Iron - Science topic
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Questions related to Iron
As a result of my coastal sediment sampling, I found relatively low enrichment values for most of the metals. However, Igeo, PLI, RI, CD, MCd, and CP had the highest enrichment levels. Is this possible? Could you please let me know if this result contains any errors? The only metals with EF values are Fe (7.25) and Cd (28.47). The rest of the metals remain at 0.02 levels. Could you please let me know?
Please see in the attachement,
I prepared iron thin films on ITO substrate and I measured resistance,
however the graph dont start from same point, why would something like that happend?
Current methods to synthetise nanoscale zero-valent iron need to be under the N2 protection, and they are always inconvenient. Is there any method for synthetising nanoscale zero-valent iron without N2 protection?
If you have, please send it to me. Thanks!
When we dope ZnO with Co or Fe or Ni its band gap mostly decreases, but sometimes it increases with it. What's the reason behind it?
Hello I have to calculate the volume in ml to be administered to a mouse.
Here are my data available:
Resovist agent in concentration 0.5 mol Fe / L
Experimental dose 50 umol / Kg
Mouse weight 25 g
What is the volume in ml to be administered to the mouse?
Can you show me the process, please?
I would like to build a dimeric structure of cyanidin joined to glucose by covalent bonds. The structure also should contain Fe(III) and Chloride ions.
I need to vizualize irone oxide nanoparticles in isolated mammalian cells with microscopy (not SEM, confocal only). Can you recommend any protocol of modification with any fluorophore, preferably binding to the NH2 group (bcs NPs are coated with organic agent)?
I carried FTIR analysis on walnut shell treated with Zn and Fe salt, and found out the FTIR result such as peak 3500 cm-1 and 1075 cm-1 pointing upward instead of downwards as in most previous literature, I need to explain this. Any ideas would help. Thank you.
we have ESR spectra of Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system but it is new for me,
I don't have enough experience in analyzing and interpretation of ESR data.
Can anyone help me to understand the ESR Spectra for Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system.
ESR Spectra of Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system attached for reference.
I am working with Steel on LAAMPS containing Fe, W, Cr and C. My code is as below:
# ---------- Initialize Simulation ---------------------
boundary p p p
# ---------- Create Atomistic Structure ---------------------
# ---------- Define Interatomic Potential ---------------------
pair_style hybrid/overlay eam/alloy eam/fs eam/fs
pair_coeff * * eam/alloy FeCrW_d.eam.alloy Fe Cr W NULL
pair_coeff * * eam/fs FeCrW_s.eam.fs Fe Cr W NULL
pair_coeff * * eam/fs Fe-C_Hepburn_Ackland.eam.fs Fe NULL NULL C
pair_coeff 3 4 lj/cut 0.04 0.97 NULL NULL W C
pair_coeff 2 4 lj/cut 0.02 0.5 NULL Cr NULL C
neighbor 2.0 bin
neigh_modify every 10 delay 0 check yes
# NVE 1
fix nve1 all nve
Basically, I wanted to prepare nano zero-valent iron with one more catalyst to form core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles. So, basically, the core will be iron and above this silver will be coated for the formation of bimetallic. So, mostly I prepared this one with a chemical reduction process where I took salt of both the metals. But, every time I prepare the iron nanoparticles by using sod. borohydride, most of the time, gets oxidized as soon as it forms nanoparticles. In most works of literature, they suggested the usage of Nitrogen gas so that it won't get oxidized. So, can oxidation be prevented without nitrogen gas or a glove box? Actually, I have commercial iron nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles. So, can I prepare bimetallic nanoparticles from these 2 commercial nanoproducts or not? If it's possible then how to do it? Can anyone please explain about this? Thank you.
There is a copper based alloy (aluminium bronze) containing iron for specific custom application. The ratios should be very unusual: 65% copper, 25% aluminium and 10% iron. I tried to search literature for this diagram, but failed to find anything. Maybe because there is no such an alloy in practical use. Software "Thermocalc" is expensive for personal use, so I tried demo version and failed to reach databases (thought that they could have this ratio alloy already) present in demo version.
Is it possible to construct a ternary phase diagram for such an alloy using some software (if yes, would you refer me to such software, or maybe even calculate it for me?)? Or somehow estimate the liquidus and solidus temperatures some other way (aside from experimental)?
Thank you very much!
I agree that Astrophysics is a multidisciplinary field and that students of Astrophysics are taught many subjects from diverse fields. For example Astrophysics curriculum covers mathematics, relativity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, radiation, lasers, electronics, optics etc. etc. But I am perplexed to find that neither Astrophysics text books nor the study curriculum of Astrophysicists cover theory of elasticity in general or working out stresses and strains in solid bodies in particular.
An obvious answer of most learned readers may be that Astrophysicists are not required to deal with solid bodies throughout their career and hence are not required to study theory of elasticity or to learn working out stresses and strains in solid bodies.
Actually however, the situation is other way around. Since Astrophysicists do not study theory of elasticity and do not know how to work out stresses and strains in very large spherical solid bodies under self-gravitation, they erroneously make them collapse under self-gravitation into black holes, thereby misleading the whole scientific community.
None of the current models of stellar core collapse make any attempt to compute the magnitude of STRESSES in the SOLID iron cores actually produced in massive stars at the end of their fusion burning stage.
As per current models when a solid iron core becomes degenerate, the degenerate electrons get freed from their parent iron atoms leaving behind 'positive ions' of iron. When the positive ions start falling towards the center of the core under gravity, the high energy degenerate electrons are SUPPOSED to push these ions outwards by their degeneracy pressure to counter the effect of gravity. However, to impart an outward push to the falling ions, the high energy degenerate electrons will have to exchange their momentum with the falling ions through elastic collisions. But the high energy electrons cannot exchange their momentum with positive ions through elastic collisions because of their electrostatic interactions and hence can never provide the so-called electron degeneracy pressure in stellar cores to counter the effect of gravity.
The main reason for ASSUMING the electron degeneracy pressure in solid iron stellar cores is the implied belief that a cooled down stellar core cannot maintain its Hydrostatic equilibrium in the absence of adequate thermal pressure and that nothing else can stop the gravitational collapse of such cores. Therefore, the constituents of a solid stellar core are first ASSUMED to be non-interacting for applying Hydrostatic equilibrium equations and then the electrons and ions are again ASSUMED to be non-interacting for invoking the electron degeneracy pressure to support the pull of gravity.
Hence, it turns out that all stellar cores which are said to be degenerate, where some sort of degeneracy pressure is invoked to prevent their gravitational collapse under Hydrostatic equilibrium conditions, are in fact SOLID stellar cores which acquire their stability through Equilibrium equations of elasticity. In current models, the stresses in a solid iron stellar core are never analyzed as a SOLID body under self-gravitation, by using the Equilibrium equations of elasticity. By taking into account the electromagnetic interactions among electrons, protons and ions we can show that the high density stellar cores transform into gravity induced solid state which can support the gravitational loading through development of radial and hoop stresses.
I am measuring the O2 content in water using different SOP for oxygen removal and would like to know what O2 concentration should I target. Is 0,2 ppm good enough?
It's about the polymorphism of iron - gamma iron which is paramagnetic dissolves about 2% of carbon while alpha iron ( highly magnetic ) dissolves a maximum of 0.025 % of carbon.
Hello everyone, i have some question about electrolysis.
In the process of electrolysis, the electrolyte must be present or not? What is the role of an agent like Na2SO4? What is the effect of using Na2SO4 electrolyte? If don't use that electrolyte, will electrolysis still work? If there is no electrolyte, is it necessary to replace the electrodes? What effect does the presence of electrolytes have on electrolysis? Electrolyte in the electrolysis process should only Na2SO4 be used or something else? What are the conditions for using an electrolyte in the electrolysis process?
Before doing the electrolysis process, is there a correlation between the reduction potential of the electrodes used such as (Fe as the anode and graphite as the cathode) and the electrolyte (Na2SO4) so that when using the electrodes and electrolytes they can be matching? The electrolyte used should be Na2SO4 or something else? If the Fe (iron) is replaced with another anode, is it possible? If we want to replace the electrolyte, what kind of electrolyte is appropriate, if you later replace the electrode so that the electrolysis process can still work? What conditions should be considered?
Thanks in advance
I want to make electrolytes for electrochemical analysis. Please guide me on how to prepare the above solution and share me procedure.
Hello everyone, i've already did a characterization of SEM-EDX on iron electrodes before and after electrolysis. From this picture, I can only explain that this electrode:
- Before treatment: the iron surface is smooth and regular, the iron element is more dominant
- After treatment: the surface of the iron has cracks, holes and irregularities caused by the electrolysis process, there is also an oxide layer on the surface of the iron which means the surface of the iron has been oxidized, the element of oxygen is more dominant
Any additional suggestions to describe this SEM-EDX result?
Also, I have some questions about SEM-EDX :
1. Why is the oxygen level higher after the treatment?
2. How does Fe react with oxygen in water during electrolysis?
3. How to write down the chemical reaction that occurs between Fe and oxygen in water to form Fe-oxide?
4. Talking about the morphology of SEM on the image after treatment, how can a needle-like layer be formed?
5. If correlated with the pourbaix diagram, how to explain the formation process of iron oxidation, when there is water, the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water?
Thank you in advance
5 gram of soil sample is digested using aqua regia method by using 9ml Conc.HCL and 3 ml HNO3. I have given total 12 ml of digested sample for ICP-OES test to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. They have taken 1% of solution i.e (0.1 ml of sample +9.9 ml of HNO3) for determination.
It will be very helpful if someone help me with the following example...
Ex: Fe - 111.73 mg/L to mg/kg???
Can someone provide me the protocol to prepare nutrient solutions (Hoagland or Steiner or any method) for inducing nutrient deficiency in plants?
The peak of 0.8V and 0.3V is well known as FeIII/FeII and FeII/FeI. But, I cannot figure out what the peaks in the blue circle mean.
I want to use silica coated supermagnetic iron nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drug - Doxorubicin for drug delivery. Will simple loading work for this? Or should I do some chemical modifications?
Is an analysis of 61mg/L Fe (total) plausible from a deep confined siliciclastic aquifer ~420 m below ground level? Normally precipitation of FeS and FeS2 under redusing conditions will limit iron concentrations from getting anywhere near that high (i.e. 5 - 10mg/L Fe is often considered very high) . Can bacteria affect iron concentartions?
I'm hoping to identify microbleeds in the brain tissue of a rat, so thought to stain for iron. I have perfuse-fixed frozen tissue on slides in 10um sections and I bought Prussian blue but would love some advice or an existing protocol - how best to make up the solution, prepare the tissue and times/temperatures to stain it!
(This is the specific product I purchased: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/03899?lang=en®ion=GB)
we have a Zetium XRF analyzer at our facility and i would like to measure iron alloy powder with it. The staff tells me, the wax in the pressed pellets melts during the measurements. Therefore we leave the crucial analysis to our customer.
Is there a way around this, maybe another preparation route for the pellets/tablets?
With ICP-OES I understand, iron is a very problematic metal if one wants to analyze certain metals because of line overlapping. The only solution i could think of for this would be to oxidize the iron and remelt the slag with copper. But for this one needs a high temperature furnace, which i dont have right now.
I am trying to draw the structure of permalloy in VESTA. As I know it is a FCC structure and permalloy has 80% Ni and 20% Fe. What I am concerned about is that, how should I define the percentages of Ni and Fe in VESTA structure? I attached the FCC structure I obtained through VESTA.
Thanks in advance.
Recently I was doing calculations on the formation energies of perovskite oxides(Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3) containing transition metals. I have a problem that has puzzled me for many days.
I understand the formation energy calculation formula: ( Ef = Etotal - 0.5E(Ba) - 0.5E (Sr) - 0.8E(Co) - 0.2E(Fe) - 3E(O) )
In the energy calculation of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3, DFT + U is required due to the existence of Co and Fe elements.
So when I calculate E(Fe), do I need to introduce DFT + U ? If I use vasp software to calculate, how should I generate the structure of Fe to calculate E(Fe)?
I get stuck on a calculation. I have an aqueous dispersion of a Fe3O4 sample at a 1mg/ml concentration. I want to do some measurements with this sample at different Fe concentrations (in mM).
- Are these Fe concentrations (in mM) in Fe3O4 dilutions can be directly calculated from the molecular weight calculation? or does It needs some specific elemental characterization to be performed at different dilutions of Fe3O4 to know the Fe concentration in these dilutions?
- Like, I have a Fe3O4 sample at 1 mg/ml concentration and I need different dilutions of this sample at Fe concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mM.
How to obtain the above mentioned Fe concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) in mM from the stock of Fe3O4 (1mg/ml).
I am facing a problem with Fe(III) minerals that I cannot dissolve with my usual approach using oxalic acid solution and iron EDAS. I am studying bacteria that oxidize iron. In order to do some analysis, I need to remove the Fe(III) minerals formed in my system. In my current setup with ziro valent iron as source, the formed minerals do not dissolve easily. Adding, for example, 6 M HCl would probably also destroy my cells, so I would not be able to examine them. Therefore, I am looking for ideas to solve this problem. This could be a special fixation method, or reducing agents that dissolve iron without being extremely acidic.
Thank you very much for your comments!
As I am working on highly oxidative nanoparticles such as Iron and Copper, so if somehow we prevent oxidation during synthesis and storage part by using glove box or some type of inert liquid, then during characterization and further work, I required to take out the sample from that and then I have to characterize. So after taking out the sample, during characterization time, it might get oxidized. As we can't characterize immediately within an hour or so. If I have to do 3-4 characterizations then it can't be possible on one day. At least 2 days we must require and if some instrument is not available at campus then we have to send somewhere to characterize. And then at that time, it will surely get oxidize. So, can characterization be possible with prevention of oxidation so that results of every characterization will be accurate? Please let me know if anybody have any proper solution for this. Thank you.
Salt tolerance strategies in plant (ex. exclusion and compartmentalisation) can likely interfere with beneficial biotic interactions. For instance, the exclusion of salt causes accumulation in the outer tissues of the root and the rhizosphere, therefore reducing the microbial community, that might include mutualist that could ironically help the plant during salt stress. Another issue could be if pollination is affected by salt tolerance strategies. Consequently, breeding crops for salt tolerance might work on the short term and then backfire into reducing yields. An holistic approach might be warranted. Does anyone know anything about it? I couldn't find papers on the topic.
I know magnetic separation can separate Fe, γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4. But I don't know how to get Fe powders from residues. Someone say sodium pyrophosphate could remove γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, is it a feasible method ? Or other better method?
Thanks very much for your answers!
Now I am working with newly discovered cytochromes and trying to put heme with Fe2+ inside it using QMMM methods to optimize its geometry. Nevertheless, it turned out to be very hard to reach SCF convergence even for heme not in protein environment, but just itself with only two aminoacids - deprotonated CYS that coordinates iron and GLU which is covalently bound to one of heme tails (i did not forget to delete the corresponding hydrogen). I am using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory (no particular reason why, just because this pack usually works), charge -3 and multiplicity 1. Geometry is a bit distorted, but I took it from pdb database (for one of cytochromes it is a native conformation), so I do not think it is a reason.
And you know... ORCA is dealing with it, but really by a finger's breadth, slowly, using its TRAH converger, with many warnings about negative diagonal hessian elements (this warnings disappear upon reaching convergence point) and negative HOMO-LUMO gap (in the end it is not negative, but small, +-0.3 eV or 0.01 hartree).
If so will be continued, I would not be able to run qmmm dynamics and I am not sure NWChem will be able to converge SCF as far as its algorithms are slower and weaker than ORCA's.
I have no idea what is going wrong and would be pleased by any advices. I attach input and output also.
Thanks in advance!
i did ferrozine method. and i have a plan to use bleomycin for detection of free iron. i would like to know whether you have done some other biochemical techniques.
In the process of analyzing the data, I found that I need to know the oxidation-reduction state of the soil, whether it is oxidation-based, reduction-based, or the balance between the two. But I currently only have Alo, Feo, amorphous Al/Fe‐ (hydr) oxides; Ald, Fed, free Al/Fe‐ (hydr) OXIDES. Some one told me that ( Fed-Feo) /Feo is a very useful indicator.I would like to ask if there are any references or other indicators.
I need the Toxic response factor for Mn, Fe, Al, Mo and Co for my research, as far as I know Hakanson, 1980 reported it just for 8 heavy metals!
Hello everyone, I have one question regarding bimetallic & monometallic nanoparticles synthesis. So, basically as we all know that chemical reduction for Fe, Cu(all oxidative prone particles) can be easily oxidised when synthesized to produce nano zero valent particles without any inert atmosphere. Suppose, we synthesized through 3 RB Flask setup with continuous Nitrogen purging till completion of reaction, but *how can we store it for further characterization process of these nanoparticles??*
(2) Suppose, we didn't synthesize, just bought from some lab commercially prepared nanoparticles, then after opening, how can we store it for further research project?
(3) So basically, there are 2 methods, we can synthesize, but it's a big problem for storage part? So can anyone suggest anything *except glove box technique*? Please, let me know if anyone knows the answer for any alternatives for these. I will be very glad. Thanking you. Hear from you soon.
Trust you are doing great. I need a favor from all of you. My colleague and I are working on stability of iron and steel manufacturing plant and we are looking for information on the detailed process flowsheet and some historical data of the plant such as the maintenance and failure data for for at least the past 5 years. Could anyone assist with this data or provide me with information of a platform where I can get such data? During my university days, my professor once told us there is website which published industrial data on process control challenges. I am wondering if anyone can guide me to similar website that publish historical data of various process plants.
Looking forward to hearing from you all.
I am currently restarting my work on battery management systems, I plan to use Lithium Iron Phosphate cells for their better energy density and relatively better resistance to thermal behaviour than few other commonly sought after battery chemistries. I require some help with good materials or references to help me accomplish BMS for 2W EV. I see that there are Kalman filter based estimations available, but they seem complex and expensive in terms of computations such algorithms require to be implemented.
Kindly request the experienced fraternity to guide me to understand and implement SOX estimation for LiFePO4 Cells.
Thanks in advance.
Hello to all
1. Does the use of metals with high magnetic permeability, such as iron alloy in the waveguide, cause insertion losses?
2- What about chrome or copper plating?
If you know the article in this field, please introduce it. Thank you
It is said to be "trace" wherever I look for, but what is the typical order of magnitude? is it 0.001%, or 1% or in between?
P.S.: What I have mentioned is of open unpacked fertilizer sold in rural market (e.g. of South Asia), where even concept of asking composition to vendor would be illogical
This may be a question that might not be an intelligent one, but still, this is how we learn tight.
Is it better to call CuFeO2 copper ferrite or delafossite? I know AB2O4 are called ferrites in general.
So in this case with the ABO2 structure, can we call this cuprous ferrite?
Can I determine the presence and concentration of iron nanoparticles in an aqueous solution using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry or square wave voltammetry?
whie working on CV on iron we get peaks in which two peaks (one oxidizing-anodic and one reducing-cathodic ) peak which continues to grow on while we increase the number of scanning. why is it so? whats the reason behind this? i am referring to peak 3 and 4 in attached picture.
I need to study the interaction of Fe2+ in solution with a compound. I cannot go for an acidic medium since I need to keep my pH constant at 7.4. Is there any way of preventing Fe2+ from getting oxidized and confirming that the state is indeed 2+?
Why in the perovskite family (BaTiO3+-), we found always a partial substitution by Fe in the site B not other transition metals like Co etc., this is can be related to the size of atoms or only related to the oxidation state of the metal?
Thanks and best regards
I am attempting to synthesise a compound, hydrothermally. I have taken FeSO4. 7H2O, Co(NO3)2, and NaH2PO2 as the precursors. However even after an hour of stirring ,there is a orangish precipitate which isn't dissolving? What could it be and how do I get rid of it?
Hi, I would like to develop an animal (mice) model for the iron overload conditions. As Diet based methods take a longer time to develop, I would like to use the injectibles options. Please suggest which is best to use:
Iron dextran --IP
Iron dextran --IV
Ferric Carboxymaltose --IP
Ferric Carboxymaltose --IV
any other option (for injectibles).
I have researched the relationship between food consumption patterns and nutritional status. The result showed that significant relationship between iron intake with nutritional status (BMI). What causes iron intake to be related to nutritional status (BMI)? What is the mechanism? Are there other influencing factors that cause a relationship between iron intake with nutritional status?
Ferric ions undergo a gelation reaction with acrylic acid to form a polymeric hydrogel. Several articles stated that iron (III) undergoes either a complexation reaction or an electrostatic reaction. Furthermore, calcium, zinc, and copper can also form hydrogels with polyacrylic acid. In all these cases, scientists reported that metal-containing hydrogel showed self-healing properties. By using electrostatic interaction theory, it is possible to discuss the mechanism of self-healing. But if their complexation is present, what would be the possible mechanism?
A piece of steel and a piece of copper immersed in a 1M NaCl solution develops a certain voltage when the metal pieces are connected electrically. How do I calculate the potential of the cell?
Well, no iron ions are initially present in the solution and no copper ions either (only the brine solution, no salt bridge). The electrode reactions are iron oxidation and oxygen reduction. Can we somehow apply the Nernst equation to calculate the potentials at the two electrodes?
I have a much amount of brake pad dust containing different ingredients including: chopped steel wool, Fe powder, fiberglass, vermiculite, barite, phenol-formaldehyde resin, Al2O3, SiO2, Cellulose fiber, and NBR(Rubber). If possible, I need to separate chopped steel wool and Fe powder. I used a magnet, but all the composite stuck to it.
How can I do this? Is there a chemical way?
I intended to dissolve silicate-based ingredients in hydrofluoric acid, and then dissolve NBR in an organic solvent, but steel and metal can also be dissolved by HF, I read somewhere.
Does anyone have any idea?
I'm trying to reduce nitro group 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to its corresponding amino group. I've tried Sn/HCl, Fe/EtOH and Fe/HCl. But the results are not satisfying. Kindly suggest me some methods to carry out this reaction.