of their labour even if not actually willing.  This 'ideal' is unlikely to be consistent with the presumed high physical costs of physical intimidation, a route which also has decreasing returns to length of time pursued since populations become inured and resentful to physical force and will eventually resort to similar physicality.    The least cost sustainable alternative, we know from the historical record, are those in which the populations believes in the desired status quo.  It might be argued that for fifty years the paradigm by and large enjoyed the benefits of such a system of belief across all major economies.  But just as in past civilisations and dispensation, once general credibility ceases to hold the population in general in thrall it cannot be recovered.  Only if that credibility and belief is able to be reinstated will you see papers appearing describing how it works and thus demonstrate, retrospectively the policy's effectiveness.    It will not happen.  'Advertising and political spin is only effective in the short-term.  It is also transparent and general awareness is well embedded throughout society.  Unless the entire media industry acts to common purpose and consistently and effectively transforms the social reality we each of us experience then the necessary level of willing belief cannot be built up, locally in Southern South America, sufficiently to be self-sustaining.  It can only ever be imposed as an overt example of psychological and mental violence to the person.  It will therefore be costly as well as being unsustainable and it will not achieve its objectives of creating a compliant and acquiescent low-transaction cost supply of flexible labour.
We can expect to see more and more frequently these types of desperate and ill-thought out rear-guard actions from the  neoclassical axis, on the left and the right, as they obsessively refuse to confront and evolve away from the fundamental institution tenants of a limitless accumualtive cadastrelism by individuals unbound by the needs and rights of society, and effectively unaccountable to it.   I doubt many papers will appear.  Far fewer perhaps than potential and actual authors of them will disappear meanwhile.
Robin
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I'm looking for data on total labor costs (direct + indirect labor costs) for **specific products**. That is, how much a worker would cost a factory owner for producing, let’s say, a pair of jeans. These data could be from any country and industry you may have come across (garments, foods, electronics, etc. – anything really). Ideally, it’d be very helpful to have copies of factory timesheets; that is the list of steps, or operations, involved in producing let’s say a pair of jeans, whereas each operation is assigned a specific time. Thank you!!
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Hi George, 
Please find attached a document on pricing in garments and below an older CCC document that may be useful. 
For athletic footwear, I have attached a document with financial data on Yue Yuen, the world's largest footwear manufacturer. On page 11 a figure that might be of interest for your work, but note that this data is 10 years old, and labor costs will have increased significantly for its Chinese operations, less so for its Vietnamese and Indonesian facilities. 
hope this is helpful and best wishes, 
Jeroen
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for research purpose 
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Usually we measure the change in labor productivity. For example, before invention a worker produced 10 details per hour, and now 12. Then his productivity has grown by 20%. The source of productivity growth can be in using machines. For example, a farmer can cultivate 100 sq.meters of land per day with primitive instruments, but 10000 sq. meters with a tractor. Then productivity grows by factor 100.
Cobb-Douglas function (if it is known) is a good instrument to define the share of labor and capital in the output. However, this is not always balanced. For example, tax, or profit of intermediary can make the sum of shares less than one. It can be argued that land rent and resource or energy input can also contribute to production function.
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I am searching for benefit and more developed methods used to determine the labor productivity in construction, and therefore i want to use this method in the perspective study and determine influencing factors. 
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An Established method followed in Industry in Time and Motion study.An activity is first broken down into steps and worker is asked to follow the steps to complete the task.This way the time is measured.Again another alternative method is conceived and time is measured.By doing Time and Motion study Labor Productivity can be Incresed.
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I am looking for the possible labor market factors ( in addition to tight labor market) which affect the decision of a firm how to treat its employees. I would be glad if you suggest some related articles.
Sincerely,
Masud
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Kindly check this paper. It may provide insight to your question
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I would like for someone who can answer this question or give me some resources to the: Root cause of high unemployment in Mauritania?
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Try slavery.  seriously.  Why buy the milk if you own the cow
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Then we need to look at how countries in the Scandinavian region and Japan fare as a foretaste of things to come. Improved welfare leading to longer life spans may, in turn create new opportunities for growth. Despite the loss in demographic divident.As for instance, how the wellness revolution and sustainable/green economy is carving out new growth trajectories for some economies.
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Dear All,
I am planning to explore whether good HR practices (such as better employee treatment) can be used as tool to attract innovative & hardworking employees. Even though I have read several articles, I could not find articles which specifically  explain that good HR practices (e.g. employee treatment) attract employees with desirable characteristics (innovative, hardworking, optimistic). Could you please mentions some articles which look into this matter?
Sincerely,
Masud
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My first thoughts are that good employee practices are better at keeping employees who are loyal to a business that is respectful and supportive of their contributions... hiring new employees is another question altogether... look like really great articles in the above message... currently I am retired and have worked in the nonprofit sector my entire career ... turnover was a big problem, primarily because of low salaries; however, I saw the difference between urban NPs and rural NPs where turnover was really low...
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For my research, I'm making an overview of types of flexible labour arrangements in different types of welfare states. Are there any suggestions on other types of flexible labor organization in other countries?
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A repeat cross section survey of employers and employees in the UK called Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in 1998 2004 and later has lists of questionnaire items on this topic - you can find the Questionnaires online by looking up the survey - at National Institute for Economic and Social Research (niesr) or the UK's large scale survey "Question Bank" paid for by ESRC.
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 The concept of employability appears to be relatively new and has been variously characterised as comprising the three dimensions of career identity, personal adaptability, and social and human capital (Fugate 2004) as well as openness to changes at work, work and career resilience, work and career proactivity, career motivation and work identity (Hennekam, 2013). To the extent that it reflects “the individual’s ability to keep the job one has, or to get the job one desires” (Rothwell et al, 2007) does it provides an indicator of the efficiency and effectiveness of a labour market?
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 I thought this idea had outlived its natural life.
Bear in mind that it puts much of the responsibility on the worker, so it has an ideological component.
I have encountered it a lot with respect to older workers, who are supposed to improve their employability.  Perhaps more useful is the term "workability".  This puts more emphasis on the role of the employer, who has the responsibility to make adaptations to workplaces and to reduce the elements of work that are deleterious to health and /or to make sure that employees continue to provide training.
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without having to suffer the problem of bias associated with endogeniety in a country like Nigeria
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A minor correction to Marc Cowling: In a Heckman-type equation, you correct for different probabilities of participating in the Labor Market, for two groups with diferent Labor Participation percentages. 
The problem with this correctio is that it doesn't allow you to separate low participation jobs due to self selection (i.e, women don't work because they optimally prefer to take care of the children), and due to exclusion or discrimination (i.e, employers don't hire women because they are women).
In order to correct this problem, you can use queueing models to model a first stage where a women decides whether or not to work, and thus enters in a "queue" for wage work, and on then model a second stage where employers decide whether they chose or not women for the queue. Women may be not chosen, for example, on the basis of their educational attainment, which will effect the returns of schooling (which your are triying to capture.)
This queuing models are interesting because they give you predicted correlations between the error terms of the two stages, and these correlations are then used to correct Mincerian equations, cleaning some of the discrimination effect in the return to schooling. I leave you a paper where three authors do an exercise like this for Chile, and measure queues from the informal sector to the formal sector. They find discrimination for ethnic groups.
Since this procedure is very complicated and requieres good data, it's only useful to use it if you think there are strong reasons that one group is being discrimanted in the form of being (partially) excluded from the labor market. If this exclusion has it's origin in the low educational attainment od the excluded group, then it will correct a lot of the discrimination "effect" into returns of education. If the group is not excluded, and is only being paid less, then an Oaxaca Decomposition is the most fruitful way to go.
Hope it helps!
Alejandro.
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We investigate the matured workforce’ employment possibility from the point of view of the health by comparing relevant data of Czech Republic, Hungary and Austria. We used the method of correlation and regression (enter method) analysis to find the connection between the health/social contribution/benefit system related service data and employment.
In Austria the most important factors are social benefit (not unemployment, or housing or sickness related) 83.5%, the Death ischemic 96.2% diseases and the cancer 95.1% to the employment rate of older workers. In Czeh Republic and Hungary the employment rate of older workers could be explained by some kind of social expenditure, may be heritage of the previous political system, although in Czech Republic it results the highest rate of employment of this age group.
The Questions are: What could be the reason of Austrian data?
Way of life? Nutrition? Health service? Or something else?
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The changing dynamics of the labour market imposes demands on the form and nature of the manifestation of collective action expressed in support of the holders/owners of talent (ie human capital). How are modern networks (unions, trade associations, professional bodies, guilds, etc) changing to be responsive, progressive and of value to members.
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This is an interesting question. Nowadays, networks and members need to equip themselves with modern technologies to educate and update themselves, and to communicate their expectations and needs.
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The objective of Labour Market Reform is to breathe modernity, dynamism and responsiveness into economies exhibiting labour-related competitiveness dysfunctions. Policies for reforming the Labour Market have far-reaching consequences on the productivity and competitiveness of an economy.   The risk of implementing wrong and inappropriate policy can be grave.  How do policy-makers ensure that their policy prescriptions are fit-for-purpose and will deliver the desired outcomes in terms of improved productivity and competitiveness at the firm level, sector level, industry level and national level? How can proposed reform policy measures be modelled and pre-tested for feasibility before being moved into an implementation phase ?
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I think the best way to approach this question is by considering the political rationale behind labour market reforms and seeking to align reforms with an underlying economic theory. For example, the UK government in 1979 strongly believed in free markets (an economic view) and also philosophically were against worker representation (i.e unions) as this reduced the share if capitalist (i.e firm owners) income as unionised workers received a higher share of firm income. Of course the two are linked. Their view was that higher worker shares of wealth created reduced the incentives for capitalists to invest in their firms.  Generally labour market reforms could be lumped into two categories. Reforms that protect workers (e.g minimum wage legislation) and those which act in the interests of capitalists (e.g anti-union legislation). To fully achieve the benefits of 'freeing' up labour markets through making the market more competitive, there must be fairly free movement of labour (i.e workers compete for jobs and move to where there is higher demand for labour). This might be true to a degree in the US, but it is not normally true in Europe. This is often where reforms to free up labour markets fails, particularly where the jobs are in regions where living costs are higher than those in areas where there is higher unemployment. Hope this helps a bit? Cheers, Marc
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Does anybody know where it is possible to get  good data on child labor in developing countries ? India and China are preferred but in general would be great to have cross section for most of the developing countries,many thanks
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In India data on child labour is abundantly available with the Ministry of Women and Children affairs under Central Government, and with the respective State Governments as 'labour' is categorized under concurrent list in the constitution of India. You may even refer government websites for more details...In India many Non Governmental agencies are also actively engaged in the area of eradication of child labour and doing lot of researches in these areas. Reputed research and academic institutions like Tata Institute of Social Service, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, can also be of immense help...
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Data with respect to collective bargaining in steel sector within 2000 - 2014
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The collection of charters of demand submitted by unions and their agreements with the management as much as available in various steel factories by talking with authorized unions will be the best option. 
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Hello ResearchGate Community,
I really need your help for my Master Thesis. I am writing about dual career considerations in international assignments and want to find out if there are differences between Self-Initiated and Company-Assigned Expatriates. 
I want to conduct interviews with dual career couples; six couples that relocated abroad on their own and six couples that went abroad within their organisations. If you have an idea how to find these interviewees or if you personally know someone that suits the criteria please let me know! 
If you need more information on the exact interview format or anything else I am happy to provide you with more information.
Thank you in advance for any support you are able to provide!
Wiebke Schaper
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Hi Wiebke, congrats for choosing an interesting topic. I would advise you to use a snowball sampling method to locate the dual career couples with better results. If you locate one, s/he will help you locate the other. It's very popular. All the best.
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Especially, social transformations with respect to social reproduction—including transformations to the measurement and valuation of domestic labor.
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Hi David, You may be interested in some of the work that ActionAid has done on women's unpaid care work and time use diaries to measure and value this work. You can read our report Making Care Visible here: http://www.actionaid.org/publications/making-care-visible
Best wishes,
Ramona
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The publicly-available data on the Tanzanian statistical agency's website has information regarding household characteristics. But, there is no person-level data, i,e., detailed information about the individuals in the household such as their age, employment status etc. In contrast microdata from the earlier HBS (2007) contain person-level data.
I would appreciate any leads on how to obtain the person-level data from 2011-12 HBS.
Thank you!
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This is the problem with household surveys - we have developed a new measure called the Individual Deprivation Measure which would answer such questions in the future. Check it out on the website of International Women's Development Agency - the IDM information is all linked to that site. Won't solve your immediate problem I realise but thought you'd like to know about the IDM.
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It will be more useful for me if the data would be about job quits per year due to different reasons (especially personal decisions)
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Not sure if you're looking for a specific cohort/country, but the NLSY79 (U.S. representative longitudinal survey, also from BLS) has very detailed coding for job separation--here's a sample of the coding in more recent waves (2002-2012):
1 Layoff, job eliminated
2 Company, Office or workplace closed
3 End of temporary or seasonal job
4 Discharged or fired
5 Government program ended
6 Quit for pregnancy, childbirth or adoption of a child
7 Quit to look for another job
8 Quit to take another job
10 Quit because respondent's ill health, disability or medical
problems
11 Moved to another geographic area
12 Quit to spend time with or take care of children, spouse,
parents, or other family members
13 Quit because didn't like job, boss, coworkers, pay or benefits
14 Quit to attend school or training
15 Went to jail or prison, had legal problems
16 Transportation problems
17 Retired
18 No desirable assignments available
19 Job assigned through a temporary help agency or a contract firm
became permanent
20 Dissatisfied with job matching service
21 Project completed or job ended
9 Quit for other reasons (SPECIFY)
There's a less detailed question asked in earlier waves (1979-2002), but you can still separate voluntary from involuntary, and a few causes of involuntary (closure, program ending, etc).
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It is believed that trade union power and density across countries is declining in the post-globalization period. I could not find any systematically compiled data in support or against this. Can you share data including research papers in this regard?
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For Europe, the most complete and up-to-date data set is that operated by Jelle Visser at AIAS, to be found here: http://www.uva-aias.net/208
This is surely the most reliable and cited reference. For instance, see quotation in European Commission's report on "Industrial relations in Europe 2014" (http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7739).
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We have followed some 1,500 sophomore girls for about 15 years. They had the opportunity of applying for summer jobs at a Town council, and the applications were thereafter randomly approved by the council. Generally, the effect of a early work experience was significant. However, the sub-group of girls with low grades seemed to benefit enormously. Those that did not get an offer had an average, annual income of about SEK 100,000 (about $14,000) at the age of 30 years (15 years later). Those with an offer had about SEK 180,000 (about $26,000) at the same age later in life. The latter group's income is not far below national averages for the relevant age, whereas the former group's income is so low that it could hardly be collected from a full-time employment, albeit poorly paid. Unfortunately, the number of observations in the experimental study is in my opinion insufficient for any categorical claims. I therefore wonder if some one can offer an explanation to the result or point at other empirical studies in support of the seemingly extremely strong effect for this sub-group of girls? Details are in the attached manuscript.
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@John. The report that examined the boys is available by the attached link. It seemed that the boys worked more or less equally much in high school irresepctive of getting the random offer or not. Consequently, we did not try to further estimate the causal effect.
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In the world of employment, labor distribution companies usually use agents to persuade and recruit people in rural areas to become domestic workers or migrant workers. If so, then the persuasion or recruiting process by the agents can be seen as "selling" process, and in the candidates point of view, the decision to accept the offer of the agents can be interpreted as "buying" or "not buying" process. Any thought?
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Thank you for the answers and articles Mr. Ihtiyar. I really appreciate that. With all respect, I'm not sure I have fully understood the idea you discussing above, but particularIy I agree with you that  the migrant/ domestic workers candidates are consumers for all kinds of services you have mentioned above. Anyway, please allow me to provide the thought that underlying the question I asked above.
Like we all know, people in rural areas usually have limited choices ( like health service, insurance service, banking services) that they can "buy" to improve their economic condition. Then they decide to be domestic/migrants workers through some worker training and supplier agents, legally or illegally, who then will facilitate them to work in another areas in their home country or overseas. If there is a firm base for this "domestic/ migrant workers candidates as consumers and workers recruitment/ distribution as a service" assumption, then investigating this phenomena using marketing or consumer behavior perspective would be interesting. In relation with customer satisfaction, sometimes the domestic/migrant workers candidates are recipients of manipulation, coercion, and lot kinds of violence. In many cases they actually not satisfied with the "service" they get, but they can't get out of it, or they just develop such an accepting attitude towards the violence. Exploring this phenomena in consumer behavior perspective, I believe, would be very interesting and prospective to contribute helpful insights in human trafficking discussion or labor markets in general.
I'm looking forward to continue this discussion with you Mr. Ihtiyar.
Regards,
Joseph
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I'm working on a research proposal, dealing with labor migration in the health and care sector. Interested in the situation in Japan, because it should be hit hard by the effects of demographic change. Any recommendations on literature?
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There is some interesting work about trafficking that focus on sex labor migration from Latin America to Japan. 
Piper, N. (1999). Labor migration trafficking and international marriage: female cross-border movements into Japan. Asian Journal of Womens Studies, 5(2), 13.
Leheny, D., & Warren, K. (Eds.). (2009). Japanese aid and the construction of global development: inescapable solutions. Routledge.
Blanchette, T. G., & da Silva, A. P. (2012). On bullshit and the trafficking of women: Moral entrepreneurs and the invention of trafficking of persons in Brazil. Dialectical anthropology, 1-19.
I also attended this session at the recent AAAs titled "PRODUCING ANTHROPOLOGY IN/OF THE "NEW GLOBE": TRANSNATIONAL HUMAN AND CULTURAL MOBILITY IN JAPAN AND BEYOND". Probably some of the participants would be interesting for you.
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For estimating a labour supply hours equation we use the after tax wage rate and IV regression. How wrong is it to use the gross wage rate and do a simple Tobit model?
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That sounds like a "forbidden regression." Endogeneity would be a big concern, since the quantity of hours worked also affects wages-- you have more accumulated human capital, are potentially earning overtime, etc. You would want, at least, a very compelling instrument. 
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Hi all,
I have a categorical independent variable (1-20) and based on theory it should have a positive sign in regression, i.e. larger category ID, larger dependent variable. although it could be nonlinear.
Except for treating it as continuous variable valued from 1-20 or use 19 dummies, is there any other method to test this variable has a significantly positive effect?
it's kind of like I use 19 dummies, then find a way to test the coefficients for these 19 dummies are significantly getting larger. In other words, I am testing the differences between each indicator and the referent group are increasing.
Thanks very much!
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Since you have a lot of statistical power, you could also try a semi-parametric approach: 
Include all 20 categories as fixed effects, capture the coefficients and confidence intervals, put the ordered fixed effects on the x-axis, and then put the coefficients and confidence interval whiskers  on the y-axis. 
The advantage to this: it would impose minimal assumptions on the shape of the relationship (e.g. it could be linear, quadratic, exponential, etc), but that shape would be revealed by the shape of the line connecting the coefficients. It would also provide a lot of information in a very simple and intuitive way. 
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I am interested in analyzing the transfer from rentier sectors towards manufacturing sectors in Latin America, based on the reproduction schemes of Marx.
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Dear Emiliano,
The model of Lowe, Adolph, "The Path of Economic Growth," (Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press, 1976) can do that for you. Before you get into Lowe's original work, which I think can be programmed with a spread sheet, I recommend that you look at some smaller hand applications as in the two references,
Halevi, Joseph, “Lowe, Dobb and Hicks,” Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1984), pp. 157-167.
Halevi, Joseph, Employment and Planning, Social Research, Vol. 50, No.2 (Summer 1983) pp. 345- 358.
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Hi all,
What is the appropriate measure of "labor productivity in agriculture" ?  Can Population census data be used to obtain such measure? What is the official data source for labor productivity in agriculture? And how the total labor force in agriculture can be computed "more precisely" as the state level measure?
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There are some well established studies that provide good models from different perspectives on the study of India's agricultural growth. See attached 3 articles. They give details of growth trends, demographic changes, as well as econometric models.  Some articles may be dated, but they provide quite useful background and foundation materials, i.e. measurement issues. Enjoy.
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I am interested in knowing whether the “inverted-U” relationship between the degree of centralization in the collective bargaining and the unemployment rate is still valid. I am interested both in top research papers and in those ones with a more informative (less technical) aim.
Thanks in advance
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I agree with Sergio. The distinction between centralization and coordination is pertinent: highly coordinated but at the same time decentralized systems might achieve similar results to the ones obtained by otherwise centralized set-ups.
Carlos.
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The U.S. unemployment rate fell to 6.7% in December 2013 as labor force participation dropped to 62.8%. Many are arguing that the unemployment rate is not an appropriate measure of labor market slack because of falling participation. However, an examination of the relationship between quit rates and the unemployment rate (data on quit rates only through October) suggests that people are quitting their jobs at the usual rate that would be associated with an unemployment rate at around 7% (December quit rate data comes out in early February). The relationship between job openings and the unemployment rate (the Beveridge Curve) has been extensively studied and currently the unemployment rate is high relative to job openings (leading to arguments about loops around the Beveridge Curve). Is anyone aware of labor-market research on quit rates and unemployment?
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Farber (2011) Job Loss in the Great Recession: Historical Perspective
from the Displaced Workers Survey, 1984-2010, IZA n. 5686
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In particular, I am interested in studying this link: thinking in the ability of collective action to affect the sustaining and elevation (defensive or offensive stage), of the wage floor.
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See also Farber, Henry S. "The Analysis of Union Behavior," from the Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. II, Chapter 18, ed. by Ashenfelter and Layard, North Holland Publishing Co., 1986, pp. 1039-1089.
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I am interested in using Compensating differentials to study economic analysis of workplace spirituality? I need a theoratical frame work for it, please suggest.
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The theory of compensating wage differentils departs from the assumption that equally productive workers of  should receive the same remuneration; if a worker enojoy a positive job amenity, he/she will receive a lower monetary wage and, if the job characteristic generates some dissatisfaction, the wage should be higher to compensate for it. To hold, this theory requires, among others, perfect competition, perfect rationality and perfect information.
The entry in the Palgrave dictionary can be more illustrative:
Also, you can look at the classical work of Rosen:
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I am looking for an index or indicators on the level of corporatism in Central and Eastern Europe for the most recent time-period, but I am finding it hard to find a source. If anyone is aware of such indicators, can you please let me know? 
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Hi Eltion
Indeed ICTWSS is a very comprehensive database
You may find useful the following paper by Jelle Visser "Wage Bargaining Institutions - from crisis to crisis" .
Regards
Alfonso
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Has anyone worked on the issue or have any hints on what could explain such a phenomenon?
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Well there is a general trend of decline in the importance of the government sector due to privatization policies in many countries of the Arab World. The government sector was the main employer of educated females. I can tell you this information for sure for Egypt, as this is my current study focus. At the same time, the private sector has not been female friendly in many cases, providing lower wages and worse work conditions for females. This lead many females, especially the educated ones to leave the labor force all together, which led to a drop in female labor market participation.
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I am experimenting with the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to examine wage increases in Belgium between two years (2000 and 2010) using wage survey data. I am interested in the part of the wage increase accounted for by differences in socio-demographic factors between the two years (explained difference). My dependent variable is the log of hourly wage. However, there are lots of observations (too many to simply get rid of them) whose workload is very limited either because of part-time work or because they only lasted a short amount of time. Therefore, it seems to me that in addition to the survey extrapolation factors (pweight) I should also do some weighting according to workload. Does this make sense and how do you introduce an additional weight using the Oaxaca procedure in Stata (fweight and aweight do not seem to serve this purpose)?
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That's a good question. I have never heard anyone raise that objection before, however, and I don't think you need to worry about it -- certainly plenty of authors have ignored the problem! But it is interesting: Suppose a given case had an erroneously high reported number of hours. That would result in (a) an understatement of their hourly wage, and (b) an increase in the weight attached to that observation. That would tend to bias the weighted average hourly wage downwards for the whole sample. But as long as that bias is roughly similar across subgroups of the population and over time it should not have much effect on the Oaxaca decomposition.
Here's another random Oaxaca tip. If you use Stata you have the option of specifying "pooled", which specifies that the coefficients used to evaluate the "explained effects" of differences in X variables between the two periods are the coefficients from a regression that pools the data, and includes a dummy variable to distinguish the two periods. The thing I like about that specification is that it does not rely on the period 1 or the period 2 coefficients, but rather on a kind of average of the two which seems prudent. Also, the total "unexplained effect" will come out exactly the same as the coefficient on the dummy variable in the pooled regression: it is the part that cannot be explained by the differences in X.
Best of luck,
Tom
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In a case of binary dependent variable what is the best method, probit model or logit model, as today we have software's available and can easily calculate any of them.
Also is it necessary to work out marginal effect or odds ratios? As we are more concerned about probability so naturally signs matters most hear and the significance level.
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Hi Aasif,
It is hard to say from just output but these results seem a bit confusing to me as your p-values are practically 0, yet the confidence intervals all include 0 (which contradicts the p-value). I usually use the margins command in Stata which I don't think is what you have used here so it may be a difference in terms of what output is provided by the package (or perhaps the version of Stata you are using) but it seems strange to me.
The commands I would use after the probit are:
1) for average partial effects: margins ,dydx(*) predict(pr)
2) for marginal effects at the mean: margins ,dydx(*) predict(pr) atmeans
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It has become very common that papers focused on a great part of Labour Economics issues apply the Heckman filter in order to correct problem of supposed selection bias. However, I think that maybe it is not always necessary. Does anybody know any argument justifying not correcting for Heckman filter? More concretely, I am researching on housing tenure decisions of immigrant population living in host countries. To what extent is it necessary correct by Heckman filter when I run logit models for explain this kind of decisions?
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There might be some reasons for not controlling. For instance, immigrants are not randomly selected, which means that if you want to know about the impact of a characteristic on the decision made by a person from a certain country in a host country, such estimate is likely to be biased. However, this statement refers to the whole population from the country of origin.
If your focus (and surely it is) is on the effect for the immigrant in the host country (irrespective of what people in the country of origin would do in such situation), you do not need to address the selection process, as you are interested in what happens in the selected sample.
Another example: if studying the effect of schooling on education you are interested only on employed population, there is no reason for controlling for selection into employment. If you are interested in what happened with the whole population, you should control for selection into employment (it is possible that unobservable skills of employed individuals are higher than those out of the employed population and such skills are correlated with education).