Science topic

Judgment - Science topic

The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
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Publications related to Judgment (10,000)
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Demand for automated image classification is spiking every day. This study aims to develop an Inception-V3-based classifier on soil nitrogen to facilitate the immediate determination of nitrogen present in the soil. To determine the Nitrogen features, the study used a Rapid Soil Test Kit color chart from the Bureau of Soils and Water Management. To...
Article
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This case report describes a fatal outcome due to delayed perforation after cold snare polypectomy in a patient with bullous pemphigoid receiving oral corticosteroids. Cold snare polypectomy has become the standard treatment for small colorectal polyps because of the procedure's safety and simplicity. In this case, however, corticosteroid therapy a...
Article
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Objectives: Deliberative processes in Health Technologies Assessment (HTA) result in recommendations that determine the reimbursement of medicines, diagnostics or devices. These processes are governed by explicit criteria, but are also influenced by implicit factors. The objective of this work was to identify the implicit factors influencing HTA d...
Article
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Although a considerable amount of research on the Lampung language has been done, little attention has been paid to the use of technology-based Lampung language maintenance. Therefore, academic and practical efforts should be made to contribute to the local language maintenance and one of the possible solutions is through technology. The aim of the...
Article
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How shall we decide for others who cannot (currently) decide for themselves? And who—or what, in the case of artificial intelligence—should make the decision? The present issue of the journal tackles several interrelated topics, many of them having to do with surrogate decision making. For example, the feature article by Jardas et al. (1) explores...
Article
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Objective To produce a guide for dentists and orthodontists to determine orthodontic treatment need in borderline cases (dental health component DHC 3) and to compare views of different panels of judges on treatment need. Materials and methods Prospective, observational study. Photographs of one hundred subjects displaying borderline occlusal trai...
Article
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Sequential lineups are one of the most commonly used procedures in police departments across the USA. Although this procedure has been the target of much experimental research, there has been comparatively little work formally modeling it, especially the sequential nature of the judgments that it elicits. There are also important gaps in our unders...
Article
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Nowadays individuals can readily set reminders to offload intentions onto external resources, such as smartphone alerts, rather than using internal memory. Individuals tend to be biased, setting more reminders than would be optimal. We address the question whether the reminder bias depends on offloading scenarios being framed as either gains or los...
Article
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Pickering et al. (2022) argue that patients who refuse doctor-recommended treatments should in some cases be deemed incompetent to decide about their own medical care—in part because of their decision to refuse treatment— even if they would otherwise have been considered competent. This, then, would allow doctors to override the patients’ will and...
Article
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Research on the impact of auditory information on visual anticipation in tennis suggests that the intensity of racket-ball-contact sounds systematically biases estimates of the ball’s speed, thereby influencing anticipatory judgments. Here we examined whether the effect of auditory information on visual anticipation is dependent on the sport-specif...
Article
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Introduction Weight stigmatization, a common phenomenon in the healthcare system, exerts numerous adverse consequences on patients' wellbeing. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent and characteristics of weight stigmatization in Israel, based on the reports of overweight and obese individuals. Methods This study was performed by d...
Article
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The present research investigates the possible causes of resistance to vaccination against the COVID-19 virus. A significant percentage of different countries' populations is refractory to being vaccinated (i.e., in October 2021, in Italy, 20% aged 40–50 years old). A 92-item questionnaire was filled in by a sample of 613 subjects, of which 50.4% s...
Article
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The focus of this study is to critically review the physiochemical and engineering properties of the fly ash and its applications in various fields. The utilization of fly ash has become a widespread area, but the amount of utilization is still a serious issue. It has many beneficial qualities (such as pozzolanic property, fineness, spherical shape...
Article
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A common problem in video conferences is gaze direction. In face-to-face communication, it is common that speaker and listener intermittently look at each other. In a video-conference setting, where multiple participants are on the screen, things are complicated and not necessarily optimal. If the listener feels looked at when the speaker looks int...
Article
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Background Deficits in procedural memory have been proposed to account for the language deficits in specific language impairment (SLI). A key aspect of the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH) account of SLI is that declarative memory is intact and functions as a compensatory mechanism in the acquisition of language in individuals with SLI. The curr...
Article
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Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder. In the advanced stages it can result in severe disability despite optimal treatment. Data suggests heterogeneous classification of PD stages among physicians in different countries. The purpose of the OBSERVE-PD study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with ad...
Article
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In the present chapter, we seek to better understand how laypeople reason about the “true self" of a person with advancing dementia. We are also interested in how such reasoning bears on laypeople’s views about the validity or invalidity of an advance directive (AD) regarding that person’s treatment. Toward that end, we will report the results of t...
Article
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Background Gastric cancer is relatively prone to metastasis, although distant metastasis is rare during the early stage of disease. Here we report a rare case of schwannoma-associated Virchow metastasis of a patient with early-stage gastric cancer. Case presentation A 73-year-old man, diagnosed with early-stage gastric cancer, underwent preoperati...
Article
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Image classification refers to the classification of the input image according to some algorithms. The general steps of image classification include image preprocessing, image feature extraction and image classification judgment. Convolutional neural network (CNN) imitates the visual perception mechanism of biology, solves the complicated engineeri...
Article
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In simulation-based education, there is growing interest in the effects of emotions on learning from simulation sessions. The perception that emotions have an important impact on performance and learning is supported by the literature. Emotions are pervasive: at any given moment, individuals are in one emotional state or another. Emotions are also...
Conference Paper
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Em Portugal, os normativos que suportam o ensino secundário, nomeadamente a Portaria n.º 226-A/2018 de 7 de agosto, determinam uma conceção pedagógica da avaliação, na qual dimensão formativa é o núcleo da avaliação, distinguindo-se claramente de uma conceção estritamente sumativa, cujo objetivo é o de emitir um juízo classificatório e certificador...
Article
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In this research study, the investigation of building details on the construction project cost and duration using artifcial neural networks (ANNs) which possesses the ability to generalize complex input–output relationships between given datasets was carried out. From relevant literature review, expert judgment, and extensive feld survey, system da...
Poster
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Sound symbolism is a specific form of cross-modal correspondence: Certain sounds become meaningful when they are combined with other sensory information. Prominent types of such sensory information are the rather easily measurable size and the more complex concept of cuteness. However, to date, no combined account of size and cuteness and potential...
Article
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This article addresses the issue of linguistic phenomena which, as a legacy of the centuries-old tradition of the Roman Empire, are rooted in Polish jurisdictional texts. The study focused on foreign-language expressions and short texts in Latin, used in judicial decisions. The aim of the study was to determine the function of Latinisms as foreign-...
Article
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Recent literature in experimental philosophy has postulated the existence of the abstract/concrete paradox (ACP): the tendency to activate inconsistent intuitions (and generate inconsistent judgment) depending on whether a problem to be analyzed is framed in abstract terms or is described as a concrete case. One recent study supports the thesis tha...
Chapter
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The ICC's working language policy conforms to the mold of many other international legal institutions. All staff members must be proficient in at least one of its working languages, English and French. As in other comparable institutions, however, the reality is that English has become the Court's lingua franca. What does the dominant role of Engli...
Preprint
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Forthcoming in 47 European Law Review 2022, please consult the Review for the final paginated version The Court of Justice outlawed the deprivation of EU citizenship in the context of the swaps of nationalities of the Member States of the European Union. Although this outcome is both welcome and long-awaited, the decision falls short of expectatio...
Article
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The notion of sentencehood in Mandarin Chinese is much less well-defined than in many other languages, with a block of clauses often joined by commas without conjunctions and with the period often occurring at the end of a block of clauses to indicate meaning completeness rather than the completeness of a sentential structure. The potential factors...
Article
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Quality function deployment (QFD) is a well-known tool for quality management. With its systematic operation mechanism for translating customer requirements (CRs) into corresponding engineering characteristics (ECs), QFD highly facilitates product/service design and improvement. However, the evolution of the decision-making environment has made the...
Conference Paper
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Knowledge of land policies and legislation by communities plays a major role in promoting accountability and accessing land and reduction in litigations and conflicts among citizens. This paper focused on the experiences of two African countries in the delivery of land and the impacts of land corruption on communities. Short case studies were prese...
Article
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Interactions between intimate partners are important for the maintenance of a healthy relationship. However, the practice of snubbing one partner in favor of a mobile phone (phubbing), may undermine interactions. Thus far, research has mainly investigated between-person differences, i.e., people experiencing more partner phubbing report lower relat...
Article
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School closures, forcibly brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in many countries, have impacted children’s lives and their learning processes. The heterogeneous implementation of distance learning solutions is likely to bring a substantial increase in education inequality, with long term consequences. The present study uses data from a survey colle...
Article
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This investigates the impact of customer attitude and judgment regarding conventional and Islamic banking system in Pakistan. This study attempts to find out, how the customers of Islamic banks perceive about Islamic banking practices in terms of Shariah compliance and conventional banking system regarding earning more profits. This study consists...
Article
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Unlike other counterfeit products, automotive components are hidden from view and, at least by the lay person, little understood. While the potential scale, scope and impact of the problem is vast, knowledge of this illicit trade is limited. In seeking to contribute to the existing literature on the counterfeiting of auto components, this article f...
Article
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Research-oriented universities are known for prolific research activity that is often supported by students in faculty-guided research. To maintain ethical standards, universities require on-going training of both faculty and students to ensure Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). However, previous research has indicated RCR-based training is ins...
Article
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Pairwise comparison is a key ingredient in multi-criteria decision analysis. The method is based on a set of comparisons conducted by a group of experts, comparing all possible pairs of alternatives involved in the decision process. The outcome is the estimation of weights determining the ranking of alternatives. In this paper, we introduce a new f...
Preprint
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This study aims to clarify what is meant by accelerating the suspension of execution as well as to unearth the conditions of the moratorium necessary for the court to respond to the request. The study also aims to clarify the legal nature of both the request of the moratorium and the ruling issued in respect as well as the effects of its ruling. Th...
Article
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Amid the proliferation of online news portals, there is a felt need for a re-investigation of the millennial students' metalinguistic knowledge (MK) on the technicality of the headlines. Couched within the Relevance Theory, including the interlarding theories of Communicative Competence and Monitor Hypothesis, this study investigated 80 students' t...
Article
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We are not aware of any validated sexual health communication scales for use with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We used data from an HIV prevention study in Lebanon with 226 YMSM aged 18–29 to assess the psychometric characteristics of our scale, Judgmental Communication with Peers about Sex (JCPS). The construct validity of the JCPS scal...
Article
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Human resource management is the cornerstone of enterprise success. In the process of enterprise management and control, the design of human resource management mode is a very important part of its management. Data mining technology provides a valuable and meaningful knowledge of extracting and mining big data. And such a technology will be an adva...
Article
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Although much of the pedagogical diligence is concerned with the building of the ideal educator, the very complexity of the educational phenomenon leads to the production of different images of what would be a better educator. Educational research usually approaches the question of ideal teacher manufacturing lists of characteristics, which applica...
Article
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Digital images on the internet are often designed to manipulate viewers' interpretations. Therefore, it is important to educate viewers regarding potential effects of such techniques. We investigated whether two interventions addressing potential effects of camera angle affect the technique's effect on participants' power-related judgments of depic...
Article
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Many shipping companies have started using scrubbers in their fleet to eliminate sulfur emissions from ships, per IMO (International Maritime Organization) rules. Before and during the scrubbers’ selection, the scrubbers’ operational failures have also started to appear and cause serious concerns. In this study, classified scrubber types are explai...
Presentation
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We will propose that the Complex Negative Adjectives (CNAs) in Japanese are now undergoing lexicalization, and that lexicalization by ga-drop begins in relative clauses and can extend to the matrix clause for the following reasons: (a) the Nominative-Case-licensing requires non-defective Tense, (b) Tense can be defective in Japanese relative clause...
Article
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The Impact of the Covid 19 Pandemic on Audits practice and Auditor: An Analytical Study of Global Contributions PROF. Dr. Ahmed Helmy Gomaa• and PROF. Dr. Ehsan Saleh Almoataz• Abstract The purpose of the study: Explain the impact of Covid-19 on the practice of auditing and auditors by Describe, analyzing and evaluating the global contributions of...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the endocentric approach to English grammar teaching that Filipino ELT practitioners may adopt as a pedagogical philosophy. In this approach, language teachers adhere to General American English (GAE) and educated Philippine English (PE) in teaching grammar. Doing this entails making grammar instruction corpus-driven, designi...
Article
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This article examines the judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria in the case of FRN v. Orji Uzor Kalu within the context of the competency of the adjudicators body that delivered the judgment.
Article
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This study examined how people choose their path to a target, and the visual information they use for path planning. Participants avoided stepping outside an avoidance margin between a stationary obstacle and the edge of a walkway as they walked to a bookcase and picked up a target from different locations on a shelf. We provided an integrated expl...
Article
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This paper presents an empirical study of an industrial cable manufacturer in Korea. This manufacturer has also consistently been experiencing issues regarding inventory management, which have been related to production duration and the dormancy of the stock and materials. This causes unavoidable obstacles during operations, which the manufacturer...
Article
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Nonnative accent often leads to prejudicial judgments. In this paper, we examine the effect of a job candidate’s Mandarin Chinese accent on a hiring manager’s perceptions of trust and the three dimensions of trustworthiness. The results of an online experiment with 179 working adults suggest that speaking with a nonnative accent (vs. no accent) adv...
Article
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There are a class of moral virtues that have an intimate relationship with agential evaluation, following Gary Watson we can call these ‘second-order virtues,’ e.g., modesty, blind charity, being judgmental, etc. Julia Driver has argued that these virtues are distinguished by being virtues which require ignorance. Richard Y. Chappell and Helen Yett...
Article
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Collecting human similarity judgments is instrumental to measuring and modeling neurocognitive representations (e.g., through representational similarity analysis) and has been made more efficient by the multi-arrangement task. While this task has been tested for collecting semantic similarity judgments, it is unclear whether it also lends itself t...
Article
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It has become a daily practice for consumers to check reviews on websites before making a purchase. In practice, it's common to have a high score but few comments, or a large number of comments but a slightly lower score. The evaluation score reflects the quality of the restaurant, and the evaluation reflects the popularity of the restaurant, and t...
Article
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Machine learning is becoming increasingly ubiquitous as an automated decision-aid system in diverse domains. People face a challenge when being able to trust the system more than their judgment. In this work, we try to define factors affecting trust in AI, techniques to maintain it and use cases when trust is needed and when we should be cautious.
Article
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Metamemory monitoring, study behavior, and memory are presumably causally connected. When people misjudge their memory, their study behavior should be biased accordingly. Remedying metamemory illusions should debias study behavior and improve memory. One metamemory illusion concerns source memory, a critical aspect of episodic memory. People predic...
Article
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Objectives: Recent studies support the idea of a intent-to-outcome shift in moral judgments with age. We further assessed whether a reduced reliance on intentions is associated with aging in a pre-registered study with 73 younger (20–41 years) and 79 older (70–84 years) adults, group-matched on education level. Method: Participants were presented...
Article
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How should we combine disagreeing expert judgments on the likelihood of an event? A common solution is simple averaging, which allows independent individual errors to cancel out. However, judgments can be correlated due to an overlap in their information, resulting in a miscalibration in the simple average. Optimal weights for weighted averaging ar...
Research
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Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Al-Quran is the last scripture of Allah, revealed on last prophet Muhammad. Each revelation of Allah is termed as the verse. Verses are collated to form a chapter of the Book. Throughout the Book, certain names or attributes of Allah have been mentioned (hereinafter, these are referred as nam...
Article
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Beliefs can be highly resilient in the sense that they are not easily abandoned in the face of counterevidence. This has the advantage of guiding consistent behavior and judgments but may also have destructive consequences for individuals, nature, and society. For instance, pathological beliefs can sustain psychiatric disorders, the belief that rhi...
Article
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This research conducts a meaningful comparison of self-reported importance and satisfaction in various life domains to promote the understanding of subjective well-being (SWB). Results from a nationwide telephone survey with regard to 12 indicators of well-being in Taiwan suggest that satisfaction attitude rating does incorporate the judgment of im...
Article
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Fire and smoke object detection is of great significance due to the extreme destructive power of fire disasters. Most of the existing methods, whether traditional computer vision-based models with sensors or deep learning-based models have circumscribed application scenes with relatively poor detection speed and accuracy. This means seldom taking s...
Preprint
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The design of complex engineering systems is an often long and articulated process that highly relies on engineers' expertise and professional judgment. As such, the typical pitfalls of activities involving the human factor often manifest themselves in terms of lack of completeness or exhaustiveness of the analysis, inconsistencies across design ch...
Article
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We investigate the AERIUS/OPS model predictive skill. It has none compared to a simple “mean” model. Skill is the demonstrated superiority of one model over another, given specific verification mea- sures. OPS does not have skill compared to a simple “mean” model, which beats OPS using some measures. Further, the verification measures used are them...
Article
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According to the theory of embodied cognition, semantic processing is closely coupled with body movements. For example, constraining hand movements inhibits memory for objects that can be manipulated with the hands. However, it has not been confirmed whether body constraint reduces brain activity related to semantics. We measured the effect of hand...
Article
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In Chinese language and culture, there are many metaphorical habits that use upright or skew shapes to express morality. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether there is a psychological metaphor in the cognition of Chinese people. To explore the psychological metaphorical associations between moral concepts and upright/skew shapes, th...
Chapter
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Children are considered as persons who are not mature enough to make sound judgments or avoid risky behavior. they have only partially internalized the concepts of social responsibility and morality, and often engage in harmful activities that require protection from the state or adults. The chapter examines some child protection arrangements in Gh...
Article
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Covert spatial attention allows us to prioritize processing at relevant locations. Perception is generally poorer when attention is distributed across multiple locations than when attention is focused on a single location. However, while divided attention typically impairs performance, recent work suggests that divided attention does not seem to im...
Article
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Talent identification and selection are critical components of competitive sport success. Despite the time, effort, and resources invested, the accuracy of selection decisions remains generally poor. While much of the scholarship in this area has focused on the factors discriminating skilled and less-skilled individuals, limited research exists on...