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The kalam, often rendered "speculative theology", was an important development in Islamic thought; ideas from the kalam made deep inroads into Jewish thought as well. Maimonides devotes a good part of his famous Guide of the Perplexed to a running debate with the kalam on a number of issues.
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Good idea!
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Why or why not?
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Is human language adequate to describe Harry Potter? :)
Of course, it is. Which other language can be used to describe the characters of fiction, written by humans for humans?
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Is health in Kenya adequately financed? Relatedly, is there a need for additional sources of revenue to fund health? The limited resources that are available to the Kenyan government are prioritised in the budget that earmarks how much is to be allocated to each public sector. Regrettably, health financing has been on a reducing scale and the government is considering ways to broaden its revenue base for financing health. I want to pick up on the argument of limited resources and posit Islamic taxation as an alternative source of revenue potentially available to the Kenyan government for financing health. Scholars have considered the argument of limited resources from the lens of prioritisation – that is the need to make the best possible use of these limited resources to continually improve the well-being of society and increase the revenue in the long term. Other scholars have posited that the argument on limited resources is to be examined by inquiring into different ways by which the resource base can be increased. Among the latter scholars, many suggest an examination of the tax policy of a state to increase taxation. Tax increments place a higher burden on the poor and middle-income earners, and is therefore not a persuasive approach to broadening the tax base. If the discourse on limited resources is to be analysed further from the scholarship on broadening the tax base then isnt it important to also address it from a different discipline, Islamic taxation?
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I am glad you agree Adheem Naeem tax is indeed a valuable government source of revenue. Zakat would greatly contribute to its increase provided its linked directly towards development.
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Monitor the most important books on the philosophy of religion in contemporary thought, you can suggest me to the most important books written on this subject in Islamic thought and Western thought.
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Derdar Nabil
Jasmin Omercic
Thank you so much for sharing the answer to the question about religion philosophy, and I benefited from the information you provided in the answer.
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Why is it missing the Islamic Arab heritage and its scholars of the study of the sign in Western studies of modern and contemporary ?, although Ibn Sina, who lived in the twelfth century. He actively attends the presentation of De Saussure, who lived in the nineteenth century in his work (healing). Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, who lived in the twelfth century, and put forward the concept of the sign and is very close to the references presented by Charles Sanders Pierce, who lived in the nineteenth century in his book (the standard of science). Abdul elkahar Jarjani who lived in the twelfth century, almost a reference for Roland Barthes in particular on the question of semantics of denotation and connotation (miracle signs in the science of meanings) ???
That is why some scholars to say contemporary that the concept of the sign in recent studies, in accordance with the semantic concept in the Arab and Islamic heritage, and is based on the Islamic world view, as an indication of the presence of the Creator (GOD ) in his interpretation of the semantic notion in Islamic thought and compensated by the sign in semiotics.
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I agree with your pointing but I would add that almost all researchers in the field are failing to study the medieval study of the sing, they are mostly focused on the relationship between modal logics and some nominalists and the pragmatic semiotics but very few studies on the relationship between medieval semiotics (in general and specifically the Universals issues) and the semiologie and slavic semiotics.
A collegue of mine is now working on the relationship between semiologie and Thomas Aquina, but I agree with you that there are vert little work on the islamic sign studies.
I work on digital media's semiotics but I am really interested in the medieval thinking on the topic so if you have some work on it I would be glad to read and reccomend.
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Why or why not?
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We are by nature contingent, and merely representative of other parts of our specie, so in order to remain vital as a specie we must die. We have no greater importance than that. The problem lies when we isolate ourselves-mind and body-and thereby insist on preferential treatment demanding heaven, souls, etc, whereby to extend the existence of our egos. If we can again visualise ourselves as tiny genes in a huge pool, contributing slightly if at all, we can free ourselves of hyperbole and expectation.
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Hello,
As Oscar Wild writes in his novel, " An ideal husband", “Morality is simply the attitude we adopt towards people we personally dislike.” Being an attitude , therefore, people are free to choose between morality and immorality. However, by becoming immoral, such people choose to close the doors of joy, hope, and happiness to themselves. The reason is that moralists find beautiful meanings in beautiful things. All worldly sins and abhorred models of behavior such as stealing from others and killing others are violations of moral values. By being immoral, people pave the way for their doom and stop their ascend to kind of cultivation cherished and valued by human beings in general. Moral people are the elect to whom light sides of life inspire hope and happiness.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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A sacrament is typically understood as a channel or link to the divine or as a visible sign of an invisible grace.
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The wedding rituals, Vivaha.
Intent to have a child ritual, Garbhadhana.
Quickening the fetus rite, Pumsavana.
Parting hair and baby shower, Simantonnayana.
Childbirth ceremony, Jatakarman.
Naming the baby ritual, Namakarana.
Baby's first outing, Nishkramana etc. etc.
Hindu Samskaras (Sacraments)
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Passages such as the following make it sound like the Prophet Muhammad thought the Christian Trinity was comprised of God, Mary, and their offspring Jesus:
God will say: ‘Jesus Son of Mary, did you ever say to mankind: “Worship me and my mother as gods besides God?”’
‘Glory be to you,’ he will answer, ‘I could never have claimed what I have no right to.’ (5.117)
The Creator of the heavens and the earth—how should he have a son, seeing that He has no consort, and He created all things? (6.102)
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Muhammad did not blaspheme when he asked these questions, because he was not a Christian; but many theologians and historians of religions have affirmed that there is a relationship between the beliefs of Muslims and Christians, although Islam appeared approximately 600 years after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
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How is your answer compatible with the perfection of God?
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Dear Kirk,
Jesus is consubstantial with God, the Father. Jesus suffered according to the Bible. Thus, God may suffer.
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It's easy to make an argument that particular claims recorded in a scripture are factually true (one just needs to use the standard historical criteria of authenticity). But a writing containing truth, even if it is completely error-free, isn't necessarily divinely inspired. So is it possible to successfully argue for divine inspiration? If so, how?
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I notice when discussing the Bible, etc, as divinely inspired the good parts only are selected for proof and reverence. In fact do they not also contain immense violence? Massacres and genocides? Are these too divine and approved of and adherred to events?
2:23 And he went up from thence unto Bethel: and as he was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head.2:24 And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the LORD. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them.
Few children torn apart in the name of YHWH-doesn't matter maybe?
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If intrinsic, then Scripture is the Word of God no matter whether anyone reads it or responds to it. If instrumental, then Scripture becomes the Word of God when God chooses to use it to generate an encounter with himself.
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Dear Kirk, I think the differentiation makes no sense. All scriptures finally are "Gods Word" in "Human words", because there is no "Divine Language" or if there is such thing, to understand it we have to translate it into human language. To differentiate an instrumental from an intrinsic makes no sense, because all forms of communications finally want to come from a sender to an receiver with the end that the receiver understands something, if not, it is a senseless communication, and than even the question if it exists or not, if it is possible or not, is irrelevant. So talking about Gods Word always implies a sense and therefore never can be intrinsic. The other term "instrumental" or "funcional" is for me a missleading conception, because does not appreaciate sufficiently the human nature with it's liberty. We should conceive revelations more in dialogic model or structure.
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What does it mean to be a "steward"?
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Kirk, it really doesn't matter. In geological time, our existance is just one tiny flash, and then its gone. While we live, we fuss around with all manner of trivialities, including ownership of property, and all manner of other "brownian motion," that is here and gone, and then soon forgotten. Our property and ourselves soon decomposed, back to the original elements.
I think that if one must put everything in a religious context, the only sensible way to think about life on earth is as a test of character. Ownership of property is just one of the many aspects of that test.
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Why or why not?
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The counterexample being, profound religious faith can also lead to not grappling with the world's problems, on the principle that God will provide the solutions. Not pretending to make any sort of scholarly argument here, I am merely stating something that I have observed, on more than just a few occasions.
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Why or why not?
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Tough question. It's similar to asking why should we explore space, when there are so many problem to solve on earth. I think the general answer to all such questions is that we need to do more than one thing at a time.
If we only concentrated on solving the immediate problem, we would still be living in caves.
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Prima facie, the assertion seems self-refuting, for if none of our concepts apply to God, then even the concept of ineffability does not apply to God. However, the assertion of divine ineffability is often made by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. I'd love to hear your thoughts!
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I suppose it depends how we define ineffable. My inclination is to say that something ineffable cannot be completely described, not to preclude imperfect and incomplete attempts. And this leads to big problems, in practice.
Anything that is (said to be) beyond our comprehension cannot help but be ineffable. Any omniscient, omnipotent, eternal being is certainly not something that we can comprehend or describe completely. Isn't that why there are as many different ideas of what God is as there are humans on earth?
And this is easy enough to demonstrate. Cheap shot, no doubt, but we can see a whole spectrum of acts committed in God's name, from the sublime to the unspeakably atrocious. Common sense might suggest what makes sense and what makes no sense, but not much more than common sense. People like to make claims about what is the "true" God, or the "true" teachings of any particular religion. Don't these claims always come across sounding self-serving? We simply state that "truth" lies where we want it to lie, we use it to "justify" our thoughts and actions, but our claim is no more valid than the next person's. Not when it comes to religion.
The best we can do is to observe the results. Some are positive, leading to a more peaceful coexistence, and too many are negative, leading to atrocities. (Our perception of) God's ineffability is problematic. Clearly.
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William Lane Craig argues that, without God, moral values would only be subjective, and there would be no ultimate moral accountability.
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This is a type 4 question. In order to underpin objective moral values and duties, god would have to exist objectively. However, gods only exist as beliefs. Hence, there is nothing objective about the moral values that are based upon the supposed wishes of a god whose existence is in principle unprovable.
To state that anything is a proven reality is incomplete: a thing can be a proven reality to a particular person, but this does not give it objective existence. Pre-Newtonian gravity was a proven reality to everyone (objects tended to move towards their natural resting place), but this did not mean that this notion of gravity had an objective existence, or even that it was proven by the fact that objects fell downwards.
And now, back to research…
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Islam and Judaism are unitarian monotheisms, holding that the one God contains a single center of self-consciousness (i.e., person). Christianity is a trinitarian monotheism, holding that the one God contains three centers of self-consciousness (i.e., persons). I'd love to hear Muslim, Jewish, and Christian views on this!
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I believe that in order to answer this question we should consider the symbolic elements that make up Christianity. The Most Holy Trinity is a clear representation of the unifications that Catholicism had to make in order to incorporate pagan religions into the "orthodox doctrine". Sun worship, for example, coincides with the birth of Jesus. The representation of the trinity is a very interesting topic to address. Particularly the version I like the most is this one
Formulation of the Trinity is attributed to the Gnostic teacher Valentinus (lived c.100 – c.160), who according to the fourth century theologian Marcellus of Ancyra, was “the first to devise the notion of three subsistent entities (hypostases), in a work that he entitled On the Three Natures.” The highly allegorical exegesis of the Valentinian school inclined it to interpret the relevant scriptural passages as affirming a Divinity that, in some manner, is threefold. The Valentinian Gospel of Philip, which dates to approximately the time of Tertullian, upholds the Trinitarian formula. Whatever his influence on the later fully formed doctrine may have been, however, Valentinus's school is rejected as heretical by orthodox Christians.
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Tillich wrote: "Adoration performed for the sake of man's self-glorification is self-defeating. It never reaches God" (Systematic Theology, 3:191).
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There are good ideas and information in Paul Tillich's theological thought, with an Arabic version on this subject
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with particular emphasis on how the idea of the "obligation to migrate was understood in the nineteenth century across the Islamic world.
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Thanks everyone! To answer: I am most interested in texts in Arabic, Persian, and English. What I am most interested is how hijra has changed in meaning. Originally, it refers to the hijra of Muhammad, but then later, it came to apply to all Muslims, for example when Muslims were expelled from al-Andalus and then from the Caucasus to Ottoman lands. I am interested in tracing this history, in tracking how hjira has changed over the centuries, while also examining how it has stayed the same, and how the story from Muhammad's life reverberates in the present, among Muslims today. For example, the term hijra is also used in connection with the Palestinian nakba. Obviously the meaning and context is different, but I want to bring these different usages into comparison.