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Knowledge Creation - Science topic

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It can be said that Thomas Kuhn’s loop is active only when the working of paradigms generates abnormalities. If a paradigm does not generate abnormalities it is a golden paradigm.
Hence, the Kuhn’s loop can be envisioned as moving from paradigm to paradigm correcting abnormalities until there are no more abnormalities to correct.
In other words, the Kuhn’s loop works its way up from non-golden paradigms to the golden paradigm.
And this raises the question; Can Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolution loop be seen as the road that leads in the end to a golden paradigm ruled world?
I think the answer is Yes, what do you think?
Feel free to share your own views on the question!
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Over the past decades, a number of sources of globalization have emerged. One of them is technological progress, which has led to a sharp reduction in transport and communication costs, a significant reduction the costs of processing, storing and using information.
The second source of globalization is trade liberalization and other forms of economic liberalization that have curtailed protectionist policies and made world trade freer. As a result there were tariffs have been substantially reduced, and many other barriers to trade in goods and services have been removed. Other liberalization measures have led to an increase in the movement of capital and other factors of production.
The third source of globalization can be considered a significant expansion of the scope of organizations, which became possible both as a result of technological progress and wider horizons of management on basis of new means of communication. Thus, many companies that previously focused only on local markets have expanded their production and marketing capabilities, reaching the national, multinational, international and even global level.
Globalization brings not only benefits, it is fraught with negative consequences or potential problems, which some of its critics see as a great danger.
One of the main problems is related to the question: who benefits from globalization? In fact, most of the benefits are rich countries or individuals. The unfair distribution of the benefits of globalization gives rise to the threat of conflicts at the regional, national and international levels.
The second problem is related to potential regional or global instability due to the interdependence of national economies at the global level. Local economic fluctuations or crises in one country may have regional or even global implications.
The third set of problems posed by globalization is caused by the fear that control over the economies of individual countries may shift from sovereign governments to other hands, including the most powerful states, multinational or global corporations and international organizations.
Because of this, some see globalization as an attempt to undermine national sovereignty. For this reason, globalization can make national leaders feel helpless before its forces, and the electorate - antipathy towards her. Such sentiments can easily turn into extreme nationalism and xenophobia with calls for protectionism, lead to the growth of extremist political movements, which is potentially fraught with serious conflicts.
The problem generated by globalization - the infringement of national sovereignty and the independence of political leaders - can also be largely resolved on the basis of international cooperation, for example, by a clear delineation of the powers of the parties, i.e. national governments and their leaders, on the one hand, and international organizations and multinational or global corporations, on the other. The very involvement of political leaders in building the necessary institutions to deal with these and other globalization-related issues will help them regain the sense that they are in control of their future and in control of their positions in the world.
Globalized world. In the meantime, unfortunately, the world is moving in the opposite direction, along the path of political and military dictate of a strong
weak, that in the context of globalization of all aspects of the life of the world community, it is fraught with a global confrontation.
The current crisis of the Western economy is not a recession because it is not cyclical and is not limited to 12-16 months. What is happening in the US and Europe today is a structural crisis, a process that began in the fourth quarter of 2021 and will continue for at least five years without interruption. However, the West does not understand the causes and essence of the crisis, because they do not have theories describing it. That is why, according to the economist, the American and European authorities are doing stupid things instead of effective measures to resolve problems.
It was impossible to avoid this crisis, because they went too far. They have expanded private consumption so much that they can no longer keep it. You need to name the main number. There is an indicator in the United States that they do not disclose in public discussion: this is the level of price growth for all industrial goods, not only for final goods entering the wholesale trade, but in general for everything, from raw materials to the final product. For the first time, the rise in prices for manufactured goods exceeded the level of the late 1970s. The previous peak was at the end of 1947. There are 23 with something percent.
The entire system of socio-political management in the West, both in the USA and in Europe, is built through representatives of the middle class, qualified consumers. Today this instrument is being destroyed. Instead of the middle class, new poor people appear, who have a middle-class attitude, but they have no money.
The sanctions pressure on Russia has exacerbated the economic problems of the West. European financiers note that EU politicians are afraid to take responsibility for decisions taken under the slogans of transatlantic solidarity and assistance to Ukraine.
In fact, this whole situation with global confrontation and the breakdown of the dollar system is disastrous for the United States not by economic factors, but by intellectual ones. Roughly speaking, Washington will undoubtedly lose to Moscow only because the US does not even have a concept of a plan to solve the colossal economic problems and save the dollar system.
Intellectual life in the US and Russia goes in opposite directions. The US has nothing left for a long time. There, no one can imagine even a weak positive scenario. The complete absence of any thought, not to mention the concept.
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Hi there,
as I am working in applied research, I always come across the problem that knowledge is not applied in practice (theory-practice gap). Is there a particularly good paper / book to recommend about this? :-)
Best thanks and best regards
Alexander Kwiatkowski
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There are two articles that show this gap from different perspectives and that can be complemented. One takes it from education in general and the other from education for health practice. I hope they serve you, best regards.
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Dear community of researchers,
I am a French business school student.
For my master dissertation, I'm working on innovation and how could innovation influence multinational's internationalization.
I've already find some interesting articles and topics that could help me to answer my question, but I'm referring to you today to have a new look on this subject.
So, I'm asking you if you have any advice to handle this subject in the best way or you know some articles that could fit my research question ?
Thank you in advance.
Best regards,
LD
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In recent years, technological innovations, including, for example, innovations in the field of new information technologies, ICT and Industry 4.0, increase the possibilities of international operation of enterprises and corporations. These processes take place in many economic entities operating internationally and thus accelerate the processes of informational, technological and economic globalization.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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What model can I use to justify my research approach? Or do I need to change my approach?
Hello Friends,
I am not sure if I am designing my research in the correct way. Still in the initial stage(brainstorming), so I can still change my approach (or what to investigate).
For my master thesis, I am currently designing my research for a company whose main aim is to understand how they create knowledge that is converted into a solution for the client. Because of Covid, I cannot/may not observe people creating knowledge as they are working from home. So, my primary sources are literature, document analyses (if I specifically ask for a type of document, they will provide it), and interviews with whomever I deemed necessary.
My thoughts thus far are to conduct a (qualitative) embedded multiple-case study in four departments that produce nearly identical products—asking employees at departments A B C D about their knowledge creation process.
After that, I am thinking of doing a document analysis about their organizational structure in their departments (which is not difficult as they can provide me with the documents).
To finally, understand the differences and similarities between the different cases in terms of their organizational structure and knowledge creation process. To conclude, for example, in step 3 in the knowledge creation process seems to be supported by a centralized organizational structure, yet it seems to hamper step 4.
I have the feeling that I am making a mistake in my line of reasoning or in my method, yet I cannot figure out on what point.
All thoughts are welcome; many thanks in advance!
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Very interesting topic.
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I studied a number of research papers on "Knowledge Entrepreneurship". However, most of the researchers conducted qualitative research. Kindly, suggest me any quantitative research on Knowledge Entrepreneurship. Moreover, recommend the developed scale for Knowledge Entrepreneurship.
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Dear,Nida ji
Knowledge management and entrepreneurship
David B. Audretsch, Maksim Belitski, […]Erik E. Lehmann
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal volume 16, pages373–385(2020)Cite this article
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Until very recently, the idea of knowledge-related cultures had little currency.
Knowledge creation seemed a matter of rational, cognitive, and technical procedures
undertaken by scientists; it neither needed nor did it lend itself well to cultural or any
other kind of social scientific investigation. Traditionally, philosophy had taken it
upon itself to explore the methods of science, but philosophy being philosophy was
not interested in the empirical question of how knowledge was produced. The
assumption of the unity and universality of science that had emerged since the
time of the Vienna Circle of philosophers contributed to the division between
knowledge and culture. If there was only one scientific method and one knowledge,
how could the notion of culture apply to science?
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To remove the possibility of validating indigenous knowledge, regimented pee_(re)viewed mass production of present-day academic science is taking every conceivable measure to raise obstacles to non-intersubjectivistic knowledge.
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Hello guys, what are the knowledge management theories that describe knowledge management practices in terms of creation, capturing, organisation, use and storage? The SCEI model pays more attention to knowledge creation, how it this model relates to other areas of the knowledge management practices?
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Hi Magnus,
I have attached for you one chapter from my book:
Handzic M. and Zhou A.Z. (2005), Knowledge Management: An Integrative Approach, Chandos Publishing, Oxford, UK.
It reviews different perspectives on KM and introduces my own model.
Hopefully, it will be useful in answering your question.
Meliha
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From antiquity, philosophy has given inspiration for the development of other sciences. Some teachings come from specific trends in the history of philosophical thought. Currently, philosophy can give conceptual inspiration for creating new concepts for other sciences and for creating innovative solutions.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Philosophy teaches us how to think. It is not a "science", a set of "sciences", and has not any compromises with ideas of "innovation", "creativity", even less with "technology", "design" and all the other words that are nowadays used and abused around knowledge. However, philosophy is indispensable for sciences, scientific research, and knowledge innovation precisely because it illuminates how to ask, how to inquiry, and how to search for knowledgeable answers. Most of the main subjects of philosophy still are long-term inquiries on the meaning of life, moral conduct, the value of knowledge, human virtues, love, or justice that have been discussed for thousands of years, finding new answers and paths towards a meaningful humanistic life. Philosophy doesn't need to be innovative but only to be serious and profound, keeping epistemic requirements, logic processes, and ontological exactions. It is enough to maintain philosophy with its original wonderful meaning: philein and sophia or the love of wisdom.
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There is a well-described Knowledge Creation Process by the seminal Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization (SECI) model by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995).
Then there is also the Learning Organization idea by Senge. Are these two related to each other?
What is your opinion? Can you suggest some of your papers in this area?
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Hello. In my modest opinion, they are related. Greater KCP are achieved thanks to the learning. Additionally, I would say that is also related to absorptive capacity of organization too.
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Question: Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization are necessary processes of SECI model. Do you think these processes are equally applicable to all organizations? Discuss with rationale.
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Hi.,
The SECI model comes out of research in knowledge management, which is related to organizational learning, business administration, and information systems. SECI stands for socialization, externalization, combination, internalization—a model of knowledge creation proposed by Ikujiro Nonaka..
Knowledge creation refers to the continuous combination, transfer, and conversion of different kinds of knowledge. ... Knowledge creation is the formation of new notions and concepts. This occurs through interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge in people's minds.
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In science and in live, knowledge creation and knowledge acquisition (learning) are very important. Learning or knowledge acquisition can be seen as behavior modification through interventions to achieve results. That intervention can be an experience or a mental process, thinking (discovery through logic). But is it possible that learning doesn’t have to show in behavior modification? There are all kinds of theories about learning and everybody maybe learns in a different way.
There is also the idea about learning paradoxes, things you can’t unlearn, because they are already there (Plato). And if you can’t unlearn them you can’t learn them, so not everything is learnable.
In recent research it showed that to achieve result is not only about behavior modification (knowledge), but that culture and the enabling environment also are playing an important role and that is called capacity and that process is called capacity building. And of course, you have to learn how to build that capacity to achieve the desired results.
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I personally do believe that learning has effects on our behaviour. Perhaps I am influenced by Plato.
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According to Thomas Kuhn, the growth of science depends not only on the linear progression of knowledge creation but also on scientific revolutions, which he called paradigm shifts (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962), a complete change of the foundation of a certain science.
Where do we have to expect the next breakthroughs in science? To which scientific fields Nobel Prizes will be given in the future and why?
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Good question
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Knowledge Management
Knowledge Creation
Knowledge Transfer
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knowledge is the basis of everything! therefore, the study of knowledge management, from whatever point of view you will face, is an issue that will always have an application.
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Hi everyone,
I've carried out a literature search to find the most recent and accepted frameworks of knowledge creation in science contexts. But I'm not happy with my results.
I would be especially interested in frameworks that depict knowledge creation as a cooperative process that creates mode 1 (theoretical knowledge) and mode 2 knowledge (mainly practical knowledge) through various processes. Please let me know if you have a couple of good sources that deal with this topic in basic and applied science, not organizational contexts.
Best regards from Munich, Germany
Max
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Agnieszka Will geb. Gronek
, design thinking mostly originated in project management and business operations in general. It's an iterative process that promotes creativity and out of the box thinking. Part of the process involves coming up with potential solutions to a problem, no matter how absurd, and then another part involves culling those potential solutions by reasonableness. It is also very user focused (in this case, pretty much everyone is a user of science, either directly or indirectly).
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How do project team members come to a common understanding of information and concepts relating to the project? And how do they operationalize these concepts? What knowledge processes are responsible for the way teams implement projects from inception to completion?
Read a recent research "Knowledge creation and utilization in project teams" by Journal of Knowledge Management http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/JKM-06-2014-0214
Feedback would be appreciated.
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These two articles explain how to identify/create knowledge, keep it in a reusable and easy format for further use:
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Knowledge management literature is based on the iceberg metaphor used extensively by Ikujiro Nonaka, which splits the knowledge field into explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. However, tacit knowledge is a mix of other forms of knowledge which have in common the attribute of being highly personalized. Considering the nature and the way of dealing with knowledge I suggested in some papers to introduce a new metaphor - knowledge as energy - and based on that to consider three basic fields of knowledge: rational knowledge - which is almost equivalent with the explicit knowledge, emotional knowledge - which is the wordless knowledge expressing our emotions and feelings, and spiritual knowledge - which refers to our existential and working values. What do think about this new framework of considering the knowledge spectrum?
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Dear Muhammad Shujahat, Tom Broekel and Jay Klagge,
Thank you for for your answers to my question. I formulate this question since there is a huge inertia in accepting new ideas in understanding the concepts of knowledge, knowledge dynamics, knowledge management and intellectual capital. For details, I attached two papers to explain some aspects of this new framework. Thanks again for your contribution!
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My current research looks also into the relationship between information and knowledge. Thinking of the information pyramid. Data > Information > Knowledge > Wisdom. I'm searching for (fundamental or recent) literature that examines students behavior to transfer information to knowledge.
Any suggestions?
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I found the best definitions of 3 concepts in InfoSense, a book by noted mathematician Keith Devlin. In short: data=code, information=message and knowledge=action. He provides an example to demonstrate this: grey clouds=code, message=it will rain, action=bring an umbrella
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Dear Scholars,
I used Multiple Regression and F Test to know the relationship between the Knowledge perception, Knowledge gathering, Knowledge creation, Knowledge sharing, Knowledge diffusion and Knowledge retention. One my paper reviewer commented that use other statistical test. Just I would like to know your ideas.
Thank you so much in advance
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Dear all
Thank you so much for your inputs
Thanks to Ette Etuk
Thanks toDebopam Ghosh
Thanks toSafa Aouinti
Have a wonderful day.
Best Regards
Nishad.
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Knowledge Management is a broad area of studies that deals with the processes of knowledge creation and knowledge sharing in an organization. How do organizations share knowledge and can we describe outsourcing as a knowledge sharing concept?
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Following up on John's answers, you need to specify a little bit more what you mean by outsourcing.
Simply outsourcing manufacturing to an external supplier might indeed lead to a loss of knowledge and capability on the buyer side. That is why many companies--starting with Japanese automotive companies---increasingly use supplier engineers in their development projects. So what you see is that companies first outsource, and then develop a deliberate knowledge-sharing routine for integrating supplier knowledge and capabilities into their innovation efforts. This is called Supplier Involvement/Integration in NPD.
People also sometimes refer to 'design of buy design' as another level of decision making regarding outsourcing.
See
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Hi there, KM experts!
What is the various evaluation method to evaluate KM application? This is more so to evaluate the relevancy, usability and quality of the knowledge created for application.
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Chen & Chen (2006) reviewed more than 100 papers and classified methods that have been used to measure and evaluation KM performance. I believe that this is still the most comprehensive report on the topic.
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The importance of services in business in terms of knowledge creation process for customer value is increasingly well-understood by typical companies. Typical companies are trying to innovate service as solution through restructuring their business model by adding the service concept that is necessary to make customer value co-creation process. Generating new knowledge is a core factor in the implementation of this notion in the practical field. Therefore, the typical company must have a favourable infrastructure (i.e., workplace design) to make highly motivated employees and idea generation environment. In addition, the company has to be with a platform to integrate both of internal and external issues for beneficial relationship with the involvement and interaction between company and consumers, thereby exercising together in every part of the business system in order to generate new knowledge, focusing on service-based solution.
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I think the social component is important in the relationship between employers and employees / when employees who have tacit knowledge, they get paid, compensation, health care and everything is available / employers will be able to transfer this implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge. can you read :
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Sometimes in life there are times where you think that what is happening in my life it was impossible and your the only one, with the help of God to change that.
What do you think .........?
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God may inspire you with an idea, through which you get a patent, It may seem impossible at first
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my passion is in leadership and entrepreneurship but currently working as Head of Professional Development in University of nottingham malaysia. can i combine two disciplines like leadership and entrepreneurship ? . i would like to contribute for knowledge creation and at the same time i can apply in industry.
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Hi Suthartan
Value recognition of weak signal and its use in entreperneurship has not been so much explored.
The best,
Pierre
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Need Questionnaire to measure knowledge creation.
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Knowledge creation is a  difficult process and measuring that will itself be a difficult process.
I do not think that a questionnaire will  be adequate. Just consider this: do you know what you know? I do not  myself know what I know...  what I know is hidden in the innermost recesses of my mind. When I face a problem, somehow or other, various things I learnt, I experienced, and succeeded or failed spectacularly come together and I might, if I am lucky have a solution. Sometimes, I have to go back to the grinding wheel and start anew and again fail. In that process I have created new knowledge for myself... but how will I measure that? I really do not know. Perhaps others do.
 So the question worth throwing up is this: is it really possible to measure knowledge creation. What would be the measurement units or  variables? That said, various people have used inventions or patents granted as a proxy measure of knowledge, of innovation and such like. But, please do not be put off by my view. Perhaps, you might come up with something and  original way of "measuring knowledge" and I shall be happy for you and applaud your work.
Good luck.
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What knowledge management activities appear in the four perspective of Balanced Scorecard? Knowledge creation, knowledge loss, knowledge accumulation, knowledge sharing, knowledge utilization, or knowledge internalization?
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I just co-organized a discussion session at the 8th EAAE - Fooddynamicsforum (http://www.fooddynamics.org/) on this topic and we would be interested in getting more views on this topic:
a) How should a network be structured in order to facilitate innovation and knowledge exchange of (food) SMEs?
b) Which methods could be applied to enrich our understanding of SMEs' needs for innovation and knowledge exchange?
Everybody who is interested in contributing to this hot topic is welcome to add an answer and/or to contact me.
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Hello Ms Kuhne,
I chanced to come by, or on to your questions and they  intrigued me. At the outset I must admit that I am not a food scientist;   I am an innovator.  I also happen to be an academic who  has been involved in teaching  innovation and technology, innovation and entrepreneurship, or  courses that were variations on those themes. Thus,  your questions were  a source of puzzlement to me. And my response may well be unusual. Your questions which I quote were:
“a) How should a network be structured in order to facilitate innovation and knowledge exchange of (food) SMEs?
b) Which methods could be applied to enrich our understanding of SMEs' needs for innovation and knowledge exchange? “
The first one seem to implicitly suggest that innovation  ( and perhaps knowledge exchange amongst food SMEs) is not occurring to the extent that you would like. If this is indeed the case, there is a tacit acceptance on your part that networks may well  or could help
The second question seems to suggest that we need methods “to enrich our understanding of SMEs’ needs for innovation and knowledge exchange”. Is that correct? Is that what you  are seeking to achieve?
If innovation is not occurring, this is what I would suggest by way of innovation, again  not through the lens of a food scientist but as an innovator of sorts with a general interest in all things innovative. We know for a  fact that  with the long period of drought in  some parts of Africa, there is food shortage. 1) Why not work on developing crops that  do not need much water?  2) Why not develop crops that can grow quickly when the rains come, albeit over just a few days? 3)  Why not develop methods to conserve water that comes  incessantly and unexpectedly? 4) Why not develop crops that can cope with long periods of drought and still produce a healthy yield?   Those obviously apply to Africa. 
But here are a few more: Why not develop crops that  are pest resistant? Why not develop crops that are not affected by the use of pesticide, and  if  used, do not affect those who consume such food? – I assume that food treated with pesticides may have undesirable effects on humans. Please correct me if I am wrong.
Moving away from Africa to  the rich West, I notice that many food items  being sold in our supermarkets  contain all kinds of preservatives such as, for instance, nitrites and other chemicals , including phosphoric acid, alcohol  supposedly used to preserve them, to enhance taste like MSG,  to raise sweetness levels like additive sugar, aspartame, stevia, and  all those additive substances that run the gamut from A-numbers to Z-numbers  including E-numbers. They may extend shelf-life and endow the food with  all sorts of desirable characteristics. Personally speaking, aspartame and stevia cause a bad taste in my mouth and  even nausea.  Is it not possible to  come up with some innovative processes that do not require the use of such  factory-produced chemicals, or synthetic chemicals to act as shelf-life extenders or as taste enhancers or as appearance modifiers ( colouring agents)  so that  they look fresh, appetizing, etc? 
Again, putting on my technology hat, why not develop some form of technology that shows how much longer the food can be consumed, once the sell-by, eat-by dates have actually been reached.  In that suggestion, I can see that food  suppliers, the last in the supply chain,  may not be happy as it might be inimical to their financial interests. Nonetheless, in that  way, we will be able to reduce food wastage. There are a whole range of social actions, often innovative,  that can reduce food waste, I am certain of that. That said, would supermarkets and their suppliers or all parties in the food supply chain be happy to  help?
Coming to your question b) which I take at face value, I am wondering if SME’s still do not understand the need for innovation.  As for knowledge exchange, a Master’s degree student of mine studied  the effects on innovation of  SME’s participating in EU-funded consortia, and the results were not always beneficial to the SMEs when consortia members also included larger parties. Coming to methods, I am at loss to understand what you are driving at. Perhaps you meant something else but articulated in a  manner that resulted in a misinterpretation, particularly by this present writer.  Do feel free to contact me here  or preferably by email to discuss any statements I have made that do not resonate with you. I am of course willing to help you from a  technologist’s viewpoint, should you so desire. I do know something about networks.
My own experience, finally,  is that knowledge-sharing is unlikely to occur between distant actors in the same company; perhaps in other industries -- I worked in the computer industry - it may happen. But, when I was able to bring them  together by inviting them  them  to come to the place I was located (in The Netherlands), with of course my manager's blessing and approval, there was a free flow of information, and yes, knowledge exchange of a a high quality. And this exchange continued when they went back to the UK, USA, Israel,  Italy, Germany, France, etc, or wherever they came from..
I could go on, but shall  go for that period or full stop right now.
Best wishes.
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Many approaches have been devetod to explain and/or understand the innovation (knowledge) creation process within the National Innovation System. according to Carayannis and Campbell, the Quintuple Helix model is the most sophisticated one to explain innovation in the 21rst century, where environmental issues constitute the core partner.
These authors classify environment at the same level as university; indusrty; government or the public.However, I think that envrironment cannot be considered as a separate helice ( as University for instance) but as a key variable to be included in any innovation program. this is because the four helices (U-I-G and P) are either producer or user of innovation, while envrironment does not aquire this quality.
So I would like  discuss this issue and ask you to confirm or deny my point of view.   
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Lucio, thanks again for your detailed reply - apparently I have not been able to make my point clear enough. As I have no other idea how to rephrase my view, I also stop at this point.
Dekkiche, let's hope you have found something relevant for your work. As for your revised question, I can only repeat that I don't see any reason to add environment as a helice on its own right. I would not mix actors and incentives: these are two different "dimensions" in any analysis. Actors have various incentives.  
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"With scientific literature increasing at a rate of several thousand papers per week, it is impossible to keep abreast of all developments. Therefore automated means to manage the information overload are required. Text mining techniques, which involve the processes of information retrieval, information extraction and data mining, provide a means of solving this. By adding meaning to text, these techniques produce a more structured analysis of textual knowledge than simple word searches, and can provide powerful tools for the production and analysis of the scientific content of papers." (see:TRENDS in Biotechnology Vol.24 No.12)
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I would not say that it can solve all the issues but at least it can help. One could e.g. summarize texts and combine texts from different sources to get the distillate out of this text collection.
One key is also to somehow make use of existing world knowledge combined with inference systems, as done by IBM's Watson.
Assuming your information need can be somehow modelled, this would allow to give you the information you need.
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I am working on an article relating to motivation with a focus on performance improvement for the 21st century. I am looking at highlighting knowledge spirals as a means to develop motivation at each of the levels of analysis (individual, team/group, department, and organization). If you have any references or recommendations I would be grateful. Thanks in advance.
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I think, the problem definition as highlighting knowledge spirals as a means to develop motivation is uncertain, namely
- motivation to do what? (Steven Reiss)
- rational or emotional motivation?
          - maybe the creative space has to be used to develop emotional motivation because knowledge spirals do not include any constituent emotions (individual, team/group, department, and organization)
Wierzbicki, A. and Nakamori, Y. (2006) “Basic dimensions of creative space”, In Creative Space: Models of Creative Processes for Knowledge Civilization Age, Wierzbicki, A. and Nakamori Y. (Eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, pp 59-90.
          - maybe the Targeted Knowledge Creation theory (TKC-theory) has to be used to articulate rational motivation because knowledge spirals do not have any explicit goals (individual, team/group, department, and organization)
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Both KM & digital learning share common digital infrastructure. They also share the common aim of creating & acquiring knowledge. In a book chapter in 2005 I outlined some of the commonalities: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233414460_From_e-learning_to_e-knowledge
Things have certainly moved on since then so I'm now looking for recent research into this topic or re-conceptualisations of these two domains of activity.
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Zol, yes Google Scholar is very useful & I use it regularly. But what sometimes happens on Research Gate is contribution of perspectives & experiences which are sometimes more interesting & current than Google Scholar. I am always keen to learn about other perspectives on the topic ... moreover, I think there are significant  limitations in the "search paradigm" of inquiry. 
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What are languages for representing knowledge in general? I don't mean some implementing languages such as RuleML or CLIPS. I want some like "Rule" "Frame" and "Procedure". Is there any more?
Is there any research that compare them or try to convert them together?
I want to know any idea.
thanks in advance.  
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Hi Saba et al.,
I am very sure that you are aware of it, but hopefully I can point you in a few directions that you might not be familiar with (at the same time as promoting the technology to others who have not heard of it).
Certainly the largest following for knowledge representation "languages" is the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which is the model that powers both the Semantic Web and the Linked Data web. It's a W3C standard, which is a very well respected consortium. It has plenty of ontologies ready for use in different domains. It is also enriched by a large web of open data in the form of the linked open data (LOD) cloud. SPARQL is the most well used query language, that acts a little bit like SQL does to a relational database. The power of RDF really comes when you pair it with cross-domain hyperlinking, and that's where the Linked Open Data cloud comes in.
I'd very highly recommend everyone looking into it. Here are some links....
* Linked Open Data cloud: http://lod-cloud.net/
* The LOD2 project which promoted LOD to public and private organisations in Europe, and provided them with consultancy, tutorials and a bespoke stack of technologies: http://lod2.eu/
* SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System), an RDF ontology for making frame-like data: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
* Rule Interchange Format (RIF): http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wiki/Primer
* TRiG is very important for serialisation of Named Entities and RDF datasets: http://wifo5-03.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/bizer/trig/
* I've used TRiG quite a while ago with XLWrap which transforms Excel spreadsheets into RDF: http://xlwrap.sourceforge.net/
I hope that all helps, and is interesting!
Daniel
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I am researching if space can foster innovative thinking and would like to know if there is any literature on knowledge creation in the field of cognitive science?
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I wrote a chapter that may be relevant: Kaufmann, G., & Runco, M. A. (2009). Knowledge management and the management of creativity. In T. Rickard, M. A. Runco, & S. Moger (Eds.), Companion to creativity and innovation (pp. 149-159).  United Kingdom: Routledge. I think other chapters in the same volume may be relevant, too, and I know the citations in Kaufmann and Runco are relevant because we started off by describing knowledge creation and innovation.
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(i) which areas of supply chain management has knowledge management been commonly applied and how?
(ii) How can knowledge management be applied in the supply chain management and improve it?
(iii) How is knowledge management used to stimulate knowledge creation and sharing across the various supply chain stakeholders?
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Dear Akbar,
In additional to the responses posted by Antonio (including his excellent paper on knowledge capability flows in buyer-supplier relationships), and Islam, it might also be worth looking at other studies that have provided some empirical evidence on the some of the attributes associated with knowledge management (KM) and their impact on supply chain management (SCM). For example, the study by Oloruniwo and Li (2010) looks at information technology (which can be considered as part of knowledge management) and reverse logistics (which is part of supply chain management) and how the collaborative nature might improve the company’s performance. The full reference to the above citation is as follows:
Olorunmiwo, F.O. and Li, X. (2010), “Information sharing and collaboration practices in reverse logistics”, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 454-462.
In response to the ‘how’ aspect of the question (ii), this would obviously build on the response(s) to the first question once you have identified the specific areas of SCM and KM and Hazen et al. (2014) study comes to mind as it explores the connections between information systems and reverse logistics. Full reference below:
Hazen, B.T., Huscroft, J., Hall, D.J., Weigel, F.K. and Hanna, J.B. (2014), “Reverse logistics information system success and the effect of motivation”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 201-220.
Other studies that you could look up include the following:
Daugherty, P.J., Myers, M.B. and Richey, R.G. (2002), “Information support for reverse logistics: the influence of relationship commitment”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 85-106.
Daugherty, P.J., Richey, R.G., Genchev, S.E. and Chen, H. (2005), “Reverse logistics: superior performance through focussed resource commitments to information technology”, Transportation Research: Part E, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 77-92.
All the best with your research,
Nicholas
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Can anyone help with putting me in touch with private / public sector organizations whom I might approach to take part in my PhD field research. The research is non-intrusive, and all protocols on ethics and confidentiality are ensured. The research is focusing on organizational conversations (everyday meeting) with the objective of analysing these for knowledge work (sharing, creating, etc).
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Hi
Please accept my apologies for the delay in responding. I have actually now completed my PhD thesis but am now working on book and would be really interested in any opportunities to get audio recordings (anonymous of course) or organizational meetings to use as data for this, The book will be published next year.
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According to Nonaka & Tackechi (1998) model of knowledge conversion there is a need for both socialization and externalization which are elements of knowledge sharing. But the question is, could we modify this model and only concentrate on the practitioner's (in any branch of study) personal knowledge and his/her aptitude and follow the process of knowledge creation and then contribute. It is also important to mention that this approach doesn't mean to sever all communication channels with outside world and be isolated, but it implies the possibility of reducing the human connection (collaboration) factor as minimum as possible but it is permitted to have access to databases. This could be interpreted as working individually and out of a team of which is marked as a fundamental factor for knowledge conversion in Nonaka model.
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What you are describing is to rely solely on codified knowledge, i.e. knowledge that has been coded into such things as papers and books. This is one form of knowledge transmission, however it has some definite drawbacks.
There are somethings that cannot be transferred via codified knowledge, e.g. "know how" how to do  certain things like ride a bike or make certain kinds of japanese pottery. Now you can write down certain steps but there are somethings that cannot be written down e.g. how a soup is supposed to taste or how to create a beautiful yet strong weld. Other kinds of knowledge that can't be transferred via this method are such forms of knowledge such as cultural knowledge or "know why" why do we do things this way? What does it really mean when your boss says, "I suggest you rethink that decision." This kind of knowledge is only transferred through lived experience. Now sometimes it is transferred via stories but the stories need to be told within the context of the culture so you understand the exact nature of the meaning of the stories. 
If interested, I can refer you further to the works of Polanyi, Spender and Nonaka to get a handle on these different kinds of knowledge.
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Conflicts are emerging on a daily basis over who owns an 'idea', especially when they have business value and money-making potential. An idea is claimed by one to be his/her own sole property and others have to pay him/her to use it, even for a brief period of time. Is this a right thing to do? Especially when leading scientists and researchers have humbly admitted to becoming successful 'standing on the shoulders of giants' before them.
Consider the following:
A Californian clothing company is suing song performer Taylor Swift over the use of the number 13, claiming they used the concept two decades before her.
The Chinese government is often accused by the USA of stealing ideas and blueprint plans.
In the past, dictatorial regimes thirsted for access to nuclear weapon building plans and technology.
New 3D printing technology has opened a new chapter in intellectual property infringement.
The ancient science of Yoga originating in India is now a popular fad in many countries, with each claiming its own variations as 'copyright'.
1. Is 'intellectual property' a correct concept at all? Does knowledge belong to anyone?
2. Where does knowledge come from at all? What is the source of thoughts and ideas, do they belong to us at all? Can we claim ownership over such subjective, non-material 'things'?
3. Is the concept of 'intellectual property' an indicator of progress and development in civilization or a regressive concept conceived by a few greedy people to make money taking advantage of a society's fairness and justice system?
4. Should all knowledge be 'open source' accessible to all in the interests of society, country, humanity? Is this, after all, a Utopian concept, possible only in theory, never in practice?
5. This brings another angle, that of the Darwinian assumption of 'survival of the fittest'.
Should competition be the mantra so that everyone fights it out to bring out only the best or do cooperation, fairness, and ethics have a place in society?
6. Is it an exclusively western fad to claim ownership over knowledge and its use, being primarily based on eastern philosophical foundations?
7. Families and communities bequeath information, knowledge and wisdom to successive generations. Does this too come under the purview of 'intellectual property'?
8. Is there a thin borderline between 'open source' and 'intellectual property', subject to one's own individual interpretation?
Thank you.
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There appears to be confusion between intellectual property and knowledge in this thread. Intellectual property is a legal term and is defined in the legal concepts of property/ownership. Knowledge is not a legal term and knowledge can be shared by all, discovered by many simultaneously and contains both proprietary and general knowledge.
While I can see the advantages of an ultra utopian world where IP is shared it is of course sheer fantasy. Research costs a great deal of money, a great deal of effort and even huge emotional cost. The data obtained has been 'earned' by the researcher and she deserves to get a benefit from it.
To those who do believe that IP should be shared I advise that they leave the keys in their cars that others may share the use of them. They should give any spare room in their houses to the homeless and share their food with all of their neighbours.
Intelectual property is as real as the physical property described above. It is earned and it is owned. I agree fully with Dirk and Eigentum verpflictet is an elegant way of describing the obligations of ownership. Selling rights to use intellectual property is perfectly ethical and should be seen as no different to requiring rent for a room or wages for work.
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Believing that science has impacted universities with this type of knowledge production, what can it bring about?
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Henry Ford established mass production techniques based on methods of breaking the tasks into small repetitive steps that will be done by labor trained for that task. Highly repetitive and meant for large production volumes. The main change that has taken place is the increasing need for flexibility. This requires the labor to be multitasking and involved in the production process thereby giving them more satisfaction.