Science topic

Iron - Science topic

A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Questions related to Iron
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
As a result of my coastal sediment sampling, I found relatively low enrichment values for most of the metals. However, Igeo, PLI, RI, CD, MCd, and CP had the highest enrichment levels. Is this possible? Could you please let me know if this result contains any errors? The only metals with EF values are Fe (7.25) and Cd (28.47). The rest of the metals remain at 0.02 levels. Could you please let me know?
Relevant answer
Answer
Bonjour Mr.. Tes résultats ne sont pas forcément incorrects mais plutôt le choix de l'élément normalisant et le choix du matériaux de référence peuvent biaiser les tendances des indices d'évaluation.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
5 answers
Please see in the attachement,
I prepared iron thin films on ITO substrate and I measured resistance,
however the graph dont start from same point, why would something like that happend?
Relevant answer
Answer
bulk and grain boundaries contributions may collapse . Your semi-circles atre distorted.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
please..
Relevant answer
Answer
Good day, Ahmad Mehravaran! Hope you are doing well.
Could you make your question more precise or provide some additional details?
Best of luck in your research!
Yours sincerely,
M. Sc. Vadym Chibrikov
Department of Microstructure and Mechanics of Biomaterials
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Dear all,
Current methods to synthetise nanoscale zero-valent iron need to be under the N2 protection, and they are always inconvenient. Is there any method for synthetising nanoscale zero-valent iron without N2 protection?
If you have, please send it to me. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Shumao Wang Argon gas... In air or aqueous based systems Fe0 is rapidly oxidized often in a pyrophoric manner if small. You need to keep oxygen out of the system to prevent this - this included water, alcohols, esters etc all of which contain O.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Availability of relevant papers Support, thank you;
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
When we dope ZnO with Co or Fe or Ni its band gap mostly decreases, but sometimes it increases with it. What's the reason behind it?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are multiple factors involved which alter the band gap when you dope transition metal to ZnO. Please refer to the following articles:
Hope these articles will answer your question!
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Hello I have to calculate the volume in ml to be administered to a mouse.
Here are my data available:
Resovist agent in concentration 0.5 mol Fe / L
Experimental dose 50 umol / Kg
Mouse weight 25 g
What is the volume in ml to be administered to the mouse?
Can you show me the process, please?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
The general formula for drug volume in ml
= animal weight x dosage/ concentration of drug
The conversion of your data is right.
Dose = 0.05 mmol/kg
Weight = 0.025 kg
Concentration = 0.5 mmol/ml
Applying the formula,
The drug volume in ml is 0.0025
I confirm that your answer (2.5ul) is right.
Best.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
6 answers
both the iron oxides were confirmed using xrd analysis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Vincenzo Amendola thank you so much. it was very helpful.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
I'm looking for some researches that showing chemical content in the biochar material especially (p, k, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn)
Relevant answer
Answer
Kindly see the following attached documents.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
I would like to build a dimeric structure of cyanidin joined to glucose by covalent bonds. The structure also should contain Fe(III) and Chloride ions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Dear colleagues!
I need to vizualize irone oxide nanoparticles in isolated mammalian cells with microscopy (not SEM, confocal only). Can you recommend any protocol of modification with any fluorophore, preferably binding to the NH2 group (bcs NPs are coated with organic agent)?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can coat your FeNPs with "Polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated graphene or carbon quantum dots" and hence can be visualize with fluorescent imaging (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2022.103589)
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
6 answers
I carried FTIR analysis on walnut shell treated with Zn and Fe salt, and found out the FTIR result such as peak 3500 cm-1 and 1075 cm-1 pointing upward instead of downwards as in most previous literature, I need to explain this. Any ideas would help. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on the parameter that is shown on y axis. In your case you plotted the absorbance, but it is most common to plot the transmittance, with the peaks pointing down. You can choose the parameter in the software of data collection
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
we have ESR spectra of Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system but it is new for me,
I don't have enough experience in analyzing and interpretation of ESR data.
Can anyone help me to understand the ESR Spectra for Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system.
ESR Spectra of Ferric oxyhydroxide (Fe+3) system attached for reference.
Relevant answer
Answer
ESR Spectra pdf file is attached
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Hi everyone
I wonder how to convert 1000ppm of Fe(iii) ions
(for the Fe(iii) solution im using 0.1g of Fe and 100 mL of distilled water)
[molecular weight = 55.845g / mol]) into micromole.
What is the right method to do it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank u so much!
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
I am working with Steel on LAAMPS containing Fe, W, Cr and C. My code is as below:
# ---------- Initialize Simulation ---------------------
newton on
units metal
dimension 3
boundary p p p
atom_style atomic
# ---------- Create Atomistic Structure ---------------------
read_data kim.lmpdat
# ---------- Define Interatomic Potential ---------------------
pair_style hybrid/overlay eam/alloy eam/fs eam/fs
pair_coeff * * eam/alloy FeCrW_d.eam.alloy Fe Cr W NULL
pair_coeff * * eam/fs FeCrW_s.eam.fs Fe Cr W NULL
pair_coeff * * eam/fs Fe-C_Hepburn_Ackland.eam.fs Fe NULL NULL C
pair_coeff 3 4 lj/cut 0.04 0.97 NULL NULL W C
pair_coeff 2 4 lj/cut 0.02 0.5 NULL Cr NULL C
neighbor 2.0 bin
neigh_modify every 10 delay 0 check yes
thermo 1000
#-----------------MELTING-----------------------
# NVE 1
fix nve1 all nve
run 10
unfix nve1
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
If you are using two lj potentials for the two different interactions ( one between group 3 type and group 4 type ; and another between group 2 type and group 4 type) , then each of these lj potentials must be distinguished from the other by using unique integer id as suffix as following:
############################################
pair_coeff 3 4 lj/cut 1 0.04 0.97 NULL NULL W C
pair_coeff 2 4 lj/cut 2 0.02 0.5 NULL Cr NULL C
###############################################
Now lj/cut 1 and lj/cut 2 represent the corresponding potentials for two different interactions. The integer ids 1 and 2 distinguish these two lj potentials from each other. In the absence of the integer IDs , the software will read the two lj potentials as lj/cut 0.04 and lj/cut 0.02, and in context of not finding integer in the ID suffix part, it will pass the message that it is expecting an integer there.
The two eam/fs potentials can also be made distinguishable by using the ID suffixes:
###################################################
pair_coeff * * eam/fs 1 FeCrW_s.eam.fs Fe Cr W NULL
pair_coeff * * eam/fs 2 Fe-C_Hepburn_Ackland.eam.fs Fe NULL NULL C
#######################################################
Moreover, in the pair _style line, the two lj potentials with cutoff (r_c) values must be included.
###################################################
pair_style hybrid/overlay eam/alloy eam/fs eam/fs lj/cut 2.5 lj/cut 2.5
###################################################
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Basically, I wanted to prepare nano zero-valent iron with one more catalyst to form core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles. So, basically, the core will be iron and above this silver will be coated for the formation of bimetallic. So, mostly I prepared this one with a chemical reduction process where I took salt of both the metals. But, every time I prepare the iron nanoparticles by using sod. borohydride, most of the time, gets oxidized as soon as it forms nanoparticles. In most works of literature, they suggested the usage of Nitrogen gas so that it won't get oxidized. So, can oxidation be prevented without nitrogen gas or a glove box? Actually, I have commercial iron nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles. So, can I prepare bimetallic nanoparticles from these 2 commercial nanoproducts or not? If it's possible then how to do it? Can anyone please explain about this? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is impossible to combine the powders of two nanoparticles, as is done when metal alloys are obtained by fusion. Nanoparticles react very quickly with atmospheric oxygen. They can be fused in a nitrogen atmosphere, but you will get large alloy particles.
Therefore, nanoparticles of the core (iron)-shell (silver) type are prepared sequentially; first, iron nanoparticles are obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere, and then their surfaces are reduced by silver ions.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
There is a copper based alloy (aluminium bronze) containing iron for specific custom application. The ratios should be very unusual: 65% copper, 25% aluminium and 10% iron. I tried to search literature for this diagram, but failed to find anything. Maybe because there is no such an alloy in practical use. Software "Thermocalc" is expensive for personal use, so I tried demo version and failed to reach databases (thought that they could have this ratio alloy already) present in demo version.
Is it possible to construct a ternary phase diagram for such an alloy using some software (if yes, would you refer me to such software, or maybe even calculate it for me?)? Or somehow estimate the liquidus and solidus temperatures some other way (aside from experimental)?
Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dauren Sarsenov,
Do you still need help with this?
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Why Ru complexes are fluorescent and Fe not?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ruthenium(II) complexes are generally phosphorescent because the lowest energy excited state is the 3MLCT (Metal-to-ligand charge transfer). In most Fe(II) complexes the lowest energy excited state is a ligand field excited state, which are deactivated much more rapidly through non-radiative decay
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
I agree that Astrophysics is a multidisciplinary field and that students of Astrophysics are taught many subjects from diverse fields. For example Astrophysics curriculum covers mathematics, relativity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, radiation, lasers, electronics, optics etc. etc. But I am perplexed to find that neither Astrophysics text books nor the study curriculum of Astrophysicists cover theory of elasticity in general or working out stresses and strains in solid bodies in particular.
An obvious answer of most learned readers may be that Astrophysicists are not required to deal with solid bodies throughout their career and hence are not required to study theory of elasticity or to learn working out stresses and strains in solid bodies.
Actually however, the situation is other way around. Since Astrophysicists do not study theory of elasticity and do not know how to work out stresses and strains in very large spherical solid bodies under self-gravitation, they erroneously make them collapse under self-gravitation into black holes, thereby misleading the whole scientific community.
None of the current models of stellar core collapse make any attempt to compute the magnitude of STRESSES in the SOLID iron cores actually produced in massive stars at the end of their fusion burning stage.
As per current models when a solid iron core becomes degenerate, the degenerate electrons get freed from their parent iron atoms leaving behind 'positive ions' of iron. When the positive ions start falling towards the center of the core under gravity, the high energy degenerate electrons are SUPPOSED to push these ions outwards by their degeneracy pressure to counter the effect of gravity. However, to impart an outward push to the falling ions, the high energy degenerate electrons will have to exchange their momentum with the falling ions through elastic collisions. But the high energy electrons cannot exchange their momentum with positive ions through elastic collisions because of their electrostatic interactions and hence can never provide the so-called electron degeneracy pressure in stellar cores to counter the effect of gravity.
The main reason for ASSUMING the electron degeneracy pressure in solid iron stellar cores is the implied belief that a cooled down stellar core cannot maintain its Hydrostatic equilibrium in the absence of adequate thermal pressure and that nothing else can stop the gravitational collapse of such cores. Therefore, the constituents of a solid stellar core are first ASSUMED to be non-interacting for applying Hydrostatic equilibrium equations and then the electrons and ions are again ASSUMED to be non-interacting for invoking the electron degeneracy pressure to support the pull of gravity.
Hence, it turns out that all stellar cores which are said to be degenerate, where some sort of degeneracy pressure is invoked to prevent their gravitational collapse under Hydrostatic equilibrium conditions, are in fact SOLID stellar cores which acquire their stability through Equilibrium equations of elasticity. In current models, the stresses in a solid iron stellar core are never analyzed as a SOLID body under self-gravitation, by using the Equilibrium equations of elasticity. By taking into account the electromagnetic interactions among electrons, protons and ions we can show that the high density stellar cores transform into gravity induced solid state which can support the gravitational loading through development of radial and hoop stresses.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for your response and I respect your opinion.
You wrote : "...The inner core of stars is not made from solid iron (iron-nickel)"
Stars of mass greater than ten solar masses, go through various stages of core and shell fusion of heavier elements finally ending with a core of iron. These iron stellar cores are normally surrounded by fusion shells of Si, O, C, He and H. The quasi-equilibrium Si shell fusion continues to grow the iron cores up to certain limit. Under high pressure and density environment prevailing in stellar cores, the mean separation between two adjacent iron atoms or ions will be much less than the normal free size of iron atoms. This leads to grid locking of these atoms or ions in a lattice structure.
In situations of very high core densities, atoms and ions will occupy relatively fixed positions and may experience thermal vibrations about their mean positions. When the mean separation distance between ions is less than the normal mean size of their parent atoms, of the order of Bohr radius or less, the electrostatic repulsion between the ions will force them into a lattice gridlock, leading to a solid state. In a solid state, particles maintain their normal separations through mutual interactions and cannot move past one another. It must however, be kept in mind that this is not a ‘naturally’ or freely occurring solid state but a ‘forced’ solid state brought about under extreme gravitational loading in a stellar core.
This has been explained in greater detail in section III. "Invalidity of Electron Degeneracy Pressure Model" and section IV. "Final Solid State of all High-density Stellar Cores" in my paper titled, "Stellar Core Collapse Models are Erroneous and Misleading".
In a solid state the mutually interacting constituent particles are mostly at rest, apart from some thermal vibrations about their mean positions. The mean positions of these solid-state particles constitute some sort of geometric pattern, a lattice structure. When some external force is applied to one or more of these lattice particles, the mutual separation distances between the adjacent particles in the vicinity will slightly change so as to produce additional reaction forces just to balance the externally applied force. This slight change in separation distances, which implies a slight change in the lattice structure, can be described as slight deformation of the lattice structure. If the externally applied force is now removed, the change or the deformation in the lattice structure will also get eliminated and this characteristic of the lattice structure can be described as elasticity of the solid ensemble of interacting particles. In fact, quantification of the magnitude and direction of the deformation by a displacement vector produces the best characterization of the elastic nature of the solid. Thus, central regions of all stellar cores will physically constitute a solid state. Stresses induced in such cores due to self-gravitation can only be analyzed by study of its displacement vector field through equilibrium equations of elasticity and not by hydrostatic equilibrium equations of the kinetic theory.
Best Regards
Gurcharn
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
I am measuring the O2 content in water using different SOP for oxygen removal and would like to know what O2 concentration should I target. Is 0,2 ppm good enough?
Relevant answer
Answer
It is perfect 0.2 ppm.
l am using 0.1 ppm
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
It's about the polymorphism of iron - gamma iron which is paramagnetic dissolves about 2% of carbon while alpha iron ( highly magnetic ) dissolves a maximum of 0.025 % of carbon.
Relevant answer
Answer
The reason for the different solubility is the different crystal structure. The alpha Fe is a body-centered cubic (BCC) and the gamma Fe is a face-centered cubic (FCC).
In FCC, the octahedral holes are larger than the tetrahedral holes and therefore the carbon atoms are located in these symmetrical octahedral holes. The interstitial holes in BCC Fe are much smaller, which explains the very limited solubility of carbon in it. On the other hand, carbon in Fe induces deformation of the crystal lattice and thus deteriorates the soft magnetic properties of iron (coercivity increas).
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Hello everyone, i have some question about electrolysis.
In the process of electrolysis, the electrolyte must be present or not? What is the role of an agent like Na2SO4? What is the effect of using Na2SO4 electrolyte? If don't use that electrolyte, will electrolysis still work? If there is no electrolyte, is it necessary to replace the electrodes? What effect does the presence of electrolytes have on electrolysis? Electrolyte in the electrolysis process should only Na2SO4 be used or something else? What are the conditions for using an electrolyte in the electrolysis process?
Before doing the electrolysis process, is there a correlation between the reduction potential of the electrodes used such as (Fe as the anode and graphite as the cathode) and the electrolyte (Na2SO4) so ​​that when using the electrodes and electrolytes they can be matching? The electrolyte used should be Na2SO4 or something else? If the Fe (iron) is replaced with another anode, is it possible? If we want to replace the electrolyte, what kind of electrolyte is appropriate, if you later replace the electrode so that the electrolysis process can still work? What conditions should be considered?
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
To answer one aspect of your question: In electrolysis, an electrolyte should be present to allow a sufficiently high conductivity of the aqueous medium. Water is a bad conductor, so adding something like Na2SO4 that is a) well dissociated and b) is not easily reduced/oxidized at the electrode is certainly a good approach.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
I want to make electrolytes for electrochemical analysis. Please guide me on how to prepare the above solution and share me procedure.
Thanking you
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi dear shruti, you need 3.18 mg of [Fe(CN)6] and 0.075 mg of KCl, for solving in 1ml PBS.
Mw of molecule × concentration of molecule / 1000
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Hello everyone, i've already did a characterization of SEM-EDX on iron electrodes before and after electrolysis. From this picture, I can only explain that this electrode:
- Before treatment: the iron surface is smooth and regular, the iron element is more dominant
- After treatment: the surface of the iron has cracks, holes and irregularities caused by the electrolysis process, there is also an oxide layer on the surface of the iron which means the surface of the iron has been oxidized, the element of oxygen is more dominant
Any additional suggestions to describe this SEM-EDX result?
Also, I have some questions about SEM-EDX :
1. Why is the oxygen level higher after the treatment?
2. How does Fe react with oxygen in water during electrolysis?
3. How to write down the chemical reaction that occurs between Fe and oxygen in water to form Fe-oxide?
4. Talking about the morphology of SEM on the image after treatment, how can a needle-like layer be formed?
5. If correlated with the pourbaix diagram, how to explain the formation process of iron oxidation, when there is water, the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water?
Thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
I assume that the EDS analysis was done over the area of the SEM images shown and the concentrations were obtained by pressing the “QUANT” button of the software.
The spatial resolution of EDS (laterally and in depth) is given by the beam-sample interaction (i.e. beam energy, atomic number, density) and the physics of X-ray emission.
A frequently used estimate is the Kanaya-Okayama range (K Kanaya and S Okayama, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5(1972) 43-58, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/5/1/308).
For pure Fe and 15 keV electrons the electron excitation range is ca. 1 µm, the size of the volume where the X-rays are from is ca. 0.7 µm for Fe K radiation.
EDS quantification assumes that the sample is sample is homogeneous, flat, and thick (compared to the excitation range).
Advanced Spectrum Analysis and Quantification Precision
This presentation by Dr. Jens Rafaelsen was recorded on the EDAX booth at M&M 2018
At 35:45 “If your sample doesn't meet those requirements: don't click the QUANT button: You'll get numbers, they'll be garbage!”
The “Fe-before” sample is likely Fe with a native iron oxide.
Is the sample flat? Is the sample homogeneous (laterally and in depth)? Is the oxide thick?
If the iron oxide is thin (< 0.7 µm), the volume you analyse is composed of iron oxide(s) + iron metal. The prerequisites of the quantification model are not fulfilled.
The “Fe-after” sample is likely Fe with thick iron oxide(s).
Is the sample flat? Is the sample homogeneous (laterally and in depth)?
The prerequisites of the quantification model are not fulfilled.
Is the oxide thick?
If the iron oxide is thick (> 1 µm), the volume you analyse might be composed of the iron oxide(s) formed, but the prerequisites of the quantification model are not fulfilled.
As mentioned by Vladimir Dusevich the EDS spectra should be evaluated carefully. There are small peaks around 2 keV. For “Fe-before” at < 2 keV, for “Fe-after” at ca. 2.3 keV. What’s this?
> Also, I have some questions about SEM-EDX:
Your questions 1-5 are not directly related to EDX.
The chemistry of oxidation of iron (and steels) in aqueous solutions has been studied for decades because of the importance for corrosion and power generation and the results are now textbook knowledge.
I guess for electrolysis a lot of actual work can be found.
For thicker oxides scales composed of different oxides may form. Here, preparation and analysis of cross sections may give more insight.
Preparation methods and analysis will depend on the thickness and stability of the scales (fracturing, preparation of cross section by metallographic methods, FIB cuts; EDS in SEM or TEM?)
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
5 gram of soil sample is digested using aqua regia method by using 9ml Conc.HCL and 3 ml HNO3. I have given total 12 ml of digested sample for ICP-OES test to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. They have taken 1% of solution i.e (0.1 ml of sample +9.9 ml of HNO3) for determination.
It will be very helpful if someone help me with the following example...
Ex: Fe - 111.73 mg/L to mg/kg???
Relevant answer
Answer
111.73 mg/L × 0.01 L (solution volum)=1.1173 mg (mass of Fe in tested solution)
1.1173 mg×120(dilution ratio)=134.076 mg( mass of Fe in digested solution)
134.076 mg ÷0.005 kg=26815.2 mg/kg
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
What happen If rotor of induction have only rotor bars and without laminated iron core ?
Relevant answer
Answer
If rotor of induction have only rotor bars and without laminated iron core, the generated flux in the rotor will be very low.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Dear
Can someone provide me the protocol to prepare nutrient solutions (Hoagland or Steiner or any method) for inducing nutrient deficiency in plants?
Relevant answer
Answer
What are planning to use for a potting medium ? Are you trying to induce these deficiencies individually or all these deficiencies at once ?
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
The peak of 0.8V and 0.3V is well known as FeIII/FeII and FeII/FeI. But, I cannot figure out what the peaks in the blue circle mean.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your reply!
Do you mean this is due to the contamination of the electrode? (I used rotating disk electrode) What could the solid products be in this case? and how can I eliminate them?
With sincere regards
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
5 answers
I want to use silica coated supermagnetic iron nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drug - Doxorubicin for drug delivery. Will simple loading work for this? Or should I do some chemical modifications?
Relevant answer
Answer
You are most welcome dear Saniha Ajith . Wish you the best always.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
Is an analysis of 61mg/L Fe (total) plausible from a deep confined siliciclastic aquifer ~420 m below ground level? Normally precipitation of FeS and FeS2 under redusing conditions will limit iron concentrations from getting anywhere near that high (i.e. 5 - 10mg/L Fe is often considered very high) . Can bacteria affect iron concentartions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Iron in rural groundwater supplies is a common problem: its concentration level ranges from 0 to 50 mg/l, while WHO recommended level is < 0.3 mg/l. The iron occurs naturally in the aquifer but levels in groundwater can be increased by dissolution of ferrous borehole and handpump components. Iron-bearing groundwater is often noticeably orange in colour, causing discoloration of laundry, and has an unpleasant taste, which is apparent in drinking and food preparation.
Iron dissolved in groundwater is in the reduced iron II form. This form is soluble and normally does not cause any problems by itself. Iron II is oxidised to iron III on contact with oxygen in the air or by the action of iron related bacteria. Iron III forms insoluble hydroxides in water. These are rusty red and cause staining and blockage of screens, pumps, pipes, reticulation systems etc. If the iron hydroxide deposits are produced by iron bacteria then they are also sticky and the problems of stain and blockage are many times worse. The presence of iron bacteria may be indicated by rusty slime inside headwork’s, reduced water flow form the bore and unpleasant odor from water pumped from the bore, slimy deposits blocking main and lateral lines, severe staining on pavements, walls foliages.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
I'm hoping to identify microbleeds in the brain tissue of a rat, so thought to stain for iron. I have perfuse-fixed frozen tissue on slides in 10um sections and I bought Prussian blue but would love some advice or an existing protocol - how best to make up the solution, prepare the tissue and times/temperatures to stain it!
Relevant answer
Answer
Has anyone had any success using Prussian Blue staining on frozen tissue sections?
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
5 answers
Dear Fellows,
we have a Zetium XRF analyzer at our facility and i would like to measure iron alloy powder with it. The staff tells me, the wax in the pressed pellets melts during the measurements. Therefore we leave the crucial analysis to our customer.
Is there a way around this, maybe another preparation route for the pellets/tablets?
With ICP-OES I understand, iron is a very problematic metal if one wants to analyze certain metals because of line overlapping. The only solution i could think of for this would be to oxidize the iron and remelt the slag with copper. But for this one needs a high temperature furnace, which i dont have right now.
Thanks, Rico
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, question seems vague.
I have had a lot of success using an FTIR press to creat a disk of material that could be analyzed, in this case with micro-XRF, which has a much smaller spot size (50 micrometer). However, the wax you mention could be problematic with this press technique. A lighter pressure on the press may overcome the press issue.
I assume the wax is to help keep the pellet together. Is that really needed for the pellet? With no wax, very high pressure could be used to pelitize?
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I am trying to draw the structure of permalloy in VESTA. As I know it is a FCC structure and permalloy has 80% Ni and 20% Fe. What I am concerned about is that, how should I define the percentages of Ni and Fe in VESTA structure? I attached the FCC structure I obtained through VESTA.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am perhaps late, but different approaches are still useful for other people in the future. To build a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) structure, you will need a supercell. Py has been reported in literature in both phases, BCC and FCC1 (Keep it in mind). For a BCC phase, you could open a BCC-NiFe unit cell in VESTA and make it five times larger along x, for example and save it. Open the saved file in a text editor. You will see 5 atoms of each (in this case, the alloy is Ni50Fe50). Then, change it to Ni 8, Fe 2 (which is Ni80Fe20).
You're all set !
Of course the structure is not stable, which means it is not in its minimum energy state. So, now you use any DFT software and let the system relax. The minimum will be reached (Ni:Fe proportion is maintained) and hence, Permalloy structure will be ready to be used for other purposes.
1 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.054431
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
Can carbon dioxide be used in place of argon to sinter iron/steel powders at 1150o C?
Relevant answer
Answer
CO2 is not possible to use for Fe-alloys powder sintering It will oxidise it. The best gas for sintering is H2. Also the combination of H2 + CO is possible to use if you do not care about Carbon increasing in your alloys. Very important during sintering to achieve the dew point for H2 around -20C. It will promote the sintering even better because of small concentration of H2O always intensifies sintering by increasing reduction-oxidation reactions on the powder surfaces.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Recently I was doing calculations on the formation energies of perovskite oxides(Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3) containing transition metals. I have a problem that has puzzled me for many days.
I understand the formation energy calculation formula: ( Ef = Etotal - 0.5E(Ba) - 0.5E (Sr) - 0.8E(Co) - 0.2E(Fe) - 3E(O) )
In the energy calculation of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3, DFT + U is required due to the existence of Co and Fe elements.
So when I calculate E(Fe), do I need to introduce DFT + U ? If I use vasp software to calculate, how should I generate the structure of Fe to calculate E(Fe)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Zhang,
This is known to be a difficult problem, applying the Hubbard U correction to metallic Fe will usually not give an accurate answer. The simplest method is to choose a Hubbard U value which replicates formation energies accurately for known metal oxides, and hope it still does a good job for new metal oxides. Here's a short discussion of the problem, and the Materials Project database will also be a good place to find structure files for all the metal phases.
For oxygen, the appropriate reference energy will be 1/2 the energy of an isolated O2 molecule (with the triplet spin state). This will give the formation energy under oxygen-rich conditions, but please note that DFT does not calculate O2 accurately, so many researchers use the experimental binding energy of O2 instead. Typically I would use experimental entropy data from the JANAF tables if I wanted oxygen-poor conditions.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
I get stuck on a calculation. I have an aqueous dispersion of a Fe3O4 sample at a 1mg/ml concentration. I want to do some measurements with this sample at different Fe concentrations (in mM).
  1. Are these Fe concentrations (in mM) in Fe3O4 dilutions can be directly calculated from the molecular weight calculation? or does It needs some specific elemental characterization to be performed at different dilutions of Fe3O4 to know the Fe concentration in these dilutions?
  2. Like, I have a Fe3O4 sample at 1 mg/ml concentration and I need different dilutions of this sample at Fe concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mM.
How to obtain the above mentioned Fe concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) in mM from the stock of Fe3O4 (1mg/ml).
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Dear community,
I am facing a problem with Fe(III) minerals that I cannot dissolve with my usual approach using oxalic acid solution and iron EDAS. I am studying bacteria that oxidize iron. In order to do some analysis, I need to remove the Fe(III) minerals formed in my system. In my current setup with ziro valent iron as source, the formed minerals do not dissolve easily. Adding, for example, 6 M HCl would probably also destroy my cells, so I would not be able to examine them. Therefore, I am looking for ideas to solve this problem. This could be a special fixation method, or reducing agents that dissolve iron without being extremely acidic.
Thank you very much for your comments!
Relevant answer
Answer
See the review of Voelz et al. 2019 (10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00012) for different iron mineral dissolution methods.
It depends on which iron minerals you want to dissolve but a dithionite exraction seems promising to me as long it its not magnetite .
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
7 answers
As I am working on highly oxidative nanoparticles such as Iron and Copper, so if somehow we prevent oxidation during synthesis and storage part by using glove box or some type of inert liquid, then during characterization and further work, I required to take out the sample from that and then I have to characterize. So after taking out the sample, during characterization time, it might get oxidized. As we can't characterize immediately within an hour or so. If I have to do 3-4 characterizations then it can't be possible on one day. At least 2 days we must require and if some instrument is not available at campus then we have to send somewhere to characterize. And then at that time, it will surely get oxidize. So, can characterization be possible with prevention of oxidation so that results of every characterization will be accurate? Please let me know if anybody have any proper solution for this. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
or add strong reducer like hydrazine or similar; this will keep you on the safe side.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
8 answers
Salt tolerance strategies in plant (ex. exclusion and compartmentalisation) can likely interfere with beneficial biotic interactions. For instance, the exclusion of salt causes accumulation in the outer tissues of the root and the rhizosphere, therefore reducing the microbial community, that might include mutualist that could ironically help the plant during salt stress. Another issue could be if pollination is affected by salt tolerance strategies. Consequently, breeding crops for salt tolerance might work on the short term and then backfire into reducing yields. An holistic approach might be warranted. Does anyone know anything about it? I couldn't find papers on the topic.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Nicolò Maria Villa,
As far as I understood from your question, you are asking about a holistic approach that can overcome the issue of salt tolerance in plants and also the ecological cost. Moreover, you have also highlighted the negative impacts of salt tolerance on plants. This paper may help you for revealing new approaches to address salinity issues in the agricultural sector. Front. Plant Sci., 22 March 2022 Sec. Plant Abiotic Stress https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.843994.
Manish Sutradhar.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
I know magnetic separation can separate Fe, γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4. But I don't know how to get Fe powders from residues. Someone say sodium pyrophosphate could remove γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, is it a feasible method ? Or other better method?
Thanks very much for your answers!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi you should dissolve your target iron oxides, though the possibility exists that your elemental iron could also be attacked.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Dear collegues!
Now I am working with newly discovered cytochromes and trying to put heme with Fe2+ inside it using QMMM methods to optimize its geometry. Nevertheless, it turned out to be very hard to reach SCF convergence even for heme not in protein environment, but just itself with only two aminoacids - deprotonated CYS that coordinates iron and GLU which is covalently bound to one of heme tails (i did not forget to delete the corresponding hydrogen). I am using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory (no particular reason why, just because this pack usually works), charge -3 and multiplicity 1. Geometry is a bit distorted, but I took it from pdb database (for one of cytochromes it is a native conformation), so I do not think it is a reason.
And you know... ORCA is dealing with it, but really by a finger's breadth, slowly, using its TRAH converger, with many warnings about negative diagonal hessian elements (this warnings disappear upon reaching convergence point) and negative HOMO-LUMO gap (in the end it is not negative, but small, +-0.3 eV or 0.01 hartree).
If so will be continued, I would not be able to run qmmm dynamics and I am not sure NWChem will be able to converge SCF as far as its algorithms are slower and weaker than ORCA's.
I have no idea what is going wrong and would be pleased by any advices. I attach input and output also.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
I guess you want to calculate the Fe(II) porphyrin combined with an MeS- anion. However, there are two ionized carboxyl groups, and the total charge you set as -1 in the input file is incorrect. By the way, generally the anionic state is harder for SCF convergence, and you might try converging the wavefunction with the -1 state in which the carboxyl groups are saturated by H first, and then read the wavefunction as the initial guess for the -3 state.
Fe(II) porphyrin is not a close-shell singlet molecule. You should examine the triplet and quintet state. Once the wavefunction of one spin multipliticity is converged, you can read it for the initial guess of other states. Even if it is singlet, it should also be very likely to adopt an open-shell singlet state.
If you feel that TRAH is bothering, write ! notrah to avoid the TRAH algorithm.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
i did ferrozine method. and i have a plan to use bleomycin for detection of free iron. i would like to know whether you have done some other biochemical techniques.
Relevant answer
Answer
Kalaikadhiban Ilaya Raja yes i did. but some problems occurred during the process.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
What is the mechanism behind Fe(OH)3 to FeOOH conversion? Does it happen in alkaline conditions? If I mix FeCl3 with NaOH, what can be the end product? Fe(OH)3 or FeOOH? I want to make FeOOH.
Thank you for your time and support.
Relevant answer
Answer
For this see the standard works for Fe Oxides by Cornell & Schwertmann:
Iron Oxides in the Laboratory Preparation and Characterization
The Iron Oxides - Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurrences and Uses
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
7 answers
For martensitic transformation in pure Fe
Relevant answer
Answer
Transformation of austenite of pure iron (carbon=free) depends on the cooling rate. It can be via oriented nucleation and growth, or by massive transformation or by martensitic. You will find more details in: Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third edition, by Porter, Easterling and Sherif, CRC Press, page 342, especially see Figures 5.88 and 5.89 on the named page
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
What is Steel making?
Relevant answer
Answer
Of course, if they don't react, and thoroughly stirring.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
In the process of analyzing the data, I found that I need to know the oxidation-reduction state of the soil, whether it is oxidation-based, reduction-based, or the balance between the two. But I currently only have Alo, Feo, amorphous Al/Fe‐ (hydr) oxides; Ald, Fed, free Al/Fe‐ (hydr) OXIDES. Some one told me that ( Fed-Feo) /Feo is a very useful indicator.I would like to ask if there are any references or other indicators.
Relevant answer
Answer
Jan Jagode ,My soil is Tibetan plateau soil, but perhaps developed by aeolian deposits
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
I am trying to understand the magnon spectra in simple magnetic compounds like BCC Fe. Can anyone help me with plotting the magnon band structure for BCC Fe? I am very much new to this field. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks, Martin Rotter, I will have a look into it.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
I need the Toxic response factor for Mn, Fe, Al, Mo and Co for my research, as far as I know Hakanson, 1980 reported it just for 8 heavy metals!
Relevant answer
Answer
The toxic response of the mentioned trace elements can be traced through various biological parameters (hematology, histopathology, biochemistry, ecological stress, etc) using mathematical formulas.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
10 answers
Hello everyone, I have one question regarding bimetallic & monometallic nanoparticles synthesis. So, basically as we all know that chemical reduction for Fe, Cu(all oxidative prone particles) can be easily oxidised when synthesized to produce nano zero valent particles without any inert atmosphere. Suppose, we synthesized through 3 RB Flask setup with continuous Nitrogen purging till completion of reaction, but *how can we store it for further characterization process of these nanoparticles??*
(2) Suppose, we didn't synthesize, just bought from some lab commercially prepared nanoparticles, then after opening, how can we store it for further research project?
(3) So basically, there are 2 methods, we can synthesize, but it's a big problem for storage part? So can anyone suggest anything *except glove box technique*? Please, let me know if anyone knows the answer for any alternatives for these. I will be very glad. Thanking you. Hear from you soon.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can store dry/powder form Fe and Cu nano particles inside vacuum desiccator. But they are highly reactive, so you can go for surface modification by using any synthetic polymer.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Dear all,
Trust you are doing great. I need a favor from all of you. My colleague and I are working on stability of iron and steel manufacturing plant and we are looking for information on the detailed process flowsheet and some historical data of the plant such as the maintenance and failure data for for at least the past 5 years. Could anyone assist with this data or provide me with information of a platform where I can get such data? During my university days, my professor once told us there is website which published industrial data on process control challenges. I am wondering if anyone can guide me to similar website that publish historical data of various process plants.
Looking forward to hearing from you all.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am reasonably familiar with iron and steel as a Civil Engineer, and my father was in the grey iron casting business so am familiar with that.
I would suggest before comparing your data to others, understand your own data. What are your process flows? Have you flowcharted out the process? If you have cycle times (such as how long to plan, approve, schedule, do the work, cleanup from the work) and loop-backs you should be able to understand your maintenance system and reliability.
What is of concern? What question are you trying to answer? If you in castings, the American Casting Society may be able to help.
I have worked as an Operations Analyst and teach stats and data analysis courses, so may be able to assist or guide your analysis. I would recommend the use of Statistical Process Control to understand your data.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Hello Community,
I am currently restarting my work on battery management systems, I plan to use Lithium Iron Phosphate cells for their better energy density and relatively better resistance to thermal behaviour than few other commonly sought after battery chemistries. I require some help with good materials or references to help me accomplish BMS for 2W EV. I see that there are Kalman filter based estimations available, but they seem complex and expensive in terms of computations such algorithms require to be implemented.
Kindly request the experienced fraternity to guide me to understand and implement SOX estimation for LiFePO4 Cells.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
Firstly I would like to give a small correction: the energy density of LFP is lower than other lithium ion batteries. This is mainly due to the lower voltage produced by this anode-cathode pair. I have made my master thesis on this subject 5 years ago so I will give you some information based on what I still remember (keep in mind that some of my references may be a bit outdated).
On the state of charge (SoC) discussion: the major difficulty with LFP is that its voltage-SoC curve is very flat over a large part of its capacity. This means that the open-circuit voltage does not change strongly as the cell is being charged-discharged. Only at the tails of the capacity (generally about < 20% SoC and > 80% SoC) will the voltage change strongly for a change in Coulombs (which can be expressed as the differential voltage, or dV/dQ). A comparison of estimation methods can be found at (Wladislaw Waag, Christian Fleischer, and Dirk Uwe Sauer. Critical review of the methods for monitoring of lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. Journal of Power Sources) and another good reference is (Wen-Yeau Chang. The state of charge estimating methods for battery: A review. ISRN Applied Mathematics, 2013)
To make a simple but decent estimation of the SoC of an LFP battery, I'd propose you need 1 main piece of battery/cell-related information and one optional piece of information: mainly the voltage-SoC curve at sufficiently high resolution (which can be transformed to a dV/dQ-SoC curve) and additionally a mapping of the internal resistance of the battery over a range of temperatures & SoC. With this information, you can use a current counting algorithm which simply integrates the current (dis)charged by the battery and uses this to determine the SoC. The issue with current counting is that any measurement error is also integrated and over time this results in a large error. There are some simple fixes for this, at least if your use case allows for it. The idea is to reset the counter and SoC at specific moments: the most useful moment is to reset it when the battery is full, is empty, and/or when it is at rest. If the battery is at rest in the "flat" part of its profile you could also reset the counter, assuming your voltage measurement is sufficiently accurate. If at rest for a very high (or low) SoC, reseting becomes more accurate. If there are not many "rest moments" then it becomes more tricky, but you could use the internal resistance map to estimate the OVC of the battery while it is under load (you could even implement a higher order equivalent circuit model of a battery for a better estimation).
You could also use a simple recursive least squares method to estimate the SoC which has been widely documented in the literature (one example is here: Hongwen He, Xiaowei Zhang, Rui Xiong, Yongli Xu, and Hongqiang Guo. Online
model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion
batteries in electric vehicles. Energy, 39(1):310 – 318, 2012. Sustainable Energy
and Environmental Protection 2010)
Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
7 answers
Hello to all
Two questions
1. Does the use of metals with high magnetic permeability, such as iron alloy in the waveguide, cause insertion losses?
2- What about chrome or copper plating?
If you know the article in this field, please introduce it. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Please find the attached files.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
It is said to be "trace" wherever I look for, but what is the typical order of magnitude? is it 0.001%, or 1% or in between?
P.S.: What I have mentioned is of open unpacked fertilizer sold in rural market (e.g. of South Asia), where even concept of asking composition to vendor would be illogical
Relevant answer
Answer
Can you ask the manufacturer?
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
7 answers
This may be a question that might not be an intelligent one, but still, this is how we learn tight.
Is it better to call CuFeO2 copper ferrite or delafossite? I know AB2O4 are called ferrites in general.
So in this case with the ABO2 structure, can we call this cuprous ferrite?
Relevant answer
Answer
Many chemicals have several names: trivial and systematic (IUPAC nomenclature, red book), and in this case there can be two nomenclature names - anionic and oxide form. In this case, delafossite is a trivial name (from mineralogy, but it can be from technology, everyday life ...), copper (I) ferrite is an anionic form (there is another copper ferrite CuFe2O4 - copper (II) ferrite) and copper oxide (I)-iron(III)) - oxide form of the systematic name.
... If names are not right, words do not fit. If words do not fit, affairs go wrong. ...A gentleman is nowise careless of his words. ... Confucius. Analects XII.3.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
10 answers
Why is Cu target always used in XRD?
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a fundamental question.... Above mentioned answers are very much correct, but I would like to add a few more physics to it. I think this would bring more clarity.
In X-Ray diffraction, the X-rays are generated by hitting high energy ((45-50)kV & 40mA) and highly accelerated electrons produced from the cathode on a target material known as the anode. As such these highly energetic electrons transfer a lot of energy to the target material and heat it up. You can make a rough calculation that approximately 1.2kW of heat is generated in that process. This limits the choice for the target material to be of high melting point with excellent electrical conductivity.
Only transition metals in the period table fulfill the above requirement. They are highly conductive and are having a high melting temperature.
But for diffraction purposes, it's the wavelength of K-alpha which is used. The K-alpha values (Angstrom) for various transition metals as target materials are,
Cr Fe Co Cu Mo Ag
2.29 1.94 1.79 1.54 0.71 0.56
You can see here the wavelength of Mo and Ag are normally too short for most powder XRD. And if we use short-wavelength, they would scatter weakly and would shift the pattern towards lower Bragg angles which may result in loss of d-spacing accuracy. Moreover, the penetration depth would also be large.
For targets such as Mo and Fe, the wavelength is large which decreases the energy and intensity as well. Further, due to the higher wavelength, the XRD pattern shifts towards a larger Bragg angle which increases the acquisition time. As such due to low energy, the incoming rays may get absorbed by the specimen.
Thus considering the above factors, it is optimized neither to have a high wavelength nor to have a short wavelength. That's why copper is being chosen as the target material. Its melting point is 1093 degrees and is highly conducting.
Again as like mentioned by others, the fluorescence effect plays a role when a copper target is used for iron (Fe) and Manganeese(Mn) containing materials. In order to avoid that, a Co target is used which has also a high melting temp with a K-alpha value of 1.79, pretty close to Copper.
I hope this helps and answers your query...
Have a good day....
Regards
Subha Sanket Panda
IIT Kanpur
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Can I determine the presence and concentration of iron nanoparticles in an aqueous solution using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry or square wave voltammetry?
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Daniel, I don't think the concentration of iron nanoparticles you can measure by using cyclic voltammetry technique because cyclic voltammetry can only be used to measure a number of electrochemical properties (viz. reversibility of a reaction, reduction potential, electron transfer kinetics etc.) about a material, not concentration.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
whie working on CV on iron we get peaks in which two peaks (one oxidizing-anodic and one reducing-cathodic ) peak which continues to grow on while we increase the number of scanning. why is it so? whats the reason behind this? i am referring to peak 3 and 4 in attached picture.
Relevant answer
in order to help you with this problem, i like to know in what form are the iron ?
because, if is a powder, this behavior can be explain like a constant oxidation reduction of this powder which accumulates in its oxidized state and each cycle increases the amount.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
I need to study the interaction of Fe2+ in solution with a compound. I cannot go for an acidic medium since I need to keep my pH constant at 7.4. Is there any way of preventing Fe2+ from getting oxidized and confirming that the state is indeed 2+?
Relevant answer
Answer
The main oxidizing agent in this case is the oxygen in the air. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize the contact of the solution with air. Prepare solution in inert atmosphere (for example under nitrogen flow, by the way, don't forget that you need to breathe...), using fresh double distilled water.
Avoid contact of solution with atmosphere. How to organize it is the next question.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
5 answers
Hello dears,
Why in the perovskite family (BaTiO3+-), we found always a partial substitution by Fe in the site B not other transition metals like Co etc., this is can be related to the size of atoms or only related to the oxidation state of the metal?
Thanks and best regards
INES
Relevant answer
Answer
Robotized characterization of over 200 perovskite compositions:
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
I am attempting to synthesise a compound, hydrothermally. I have taken FeSO4. 7H2O, Co(NO3)2, and NaH2PO2 as the precursors. However even after an hour of stirring ,there is a orangish precipitate which isn't dissolving? What could it be and how do I get rid of it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Darren,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting chemical problem with the RG community. Since you have a reaction system with three different components, it is rather difficult to say what has formed as orange / pink precipitate without having any analytical data. What can be said is that sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) is a strong reducing agent, so that the formation of trivalent iron species like Fe(OH)3 can be ruled out. You mentioned that your "orangish precipitate isn't dissolving". Dissolving in what?
I suggest that you should have an elemental analysis of your precipitate done. You can also digest your precipitate in concentrated HNO3 and than do quick tests for cobalt, iron, and phosphorus. It cannot be ruled out that the precipitate contains phosphorus.
Good luck with your experiments!
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Hi, I would like to develop an animal (mice) model for the iron overload conditions. As Diet based methods take a longer time to develop, I would like to use the injectibles options. Please suggest which is best to use:
Iron dextran --IP
Iron dextran --IV
Ferric Carboxymaltose --IP
Ferric Carboxymaltose --IV
any other option (for injectibles).
Relevant answer
Answer
Any one of the injectables would work.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Hallo,
I have researched the relationship between food consumption patterns and nutritional status. The result showed that significant relationship between iron intake with nutritional status (BMI). What causes iron intake to be related to nutritional status (BMI)? What is the mechanism? Are there other influencing factors that cause a relationship between iron intake with nutritional status?
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think this publication may answer your question Nira Delina
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
I am curious if the pure iron particles possess higher toxicity to cells compared to iron oxide particles? Can anyone provide references to articles that compare these two..
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Frank T. Edelmann, the recommended paper is a great work
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
4 answers
Ferric ions undergo a gelation reaction with acrylic acid to form a polymeric hydrogel. Several articles stated that iron (III) undergoes either a complexation reaction or an electrostatic reaction. Furthermore, calcium, zinc, and copper can also form hydrogels with polyacrylic acid. In all these cases, scientists reported that metal-containing hydrogel showed self-healing properties. By using electrostatic interaction theory, it is possible to discuss the mechanism of self-healing. But if their complexation is present, what would be the possible mechanism?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Will coating ZnO nanoparticles using Fe2O3 prevent the ZnO nanoparticle from dissolving in seawater?
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on your coating thickness and formation of ZnOx nanoparticles.
The best way is to test your own samples dipping into seawater.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
3 answers
Hi
I work on complex fe(iii)-tannic acid , but I find precipitate of blue-black color, although ph=2
Can any one help me?
Relevant answer
Answer
Then you can lyophilize the complex and use it for further applications.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
6 answers
Is there competitive interaction between Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) in plants?? Can I add both in the same solution for the foliar application?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
A piece of steel and a piece of copper immersed in a 1M NaCl solution develops a certain voltage when the metal pieces are connected electrically. How do I calculate the potential of the cell?
Well, no iron ions are initially present in the solution and no copper ions either (only the brine solution, no salt bridge). The electrode reactions are iron oxidation and oxygen reduction. Can we somehow apply the Nernst equation to calculate the potentials at the two electrodes?
Relevant answer
Answer
I guess I would take issue with your characterization of a brine solution as a "non-electroactive solution" with respect to an iron-copper couple. Clearly, if you touch together a clean piece of iron with a clean piece of copper, an open circuit voltage will result from the different work fucntions of the two different metals. But in the aforementioned case, there is no EMF present and, hence, currents cannot be sustained in a closed circuit. In the case of an iron electrode and a copper electrode immersed in a brine solution, one also gets an open circuit voltage, but there is also an EMF present, which causes a current to flow in a closed circuit until the chemical constituents are used up.
Regards,
Thomas Cuff
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
2 answers
Hello All,
I have a much amount of brake pad dust containing different ingredients including: chopped steel wool, Fe powder, fiberglass, vermiculite, barite, phenol-formaldehyde resin, Al2O3, SiO2, Cellulose fiber, and NBR(Rubber). If possible, I need to separate chopped steel wool and Fe powder. I used a magnet, but all the composite stuck to it.
How can I do this? Is there a chemical way?
I intended to dissolve silicate-based ingredients in hydrofluoric acid, and then dissolve NBR in an organic solvent, but steel and metal can also be dissolved by HF, I read somewhere.
Does anyone have any idea?
Appreciates
Relevant answer
Answer
Separating powders from chopped steel wool is easiest and cheapest by means of sieves. With wet screening, steel wool are almost completely cleaned of all particles. After that you can get iron powder out of the mud with a magnet. Chemical processing is very expensive and pollutes the environment. I expressly advise against working with HF because this acid is extremely toxic.
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
1 answer
Respected all,
I'm trying to reduce nitro group 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to its corresponding amino group. I've tried Sn/HCl, Fe/EtOH and Fe/HCl. But the results are not satisfying. Kindly suggest me some methods to carry out this reaction.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
You could start from the oxime to improve yield.
Synthetic Communications (2005), 35(7), 913-922
best regards
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
16 answers
This is a SEM carried out for Polymer Matrix and Fe reinforced material. Please give your vaulable comments on this.
Relevant answer
Answer
Is it not possible to dicuss the report with the person who made it?
The upper left image shows a green frame. This is likely the region where the EDS spectrum (upper right) was taken.
In the spectrum the position of prominent Fe peaks are marked, but no Fe signal is found! There is a prominent peak around 2.1 keV, but it is not identified.
Idea:
(1) The sample was coated by a metal to enhance conductivity. From the peak position Au is likely.
(2) The absence of Fe signal means (i) the area fraction of Fe containing objects is very small, (ii) the metal coating reduces the signal.
For EDS, coating by carbon is recommended to avoid interference with the peaks of interest.
The lower image seems to be the supersosition of the SEM image in the green frame (what detector?, pixel separation 0.3 µm) with the EDS Fe map (what peak?).
Given the low Fe intensity in the spectrum it is not clear how the map was aquired (number of pixels, dwell time/pixel).
Usually maps are made with lower number of pixels (e.g. 128 pixel/line), because the lateral resoultion of EDS is worse.
The Fe dots is the map appear round. May be it's an artifact from blowing up the map to 971*667 pixels. (what fibre diameter is expected?)
The Fe distribution seems not to be connected to any feature in the SEM image.
Idea:
(3) The map doesn't show the Fe distribution, but only noise.
(4) If available, an SEM image using the BSE detector should be made (Fe should be appear brighter)
(5) May be a preparation should be applied to emphasize the fibres (polishing, fracturing)
  • asked a question related to Iron
Question
5 answers
Which is more reactive iron nanoparticles for reduction and adsorption?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Iron