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Irrigation - Science topic

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There is considerable unclearness about efficiency terms in water related literature pertaining to agriculture - irrigation efficiency (E), (crop) water use efficiency (WUE), and agricultural water productivity (WP).
The "usefulness of these terms for planning and decision making depends on consideration of the scale and local conditions under which these values are obtained. For example from the WUE aspect, releasing cold resistant crop varieties could improve crop yield and hence crop WUE, because of a production increase (increase of the numerator), without any linkage with the denominator." (from Heydari, 2014)
Can someone explain this example? Are there other examples for other efficiency terms? More detailed explanations are welcome! Thanks in advance!
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Thanks for the answer Rovshan K Abbasov! However, I am talking about how different scales and perspectives of looking at situations can change our calculation of "efficiency".
Quoting one example from the referred publication (Heydari, 2014), the denominator of water use efficiency (WUE), which can either be the water applied/transpiration/evapotranspiration etc. But this denom. term changes when we change the spatial scale of computation. The same water which is "lost" (as deep percolation) when we look at the field scale (hence reducing WUE) can be reclaimed by a downstream field and hence be "used" at a larger catchment scale (hence WUE is not reduced). This is what I mean by scale-dependent efficiency terms.
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I read something about LIMAN irrigation in the Kazakh steppe.
How is LIMAN irrigation: and how is it carried out and does it work?
Thanks, Johann HUMER, Austria
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I am developing an intelligent irrigation system. I have automatic solenoid valves capable of irrigating at the value of the daily evapotranspiration. and I have soil sensors that measure soil moisture. Is there a simple study to find a correlation between evapotranspiration and soil moisture. I propose to use evapotranspiration value for water quantity prediction and humidity value for exact quantity correction and adjustment. are there any other avenues.
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Dear All,
 I hope this message finds you well. Actually, I have a problem with the irrigation management in SWAT model and I would appreciate if you can consult me on this issue. In my SWAT model I defined the irrigation manually in mgt files using mgt_op=2 and introduced the values of IRR_AMT for each subbasin and HRU  and the source of the irrigation one by one based on available data. I have three kinds of irrigation sources which are applied in my model: reach or dam or shallow aquifer. For some subbasins and HRUs (for example hru 1 sub1 or hru6 sub1...) the irrigation is defined to be from the reservoir dam but as I checked the OUTPUT.HRU of the SWAT in these regions some parts of irrigation (varied 20% to 80% for some HRUs) are supplied from the shallow aquifer which the value of SA_IRR (irrigated water from the shallow aquifer) shows that in the output file. It is contradictory that in the theoretical manual is also said as follows: For a given irrigation event, SWAT determines the amount of water available in the source. The amount of water available is compared to the amount of water specified in the irrigation operation. If the amount available is less than the amount specified, SWAT will only apply the available water. (ver2009, p 375) Furthermore, I checked the model with different sources added on by one to debug the problem. If all the irrigation source of  a specific subbasin (all HRUs) assumed to be from reach, dam or unlimited source then the  SA_IRR (irrigated water from the shallow aquifer) will be zero but if the shallow aquifer introduced as irrigation source for one or more HRUs of a specific subbasin, the other HRUs can also extract the rest of their irrigation water demand from the shallow aquifer as the SA_IRR will be nonzero. It happened for all the other conditions (IRR_SC=1 or RR_SC=2 or 5  According to the analysis of the irrigation source in my SWAT project, I got the following conclusion: If you define shallow aquifer as an irrigation source in one or some of the HRUs of a specific subbasin, then in all of the HRUs of that subbasin, the SWAT model first supplies the water from the defined source (dam or reach) and then it tries to supply the rest from the shallow aquifer. So I would appreciate if you let me know why the rest of the irrigation demands supplied from the shallow aquifer, whereas the reservoir is defined as source location of the irrigation. The output.hru file for one year of running is attached. Please let me know if you need any further information. Thank you for your kind support in advance. Best Regards,
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Please help me.
SWAT can't simulate my irrigation scheduling input data.
I want to develop irrigation scenarios for my study area. I have done the management operation process in the Mgt. in put file. However, after running the model, the result shows no irrigation input and output information in the mgt.output file.
Please anyone who can help me? thank you,
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In order to investigate the level of humidity of a soil for irrigation purposes, I'd like to learn more on different types of technology that could define soil's level of humidity as a criteria to determine whether or not a land needs to be watered.
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I should also have given you the attached..
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Towards a holistic water vision for national water and food security The discussion focuses on the analysis of comprehensive national water balances: underground and surface water "Blue Water", soil water reserves "Green water", and the net "Virtual Water" flux related to foodstuffs imports/exports; in order to conciliate in a sustainable way water resource supply with the whole demand, including food demand.
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Dear Prof Jamel Chahed
Appreciated you, for Very vital and interesting discussion, as far as the all evidences have showed that climate change would have adverse impact on world water resources and food production!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Rising global food production has put pressure on freshwater resources, especially in countries with high growth rates of food demand.....
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Irrigation water is one of the important inputs for agriculture, particularly for dry season cropping. However, rational use of water to achieve maximum productivity is essential. What are the various options to achieve the optimum benefit and sustainable use.
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Nice question, it's call of the day, whether annual crops or perennial crops. Micro irrigation , including drip irrigation / fertigatiin has already started making deep inroads , need to be transformed into subsurface drip irrigation with deficit irrigation as method of regulating irrigation as number one priority area of research.
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Our need to create alternative water sources is increasing day by day. However, while providing alternative water resources, can we adequately predict long-term effects on the natural balance? Although the dams built on rivers and streams are useful as an irrigation and energy source, serious damage occurs to the habitat on the natural passage areas of the streams. Similarly, can rainwater harvesting in urban or rural areas (especially covering large areas) cause adverse effects both in terms of feeding aquifers and soil-water balance? I don't have a clear opinion on this subject, but I think that we should question how we affect nature in the long run and that we should take our steps carefully.
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Also check please the following very good link: https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/213.1-01RA-17421.pdf
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I mean, is it possible to deliver water as water vapor to the plant root zone? No matter which irrigation method is used, plants cannot benefit from a significant portion of irrigation water. Because we actually give water to the soil, not to the plant. The plant is able to use the water left over from evaporation and deep percolation. Even if we assume that there is no deep percolation, a significant part of the water evaporates from the gaps in the soil. As a suggestion, I think that water can be applied in the form of water vapor to save water in agriculture. Similar to the subsurface drip irrigation system, when the water vapor reaches the root zone of the plant, it can feed the plant roots. There are several methods for evaporating water, but it is necessary to determine an economical and viable method under field conditions.
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interested idea
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Dear Researchers: Given the limitation of drip irrigation towards groundwater recharge, how one can develop approaches to associate it with groundwater recharge techniques via artificial or natural means?
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Remote sensing techniques can be used by creating various types of thematic layers and integrating them into ArcGIS. We can utilise a variety of techniques to artificially recharge that area once we have the potential zones.
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The latest version of the CropSyst model (version 4.21.7.19) does not simulate crop growth in windows 7. I installed all of the additional software in the "installation" folder (which exists in the installed CropSyst folder). However, the software still immediately stops working when I want to run any scenarios.
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The latest version of the CropSyst model (Any version) does not simulate crop growth very well at alll. It does not use site specific ETcrop or direct soil moisture measurement. Consider calculating ETcrop for your growth simulations. Add a maturity model based on AGDD and you should have a far better system than CropSyst.
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What is the Impact of drip irrigation on water use and crop production? What percent of water does drip irrigation save compared to flood irrigation? By what amount does drip irrigation increase the crop production compared to flood irrigation?
Can you please also share any relevant publication?
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Tomchilatib sug'orish orqali suv tuproqning qaysi qatlamigacha yetib boradi?
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In general saline ground waters are only available alternative to irrigate the crops and even for drinking purposes in arid parts of the world. For drinking one can go for RO etc., but for irrigation what one should do that too for cheapest rate?
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1. Proportional mixing of good quality water (If available) with saline water.
2. Addition of FYM and compost can reduce the salt effect by producing organic acids on decomposition.
3. Use of salt tolerant variety's (Best option among all)
4. Application of Gypsum in saline water can reduce the Na to Ca ratio and SAR and facilitates good infiltration.
5. Mulching with locally available material can reduce the evaporation by that salt accumulation can be reduced.
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I cannot seem to get irrigation depth to be realistic (always underpredicts). I have tried manual and autoirrigation, increasing irrigation depth, changing stress factors, withdrawal source, and heat units/date scheduling. No option gets me close to the ~300 mm/yr for peanut/cotton, or ~400 mm/yr for corn. 
UPDATE: Changing the irrigation method from plant demand to soil moisture demand (WSTRS parameter) causes more realistic irrigation depths for my model, but also causes irrigation to occur all year instead of just during the growing season. Any suggestions?
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This is a good question.
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My farm location has 800 mm rainfall. Soil is deep black soil. Ph:8-8.5 Turmeric is a 9 months crop. I have no drip facility. And I can give irrigation once in every month from November to March. Sowing is done in July last week. Another 600 mm rainfall is expected during August to November, max. being in August, September and October, with ~30, 50, 20 ratio. If I use mulch I cant use surface irrigation. And rainfall will be probably lost through surface runoff. However, mulch conserves soil moisture, keeps water losses away from weeds and minimizes weed load, reduces soil temperatures. What is the possible production scenario?
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The soil temperature will affect the crop bearing in mind that no irrigation is done.
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Irrigation Scientists
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I invite all of to have a review of my latest book “Irrigation and Water Management”, where issues of this kind are discussed in a contemporary style. Please visit
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I'm trying to design an irrigation system in which I'm able to get slow liquid flow (dripping) out of multiple holes (exit points) that is uniform across all of the holes. The issue I keep running into is that any discrepancies in the holes - be it slight differences in size, orientation, etc.- results in a preferential path for the liquid and the flow becomes nonuniform; it flows fast out of some holes and slow (or not at all ) out of others.
Any thoughts on an approach would be greatly appreciated.
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Urea is the major nitrogen fertilizer in India almost 80% of the nitrogen fertilizer is in the form of urea, so application dynamics of urea with relation to irrigation has a prime importance to increase the NUE and WUE.
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Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonium (this process is completed in about 5 days), which can be potentially lost through ammonia volatilization. But if urea is placed at a depth (even 1-2 cm below the soil surface), losses of urea-N via ammonia volatilization are greatly reduced or are minimal. The application of urea before or after irrigation is linked with ammonia volatilization losses rather than the issues discussed above by different colleagues. In coarse-textured soils where water percolation rates are high, it is recommended to apply urea before the irrigation event as the percolating water carries urea to a depth in the soil and urea-N does not remain prone to losses via ammonia volatilization. But one should make sure that the time between urea application and irrigation is kept to a minimum. Urea lying on the dry soil before application of irrigation water can also be hydrolyzed to ammonium though to a limited extent. We need to keep in mind that that urea is very hygroscopic.
In heavy-textured soil, the best way to apply urea is to incorporate it into the soil at a depth. But when urea is to be topdressed while the crop is in the field, apply urea immediately after the irrigation water has percolated down the soil surface. Due to the heavy texture of the soil, water slowly keeps moving down and transports urea to a depth where it is safe from ammonia volatilization losses.
Kindly go through the attached publication of ours. It should make you more knowledgeable on this subject.
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Globally, there are more than 45,000 large dams in operation in over 150 countries and another 1500 or so are currently under construction according to World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Dams and weirs have been built on rivers (a barrier across a river) to achieve a number of benefits including water storage, irrigation supply, drinking water, preventing floods, navigation, hydroelectricity production, and recreation etc. In recent time, most dam construction is taking place in the developing world, such as in China and India. 46 new large dams being planned or under construction in the Yangtze River basin in China; 27 in the La Plata basin in South America; 26 in the Tigris and Euphrates Basin in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Dams are also planned on three other rivers: the Salween in China, Thailand and Myanmar, the Kizilirmak in Turkey, and the Ganges in China, Nepal, India and Bangladesh.
The development of engineering infrastructure such as dams and weirs over rivers has modified rivers ecosystems threatening the water quality (e.g. salinity, cold water pollution) and water dependent biodiversity (e.g. native fish). Dams disconnect rivers from their flood plains and wetlands, reduce water flows in rivers, and affect the migratory patterns of fish. In general, water retention by dams eliminates or reduces spring runoff or flood pulses that often play a critical role in maintaining downstream riparian and wetland ecosystems including the lifecycle of fish. Older dams release water that is stored at the bottom of the dam, which is typically colder and adversely affects species adapted to warmer temperatures. Such an effect is sometime referred to as ‘cold water pollution’. The construction of a dam on a river can block or delay upstream fish migration between feeding and breeding zones and thus may contribute to the decline and even the extinction of species. As a consequence of dams, for example, some unique species and habitats are/will be threatened including freshwater native fish, river dolphins, porpoises and water birds. One estimate reveals that dams and associated uses of water have altered two-thirds of the world’s major rivers.
In Australia, the Federal Government Department (Commonwealth Environmental Water Office) has acquired/is acquiring water with the goals/objectives to increase water flows in rivers and wetlands (commonwealth environmental water). Reduced flows in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) have already caused environmental problems (increased salinity, increased algal blooms/cyanobacterial blooms, decline in native fish and bird populations and poor wetland health). This environmental water has been/is being recovered through water saving infrastructure upgrades, water purchases (direct buybacks of water entitlements from irrigators) and other water recovery programmes in order to protect or restore the environmental assets of the MDB. The environmental water will help protect and restore the resilience of the MDB’s rivers, wetlands, floodplains, lakes and red gum forests, together with the plants and animals that depend on them. In a number of countries (e.g. third world countries), people may not be familiar with environmental water or environmental flows and a need for environmental water for biodiversity.
Question: Do you agree that there is a need for environmental water/environmental flows to protect biodiversity where dams have been built or to be built? If so, how can we achieve a balance between water usages for consumptive purposes (drinking water, industry and irrigated agriculture) and meeting the demand for environmental flows for smooth functioning of river ecosystems and river biodiversity?
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You raised a very important question.
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Dear Researchers,
Although it is well-known fact that water-conserving techniques such as drip irrigation are smart enough to supply adequate water directly to the root zone. However, my concern is, whether it is limited to maintaining, in general, soil health in the context of salt (mineral) content and recharging groundwater? Thank you.
Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
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Most important of all is , why drip irrigation ensures much higher water use efficiency compared to flood irrigation ..? In drip irrigation , water is delivered right into the rootzone and roots have to absorb water at almost uniform soil water potential throughout growth period of the crop . While in flood irrigation , everyday , plant has to absorb water at different soil water potential , resultantly ends up with much lower water use efficiency..
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I need permissible limits of various quality parameters as per BIS standard for Irrigation water. If anyone have reference for following parameters please share.
pH, EC, TDS, Cl, CO3, HCO3,  So4 , Ca, Mg, Na, K, F, No3, RSC, SAR and Na%
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Please have a look at enclosed attachment...
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Dear connections, I hope you’re having a great week! Is there a general technical specification for greywater treatment and reuse in Jordan approved by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation? Thanks in advance. #Greywater #Greywater_reuse #Greywater_treatment
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Yes, there is a specific Jordanian Standard on greywater treatment and reuse; you can purchase it from here:
Or, please contact Eng. Elham Al Shorofat from MIRRA ( www.mirra-jo.org ), I'm sure she can provide you with a copy. MIRRA have worked extensively on greywater treatment and reuse in irrigation/ toilet flushing.
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Groundwater is a vital resource for sustaining life. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the use of groundwater whether it is for human consumption or for industrial, irrigation ... so how can we protect these resources? how we can detect and delineate aquifer recharge zones?. Is there a relationship between overexploitation of groundwater and water quality?.
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Ground water pollutioncan be prevented by:
  1. properly dispose of all waste; don't dump chemicals down drains or on the ground.
  2. test underground fuel oil tanks for leaks; if possible, replace them above ground.
  3. safely store all chemicals and fuels.
  4. minimize the use of chemicals; always use according to directions
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According to the 2012 OECD report "Environmental outlook to 2050. The consequences of inaction", the global share of water withdrawal for irrigation in 2050 was expected to drop to about 37.5% of the total withdrawal (from about 67% in 2000). Also in absolute figures, irrigation water withdrawal would drop by 14% (5% in lower income countries). Such concrete figures do not appear in other global reports (FAO, World Water Development Reports). Any ideas where I may find reliable updates for the prospects towards 2050?
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Hi,
Please check this article ;
And i attached a file for your question. i hope help you
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I want to carry out my study over Irrigated Indus Basin and I am looking to benchmark the suitable land-hydrological models to evaluate the impacts of water withdrawals on Groundwater–Surface Water Interactionsof under anthropogenic and climate extreme conditions.
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Some modelling that you can consider are:
1. Integrated surface water-groundwater hydrologic models (ISGHM)
2. MIKE-SHE integrated groundwater and surface water model
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I need to measure the environmental impact of irrigation modernization on the drainage quantity and quality and design criteria also of subsurface drainage system
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Can someone help me with different watershed management practices for hilly areas ? Requirement is to have enough water for crop cultivation. I am looking at the hilly areas, any proof of concept or plan available fir India would be really helpful.
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I am sure you will benefit from the references cited by experts. Please follow them carefully. All the best.
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Dear Colleagues
I am using the SWAT model in an irrigated basin where I wanna specify the Irrigation database for major crops (sugarcane, maize, rice, wheat, and cotton) in SWAT model simulations. Does anyone suggest to me "how to address the crop management data including growing, harvesting date, and irrigation amount applied for each crop"?
Your's help will be really appreciated.
Thank you very much.
Kind Regards!
Arshad
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interested
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This product was presented as a decalcifying agent. And, it is used in combination with Sodium hypochlorite. This combination was described as an all-in-one endodontic irrigant.
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This is an interesting product that repurposes the bisphosphonate etidronate (HEDP) combined with NaOCl disinfectant. The idea was to combine an oxidation-resistant chelator directly with NaOCl disinfection solution to expedite and simplify root canal irrigation. HEDP exhibits short-term compatibility with NaOCl solutions at clinical strengths, thus retaining the desired antimicrobial and proteolytic effects of NaOCl while
adding an element of decalcification to the mixture. Here is some of the early literature on it fyi:
- Ballal NV, Das S, Rao BSS, Zehnder M, Mohn D. Chemical, cytotoxic and genotoxic
analysis of etidronate in sodium hypochlorite solution. Int Endod J. 2019;52:1228-34.
- Zehnder M, Schmidlin P, Sener B, Waltimo T. Chelation in root canal therapy
reconsidered. J Endod. 2005;31:817-20.
- Tartari T, Guimaraes BM, Amoras LS, Duarte MA, Silva e Souza PA, Bramante CM.
Etidronate causes minimal changes in the ability of sodium hypochlorite to dissolve
organic matter. Int Endod J. 2005;48:399-404.
And a newer study:
Kfir A, Goldenberg C, & Metzger Z, Hülsmann M, Baxter S. Cleanliness and erosion of root canal walls after irrigation with a new HEDP-based solution vs. traditional sodium hypochlorite followed by EDTA. A scanning electron microscope study. Clinical Oral Investigations (2020) 24:3699–3706.
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Hi all!
I would like to ask for your advice please regarding IBM SPSS.
During my experiment I have Variety (Desiree and Pentland Dell), Irrigation ( On or Off) and Inoculum (A, B, C, D) as fixed variables.
My dependent variable is SPAD (continuous values).
After running a 2-way ANOVA I found that Variety had a statistically significant effect on SPAD.
How can I further see what significance levels did Desiree and P. Dell had individually?
Do I do a simple main effect analysis? Do I split the data?
Post Hoc tests are only good for effects that I are not significant if I am not mistaken.
Cheers for your help in advance!
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Please remember that finding a small P-value should not be treated as a requirement to perform or avoid further steps in your analysis
Small P-values are not the goal of your analysis: your estimates are
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What is the best free software for mapping reference evapotranspiration and crop water requirement  (iso evapotranspiration curves)? Does anyone have material related to this topic?
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In another word, can drip irrigation caused to reduce transpiration compared to basin irrigation?
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Yes. Irrigation method modify microclimate around the crop and its transpiration.
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Dear peers,
I am currently making a research proposal on conservation of some endangered Ceropegia and Brachystelma species. Please suggest some advanced models/methods/papers to evaluate the soil, water and climatic requirements for both micropropagated and naturally grown endangered plants.
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studying the agro-pdeological conditions of naturally grown endangered planst and later underatking in-vitro multiplication is quite task . These two exercises have heaven to hell difference. But , all the best to you....
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Good morning,
Where can I find a list of crop coefficient (Kc) for Thai crops ?
Thanks
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Have a look at this article (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105368). You can estimate the precise values of crop coefficients for your study regions.
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Here is the FAO Dependable Rain Method to computes MONTHLY effective rainfall
Pe = 0.8 P - 25 if P > 75 mm/month
Pe = 0.6 P - 10 if P < 75 mm/month
Where Pe is the monthly effective rainfall and P is the monthly rainfall
If I want to use the same formula to compute DAILY rather than Monthly Rainfall, can I do that?
DailyPe = 0.8 DailyP - 25 if daily P >2.5mm/day (or 75 mm/30 days)
DailyPe = 0.6 DailyP - 10 if daily P < 2.5mm/day (or 75mm/30 days)
Where DailyPe is the daily effective rainfall and DailyP is the daily rainfall.
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This data has been of interest to me as well.
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In a context of climate vulnerability linked mainly to drought and floods, how can small farmers benefit from recession agriculture while minimizing the economic risks affecting their livelihoods (crops, livestock, agricultural equipment, or other)? Or how to enjoy the benefits of spate irrigation without being eternally victims of possible flood damage to crops and other livelihoods of rural families?
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I think the option that is ideal here is " Agroforestry " which is the deliberate combination of arable crops, tree crops and animals on the same piece of land whereby one practice benefit the other. Prunning of tree branches provides fodder that serves as food to animals, animals wastes like dung and poultry droppings form organic manure for arable crops and so on. Arable crops can be sold to get money, fruits from trees can be sold as well for good money.The beauty of Agroforestry is that it can be practiced in areas with land scarcity, one can combine the three on a piece of land, the trees also reduces rate of evaporation of water from the soil through the litter falls (fallen leaves) from trees,some trees also help in soil reclamation which eventually renders the soil productive again.
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What is the rate of adaptation of drip irrigation technology in India? What are the barriers towards adaptation of this technology?
Can you please share any relevant publication?
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For a semi-arid region with water shortage, how much yield reduction (with the implementation of deficit irrigation strategy) is acceptable for farmers?
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Apart from biological yield loss, economics should be used to answer your question. Acceptable yield reduction should be based on marginal costing and marginal value for optimality. Said that the acceptance of yield losses by farmers depends on their risk-taking and income levels and varies from farmer to farmer.
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The availability of micronutrients in soils is reduced go a greater extent with application of saline irrigation. But under the conditions where ground water is saline in nature or soils are inherently saline, the following key points be kept in mind to enhance the micronutrients availability. 1. Alternative irrigation with canal and tubewell waters. 2. Irrigation with mixing of 50 % Canal plus 50 % tubewell water. 3. Grow green manuring crops before sowing of Rabi season crops. 4. Add farm yard manure as amendment if possible. 5. Selection of crops bearing under saline conditions, is necessary. 6. Foliar application of micronutrients if symptoms of deficiency appear.
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Salt water increases osmotic pressure and thus prevents water absorption and prevents the absorption of the nutrient and is a competition for the nutrient
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Irrigation water which has a high sodium hazard (high SAR or RSC) may be used if the soil contains Calcium.
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We are working on Saline Agriculture these days. My experience shows that mostly high RSC (>2.5) in irrigation water is a problem. We have successfully use hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to bring RSC down to safe limits. Acid application through irrigation water improves soil health since bonds of Ca and Mg are broken down and are flushed down in soil, away from rootzone.
More about this can be read on internet.
Good luck
Dr. Zafar Hashmi
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In APSIM Continuous Irrigated Cotton simulation in the output file variables grid, there is no parameters of phenology stages or phases. But for other crops in APSIM model it is available. Any suggestion how to add/drag cotton phenology parameters in output file columns ?
See the image attached to better understand my question.
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Thank you Ke Liu
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lal and singh
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YES
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Irrigated (e.g: 20-25% of the available water holding capacity is supplied)
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Crop water stress index- What you are mentioning is based on canopy temperature or deficit irrigation by stopping irrigation
There are several approaches, by which you do. It may be based on soil moisture based ( Up to Wilting point), 2) deficit irrigation based on actual ETc ( 50 %, 60 % etc) . Kindly clarify on this. One of the paper on CWSI I am enclosing for reference.
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The relationship between explanatory or independent variable also having an impact on the relationship of dependent and independent variable. To address such relationship, we use interaction term in our model to explain in depth the relationship and also strengthen the explanatory power of our model.
Eg. Crop (DV) and Irrigation (IV), Rainfall; Moderating variable.
The Co-relationship of rainfall and Irrigation also has an impact on the relationship of crop and Irrigation.
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Interaction of independent variables in a regression model means that the effect of one variable depends on the value of one or more of the other variables. It is a common situation. Interaction is usually represented by a term consisting of a product of two or more independent variables. If the coefficient of the interaction term is significantly different from zero, it means that the effect of one variable depends on the value of the other. The model remains linear with respect to all regression coefficients, so all usual regression computational techniques should be used including checking for multicollinearity of independent variables.
The model with the interaction term X*Zis usually y = a0 + a1*bX + a2*Z + a3*X*Z + e (main effects + interaction) and not just Y= a0 + a3*X*Z + e (the interaction), and you can then use summary statistics to see if the interaction is an improvement over simpler formulations.
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I am starting to design a shallow tube well drilling system using power tiller. Before testing this system i would like to know the water layer depth from surface and also the thickness of the layer. I am confused which is best technology to execute this work. So, i would be grateful if anyone can suggest me, and that can be bought to use directly.
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pl read groud wter well hydrology by Todd or johnson water wells
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We are planning to cultivate this species in north-east Jordan. Would appreciate any insights and recommendations.
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السلام عليكم
متطلبات الري التي تحتاجها الى اي نبات ام لتربة معينة ام لطريقة ري وضح رجاء مع التقدير
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We have a severe irrigation water problem in the western desert. The irrigation water is polluted by a high concentration of Iron and Manganese, these minerals are causes emitters clogging and decreased productivity.
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The methods are :
1- Pricipitation them in the form of carbonate or hydroxyl by addig chemical compounds.
2- Ozonation and infiltration.
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Good Afternoon Everyone! I am working on the optimization of Irrigation supply. For that I need to develop water Balance. The area I am working on is water scarce so, the irrigation is dependent on Surface water as well as on Groundwater Abstraction. My question is how can I add the groundwater Portion in the water balance? As, I don't have any information regarding the volume being extracted. I am having the climatic data, and the Channel flows at head and tail. In addition to that there are also some data points available regarding Groundwater table pre. and post monsoon. Is there anyway to estimate the amount of Groundwater with the available data without using model i.e Swat?
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You can calculate the water budget base on storage capacity in aquifers as a specific yield of these aquifer, study infiltration, the relationship between rainfall and infiltration, surface runoff.....
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Is the soil water index a good indicator of available soil moisture resulting either from precipitation or irrigation depth?
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I recommend soil based index for scheduling when you have flexible irrigation interval (i.e, 1, 2, 3 or different days irrigation interval). But if you follow irrigation schedule based on daily basis, climate-based ET estimation is the good option.
Secondly, for large scale application, you have to consider both to match soil and climate based water demands
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Is there any way to compute effective rainfall in Australia ? Like the the SCS-CN method for the US. It has to be specific to Australia, preferably from observation/experimentation in the field (empirical equation). I am looking for something different from the Dependable Rain (FAO) or the USDA soil conservation service.
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The concept of 'effective rainfall ' is irrelevant for most environments. What is effective rainfall in an urban area? 'Effective rainfall' is the amount of rain which is 'used' to produce a crop or fill a reservoir. It is meaningless when applied to an area much bigger than a paddock - and even then if the terrain is variable in slope or soil, or the farming system is different, the calculation becomes very difficult very quickly.
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Does anyone has a simple empirical formula to compute Daily effective Rainfall for any location in Thailand?
Thanks
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Hi Daniel,
Water in the root zone may be measured by sampling and oven-drying the soil before and after every shower of rain. The increase in soil moisture, plus evapotranspiration loss (ETa) from the time the rain starts until the soil is sampled, is the amount of effective rainfall. After heavy rainfall evapotranspiration can be assumed to be at the potential rate during the short period from cessation of rainfall until the sampling time. This can be taken as 0.4 to 0.8 times the evaporation value of the Class A Pan
ER = M2 - M1 + kp EoER = effective rainfall Eo = Class A Open Pan evaporation value M1 and M2 = moisture status in the effective root zone before and after rain, respectively kp = pan coefficient
The method takes into account the soil and the crop characteristics. The determination is simple and accurate but it may involve errors due to soil variation; the sampling errors may range from 5 to 40 percent. The method is also laborious and time consuming. The use of neutron probes reduces the drudgery of periodic soil sampling, but these are costly methods for routine purposes and also subject to sampling errors
Best Regards.
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The field of crop water management for irrigated agriculture has been undergoing some research innovations deviating from ideal situation into scientific bases and several textbooks information to address these new developments. One of such is the concept of field capacity for different soil textural classes.
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The soil water potential at field capacity varies from soil to soil, and it generally ranges from –10kPa (sandy soils) to –33kPa (clayey soils). Usually, soil attains field capacity 2 to 3 days after irrigation or rainfall. Field capacity is determined in the field by flooding water in an area of 2 to 5 m2, and allowing it to drain for 1 to 3 days after preventing surface evaporation using polythene sheets or thick straw mulches. After this time, soil samples are collected from the wetted zone, and the moisture is determined by the thermo-gravimetric method.
Not much differences in moisture percentages has been observed regardless of the potential at field capacity between soils. Therefore, in laboratory analysis, especially when using a pressure plate apparatus, the moisture percentage of soil at 30kPa pressure is commonly taken as field capacity.
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The FAO says that effective rainfall is never negative in Paragraph 4.2
Why do I do If I have negative effective rainfall (Pe) in the equation below (I am using the SCS method) ? see equation attached.
I provided the equation for Monthly precipitation. But It is also applicable to Daily precipitation. I get negative daily effective rainfall (Pe) sometimes. So should I nullify Pe then ?
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No, effective rainfall cant be negative. If due to some data discrepancy you get negative results you can assume effective rainfall depth as 0
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I have to add water in one kilogram soil to make it about 80% field capacity level. What is the best way to measure the amount of water required to attain 80% field capacity in one kilogram soil?
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- Dry a quantity of soil in an oven at 60 ° C until a constant weight ;
- Weigh a quantity p1 (1 kg for example) of dry soil in a pot (the pot must be perforated below);
- Water the pot to saturation and place it in the dark to avoid evaporation;
- After 48 hours, weigh the pot again (p2);
FC = p2-p1
ex: if p2 = 1.2 kg ie FC = 200 g (100% FC)
you must add 200 g of water to your dry soil to have 100% FC and therefore 160 g to have the soil at 80% FC.
NB: Make at least 3 repetitions
If you do not want to dry all of your soil, once the FC determined. Calculate the amount of water present in your soil by making the difference between the weight of the soil and the weight of the dry soil. You will have the amount of water already present in your soil. Complete this quantity to achieve the desired FC.
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What is the major weakness of SWB model developed and modified by Pretoria university over AQUACROP?
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both are equally good
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Dear all,
i am working on SWAT to simulate evapotranspiration, in order to set-up the the model i need some crop dataset for State of Tamil Nadu. Datasets are as follows
1.) Crop Operation Data (Dates of Planting, Fertilisation, Irrigation Scheduling, harvest/Kill etc.)
2.) Crop parameter (LAI, BIOMASS and Number of heat units required to reach plant at maturity
Can you anybody suggest where i can get these data?
Thanking you all.
Rajat
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Can you anybody suggest where i can get these data?
Ans.
''Crop Operation Data'' get from any head office of agriculture extension department in the area. They only can provide you accurate information, because they have field officers, who are daily engaged with growers/farmers.
Crop parameters: This data you can obtain from district head office of research station.
Only this way you can get an accurate and efficient data. From net website, you can not get accurate information.
Kind regards, SJ
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Hello every one!!
im looking for the trend of LULC. suppose there is change in Agricultural land then how can i find the trend of it? in the agricultural land, suppose there is particular type of crop cultivation is also changing, how can i capture that trend? in the same line, i'm wondering what would be the resolution of image required to see the changes in particular crop cultivation area?
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Hello Praveen,
First, you need time-series data (preferably remotely sensed images) to observe trends in LULC.
A good starting point in deciding the suitable image spatial resolution is to consider the landscape structure in terms of composition and spatial configuration.
And depending on the extent of your study area you may consider satellite or aerial images.
I assume you are familiar with your study area and have a fair idea about the rate of LULC changes. This will be vital in deciding the temporal resolution of the images (e.g seasonal, yearly, decadal etc.).
You can then apply supervised image classification methods and make area estimates of different LULC types (see FAO's OpenForis tool for area estimation) and analyze trends in LULC.
At the crop level, you may extract and test suitability of spectral (e.g. NDVI, EVI, spectral bands, tasseled cap variables etc.), textural (Homogeneity, entropy, variance etc.) and phenological (e.g. mean NDVI) variables from the remotely sensed images to characterize different crop types.
Select the most suitable variables and apply image differencing and thresholding methods.
Hope you find these useful.
Best regards,
Kwame
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Dear Researchers,
Has anyone the full text of the following standard?
ISO22856: 2008, Equipment for crop protection —Methods for the laboratory measurement of spray drift — Wind tunnels.
I should consulate it for a research.
Thanks a lot,
Behzad
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Hi dear Rouhallah,
Thanks a lot aziz.
Hope to see you soon
Friendly Yours
Behzad
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is there any formula "predicting" water needs of a specific cultivation combining evapotranspiration and soil texture?
Currently i am working in cotton and stone fruits to optimize water inputs.
Thank you
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I do not think that this formula can exist!. Think about the nature of your question? The "water needs" equal evapotranspiration + groundwater recharge (or deep seepage) + runoff. Given the fact that evapotranspiration is known in your case, you need an estimate of groundwater recharge and runoff. These two parameters depend on many different factors than just soil texture. If you are working in a specific region, where all other factors can be considered constant, you may derive some statistical relation locally, but there are cetainly no generic equations since all the other factors do vary. Hope this helps.
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Irrigation sagacity and irrigation efficiency.
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How do you relate irrigation efficiency with nutrient use efficiency , regardless of crops and soils..
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This is the scenario:
1) Irrigation water with a composition of ferric nitrate [Fe(NO3)3], ammonium nitrate [NH4NO3], ammonium nitrite [NH4NO2], ammonium nitride [(NH4)3N] and humic acid (full of N). Alcalinity 150 mg/l, hardness 250 mg/l, salinity 0.6 g/L, electric conductivity 1.5 mS/cm, pH 8. 25ºC.
2) Water Ozonization parameters: 3.5 L/min, 80% O2 richness, 65 g O3/m3. Invariable water volume 500 mL.
So...
What do you think it will ocurr?
Will all the nitrogen present in an irrigation water (in its organic or inorganic forms) become nitrate after ozonation of the water?
Will alcalinity or hardness change in any maner?
Will salinity or electric conductivity change?
Will the pH be important for that supposed change?
I'm looking for different and interesting opinions about it because I'm doing experiments on that subject, and reading many papers too, but I'm finding some exciting contradictions.
Thanks in advance.
Juan de Dios
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You don't mention the treatment target for the ozonation which determine how much ozone you would add. Do you ozonate to disinfect the water, remove the color or a specific chemical pollutant?
If you ozonate to a level there you perform disinfection or decolorisation you will oxidize nitrite to nitrate but not organic nitrogen and ammonia.
Alkalinity, hardness, salinity and electric conductivity doesn't change with ozonation. pH is very important for the ozonation process. Both required dose, products formed and reaction kinetics change drastically e.g. between pH 6 and 8.
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Root intrusion in the drippers is a common problem in subsurface drip irrigation. I am wondering if anyone knows about the chemicals that are commonly used in SDI for preventing root intrusion (preferably in the cereals)?
In addition, I would like to know the dosage or the amount that is required to apply per dripper or per length of the tube in each irrigation event? I need to know so that to calculate the total amount of chemical in each irrigation. Irrigation time may vary.
I already know about the chemical such as commercial acids or the herbicides ( such as Treflan) but I would like to know more about other practical experiences in field crops (not tress, vines, or grasses) and the recommended dosage and application frequency during the growing season.
Thank you,
Seyed
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chemicals are used for nematodes controle in many cases via drip irrigation
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Dear my Friends,
For Mayis Corn Zea planting in Iraq, we divided the land of the experiment to experimental units with dimensions 4x5 m sequre in accordance with A Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) in split block arrangement with three replications left the amount of breaks between 2m and 1 m sectors between the experimental unit to another.
The soil Chemical properties  are the main components of the soluble salts and accumulated soil study is the ions of Mg, Ca , Na , CL, and high concentrations of these  ions in the second depth led to high salinity bit values
According to the results that have been reached  by  the values of (PH) which are (6.7 to 8.7) and EC soil rates are (3.20- 5.1) and percentage of items that have been found are appropriate ratios for most of the fallen leaves and some species evergreen species (Abdullah and Kanani, 1985)
The design includes four treatments for irrigation is
1- surface drip irrigation (I1)
 2- subsurface drip emitter at (10cm ) under soil (I2)
 3- Sub surface drip emitter (20cm) under soil (I3)
 4- Sub surface drip emitter (30cm) under soil (I4)
and for   fertilization we want to practice
1-fertilization with 50 kg NPK. ha (S1)
2-fertilization with 100 kg NPK. ha (S2)
3- fertilization with 200 kg NPK. ha (S3)
For best possible yield, which irrigation and fertilization parameters above must be the largest values? or How can we get optimal yield by managing above parameters??
Thanks in advance for your help and consultation..
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Before you design, you need to know the soil profile - type of soil, pH value, nature, bulk density, soil organic matter, available nutrients in soils through soil testing.  On the basis of exploratory studies, fertllizer doses are narrowed down for such studies. How are you planning to provide nutrients to crop through soil or drip system (fertigation). Please read few good publications, you will get idea for planning your experiment.
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Leaf reddening is the cause of stress (biotic, abiotic) indication  in sensitive short duration Bt hybrids. Irrigation, Deep vertisols, Stay green Bt hybrid/Bio-stimulants, Long duration hybrids, sucking pest suceeptablitywith insecticides / resistant hybrids and the last WSF against deficit nutrition of P,K, Mg are the causes and found remedies. Stay green colour offered by genotypes, GA3, 6 BA and Strobins and Monocrotophos conjoint additives also.
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Leaf reddening in Bt hybrid cottonRR Ambati
Agric Res. Tech. 3, 1-3
Leaf reddening in short duration rainfed Bt hybrid cotton-A reviewRR Ambati
Cotton Research and Development 31 (2), 256-261
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Hello,
I am trying to setup Aquacrop for the first time by comparing different irrigation schemes (no calibration) in Sudan just to estimate the amount of irrigated water usage. Can anyone point me in the right direction on how to approach that task.  For example, if I have wheat, I know the planting date starts around  September 10 and the growing season is around 100-120 days.
The crop phenology data I can obtain from AquaCrop Reference Manual while the growing season would be FAO-56
Hence I am trying to figure out when and how much irrigated water you would need to add when do you stop.  Running everyone to field capacity creates results that have excessive water usage.  
Secondly, how would this change is you change the type of irrigated water.
Any help you can provide would greatly be appreciated.  Thanks.
Shaffiq Somani
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Interesting question . Infact , this is the major issue in any crop where you do not have any information about irrigation or water requirement of that crop. First thing is to decide based on which parameter , you are going to schedule irrigation like  daily pan evaporation rate , evapo-transpiration rate , IW/CPE ratio , soil  available water capacity-based , however , best is to schedule irrigation based on depletion in soil available water capacity . Then , you need  to identify the critical growth stages , however i personally feel , in a  crop , all stages are critical , it could be a possibility , some stages would require less water while other stages require more  water . Initially , its your wisdom  and knowledge on crop physiology to move in this direction ..Here are some PDFs enclosed for your information please to give you some initiative about teh crop ...
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I want to get information about the modified sugar beet seeds and seed companies in Europe and America .
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Try to contact Du Pont Pioneer in America 
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Jalal
Were you able to find any data?
I have observed flows for furrow irrigation ranging from 0.3L/s to above 10 L/s per furrow for broadacre crops. The ideal flowrate is influenced by many factors including the field length.    For example in Australia for cotton grown on heavy clay soil with a 1000m field length we commonly recommend a flowrate of 5 to 6 L/s per furrow (furrows on 2m spacing)
Malcolm
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We developed a coupled hydrological-agro-economic modelling system to optimize irrigation strategies for a typical rice irrigation system in Central Vietnam (Quang Nam province). The model consists of a fully distributed hydrological model, which simulates the inflow to a reservoir, and an agro-economic model, which optimizes the rice irrigation technology, i.e. Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) or Continuous Flooding (CF), and -schedule under given water constraints. Irrigation strategies are derived based on different initial reservoir water levels at the beginning of the cropping season as well as different maximum water releases.
In order to publish our results we need to validate our modelling results. This seems to be a big problem since nearly no written information is available. We interviewed local stakeholders, which confirmed that our results are plausible, however, the reviewers are not convinced and demand for a "real" validation. 
There is no time and money to conduct own field experiments. Therefore, we are looking for data about irrigation water requirement, number of irrigation events, irrigation interval, area that can be cultivated etc. for irrigation schemes under AWD and/or CF, preferably but not exclusively for Central Vietnam, in order to check our results.
Also, such data or even similar studies in the East Asian context could be helpful.
Any help on that is highly appreciated! Patrick
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not yet, Camilla. Certainly worth to contact them.
Thanks for all answers.
Patrick
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Plants have mechanisms for nutrients uptake from soil water, varying with species. I'm looking for a general model or co-relation which will enable to predict concentration of essential nutrients that a plant takes up with respect to concentration of same in soil-water.
This relation can't be simple as there are many variables which will affect it. But such predictions can help in agriculture while choosing crop type, irrigation water, fertilisers, to enhance yield and reduce phytotoxicity.
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It's so hard to use other water source for foliar application. Could we use our routing irrigation water for this spraying method?
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The suitability of water for irrigation depends on some factors like:
1-Type of plant. 2- Climatic condition . 3- Soil type or texture. 4- Water quality and its chemical composition which can be express as follow:
SIW = F(W, P. Cl, S....)
where: SIW  = Suitability of irrigation water
f= Function on or depend on
W = Water quality .   P =Type of plants .    Cl =Climate .  S =Soil type 
....= Any factor may discover in the  future 
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This study is sought to find out whether or not the two different variety of paddy crop production (White saro) and (Red saro) in areas under cultivation (0.2-0.4) ha and (0.5-1.6) ha in Mkula irrigation scheme was due to irrigation productivity.
Dependent variable - irrigation productivity (kg/m3)
Independent variables - white saro, red saro, 0.2-0.4 ha, 0.5-1.6 ha
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Thanks for your answers were of valuable contribution in my study.
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Hi all!
I am to conduct an ex post impact evaluation for the first of a two-phased irrigation project. Given that, the pipeline approach was used so the comparison is made between the current and future beneficiaries. Mahalinobis matching will also be employed.
As such, I would like to ask how many more control samples should I add over the treatment samples? Also, my goal sample size is 300 to 400 farmers.
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In case-control studies it was usually stated that there was no increase in statistical power over a ratio of 1: 3 for cases and controls. In a cohort study, it depends on your accesibility to those controls, the cost of this additional information and your sample size calculation and assumptions.
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Dear Experts
I have to do cost benefit analysis in micro irrigation in Himalaya so can you suggest me any past study related to this.
Which common methodology do we have to adopt for rural area of mountains?
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This is an interesting area ...find below some useful PDFs relating the issue...
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I work on controlling an irrigation process to reduce the water loss by simulating the whole process and I don't have a real soil moisture sensor reading, but I have the meteorological data of the field. So, I need to estimate the soil moisture values from the meteorological data and soil type and characteristic. I hope any one who can help me to give an advice or any helpful information. Regards.
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CROPWAT MODEL
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I want to examine the effect of Pseudomonas sp. and Azospirillum sp. bacteria application combined with salicylic acid application on plant growth and development , but i am afraid from salicylic acid effect on microorganisms population in the soil.
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