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Publications related to Iron Age (10,000)
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Conference Paper
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Athens and, to a lesser extent, broader Attica, constitute perhaps the most well-researched of Greek regions. The abundance of both written sources and archaeological evidence has contributed to the formulation of a clear enough picture of the Athenian and Attic landscape, especially from the Archaic period onwards. Even though Early Iron Age Athen...
Article
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Terracing and the construction of a flood control system in Petra has allowed a unique opportunity to examine landscape conditions and changes beginning with the Late Iron Age. The study area is the Hremiyyeh catchment that flows into the core of the archaeological city of Petra and therefore constitutes an important key to understanding the human...
Article
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Unusually large ash heaps are a remarkable Late Iron Age feature of Kweneng, near Johannesburg. They are not randomly distributed across the site. What can a spatial analysis of their distribution tell us about their significance? Our results show that the prominent ash heaps of Kweneng are principally associated with only one of the three styles o...
Article
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A collection of 30 faience beads recovered from the Iron Age necropolis of Vinha das Caliças 4 (Beja, Portugal) was analyzed in order to identify their production technology and provide insights into their possible provenance. The multi-analytical approach employed, combining laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS),...
Article
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Recent research has provided valuable insights into the identity and social structure of the local nomadic tribes operating the two main copper production centers in Wadi Arabah, Timna, and Faynan, between the thirteenth and the ninth century BCE. This was a time of major changes in the political and economic settings of Wadi Arabah and the entire...
Technical Report
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This is the technical report on the zooarchaeological re-examination of the animal bones found in 28 pit houses from the ancient market place site at Löddeköpinge (Late Vendel to Late Viking Age/Early Medieval, i.e. late 8th-11th cent AD), located on the west coast of Scania, south Sweden. The re-examination of the bones from Löddeköpinge is part o...
Article
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A categorization of corrosion morphologies of archaeological Sn bronzes was carried out on archaeological Iron Age objects. The objects come from a Celtic deposit located in central France (Tintignac, Corrèze) and are dated between 2nd and 3rd cent BC. Being samples of corroded metals taken from a single find spot, parameters connected to the featu...
Article
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This paper documents the abundance of Stone Age finds in the Middle Kalahari, both through earlier publications and newly documented sites. Results of several decades of Stone Age research are presented through a variety of projects and placed within the context of previous archaeological investigations in the region. We argue for the importance of...
Article
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This paper catalogues and discusses metal artefacts observed in several contexts which are part of a pit alignment outside a Middle/Late Iron Age square enclosure excavated by Cotswold Archaeology at Saxon Rise, Brixworth, Northamptonshire. This is followed by an examination of depositional practices. By examining the objects’ preservation conditio...
Article
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The Al‐Mudhaybi Regional Survey uses different methods to reconstruct the diachronic development of the archaeological landscape within a 930 km² area. This article evaluates the different outcomes of remote sensing, ground‐truthing and systematic field‐walking of transects regarding the type and chronological range of structures found. Additionall...
Article
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During the long-lasting excavations at Porsuk-Zeyve Höyük paint decorated vessels were found in the Hellenistic layer. The surfaces of these vessels are decorated with various motifs. In this study, Hellenistic vessels with band/spiral, dot and bird decoration motifs, which are also seen on the Iron Age vessels from Porsuk-Zeyve Höyük and were stil...
Article
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In the archaeological research of the Iron Age of Iran, the study of human-environment interaction has been largely neglected. Besides, due to the occurrence of climatic oscillations over the cultural period, conducting research with this approach seems necessary. The biggest limitation of this study was the shortage of absolute dating and reliable...
Article
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I og med at mad er essentielt for opretholdelsen af livet, er undersøgelser af bearbejdning af fødevarer og indtag af mad vigtige for at forstå forhistoriske samfunds daglige liv. Desværre er madvarer som regel ikke godt bevaret i jorden. Ofte er det kun gennem rester af forarbejdningen og tilberedningen af mad, at arkæologer kan få et indblik i fo...
Article
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Kærgård, Daugbjerg – a Late Iron Age settlement with a workshop area Excavations carried out in 2007-09 on the edge of a meadow at the farm of Kærgård, about 15 km west of Viborg (figs. 1-2) revealed evidence of houses and activities dating from the Germanic Iron Age and Viking Age (c. AD 400-950). Even though an area of about 14,000 m2 was unc...
Chapter
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Finds of bulbous oat grass have become more and more common on Danish archaeologicalsites. The root bulbs of this plant are found both on settlements and in cremation gravesfrom various periods of the Bronze and Iron Age, which is illustrated with two examples:Kildehuse II and Elmehøjsager II.Kildehuse II is a cremation cemetery from the end of the...
Article
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Until recently, the culture of the late Iron Age in the central Iranian Plateau had only been identified at the southern mound of Sialk. In this study, a newly discovered site, called Qolam Tepe, is introduced in the foothills of western Kashan at a very close distance to Sialk. None of the surface findings of Qolam Tepe show any era other than the...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews archaeologically secure material evidence for visual imagery from ancient Israel and Judah, with occasional side views of neighboring regions. Its focus is on artifacts produced and consumed during the first half of the first millennium BCE (or Iron Age II and III). Relevant data include representations of deities ranging from...
Article
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The burial custom of arms-bearing of the deceased adult males, and in some cases, juveniles, has been perceived almost all over the Hellenic mainland since the early Iron Age and appears to be absent from both the Aegean Islands and the Ionian Islands, with the exception of a few cases. In most regions of Greece, the burial of the dead with their a...
Article
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Through archaeobotanical analysis and discussion of the abundant charred macrofossils in samples from a burnt down four-post structure at an Early Roman Iron Age farmstead (ad 1-150) at Kulerup, Sjælland (Zealand) in Denmark, this article aims to shed new light upon the functions of this type of structure in Denmark. Based on the analysis of the di...
Chapter
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A partridge rhyton, which was bought by the Museum of Van described in this article and prepared in honour of Prof. Dr. Hayat Erkanal. The vessel has a blackish-grey paste. The partridge has an oval body, short neck, flat base and short tail, the feet of the partridge are not shown. It is decorated with triangles, dots and notched lines in the tech...
Article
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This paper presents the initial results of the latest research of the vaccean pottery workshop of Tordehumos (Valladolid). The investigation of the site used diverse documentation techniques. Firstly, a electromagnetic prospection were conducted, through which we obtained a series of tomographic maps showing the resistivity of the ground elements a...
Research Proposal
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The ninth Doctoral Meetings of the European School of Protohistory of Bibracte (EEPB) will be held in March, 13-15 2023, at the European Archaeological Center of Bibracte (Burgundy, France). Since 2015, these Meetings aim at bringing together PhD candidates and young doctors working on common issues concerning the Bronze and Iron Ages across Europe...
Article
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Ancient fingerprints preserved in clay artefacts can provide demographic information about the people who handled and manufactured them, leaving their marks as an accidental record of a moment’s interaction with material culture. The information extracted from these ancient impressions can shed light on the composition of communities of practice en...
Article
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RESUMEN La intervención arqueológica llevada a cabo en 2021 en el yacimiento denominado «El Castejón I-El Romeral» fue encomendada por la Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural del Gobierno de Aragón, y se planteó como la primera campaña con fines científicos, puesto que en las ocasiones anteriores las intervenciones arqueológicas estaban enfocad...
Article
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Paper presents for the first time summarized data on the past distribution of red deer in Bulgaria, based on 131 proven localities, most of being former human settlements. In the Pleistocene red deer's localities were distributed between 40 and 811 m a.s.l. and the majority of them (70.4 %) were located between 200 and 500 m a.s.l. In general, the...
Article
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Shears (Fig. 1) is an instrument for cutting thin materials (cloth, wool etc.) and it consists of two edges opposed to each other. Since the early Iron Age (1–4 century) till the Middle Ages shears have been a frequent item in the sites of Latvian archaeology, especially in castle mounds; however, massive findings have never been discovered. Shears...
Chapter
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The aim of this article is to evaluation of the burial tradition of pre-Urartians in the basin of Lake Van. After the Middle Bronze Age, which had a strong pastoral character, and towards the end of the Late Bronze Age, new pottery, architectural and metallurgical traditions, new settlement pattern and new burial customs emerged in the highland of...
Poster
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The engraved rock of Viçoso, located in the region of Upper Eastern Algarve, was identified with the Archaeological Monitoring work carried out during the construction of the Photovoltaic Plant of Viçoso (within the scope of the project ALCO, promoted by Galp – Alcoutim Photovoltaic Parks, Ltd.). It refers to a greywacke boulder, detached from the...
Conference Paper
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In the Early Iron Age, especially from the middle of the 8th century BC onwards, the island of Crete developed into a cultural melting pot, a prominent intermediate station situated at the crossroads between the Near East, Egypt, mainland Greece, and the West. Traversing the sea routes of the wine-dark sea, sailors, merchants, artisans, immigrants,...
Chapter
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Depictions of weapons and of armed human figures in Camunianand Alpinerock art are common, particularly after the advent of metalwork and especially beginning with the Copper Age. They are found on monuments and on rocks, as can be seen clearly in the megalithic sanctuaries featuring stelae, anthropomorphic stelae, and statues-menhir, as well as in...
Article
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The Achaemenids and Sasanian 'Persian' Empires were significant political, economic, and social forces in the Late Iron Age and Late Antiquity Eurasia, respectively, which have left marks on the heritage of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern world. While attention is often focused on military and political conditions when discussing the prosperit...
Article
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The Bronze Age—Iron Age transition in Central Asia (ca. 800 BCE) was a period of significant cultural change that was heavily influenced by greater population interaction and mobility. Indeed, scholars have increasingly emphasized the role that “food globalization in prehistory” has played in defining this period. In the mountain foothills of Kazak...
Article
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The article critically examines interpretations of Old World ferrous metallurgical developments with reference to their consequences for Arctic Fennoscandian iron research. The traditional paradigm of technological innovations recurrently links the emergence of iron technology to increasing social complexity and a sedentary agricultural lifestyle,...
Article
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Phoenicians were the first to systematically develop the area surrounding the Strait of Gibraltar at the end of the 9th century B.C. Following pioneering studies in the Río Guadiaro estuary (Málaga/Cádiz) in the 1980s, a German‐Spanish cooperation project focussed on the role of indigenous people in the Phoenician colonisation trading networks at L...
Poster
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Along the Levantine coast, ancient anchorages facilitated urban center establishment by enabling travel between sites and civilizations, leading to expanding trade networks. Various scholars have hypothesized that growing maritime economic prosperity during the Bronze and Iron Ages was permitted along the Israeli coast in Yaffo, Dor, Tel Naami, Tel...
Article
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Natural sciences provide several modern methodologies that could be successfully applied in archaeological studies. In this pilot study, archaeological human remains from two Iron Age cemeteries (7th–twelfth centuries AD), Lejasbitēni and Čunkāni-Dreņģeri, which are located in different regions of Latvia, were studied. We applied ancient DNA (aDNA)...
Article
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Starch grain analysis carried out on 23 ceramic sherds from 6 refuse pits from the site of Nachtigal in central Cameroon is shedding light on a longstanding debate regarding ancient diets in Central Africa during the Iron Age (IA, 2500 years BP) but also more recently during the Modern Period (ca. 150 BP). The results indicate a varied, but balance...
Chapter
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Did slavery exist in prehistoric times? The answer is yes. Evidence suggests it may begin as early as the Late Bronze Age and is clearly established in the Iron Age and thereafter. The emergence of slavery goes hand in hand with the development of warfare and the establishment and expansion of hierarchical structures. The discussion about the cente...
Article
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This report is on the 2022 survey season at Khirbet al-Mudayna al-‘Aliya, an early Iron Age site, dating to roughly the end of the 11th/early 10th century BCE.
Poster
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During the Early Iron Age (11th – 7th century BC) urn cremations in central Macedonia have been revealed in a few cemeteries (e.g., Polichni, Axioupolis, Nikiti/Ai Giannis, Koukos, Makrygialos, Nea Efkarpia, Nea Philadelphia, Torone, Ierissos), and often they co-occur with inhumations. Polichni is located in the west suburbs of Thessaloniki, Greece...
Article
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This paper presents a method for the merging of lidar-derived point clouds of the same area taken at different moments, even when these are not co-registered. The workflow also incorporates the filtering of vegetation allowing the classification of unclassified point clouds using the ground points of reliable coverages. The objective is to produce...
Article
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The article presents the analysis results for the film "Tomiris" by Akan Satayev, 2019. The film is devoted to Tomiris, the legendary "empress of Mas-sagetae", who won the Persian tsar Cyrus II the Great in 530 B.C. The actuality of appealing to the this range of problems is specified with the brand character of different archaeological monuments b...
Article
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This paper focuses on the period of transition from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age in the centre of European Russia (mainly the Moscow and Ryazan regions). It concerns the period between the Pozdnyakovskaya culture of the Late Bronze Age and the Dyakovo culture of the Iron Age, around the 12 th-5 th century BC. The archaeological culture of t...
Article
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Using a corpus of over 370 compositional analyses of Dutch Bronze Age and Iron Age (c. 2000 BCE AD 0) copper alloy artefacts, long-term patterns in the types of alloys used for specific bronze objects are identified. As the Low Countries are devoid of copper ores and alloying elements, a combination of typo(chrono)logical and compo-sitional analysi...
Article
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The radiocarbon data recently obtained for the site from Saharna Mare–Dealul Mănăstirii offer the opportunity of the first analysis of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age in this area through the correlation between the relative chronology and absolute chronology. The paper presents eight radiocarbon data obtained for the habitation l...
Conference Paper
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Dessueri. The protohistorical settlement of Monte Maio (excavations of 1993-2001) - Of the four hills forming the archaeological system of Dessueri, Monte Maio is the minor but also the most central. For its position it was home to a settlement belonging to the necropolis occupying the other three hills (Dessueri, Fastucheria and Canalotti). The hi...
Article
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During the first millennium BCE, extensive trade networks linked the South Arabian and Mediterranean worlds. While these trade networks are well known for their transport of highly lucrative materials, these connections afforded myriad economic and diplomatic opportunities for the intermediaries located along its routes, and held significant bearin...
Chapter
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El inventario de bienes arqueológicos y las normas urbanísticas de Miranda de Ebro (Burgos), adolecen de varios errores que, con el paso del tiempo, no se han corregido. Entre ellos destacan la ausencia de algunos espacios territoriales, las delimitaciones equivocadas y algunas medidas de (des)protección muy evidentes. Presentaremos el problema emp...
Conference Paper
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Perhaps the least clear in the archaeological and cultural-historical constructions of the Crimean societies of the final Bronze Age - Early Iron Age is still the sphere of religion and cults. This question has a huge historiography associated with the cult of the Virgo, which is mentioned by the natives of Herodotus, but further study and extrapol...
Chapter
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The aim of this paper is to draw attention, once again, to the neglect by scienti$c and cultural institutions of protohistoric rock art, in this case rock engravings. Based on our experience in the documentation and study of these graphic expressions from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages in the Middle Ebro Valley, we present a state of the art on the...
Article
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In this paper, the author presents a method to identify Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1050) warfare through farmsteads destroyed by fire. Specific fire patterns on individual houses, combined with abnormally high numbers of contemporary burnt buildings, are used as proxy for raised levels of aggression during certain periods. The Uppsala plain in East Cent...
Article
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Fishmonger's Swallet, Alveston, Gloucestershire, has produced an unusual quantity of human and animal bone dating to the Late Iron Age. Iron Age burial evidence in the southwest of Britain is scarce and human remains in caves are rarely considered due to lack of secure dating evidence, so the material from this site offers rare insights into a poor...
Article
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This multi-proxy approach combines results of sedimentological, pollen and diatom studies on sediments of Lake Wonieść, Greater Poland. This enables reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic drivers of past environmental change. Several steps of lake development are recorded, from a eutrophic to an oligotrophic stage, and with increasing huma...
Article
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Objects made of osseous materials are extremely rare in the urnfield burial contexts dated in SW Poland to the late Bronze and early Iron Age (ca. 1300-550 BCE). That may be the result of the cremation process which made the bone/antler artefacts fragmented and difficult to distinguish from human bones, usually densely packed in ceramic urns. We co...
Article
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In the 9th century BC, Levantine polities performatively expressed territoriality by strategically utilizing the spatial discourse of royal monuments. Specifically, Levantine rulers erected complementary monuments in both their core cities and frontier cities to transmit a central praxis and perspective to the periphery. This practice drew on earli...
Chapter
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Located in modern southwestern Jordan, Edom is the least known of the peoples of the Iron Age southern Levant. Until recently, the history of the Edomites was based mostly on the biblical text, a few references in Egyptian and Mesopotamian sources, and the very limited number of epigraphic inscriptions found in the region. However, recent archaeolo...
Article
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The genesis of wooden trusses is a very controversial issue as the archaeological data, scarce and incomplete, are not very explicit. Indirect pieces of evidence of roof carpentry organized according to a truss system seem to have been found, at least from the Iron Age, in the Mediterranean basin. However, these are isolated cases that probably did...
Article
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Both climate change and anthropogenic disturbance affect vegetation composition, but it is difficult to separate these drivers of vegetation change from one another. A better understanding of past vegetation dynamics is necessary to disentangle the influence of different forcing factors and assess future vegetation change. Here we present the first...
Article
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This article addresses a body of works by the video artist Ruth Patir, in which Israeli womanhood in the 2020s is interrogated through Iron Age female statuettes, known as Judean Pillar Figurines. By means of motion capture technology and 3D animation, Patir features contemporary Israeli women uncannily moving and speaking through the bodies of mil...
Article
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Although the birth of Classical Greece is often attributed to the constitutional reforms of Cleisthenes (508/507 BCE), the achievement of an economically‐minded government under the Peisistratid tyrant Hippias (527‐510 BCE) potentially paved the way by advancing Athenian silver for exportation in international trade. It is proposed here that new si...
Poster
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The proposed poster summarizes the preliminary results of the macroscopic examination carried out in selected cremations from Iron Age Central Macedonia. The discrete regional variability expressed in the mortuary picture of the Late Bronze Age would acquire a more standardized form in Iron Age Macedonia, in which, from the 11th c. onwards, a range...
Article
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S. A. Gorbanenko COCKLEBUR IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHRONICLE OF UKRAINE In the article, data on common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) finds from the archaeological sites of modern Ukraine is collected and organized. Three of them come from the Scythian period sites. The first find (Bilsk, Poltava Oblast) comes from random sample. Two more finds (...
Book
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The volume provides an overview of the Early Late Iron Age hillforts located between the Eastern Carpathians and Prut River.
Experiment Findings
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Nine well-defined, datable, typological groups where chosen for lead isotope analysis and ratios were determined for 18 copper-alloy objects selected from these groups. These selected personal ornaments, date from the late pre-Roman Iron Age to the end of the Roman Iron Age (250BC – 450AD). The data are used to address the following research questi...
Article
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An Overview of Food Production and Consumption at Tell Halif, Israel, during the Iron Age II.