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Kinesiology - Science topic

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Questions related to Kinesiology
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What Research tools and software do you recommend for researchers in the Sports Science discipline?
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There is a range of software, depending on your discipline and the type of data you are collecting. Currently in social and beahvioural sciences, the preferred software packages are STATA and also R. However, SPSS is also a good package but expensive to purchase. R is free. Excel is also available as part of Microsoft Office but its statistical capability is not as good as some of the others.
If you are collecting qualitative data then packages can include Nvivo, Atlas, Maxqda, among other.
Hope this is helpful.
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I am an Assistant Professor in Kinesiology Department at California State University San Marcos. I am looking for a few students who would like to obtain their Master's degrees from our department. My research is on Augmented and Virtual Reality-Based interventions for clinical populations. Interdisciplinary backgrounds (kinesiology, psychology, computer science, Unity) are welcome!
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yes
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What do you think about kinesiology ?
Is it still important in biochemistry and molecular biology era ?
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Dear all, it is obvious that will still continue existing as do all other traditional alternatives to modern medecins and medications. In addition, science and technology help further these practical skills to be understandable and more efficient. My Regards
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I am curious about the difference between ucbl and personalized insoles. I could not find an article on this subject. It is said that the effect is the same in clinics.
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Exactly! Succinctly and well said.
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As a student, I can't find good but reliable sources for expanding knowledge on the internet, so I'm looking for something easy to understand and read, not scientific journals and papers.
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- This source #researchgate
- participation in Journalclubs (in your interest field)
- assist in conferences and courses and meet people who present papers.
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So far I have found - 6
1998 - Blazevich & Jenkins
2002 - Blazevich & Jenkins
2011 - KLIMENTINI et al
2012 - Natalia Romero-Franco et al
2013 - Fernandez et al
2013 - Kamandulis et al
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Interesting
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for those who are teaching Biomechanics, Kinesiology, Gait analysis; what is your fav part or topic that you like to teach, and you feel like you are awesome in this part ?
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Field biomechanics investigation with wearables.
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I'm looking for something inspirational which would show me a different side of kinesiology. Something easy to understand but also educational.
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I recommend the Biomedical Human Kinetics journal, many authors cite interesting sources! It is worth entering into google scholar
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I am of the opinion that ACSM's Research Methods is one of the best books in this field and is a must-read.
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I would agree with your view. I do think, however, it depends on the level of the student and the intent of the program. I have used it within our graduate level Exercise Science program where students are required to do research and strongly encouraged to publish.
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Biomechanics face grand challenges due to the intricacy of living things. We need multidiciplinary approach (mechanical, chemical, electrical, and thermal ) to unravel these intricacies. We need to integrate observations from multiple length scales - from organ level to, tissue level, cell level, molecular level, atomic level, and then to energy level) Over these intricacies, their dynamism, the complexity of their response makes it very difficult to correlate empirical data with theoretical models. Among these challenges, which is the most important challenge. If we solve the most important challenge, we could solve most of the other challenges easily.
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Biomechanics is both Art & Science because it does not follow Newton's Three Primary Laws predictably. I can stop rolling down a hill biomechanically at will. A bird can fly away when dropped from a tree as opposed to an apple or a piece of gold of the same mass.
The main problem that I have encountered in researching and practicing biomechanics clinically is that its researchers and clinicians are deterministically trying to study it quantitatively (Science) when n=1, there are too many variables to do so. The best that can currently be done is to study it stochastically (Art) or some hybrid of both (Art & Science).
When studying mankind biomechanically we need to seek disruptive biomechanical theories with new terminology and methods of research, diagnosis and treatment. Ones that consider the myofascial organ, the endocannabinoid system and the true actions and purpose of the CNS and neural strategy.
We need to abandon subtalar joint neutral, pronation and "normal" for words that lead us to a better understanding and control of human stance and movement efficiently and without injury or degeneration.
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Many studies suggest that virtual reality rehabilitation can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the function of patients with neurological impairments. Also we hear hippo therapy has a positive effect on the physical function and psychological problems of children with Autism.
May hippo therapy and virtual reality together lead to overall improvements in the daily functioning and quality of life of these children?
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What do you mean regarding "cure for autism"? In my opinion, there's nothing beyond genetics that could lead for a cure. Of course, those activities when apllied in a correct manner would improve quality of life, cognition, motor control, social aspects... but cure? I don't believe.
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confused in between opinions about the relation of internal muscle moment which more linked to eccentric ms contraction and power saving not generation , but others saying that it may cause power generation ?! need explanation
gait analysis , mechanics , kinesiology
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Heelstrike will give an hipextensor contraction. That is partly concentric biut also the energy that will be come free, because the hip extensor is than oon his longest range and had an lot of energy that come free. But to get this action you need an heel strike.
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Hi,
I need to normalize the EMG data for biceps femoris (hamstring muscle group) and vastus lateralis (quadriceps muscle group) using maximum and sub maximal isometric voluntary contraction method. The EMG data pertains to sit to stand task for elderly. Is there any easy exercise or task that elderly could perform (apart from leg curls / extension) for maximum and sub maximal isometric contractions of these two muscles?
Thanks!!
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I agree with Erik and Chris answer. Simple task with resistance against knee flexion and extension should be enough, probably better with seating position. But are we sure that all elderly can perform maximum contractrion? Do we really need maximum contraction? If we want to compare group of people or different muscles we need to normalize emg signal based on some reference value. For my personal experience for elderly people better results of normalisation we achieved when we have used reference value not for 'unknown' maximum resistance.
For Sit To Stand test condition we take the mean value of 0.1s around time event, which was the time when person just lift of the chair/seat what we marked based on synchronise video recording.
For other test/condition you can imagine that you test knee flexors/extensors with the same load - but not maximum load. The advantage is that all participants are testing in the same load condition.
Good luck
Greg
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I have not been able to find any papers except for one, where any group has been trying to classify movement through EMG across persons, instead of just classifying within the same person.
Within makes great sense for prosthesis, since it only has to work for the one person using it. However, across is very relevant to kinesiology studies of movement.
Has anyone heard of anything like what I'm searching for?
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You may want to look into principal component analysis of EMG signals. There have been a number of groups using this technique to identify important characteristics of different types of waveforms, including EMG. A good overview can be found in: Brandon SC et al. 2013. Interpreting principal components in biomechanics: representative extremes and single component reconstruction. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology.
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We have some coronal and axial  images of thigh muscles which were generated on DTI. We need to do segmentation and fiber tracking of the muscles, and also measure volume and other specific parameters. 
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NO sorry
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I need to know the methods/techniques and how to obtain it.
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Saul,
I worked with a physical therapist and an osteopathic physician to investigate the change in stiffness following a muscle energy treatment (i.e. an osteopathic manual medicine treatment used for tissues and joints that are restricted in their motions).  We investigated the straight leg raising test before and after treatment and found a significant reduction in the "passive stiffness" in this motion.  The results are in "Quantification of the Passive Resistance to Motion in the Straight Leg Raising Test on Asymptomatic Subjects" (J. A. O. A., September 22, 1992).
From a personal perspective, I do not understand how increasing muscle tissue stiffness would contribute to injury -resistance.  Passive muscle stiffness reflects primarily health of the connective tissue surrounding muscle and possibly the neurological response of muscle.  In my view of passive motions, neither the connective tissue or neurological response should affect the passive response until reaching the end of the range of motion. Am I missing something in the logic of your research?
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Sience of physiology training , Training Sience ,Handball , Kinesiology Sience
Best wishes to you
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a goalkeeper need good speed reaction, therefore beside a static streach, a much more active, dynamic aproach to flexibility called mobilisation exercises is required.
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Here is a research question I am currently working on, if anyone has knows of any articles that can help me with my research please do let me know.
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Interesting question, maybe tactile feedback from the skin can help reproducibility of U.E. movement via skin receptors. Here are some references that may provide you more information. Please see the following;
Kinesio® Taping in Stroke: Improving Functional Use of the Upper Extremity in Hemiplegia Ewa Jaraczewska and Carol Long Topics in Stroke Rehab, 2015
Influence of a compression garment on repetitive power output production before and after different types of muscle fatigue
William J. Kraemer et al. Research in Sports Medicine 1998
The Roles of an Upper Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances
  David R. Hooper et al. J. Strength and Conditioning Research, 2015
These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be
improved with the use compression garments in high level athletes is most likely
mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper body movements.
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I know that a large proportion of the muscles in the body are active for a person during her/his gait. But I'm not sure exactly (or approximately) the value of the proportion in percentages with a valid reference.
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The proportion of the muscles active during gait not permanent, but many factors affect on the percentage of muscle contribution during gait such as age, walking speed, fitness, injuries, deformities, etc....... However, the following papers maybe help you to answer of this question.
Anders, C., Wagner, H., Puta, C., Grassme, R., & Scholle, H. C. (2009). Healthy humans use sex-specific co-ordination patterns of trunk muscles during gait. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(4), 585–594. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0938-9
Arnold, A. S., Anderson, F. C., Pandy, M. G., & Delp, S. L. (2005). Muscular contributions to hip and knee extension during the single limb stance phase of normal gait: A framework for investigating the causes of crouch gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 38(11), 2181–2189. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.09.036
Arnold, A. S., Thelen, D. G., Schwartz, M. H., Anderson, F. C., & Delp, S. L. (2007). Muscular coordination of knee motion during the terminal-swing phase of normal gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 40(15), 3314–3324. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.05.006
Arnold, E. M., & Delp, S. L. (2011). Fibre operating lengths of human lower limb muscles during walking. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 366(1570), 1530–9. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0345
Bonnard, M., Camus, M., Coyle, T., & Pailhous, J. (2002). Task-induced modulation of motor evoked potentials in upper-leg muscles during human gait: A TMS study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 16(11), 2225–2230. http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02295.x
Finch, L., Barbeau, H., & Arsenault, B. (1991). Influence of body weight support on normal human gait: development of a gait retraining strategy. Physical Therapy, 71(11), 842–855; discussion 855–856.
Goldberg, S. R., Anderson, F. C., Pandy, M. G., & Delp, S. L. (2004). Muscles that influence knee flexion velocity in double support: Implications for stiff-knee gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 37(8), 1189–1196. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.12.005
Gordon, K. E., Sawicki, G. S., & Ferris, D. P. (2006). Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis. Journal of Biomechanics, 39(10), 1832–1841. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.05.018
Hicks, J. L., Schwartz, M. H., Arnold, A. S., & Delp, S. L. (2008). Crouched postures reduce the capacity of muscles to extend the hip and knee during the single-limb stance phase of gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 41(5), 960–967. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.01.002
Ivanenko, Y. P., Cappellini, G., Poppele, R. E., & Lacquaniti, F. (2008). Spatiotemporal organization of ??-motoneuron activity in the human spinal cord during different gaits and gait transitions. European Journal of Neuroscience, 27(12), 3351–3368. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06289.x
Ivanenko, Y. P., Poppele, R. E., & Lacquaniti, F. (2004). Five basic muscle activation patterns account for muscle activity during human locomotion. The Journal of Physiology, 556(Pt 1), 267–82. http://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.057174
Ivanenko, Y. P., Poppele, R. E., & Lacquaniti, F. (2004). Five basic muscle activation patterns account for muscle activity during human locomotion. The Journal of Physiology, 556(Pt 1), 267–282. http://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.057174
Komura, T., & Nagano, A. (2004). Evaluation of the influence of muscle deactivation on other muscles and joints during gait motion. Journal of Biomechanics, 37(4), 425–436. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.09.022
Kuhtz-Buschbeck, J. P., & Jing, B. (2012). Activity of upper limb muscles during human walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 22(2), 199–206. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.08.014
Meyns, P., Bruijn, S. M., & Duysens, J. (2013). The how and why of arm swing during human walking. Gait and Posture. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.02.006
Michel, V., & Do, M. C. (2002). Are stance ankle plantar flexor muscles necessary to generate propulsive force during human gait initiation? Neuroscience Letters, 325(2), 139–143. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00255-0
Petersen, T. H., Willerslev-Olsen, M., Conway, B. a, & Nielsen, J. B. (2012). The motor cortex drives the muscles during walking in human subjects. The Journal Of Physiology, 590(Pt 10), 2443–2452. http://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.227397
Piazza, S. J., & Delp, S. L. (1996). The influence of muscles on knee flexion during the swing phase of gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 29(6), 723–733. http://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(95)00144-1
Pijnappels, M., Van Wezel, B. M. H., Colombo, G., Dietz, V., & Duysens, J. (1998). Cortical facilitation of cutaneous reflexes in leg muscles during human gait. Brain Research, 787(1), 149–153. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01557-6
Riley, P. O., & Kerrigan, D. C. (1998). Torque action of two-joint muscles in the swing period of stiff-legged gait: A forward dynamic model analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 31(9), 835–840. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00107-9
Schipplein, O. D., & Andriacchi, T. P. (1991). Interaction between active and passive knee stabilizers during level walking. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 9(1), 113–119. http://doi.org/10.1002/jor.1100090114
Shelburne, K. B., Torry, M. R., & Pandy, M. G. (2006). Contributions of muscles, ligaments, and the ground-reaction force to tibiofemoral joint loading during normal gait. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 24(10), 1983–1990. http://doi.org/10.1002/jor.20255
Steele, K. M., Seth, A., Hicks, J. L., Schwartz, M. S., & Delp, S. L. (2010). Muscle contributions to support and progression during single-limb stance in crouch gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(11), 2099–2105. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.003
Winter, D. A., & Yack, H. J. (1987). EMG profiles during normal human walking: stride-to-stride and inter-subject variability. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 67(5), 402–411. http://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(87)90003-4
Yungher, D. A., Wininger, M. T., Barr, J. B., Craelius, W., & Threlkeld, A. J. (2011). Surface muscle pressure as a measure of active and passive behavior of muscles during gait. Medical Engineering and Physics, 33(4), 464–471. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2010.11.012
Regards, 
Abdel-Rahman
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In the last decade, the concepts of many sciences were varied according the new studies that depend on the measurement tools, and the desired aims.
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Dear Abdel-Rahman,
I'd go along pretty much with Marcelo's answer.
As I see it, there is neither a clear-cut definition of kinesiology at an international level, nor is there a clear distinction to be drawn between what people understand by kinesiology as compared to human movement science(s). 
This pretty much depends on national traditions in terminology as well as  college structures. In Poland,  the Scandinavian and the Benelux-countries, kinesiology seems to have a tradition at least terminologically,  while in the German-speaking countries the term is used rather seldom as a designator for college disciplines. In the English-speaking countries, to my feeling it is pretty mixed - you should stick to the syllabus on the respective college homepage if you really want to know what's being taught there, when you read "kinesiology", "human movement studies", "motor learning and control", etc.,. Here, as in Scandinavia, there are close relations to physiotherapy, which, contrary to this,  in a lot of other nations is not considered a scientific field taught at an university, but is rather understood as a field of vocational training.
And when you compare, e.g., journals like "Journal of Human Movement Science" and "Journal of Human Kinetics", you'll find that they both cover a real broad area of scientific enterprise related to the  human motor system (biomechanical, physiological, neurological), to motor learning, motor development, motor control, and to various more or less applied areas associated thereto.
So, no, there won't be a conscise definition that applies for more than one national system or even university.
Regards,
Klaus Blischke
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I would like to know what (and why) the best method is to measure locomotor adaptation to a bilateral ankle-foot exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion, where power is provided by pneumatic muscles. 
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I do not believe that there is a 'best' method, Senne, because it depends on the problem you want to solve with the use of the ankle-foot exoskeleton.
My first interest would be related to gait speed, step length, and stance/swing phase duration. Given that the subjects have some kind of limitations in their gait performance, I would hope that the use of such an assistive device - if if works well - should improve their temporal-spatial characteristics, i.e. they should be able to walk faster and with longer steps that might have been shorter than normal without the device.
Furthermore, it should be interesting to determine whether the assistance also helps to conserve energy, i.e. measuring their oxygen consumption would eventually make sense.
Lateron, I would of course be interested how the added plantarflexion moment (I assume that this is what the device provides during gait) affects the joint moments in the more proximal joints, i.e. in the knee and hip.
So in essence: No best method, but several valid and meaningful aspects to consider.
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A subject performs arm movements in a self-paced manner. Movement parameters are captured by sensors and data is streamed in real-time to the computer. There is a fair amount of variability in the sensors readings: in the attached figure, data points captured from 3 sensors during execution of 10 repetitions of 2 types of movement are shown in the attached file.
A couple of important points:
1) In regards to training data: many subjects will be performing the same types of movements, in slightly different ways. Given the small number of repetitions that each subject will be contributing for each class (say, around 10), we want to take advantage of across-subject structure.
2) In regards to classification: Classification needs to happen in "real time", i.e. while data is streamed. We can assume a typical movement duration (say, 5 seconds) to define a "page size" of data to use for the classification, but that can be pretty variable, both within and across subjects. Ideally, the classifier will return a class more frequently, e..g once per second; obviously, at the beginning of a new movement there will be large uncertainty about the class, which will be getting smaller as more data is streamed.
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Dear Stavros, thank you for your time.
I proposed the method  during my Phd Thesis, I was concerned on the generality and soundness  of the method more than ever. But I personally did apply it in realtime applications with success (in internal trials). For all the time my general aim was to create something usable in realtime. Not just a "scientific concept”.
But realtime is a fuzzy term, for it is “function” of the request. E.g. for a package shipping from NY to Washington, an hour for the delivery it is "real-time", is superfast. For an airbag sensor,  to react in less than 30 milliseconds means realtime. So, which  times of reactions are required?
For my realtime tests my rationale was speech recognition:  the method suggested to me by my former advisor Roberto Bisiani that worked for some years on realtime speech recognition matters, when he was a researcher and then professor at Carnegie Mellon University.
In speech recognition you divide a temporal acquisition in tiny  (circa 10 millisec) temporal slices and then you extract features  for (e.g.) HMM analysis. I do not use HMM, only my own method.
We are dipendent from Nyquist sample theorem: I used slices at regular rate of  ¾ sec (it was just a test, slide should be of different dimensions in my opinion).
I think  the methodology can be adapted to the time series for quasi-immediate reactions.
We could work together on the question, and eventually collaborate, at your ease, if you want.
I am reachable at pinardi@disco.unimib.it for any question.
My Best,
Stefano
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Apart from their apparent difference -- the area of applications differ -- what may be the precise differences between clinical and general gait analysis? To which degree is one associated with another? What are the differences in the techniques involved and what are focussed in each?
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Clinical gait is usually associated with data collected for patients that underwent a THA or TKA or have certain pathological problems that might affect their gait where we need to follow their progression before and after treatment. It also might require clinical observation by an orthopedic surgeon during gait data collection. Clinical gait is performed in clinical setting and is usually an extension of a clinic. Clinical data is usually to evaluate patients gaits for the purpose of identifying a musculus-skeletal   problem and monitor the gait after a hip or knee surgery. General gait is used to estimate the working muscles forces and torques at the joints, analysis of stability, and other work-energy related functions.
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There are more studies explaining about chronic pain and inability of patient to repeat the Joint Re position test in both cervical and Lumbar region. I would like to know how can we measure it precisely in clinical set up. Any reliable scale to grade the error?
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Hello, some articles that can help you, kings regards.
1. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Aug;75(8):895-9.
Changes in cervicocephalic kinesthesia after a proprioceptive rehabilitation
program in patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled study.
Revel M(1), Minguet M, Gregoy P, Vaillant J, Manuel JL.
Author information:
(1)Laboratoire d'Explorations Fonctionnelles de l'Appareil locomoteur et
d'évaluation du handicap, Hôpital Cochin, Paris, France.
Head repositioning accuracy (HRA) after full range active motion was evaluated in
60 cervicalgic patients. The mean angular error was 7.7 degrees +/- 3.3 (mean +/-
SD) and 82% were outside a threshold value of 4.5 degrees. After randomization 30
patients followed a rehabilitation program based on eye-head coupling (RG) and 30
served as a control group (CG). At 10 week follow-up, a greater gain in HRA was
observed in the RG (2 degrees +/- 2.7, mean +/- SD) than in the CG (0 +/- 2.6,
mean +/- SD) (p = 0.005). Clinical parameters (pain, drug intake, range of
motion, and self assessed functional improvement) were also more improved in the
RG than in the CG. These data emphasize the role of a neck proprioception
alteration in chronic neck pain and suggest that a rehabilitation program based
on eye-head coupling should be included in most medical management of cervicalgic
patients.
PMID: 8053797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Apr;72(5):288-91.
Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with cervical pain.
Revel M(1), Andre-Deshays C, Minguet M.
Author information:
(1)Department de Reeducation, Clinique de Rhumatologie, Hopital COCHIN, Paris,
France.
Head orientation in space makes use of multiple sensory afferents, among which
the cervical proprioceptive cues could play a predominant role. To quantify the
alteration of neck proprioception in patients with cervical pathology, we
proposed a test for the clinical evaluation of the ability to relocate the head
on the trunk after an active head movement, for 30 healthy subjects and 30
patients with cervical pain. The data demonstrated that this ability was
significantly poorer in the patient group, indicating an alteration in neck
proprioception. This test permits a discriminant classification of healthy and
sick subjects, justifies proprioceptive rehabilitation programs, and allows a
quantitative evaluation of their results.
3. Physiother Theory Pract. 2008 Sep-Oct;24(5):380-91. doi:
10.1080/09593980701884824.
Test-retest reliability of cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head
position.
Pinsault N(1), Fleury A, Virone G, Bouvier B, Vaillant J, Vuillerme N.
Author information:
(1)Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG, UMR UJF CNRS 5525, Grenoble, France.
Considering the important role of the cervical joint position sense on control of
human posture and locomotion, accurate and reliable evaluation of neck
proprioceptive abilities appears of great importance. Although the
cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) usually
is used for both research and clinical purposes, its test-retest reliability has
not been clearly established yet. The purpose of the present experiment was to 1)
evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CRT to NHP and 2) to determine the
number of trial recordings required to ensure reliable measurements. To this aim,
40 young healthy adults performed the CRT to NHP on two separate occasions. Ten
trials were performed for each rotation side. Absolute and variable errors,
processed along their horizontal, vertical, and global components, were used to
assess the cervical joint repositioning accuracy and consistency, respectively.
Mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence interval, intraclass
correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman graphs with limits of agreement
were used as statistical methods for assessing test-retest reliability. Results
show that the CRT to NHP when executed in its original form (i.e., 10 trials) has
a fair to excellent reliability (ICC ranged from 0.52 to 0.81 and from 0.49 to
0.77, for absolute and variable errors, respectively); the test-retest
reliability of this test increases as the number of trials used to establish
subject's repositioning errors increases; and using the mean of eight trials is
sufficient to ensure fair to excellent reliability of the measurements (ICC
ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 and from 0.44 to 0.78, for absolute and variable errors,
respectively).
PMID: 18821444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2008 May;51(4):257-62. doi: 10.1016/j.annrmp.2008.02.004.
Epub 2008 Apr 29.
[Impact of nociceptive stimuli on cervical kinesthesia].
[Article in French]
Vaillant J(1), Meunier D, Caillat-Miousse JL, Virone G, Wuyam B, Juvin R.
Author information:
(1)Centre de recherche et d'innovation en kinésiologie, kinésiopathologie et
kinésithérapie, institut universitaire professionnalisé en ingénierie de la
santé, BP 217, 38049 Grenoble cedex 09, France. JVaillant@chu-grenoble.fr
The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of nociceptive stimuli upon the
cervical proprioception ability.METHOD: Thirty healthy young subjects performed a
cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) in two random conditions: the first one was
based on a nociceptive electric stimulation called condition "pain", whereas the
second one was targeting a painless electric condition called condition
"control". The CRT consisted of repositioning the head on the trunk, after an
active transversal movement of the head in the transverse field with closed eyes.
The pointing was recorded at the beginning and at the end of each rotation using
a custom video acquisition system.
RESULTS: The average mean of error repositioning was worth 3.98+/-0.99 degrees
(average mean, standard deviation) in the condition "pain", and 1.75+/-0.37
degrees in the condition "control" (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Acute pain provokes a disturbance of the cervical proprioception
ability without damaging the anatomic structure. This observation suggests the
interest of an early follow-up of the pain to avoid sensory disturbances, as well
as the establishment of a cervical proprioceptive rehabilitation program after an
algic event.
5. Phys Ther Sport. 2010 May;11(2):66-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.02.004. Epub 2010
Mar 15.
Cervical joint position sense in rugby players versus non-rugby players.
Pinsault N(1), Anxionnaz M, Vuillerme N.
Author information:
(1)Ecole de kinésithérapie du CHU de Grenoble, France; TIMC-IMAG laboratory AFIRM
and AGIM3 teams, UMR UJF-CNRS 5525, Grenoble, France. npinsault@chu-grenoble.fr
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by
intensive rugby practice.
DESIGN: A group-comparison study.
SETTING: University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory.
PARTICIPANTS: Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10
young non-rugby elite sports players.
INTERVENTIONS: Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation
test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head
on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right
cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and
after a training session.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Absolute and variable errors were used to assess
accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards,
Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively.
RESULTS: The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and
variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found
between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between
Before and After the training session.
CONCLUSIONS: The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is
altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs
demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training
session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to
tackling and not the scrum.
PMID: 20381004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Feb 1;35(3):294-7. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181b0c889.
Degradation of cervical joint position sense following muscular fatigue in
humans.
Pinsault N(1), Vuillerme N.
Author information:
(1)AFIRM Team, TIMC-IMAG Laboratory, UMR UJF CNRS 5525, La Tronche, France.
STUDY DESIGN: Before and after intervention trials.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cervical muscular fatigue on joint
position sense.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although fatigue-related degradation of
proprioceptive acuity at lower and upper limbs is well documented, to date no
study has investigated whether muscular fatigue induced at the neck could modify
joint position sense.
METHODS: A total of 9 young healthy adults were asked to perform the
cervicocephalic relocation test to the neutral head position, that is, to
relocate the head on the trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active
cervical rotation to the left and right sides. This experimental task was
executed in 2 conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of the scapula elevator
muscles. Absolute and variable errors were used to assess the cervical joint
repositioning accuracy and consistency, respectively.
RESULTS: Less accurate and less consistent repositioning performances were
observed in Fatigue relative to No fatigue condition, as indicated by increased
absolute and variable errors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Results of the present experiment evidence that cervical joint
position sense, assessed through the cervicocephalic relocation test to the
neutral head position, is degraded by muscular fatigue.
PMID: 20075783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Dec;89(12):2375-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.06.009.
Cervicocephalic relocation test to the neutral head position: assessment in
bilateral labyrinthine-defective and chronic, nontraumatic neck pain patients.
Pinsault N(1), Vuillerme N, Pavan P.
Author information:
(1)Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG, UMR CNRS 5525, Grenoble, France.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vestibular or cervical proprioceptive information
influence the cervicocephalic relocation test to the neutral head position, by
comparing head repositioning errors obtained in asymptomatic, unimpaired control
subjects with those obtained in bilateral labyrinthine-defective patients and
chronic, nontraumatic neck pain patients.
DESIGN: A group-comparison study.
SETTING: University medical bioengineering laboratory.
PARTICIPANTS: Labyrinthine-defective patients (n=7; mean age+/-SD, 67+/-15 y),
nontraumatic neck pain patients (n=7; 56+/-9 y), and asymptomatic, unimpaired
control subjects (n=7; 64+/-12 y).
INTERVENTIONS: Participants were asked to relocate the head on the trunk, as
accurately as possible, after full active cervical rotation to the left and right
sides. Ten trials were performed for each rotation side.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy
and consistency of the repositioning, respectively.
RESULTS: No significant difference in repositioning errors was observed between
labyrinthine-defective patients and control subjects, whereas nontraumatic neck
pain patients demonstrated significantly increased absolute errors in horizontal
and global components and higher variable errors in horizontal component.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the vestibular system is not involved in
the performance of the cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position,
and further support this test as a measure of cervical proprioceptive acuity.
PMID: 19061750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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For testing the sensory threshold in the foot of neurologically affected patients we are using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments.
Now we want to do the statistics on the data but some patients were too insensitive for the strongest filament which they did not feel when we applied it. So we wrote down a value of >6.65 which is not clearly defined as there are no 'stronger' filaments.
How would you treat such a 'value' or piece of information for determining descriptive statistics?
Thanx for your input! Cheers,
Dieter...
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Dear Dieter, 
Because testing with monofilaments and its resulting "score" have not a continuous nature, the descriptive and inferential statistics have to be done considering a categorical classification - variable with ordinal nature. The patient feels or do not feel A or B or C or D.... monofilament, then he is classified with categories mutually exclusive. In the case you described, if you have 4 monofilaments and he does not feel the last one, then he could be classified as a fifth category. I hope I have helped you!
Best Regards,
Isabel
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I am trying to measure plantar pressure in badminton players when they make the shift to the net for linking with lower body injuries and need to have speed variable at which they are shifting around the court. Does anyone have a similar laboratory study with which to help me?
Thanks in advance
Raúl
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Hi Raul,
In addition to using such cameras, one can also utilize an accelerometer together with the tracker to measure speed and change in direction.
You can then also download and use the simple free software of Kinovea to see the analysis that you want.
Hope this helps.
Regards,
Habib
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There are many methods for measuring the spinal curves such as radiography (Cobb angle), flexible ruler (flexicurve), Spinal mouse, and etc. Also there are many publications about the validity and reliability of the measuring methods. However, it has been mentioned some negative points about using them. So, what is the best and safest method for spinal curves measuring, specially in person with spinal postural deformities?   
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I wrote simple program for measurement of Cobb's angle from any pictures on the PC screen. It's for Windows system. It's free on web site www.anglespine.com.
The program would be useful for you.
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Does anybody have experience with kinesiotaping therapy concerns the pain of neck spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine,  shoulder?
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dear Marcus, it would be wonderful if someone could conduct studies into the effects of colour on people that are blind. I would seriously like to help. We need the research... I have seen the effect (good and bad) of various colours so often in the clinic, I do not need any research. I KNOW that colours can make a big difference.
There are many countrymen out there that already 'know' the effects of colour :)
Have you read Christel Heidemanns books? You can get more information about her ideas here  http://www.farbmeridiantherapie.de/
The only one I know of on taping and colour is: Icha Ulriche Medi-taping oder Kinesio taping, eine revolutionare hilfsstellung bei schmerzen…. Impuls nr 23.2010
Dear Canpolat, of course your tast for colour effects your decisions, there are many ways the placebo effect works...
But 2 studies have also shown that even mechanical properties of the same tape brand will differ with their colour.
Fernandeze Rodriguez J,M, et al (2010) Vendaje neuromuscular: tienen todas las ventas las mismas propriedades mecanicas? Apunts med Esport 2010 doi :10.1016/j.apunts.2009.11.001F1.
Aguado Jodar X et al (2008) Mechanical behaviour of functional tape: implications for functional taping preparation. 13th Ann congress ECSS Portugal 9-12July2008
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I am going to implement an existing aerobic program on obese adults with strength exercises. The course will provide the test protocol for the evaluation of the strength of certain muscle groups, but my health ideology tends to make me reject test with which you evaluate the loads supported, extrapolation of RM for various exercises to strength machines and so on, even if they are objectively more comparable in the literature. Qualitatively test as PPT or CS-PFP questionnaires on daily activities and more are better, but less comparable. Found that the most important thing is to stimulate an improvement in physical performance of these subjects in the best way to deal with daily activities and reduce the risk of chronic diseases, from the scientific point of view, however the question remains on how to investigate the possible assessments force. Do u think is better a more comprehensive approach, then more oriented to the improvement of the general conditions of the subject, more ethical but less objective or a more analytical approach and therefore more comparable in the literature, such as assessing the strength of the quadriceps by leg extensions?
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Yes I every time prefer functional performance, but usually it is less strong in publication paper than specific strength test (my opinion is ethical vs science). We just adopt hand grip test, chair raise, timed up and go tests, we need to extend the research strictly on muscular strength valuation, but it's difficult to adapt some classical tests at isotonic machines to these subjects (we don't have isokinetic equipments and i prefer do not use isometric tests for clinical conditions). I'm thinking to use some isotonic machines to perform multijoint exercises and some dumbbells to value and control their strength 
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Kinetics and kinematics variables 
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Several interesting references were pointed. However, which is your goal? Knowing that, I could help you in a more specific direction.
Cheers
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I am conducting torsional testing on bone samples and I would like to know what maximum torque relates to? I know that stiffness is related to the degree to mineralization but I can't find any information on maximum torque. 
Any input will be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
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When any solid piece of matter is submitted to the effect of a force (a load), its structure is somewhat deformed, generally in an elastic way, i.e. being able to give back the energy employed in its deformation and to recover its initial size/shape if unloaded. The resut of it is the manifestation of a reacting, opposite force to that deforming the structure, exactly of the same value (Newton Law). The whole force developed by the deformed structure is employed in two different things: 1. to generate the elastic reaction to the deformation (the structural "stiffness" - the half-full glass) and 2. to induce the deformation (the half-empty glass).
The stiffer the structure, the greater the force needed to deform it. Notably, the induced force will be always equal to the opposite force generated by the structure(Newton). This relationship is linear in the so-called "elastic" bodies (i.e. a rubber ball), but some structures react "elastically-plastically" to defoming forces. "Plastic" behavior means that the body is not yet able to mantain the physical integrity of its structure, i.e. it begins to develop  "cracks", and is no more able to recover its size/shape if unloaded (as a piece of clay). In this condition, the ability of the structure to counteract the deforming force is reduced, and the price for this is paid by a higher deformability (lesser stiffness). To note: the deformation of the solid structure under the action of a force, is the price paid by the system to follow always strictly the Newon Law. In fact, the deforming force and the reacting force will be always the same (Newton).
Technically, it can be told that, during the "plastic" behavior of a structure which is progressively deformed by a force, the relaitonship between the induced deformation and the magnitude of the interacting forces grows up.
When one performs a mechanical test, the apparatus submits the assayed body to a constantly progressing deformation by exerting on it a very great force that could be regarded as infinite. So, the deformation proceeds inevitably linearly with time, regardless of the magnitude of the reaction force opposed by the deformed structure. The apparatus measures, and describes as a graph, the reacting force opposed by the strcture (y) as a function of the constantly growing deformation (time, x).
When studying an elastic-plastic body (as most of bodies in Nature), the apparatus gives a linear relaitonship between force (F, y) and deformation (d, x) ("elastic" behavior) during a certain time, depending of the ability of the structure of the body to stand deformation without suffer any crack. Of course, the more the deformation increases, the higher the chance to develop a crack. This can proceed in two different ways:
1. Suddenly during the elastic behavior. In this case, the linear F/d relationship is suddenly interrupted, and the graph comes down vertically up to y=0, i.e. expressing that no more force is opposed by the structure despite of any increase in "deformation". Obviously, the structure has been broken into pieces, and the pieces can not yet been further deformed. This behavior is described as "brittle", i.e. "easy to get totally cracked after it underwent the first crack" (as that of glass or marble, or a dry branch of a tree), as opposed to "tough" ("hard to complete the fracture process after showing the first crack (as a fresh bone, a piece of steel, or a green branch of a tree).
2. Slowly, by being progressively deformed, showing a graphical decline of the F/d curve after the end of the linear relationship ("yield point"). The graph usually grows up (slower than before, of course) during a certain increase of deformation (x), until reaching a maximum, corresponding to the maximal force the structure can oppose anyway in the assayed conditions. Afterwards the opposed force generally decreases, more or less suddenly depending on the kind of matter the structure is made of, until reaching zero (fracture of the structure, as in "1"). This behavior is described as "Plastic", as referred to above.
In any of these two cases, it can be said that the deformed structure "suffers" proportionally to the magnitude of the force it is able to oppose to the deforming load. This kind of mechanical "suffering" is called "stress". Stress can be expressed mathematically by the simple ratio between the magnitude of the deforming force F (in any of the two senses, remember that they are the same - Newton) and that of he coss-sectional area A of the structure which is perpendicularly affected by that force: stress = F/A.
Also in any of the two cases described, there is always a maximal value adopted by the opposed force (y) to the load induced by the machine. This maximal F, divided by the cross-sectional area A of the structure perpendicular to the force direction at that moment, will express the "maximal stress" the system can manifest. Importantly, the force opposed by the structure at the very moment of fracture is zero (!); thus, the "fracture load" would be always zero. In order to avoid this incongruence, the "maximal stress" (always a non-zero value, obviously) is taken as the best representative of the "resistance to fracture" (maximal strength) of the structure in the assayed conditions. The assayed structure can be told to have that "maximal stress" as a physical characteristic as an expression of its resistance to fracture in the assayed conditions. In a nutshell, "maximal stress defines maximal strength in the assayed conditions".     
The above is valid regardless of the way the structure is deformed by the force: compression, traction, bending, shear, torsion.
Now, let's give a look to torsion. If the deforming load induces a "torsion stress" ( = torsion F/A) on the structure, the definition of its strength can be perfectioned a little. The deforming force F is now regarded as acting in a direction which is tangential to the structure on a certain peripheral point of it. Thus, the force F effectively acting on the structure would correspond to the so-called "torsional moment" (moment = force times distance) effectively exerted on the structure. The torsional moment in a given condition should be expressed by multiplying the magnitude of the force F times the distance d of the reference point to the center of rotation of the system. Well, this product is called... Torque !, and is usually expreessed in N (Newtons, a good name for the unit, indeed!) x m:
Torque (N) = F (tangential at a point, in N) x d (from that point to center of mass, in m).
Let's transpor now this definition of Torque to the mechanical testing ot the body, assuming now that it is being deformed in torsion. Then, we will have the following equivalences:
Maximal stress (F/A) = resistance to fracture = maximal (Torque / A) value.
This is the way to define "maximal torque" in a drastic situation (falling of the structure). It is no necessary to do it as such, however. I have selected this method to induce the concept just to be sure that also some other elementary mechanical concepts are also learnt concomittantly. In fact, you can also define the Torque, even in the same example, as calculated at any point of the test, with no need at all to breack the structure out. Yet, you can define the "maximal" torque in this situation only by extending the example up to the falling point.
Importantly, in those systems in which there is a limitation to the torque produced, could be also no need to face any disruption of the structure, and however you can also have a "maximal torque". For instance, you can describe the maximal torque produced in the system [rudder / rudder driver] in a boat during a storm (no need for the rudder to be broken), the same way as you have calculated torque in the above example. In fact, the most frequent use of the "maximal torque" concept is the definition of the "maximal rotational force" a motor can transmit to the driven axle.
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Until now we have investigated the arm proprioceptive control in volleyball players - female, but we intend to develop our researches in enrolled patients in rehabilitation programs ( i.e. post stroke ).
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Dear Nicolae, you can ask Mara Fabri Associate Professor Università Politecnica delle Marche Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicinehttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mara_Fabri
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I'm in search of a commonly-used graded exercise test for an upper-body ergometer that determines maximal oxygen consumption. 
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Hi Guys.
 I would like to know if you have experience with arm-crank exercise tests in patients with vascular disease, such as Peripheral Artery Disease patients.
Thanks
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Somebody proved that the ACL is a C shape through a cadaver study.  But it is not correct. I have to disprove that it is not either through staining or through any other technique. Please help me.
Thanks in advance.
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A very recent anatomical work confirms the shape of the ACL./ This work is submitted not yet published. It has been done on fresh specimens and confirms the "C" shaped attach on the tibia and a coma shaped attach on the femur. If you want check this result, just harvest fresh ACL after carefull removal of the synovial, stain it and study the structure.
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Do you know any research which tests the effect of kinesiotape on balance in people with hallux valgus? Thank you.
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dear Sebnem, Have just found this question and would like to add that more research on taping hallux valgus has been published. These are the ones I know of.
1. Moreno Sanjuan J (2009) Hallux valgus tratamiento comparative enre: kinesiotape, vendaje functional y terapie manual. www.efisioterapie.net
2. Oznur Gul et al (2010) The effectiveness of kinesiotape on the pain and intensity of deformity of hallux valgus. www.fizyoterapie.org/journal 2010 21(3) 
3. Prusinowska A et al (2011) Hallux valgus in rheumatoid foot: surgical treatment and rehabilitation. Reumatologia 2011;49,2:90-95
Like Francisco I would suggest you tape and test for a longer period of time.... 2 days does not say much at all. I would suggest at least one week AND after 4 weeks.... This would give you an impression of what the long-term effects are.
I would also suggest having 2 patient groups, one with normal treatment and one with normal treatment and taping. Comparing them in pain, and with a balance test should give you a better impression of the differences.
wishing you well with your study  Esther
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Can anyone share his/her experience in the degree of elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK/CPK) levels after strenuous physical activities? We frequently observe marked elevated CK levels (more than 200fold) among healthy volunteers related to physical activity (e.g. athletic sports)
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Thank you Wolf. Interesting point to correlate CK levels to training Status. I will check if this is feasible. I was suprised by the extend of CK elevation due to physical activity.
BR
Max
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I need to measure muscle power of a single inferior extremity. And compare with the other, I would really appreciate if someone have some information to share.
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Preferably, with participants of significantly varying mass.
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One of my papers might have what you are looking for "Bilateral contact ground reaction forces and contact times during plyometric drop jumping". It also addresses the forces in each leg.
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Dear authors,
I am interested in comparing different methods for ellipsoid determination. For this purpose, I need the values for the bony landmark from cadaver (which are provided in supplementary material). However, some of the data are missing in the table... Using Van der Helm 1999, I was able to complete the table for all but one important value: the z-coordinate for ThL. Would this be possible to provide us this value?
Best regard
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Dear Hashem,
Thanks for your reference :) However, Bolsterlee actually gave me the reference for his PhD Thesis where the formating of the table allows to read the values!
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Although there much literature exists around the statistics area, appropriate books that explain and explicate inferential statistics in vast details are not available.
So I put this question here to utilize the experience of other researchers in this area to recommend a comprehensive inferential statistics book for the area of kinesiology and biomechanics.
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If I were to teach an applied statistics course in sport science today, I would probably not use a book. Instead, I would use Will Hopkin's comprehensive statistic resource at www.sportsci.org. The Excel based analysis resources are also excellent tools for masters and PhD students.
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I was involved in a research project to assess the patterns of waking and standing from sitting for elderly people using special apparatus and software in Germany. However, I am looking for more input of your view to assess the quality of motion (movement) to build standards for further comparison and application for industry. This will help basic field in medicine, human factor engineering and physical education fields.
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Dear prof. Kilani,
We have started to use Functional Movement Screening (FMS) as an standardized test for quality of whole body movement ability and quality in field research as well as in outpatient practice. It is subjective, but very applicable and does not require any hardware. For scientific purposes we use set of MoCap sensors and special software.
I don't know if FMS is adequate for industry purposes, but sensor network surely is.
Regards,
Dusko Spasovski
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What is the point of my question - I have noticed that patients shortly after application have some problem with define their feelings about character and intensity of pain. Of course, it is associated with manual contact and potential sensory disturbances, which requires some time to let fascia back to its natural (but not physiological or correct) condition. Personally, I recommend to my patients, if it is possible, to come back to me in an hour or two to evaluate effectiveness. This phase of treatment can falsify effectiveness of KT application, so in most of cases I can only base on subjective patients opinions.
What is your opinion about this problem?
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About your question,
Clinical answer: easy, use the screening test and muscular test that kinesio teach in the official course, adding always the other orthopedic tests that you know and can be useful in that situation.
Research answer: not too easy, in this case i think the point it would not be Kinesio, it would be a specific test for the low back pain depending the item that you are interesting.
ROM, Pain, Endurance,....
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How do you rate (percent wise) the performance of skills? Is the rating based on the criterion with minimum standard or based on the way the student performs the skills based on skill cues? Do you give a greater score to students for competency on the skill performance such as time and distance or based on skill cues?
How do we know that students have learned a physical education skill? We can assess students using formative and summative assessments but how do we know that students will actually be able to use their skills in real-life, authentic situations? In short, how do we know that our students are competent in the target technique?
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Dear Hashem: First we have to be sure that students did learn the required physical education skills, and thereafter have the moral to be able to use their skills when needed in the real-life and authentic situations.
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Since the book of Basmajian JV, & De Luca CJ entitled Muscles Alive: their functions revealed by electromyography, I have not seen any new interpretation of the influence factors that affect the interpretation of muscle force production. For example, the type of muscle fiber, muscle length, and muscle velocity may influence the association between EMG signal as an electrical and mechanical activity of a muscle.
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Dear Professor Kilani,
I have studied the attached article and found it beneficial.
Regards,
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I'm looking at the comparison of under armour and cotton base layers on core/skin temp, sweat rate, and comfort. However, I do not have the equipment to measure exact sweat production; it would be good to see the point at which sweat occurs as well as monitor how much the participant sweats throughout maybe with a scale of how sweaty they think they are? Or by just noting the point at which I see sweat on the forehead? It seems like both these methods have some issues, so is there any other way that had been shown to be quite a valid test?
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Thank you David! This is exactly what I ended up doing, currently undertaking my testing, but it's good to know that you agree with these methods!
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I'm looking for data about running kinematics of the upper limb. I would like to know the joints and trunk movements in running in healthy people, but i just find publication about unhealthy or disable people.
Thanks a lot
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Another article that could be of interest, from a slightly different perspective, is this one by Bramble & Lieberman (2004) in Nature:
It breaks things down somewhat in terms of segmental contributions to running, but placed within the context of evolution. Table 1 in the article provides a nice summary of some functional considerations.
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The adherence to an accelerometer attached to a beld around the leg will be low, so every idea is welcome.
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In cases where we were not sure about the durability of the 'stickies' or double-adhesive tapes that are suggested for the ActviPal we decided to use OpSite Flexigrid surgical tape/film that is really thin and flexible and can even be used to seal the device against water (e.g. if you want to leave it on for taking a shower).
The 'belt-around-the-leg' approach did not really work well for us because of the conical shape of the thigh: The device either does not stay in place but slips down or you have to make the belt/strap so tight that it is uncomfortable or even reduce blood circulatiopn (both not really practical for long-term recording).
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Kinesiology Tape Properties.
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We can expect that research on healthy adults will not have as much effect as the same research on patients. Another problem regarding your question is that we have to be specific about tone.... it is not easy to define what is meant by tone. A MSK PT will have another view on tone than the Neuro trained PT...Some food for thought on this subject can be read here... http://www.skillsforaction.com/low-muscle-tone
So which tone are we talking about?
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All football players scan and track the football and players on the pitch, however, we know some players react faster and are better at decision making, what is this difference and how is it trained?
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Tracking a football or player requires focusing the attention on what is being tracked this can sometimes mean that other important information is lost. Scanning involves assessing the field to pull out information. Experts are better at decision making because they are able to pull out the important information to allow them to make that decision. A lot of studies highlight the fact that experts chunk information allowing them to see plays developing and also that it is the important information that they are picking up. These skills develop with experience but this doesn't always have to be physical experience and it should be possible to build upon their on the pitch experience with additional work where the players evaluate their performance at decision making.
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I want to measure vertical ground reaction force during running. Can any one suggest me a (cheap) sensor to do that?
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From my personal experience with force sensors it is difficult to apply the force directly onto the force sensing area of the sensor. For thin sensors like the flexiforce range, they encourage you to stick a "puck" like object onto the sensing area so as to ensure that the force is applied to the sensor and not the surrounding area. Also with a moving object, it may be difficult to apply the force exactly perpendicular to the sensor, and thus you may introduce a shear stress which is not desirable. I also found that with the flexiforce range the force readings taper off over time.
A crude but possible alternative would be to use a pressure film such as fuji film prescale. It is not ideal for cyclic loading, but it could easily be inserted into a shoe and wouldn't affect the persons gait. Also there would be no circuitry required. It might be worth testing in a lab setting first to see if cyclic loading causes an error in the readings. Also this would give you a profile of the pressures across the whole foot rather than at just one point. You could measure the areas and calculate the forces that way if you still required.
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This study is made with a 2 year old patient in a constraint induced movement therapy program.
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you can measure it by electronic geniometer or inertial sensors
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My understanding is that the duration of the CMAP may be too long, so that it reaches the second electrode before completely passing the first. Therefore, as we are measuring the difference between the 2 electrodes we get an artificially low amplitude.
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I do not have a clear understanding of your setup or technique so the following may not apply. CMAP amplitude should not be affected (or minimally so) if E2 is over an inert surface rather than the same muscle from which you are recording
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For example, when we apply lateral horizontal 600 N on T7 , what happens to the loading on the lumbar joints?
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You might consider looking up "induced Acceleration Analysis" a method for assessing the effect of accelerations on one segment across other linked segments in a MS model.
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According to the biomechanical basis of human movement book there is a definition for the close pack position "The joint position with maximum contact between the two joint surfaces and in which the ligaments are taut, forcing the two bones to act as a single unit." However, there is no definition existing for congruency and no mention about the difference or relationship between this two.
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I think Alexia's comment is an example of the confusion between concept and terminology. While I appreciate what she is trying to say; first, it's not correct to say "ultimate stress" - Ultimate stress is an engineering term to mean the max stress a material can withstand before failure - it is the peak of the stress/strain curve of a material before failure. So its not really a condition that would occur in any physiological joint position. Second, in the so called closed-packed position, only some parts of the capsule are under stress as I stated above with the shoulder example. Third ,the statement about smoothness has nothing to do with congruency. Congruency is when the radias of curvature of the two articulating surfaces are most coincident. The movement possible in a closed pack position is limited only in certain directions - not all directions ( determined by the asymmetrical loading of capsuloligamentous tissue.).
So my suggestion is to encourage disuse of the term closed-pack , because it is misleading and mis-represented clinical Jargon with little scientific evidence to support the clinical assumptions ascribed to it. If you want to describe a specific joint position then just describe the position - In addition don't just assume that the joint is in some max congruent position or some max capsular stress position unless we have some evidence to back that up. We need to move toward more evidence based clinical practice and a first step toward this is to challenge/reevaluate many of the traditional assumptions of the past.