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I wonder what are the best ways to make arthropod collections (Collembola, Euscorpius, Diplopoda, Insects....)? What are your experiences? Do you have your own collection? What are you collecting and why?
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Also check please the following very good RG link:
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Tomoceroidea is common but among the most problematic Collembola group. Its position within Collembola and the relationships within the family remain obscure. Traditional concepts of the phylogeny of Collembola have been challenged in recent years and the traditional position of Tomoceroidea within Entomobryomorpha was rarely doubted until the application of molecular approaches. There are several studies on the phylogeny of this group, but it seems that the position of Tomoceroidea within the four known orders has not been resolved.
Below I enclose the sources I found, and you can find more there.
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Thank you dear @Nikola Z. Grujic for proposing such interesting questions and discussions in the case of Collembola researches. I hereby like to attach the link of one recently published paper, which is revealing the comprehensive phylogeny reconstruction of subfamily Tomocerinae for the first time. It has been shown in this paper that trait evolution in the subfamily Tomocerinae shows a multiple ecological divergence, which leads to this point that three dominated genus in this subfamily, Tomocerus, Tomocerina and Tritomurus have been evidenced not to be monophyletic. Thus besides this conflict inside the family Tomoceridae, in a larger view, we see how much superfamily Tomoceroidea would be controversial in its phylogenetic position. Here below you can find the link.
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I am researching the geographical distribution of the most common cosmopolitan springtail species. Can you recommend sources related to collembola phylogeography?. It would be nice if we collected a significant number of references on this issue.
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Dear Nikola Z. Grujic . See the following useful link:
Sun, X., Zhang, F., Ding, Y. et al. Delimiting species of Protaphorura (Collembola: Onychiuridae): integrative evidence based on morphology, DNA sequences and geography. Sci Rep 7, 8261 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08381-4
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What is the experience of researchers with male individuals of Folsomia candida in laboratory populations? What is their share in the total number?
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Here below you will find the pdf file of the paper mentioned above. Just take a look at it may give you useful tips.
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Dear all,
I'm currently writing a concept for the future of our own natural history collection and I'm thinking a lot about the question, what material future scientists might need and what should thus be collected now. When you read through the strategic collection plans of other museums, you'll notice that most of them just continue to collect what they've always collected: who collected butterflies in the past, continues to collect butterflies, who collected birds, continues to collect those and so on. As most of you will know, this results in biased collections: some taxonomic groups are only represented by a small number of specimens while other groups (e.g. coleoptera, lepidoptera) are overrepresented. Wouldn't it be good to open up completely new collection sections in one's own Institution (e.g. unattractive, hard to preserve animals, parasites), rather than only sticking to what has always been collected? I'm really interested in your opinions and literature recommendations!
Best regards, Stefan
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To Bara Mouslim: I think this is exactly what should not happen because you do not need a natural history museum for that (virtual shows, genetic research).
I cannot really answer the initial question of this discussion but I wish to make the following point: many museum collections harbour an incredibly large amount of unidentified material (from old expeditions, for instance). These should be worked up with priority and museums need resources for that.
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Does the mite population much smaller in agricultural soils than that in forest soils and grassland soils? If so, what is the causation? It would be appreciated if anyone could share the data about diversity and abundance of mites in different soils and recommend related articles.
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Based on the many publications from several decades, we came across many classifications of Insects. Among them which one is more updated and approved classification that can be used for research, academics and teaching purpose?
Thank you.....
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The most recient is the Book "Insect systematics and principles of cladoendesis", wich is published in Russian in 2020. English version is in preparing. Information about the adopted basic classification is here: http://www.insecta.bio.spbu.ru/z/sys-ins.htm
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Hello, Our background is explained in the profile section- but we are a group of veterinarians/other scientists working on an unexpected research project that arose from observations of a cluster of illnesses among dogs and their owners in our veterinary practice. After thorough traditional work-up, we ruled out known causes of this constellation of symptoms and because of the seemingly transmissible nature of the illness, we began looking for perhaps a rare infection. We did find unexplainable objects in urine, cyst fluid, and subcutaneous nodules from the affected animals/humans- and did not see those same objects in blinded control studies using spouses/housemates of the affected individuals. It has taken a while to characterize the shape/properties of these objects since we were seeing them in the context of semi-degraded in tissue or tangled/broken up in urine samples. But now, we have retrieved enough reasonably intact samples to realize that they are large shell-shaped objects, resembling bivalves slightly, that contain long thin complex fibers as structural elements. The hinge/latch-like objects along the length of the fiber appear to bind to other elements in the internal contents of the "shell" and help keep them packaged and organized. I'm quoting "shell" because despite the marked resemblance to some bivalve shells, the shell portion is more dynamic. It can stretch and when the shell opens and the internal contents unfurl, the majority of the tissue forming the "shell" shape actually comes away in plumes of sheets of tissue that unfold in a very organized manner. Intriguingly, these sheets of tissue appear to contain a middle layer with a non-staining fibrous semi-liquid filling that may be mesoglea. The sheets of tissue are made up of connected small versions of almost exactly the same shell body plan as the larger organisms, and these small objects appear connected by a series of tubes that resemble stolons- leading us to wonder if the organism could be some type of hydrozoa or even myxozoan? I've attached a few new photos to demonstrate. We would appreciate any opinions at all about what the identity of these objects may be, and how we can optimize staining protocols +/- DNA extraction techniques to be able to get an identifying sequence for these probable organisms- though there will undoubtedly be some contamination with human/canine DNA.
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Yes..it seems some invertebrates
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Given your specific discipline. Have you ever irretrievably lost data of an ongoing research project? How did you handle it? Thanks in advance.
(Also, this is my story. A couple of years ago, in a study that included collection, preservation, identification and weighing of soil invertebrates, after an unfortunate event in the laboratory, the notebook that contained the weight notes of one of 10 sets of collected organisms, which belonged to the control group, was lost, so were the preserved organisms. I'm tagging this with an entomology lablel, so in case you're familiar with this topic: Would you consider trying some method of reconstructing the weight data or is there just nothing to do? There is no way to recover the notebooks, nor the preserved organisms).
Thank you.
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Javier García Reynaud, I first try my best to store it in multiple locations and drives so as to prevent any data loss. if it happens to occur, though, I use some recovery apps like "recuva" for instance.
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Artificial diet for silkworm
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There are some scientific papers published on this subject, and I will send them to you
Greetings
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hi, can anyone help me to determine if the colonies in the images portray Botryllus schlosseri or other species?
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Full history is in the project description, but briefly- a team of other veterinarians/colleagues and myself have stumbled across a case of multiple animals that have similar symptoms and are co-housed. Their presentation suggests an infectious disease, but no known infectious agent could be found despite thorough work-up. However, cytology samples from clean aspirates of subcutaneous nodules and urine filtrate (they have bloody urine) seems to be showing repeated structures that do not appear mammalian in origin. We seek to understand if these structures are some type of very organized artifact, or if they instead suggest that there may be some very unusual/novel type of organism (Annelid or Polychaete esp.) causing/involved-in these animals illnesses. Thank you for your time!
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@ Matthew B Paddock; Thanks for your reply. We did attempt 16s sequencing of a tissue sample taken from one of the subcutaneous nodules (before we realized that there could be a eukaryote involved). The 16S sequencing (from RNA extracted from tissue blocks from what should have been a surgically sterile site) did show a mixture of many bacterial species. However, the profile wasn't anything that would suggest a relative of a known pathogen, nor did it suggest surface contamination (ie- no staph species etc..) The profile didn't have any one main dominant species either, but was 20% this, 18% that, 15% this etc.... I don't have the profile in front of me right now, but, from memory, the bacterial species in the tissue sample were unusual, with an overrepresentation of extremophiles. At first I interpreted this as potentially some species that might be surviving our autoclaving of instruments (ie- could tolerate the autoclave temperatures but not typically mammalian pathogens so were not the cause of disease in the animals). But, once the observation of the filaments/worm-like organisms was made, it did occur to me to that perhaps if the infection were eukaryotic, perhaps the profile of bacteria seen could reflect the composition of the microbiome of the putative novel parasite. I cross-referenced the profile of bacteria with the known microbiome profile of c-elegans and, though not an exact match, the proportions and types of bacterial species represented did suggest that perhaps the species identified could represent the bacterial population of some eukaryotic species. Our first thought was that the putative novel species was some type of nematode/filarial infection. We did attempt to have the tissue sample probed with nematode-specific 18S rRNA primers to see if we could amplify/sequence any nematode DNA. Interestingly, the primers did bind and amplify a target sequence, but when that was attempted to be sequenced, the PCR products were not clean enough to yield an identifiable species. Later, other microscopic findings led us to consider other phyla (beyond nematodes/trematodes). Since this is mostly a project done out of curiosity rather than our primary line of work, we have not had the budget to proceed with any additional PCR studies. If you would like to see the actual genus/species break-down for the 16S analysis, I'd be happy to dig it up and post it for you (just don't have access to that computer today).
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Placobdella costata is a leech specific to freshwater turtle Emys orbicularis.
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Turtle leech
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I have read some reports on cone snails regarded as its primary predator, but have not found any papers detailing specific predators of the bearded fireworm based on stomach contents, field observations etc.
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I´m trying to determine what kind of body measurements are good to applicate it in wasps (e. g. body length, head width, etc.), in order to obtain the existing differences between individuals from separate nests.
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Hello. To my little understanding, you do the total length of the insect, length of the wing, the abdomen as well as the thoracic region. Best of luck
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Dear colleages, I have recently found this benthic worm (see picture), wich seems like an echiuran to me (I am no specialist at all). Its color pattern really intrigued me. Can you give me some more information about this particular specimen?
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I agree with Leandro. It look like a nemertean to me!! but also i think a better pic is necesary!!! maybe Yander L. Diez could give a better opinion about them!!
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Here it goes again.
Dear colleagues, I have found this particular marine worm (a nemertean, perhaps?) and I am still trying to figure out exactly what it is. Here's some more pictures of this animal (if you wanna know how it looked like before fixation, search for part I):
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MYSTERY SOLVED (?)
Dear all, according to the specialist Cecili Mendes (University of São Paulo), the animal is a nemertean, indeed. The species is called Evelineus tigrilus, and she also told me about its current taxonomical uncertainty, since this species can be a synonymous of another species belonging to a different genus (Lineus).
I truly appreciate everyone's effort here, specially @Tom Trott's, and I hope we can keep sharing useful information like this inspired by our own curiosity.
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I find it after a storm along the coast of Central Thyrrhenian sea.
Its dimensions are 40 mm. in height and 60 mm in length.
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Thanks to everyone ! Roberto.
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I want to identify sea anemones in muddy coastal waters (subtidal zone).
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Hy, Moslem
The best (and more complete) key for sea anemones identification is, undoubtedly, that of Carlgren 1949:
CARLGREN, O. 1949. A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Fjärd Serien Band 1 (1): 1-121
To understand and recognize the structures you need to identify in the material, please consult:
STEPHENSON, T.A. 1928. The British Sea Anemones. Ray. Soc. v. I n.113 (1927), p. 1-148, figs 1-41 t. 1-14
Concerning methodology, when you collect the anemones you have first to anesthetizate them in a small bowl with sea water, using either a small amount of menthol crystals on the surface of the water or slowly drip a solution of magnesium chloride (or sulfate) and wait until the specimen gets anesthetizated (when it doesn't contract the tentacles anymore). This procedure causes the tentacles to keep exposed and the tissues and other structures, in general, don't look contracted! Then, fix the specimens in a 10% saline formaldehyde solution, better prepared using sea water of the same area. Finally, you have to prepare the material to obtain histological sections, stain these sections with Hematoxilyn and Eosin and/or using a trichromic dye (like Mallory's or Gomori's). All these methodologies can be obtained in a good book of Histological Techniques.
Good luck, Moslem. When you get your slides prepared post me a photo, please!
Best wishes,
Priscila.
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I have found this structure attached to the abdominal sclerites of Hydraena (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae), from a high mountain river in north Spain. The beetle has about 2 mm length and the structure about 0,1-0,2 mm. Could it be a kind of ephippia?
Thank you for your help
Maria
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Dear colleagues,
It's nice to communicate that we have resolved the mistery. The specimen is a suctoria epibiont protozoan, a new species  that we have described in:
GREGORIO FERNÁNDEZ-LEBORANS, MARÍA VALLADOLID, MERCEDES ARAUZO,
ANDRÉS MILLÁN, REGINA GABILONDO, MANUELA GALLARDO, LUIS JIMÉNEZ & MIREYA RAMÍREZ-BALLESTEROS. 2017. Epibionts on Hydraena species (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae) from high mountain rivers of Pyrenees (Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4317 (1): 79-94. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.1.3.
Best wishes
Maria
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What kind of species does this sandbox belong to?
This sandbox also contains some gasteropod shells.
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Duh! Of couse it's not a serpulid -- I don't know why I said that. Pectinarid it is, just like had in the paper thatI I referred to.
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The majority of Cryptolestes keys indicate that C. ferrugineus has a head without posterior transverse sulcus and mandibles of males expanded laterally.
However, I have specimens of Cryptolestes with posterior transverse sulcus and mandibles expanded laterally.
Does anyone know what species it could be?
Thanks in advance
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Hello Luis Miguel,
I wrote Dr. Thomas to another address last week. I will write him to the email that you send me, although I do not know if it is still working.
Thank you very much
regards
David
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A co-worker found this unknow flatworm along a citycanal in Amsterdam. We have no idea what this might be, so any help is welcome. It is probably non-indigenous. It was collected using a pondnet in the canal, but it may prove not to be aquatic after all.
Thanks, Ton
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Hugh Jones identified it as M.adventor
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I am using Redundancy analysis to explore the effect of plant community composition on invertebrate abundances (log-transformed values) within sampling sites.  I am using the vegan package in R and have been getting a result where my plant community explains more than 60% of the variation in the invertebrate community, but is not significant (through anova.cca function).  When I use an environmental matrix to explain the invertebrates, it explains much less variation but is usually significant.  I'm wondering that since my plant community is based on presence/absence, if this is what is causing the issue.  I would appreciate any suggestions or direction to help with this.  
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Hi Kellie,
I would transform the plant community matrix into a set of 'coordinates' using either PCA or nMDS, and giving you (a minimum) of 2 variables which explain variation within the plant community. If the data is presence/absence, you will need to do the relevant transformation before you run it in PCA, however the matrix can be used as is in nMDS.
You may want to consider variation partitioning as well, that will allow you to test for the independent effects of plant community and environment on the invertebrates, as well as the combined effect.
The vegan package in R covers this quite well!
Cheers
Chris
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Dear all,
A colleague found this polyclad among mussels on a harbor wall in Zeebrugge(Belgium). It measures 2cm. Can someone help with the identification?
Thanks in advance
Jan
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dear colleaugue, I can not tell you the name of the species because I am not a specialist, and it is not possibilwe a correct determination based on a photos. Nevertheless, I recorded a similar infestation in mussels from the Adriatic Sea and a study on a similar infestation in Tunisian has just published. To follow the developments of this apparent expansion might be of interest.
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What is the name of this green insect. I noticed on its carapace the presence of another small insect? it is visible in the three photos. Is this insect dangerous to people?
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Chrysomelidae Cassidinae, genus Cassida. The small arthropod (probably a phoretic mite) is on the pronotum (that is not a "carapace"). The genus Cassida comprises many species often very similar, all are phytophagous; some of them damage herbaceous crops. Other genera of beetles with expanded and translucent edges to the elytra and the pronotum: Cossyphus (Tenebrionidae), Soronia, Lobiopa ecc. (Nitidulidae, rather small beetles, in which the pronotal edge does not cover the head), and others... Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Hi everyone,
Below attached specimens were collected from soft bottom - Persian Gulf. 10 m Depth. Sharing any idea regarding species identification will be very much useful to me... 
Thank You
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Hi Soroor,
species #5 is a Eulimidae representative
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Is it possible to identify incomplete individuals (without pygidium or prostomium) of Maldane (Polychaeta:Maldanidae) to species level?
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It is very difficult to identify maldanids without one of the extremes, in most cases you need to know the total number of segments to identify your material at the generic level. However, if you have a good knowledge of the fauna in your sampling area, you can use anal plaque papillation, the shape of the cephalic plaque and the shape of the uncines to compare. Regards
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I'm seeking help of copepod taxonomist to help me in Identification of the calanoid copepod and I guess it belongs Acartia. can anyone help me?
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#2 and 5 are Acartia - species level would require date and location of collection
last one could be pseudocalanus, ID is best done with dorsal/ventral images.  side views are not always that helpful.
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Can you give clue to this species, collected from inter tidal habitat of South west coast of India
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It is VERY difficult to identify a Polyclad from a photograph. Anatomy is needed. However, try a look at this reference. It seems to me that the general colour was matching with your specimen. And at least it's the Pacific Ocean.
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Hello Everyone........
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You need to study spicules and gemmules to id a sponge...you can see our papers........if you have already done that  ...what species do you have?? may I know??
conatct us by email separately
hvg
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Hello, I'm reaching out to see if anyone knows any species / genre / subfamily of chiton which has been described to have eyes (ocelli), besides the Schizochitonidae family, and the sub-families Toniciinae and Acanthopleurinae (Family Chitonidae). 
These are the ones that I consistently find in the web, but I was wondering if there has been any other description? 
Thank you in advance!
Francisco
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Jehru:
This link and the references therein might prove helpful:
Best
Syed
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I have a big collection of invertebrate hydrobionts in ethanol from river Stryi near Turka town (Ukrainian Carpathians, 2016). As long as my main specialization is Crustaceans I can send the collection for further processing if anybody needs it as a whole or just some groups of invertebrates for research.The specimens collected during November, January, March, April, May, June, July, September from the river, puddles and ponds nearby. There is a big number of species of Diptera, Ephemeroptera, leeches, aquatic mites and several species of mollusks, beetles and other taxons. Most of the specimens are identified to the species level.
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I would be also very much interested in amphipods and asellids from all over Ukrainian Carpathians, particularly if they are preserved in 96% ethanol. I'm doing a lot of phylogeographic projects in the area. With asellids we can manage together with Florian, can't we :-) 
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I want to investigate microflora inside of Artemia nauplii, so I want to break the body of Artemia nauplii. what kind of homogenizer machine can I use? Or which method can I use? Thank you so much?
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You can buy several different tissue homogenizers that will fit into a microcentrifuge tube:https://www.fishersci.com/shop/products/fisherbrand-pellet-pestle-microtubes-2/p-4922038.  I personally like the ones made of teflon, but they are more expensive.
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Which families are these polychaetes on photos? 
Thank you
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1, 2 and 5, 6 are nereidid polychaete worm, same species, if you collected it on hard bottom in the Med or eastern Atlantic, it seems to be Platynereis dumerilii, characteristic with long peristomial tentacles, though paragnats should be checked. Specimen in fig 3 and and 4 belong to Opheliidae and most probably Polyophthalmus pictus, a common hard-bottom species in the Med. 
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Now, I am working on the RNAi experiment in planarian by using stardard protocol (Rouhana, Labib, et al. 2013).
What is the proper length of dsRNA used in experiment.
Most importantly, which region on the gene ORF that I choose to design dsRNA ? Should I design several dSRNA that cover entire ORF or just only specific fragment of ORF?
Thank so much
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dear researchers can you identify species of this sponge, found in fresh water pond of desert
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This species was found in the mixed biofilm cultures...
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Oedogonium is unbranched filementous form with cap cells and oogonia ( these are identification marks for Oedogonium) 
Further Coleocheate is discoid structure with reduced erect system and  I don't know whether it is Coleochete or not
I strongly believe it may be cluster of algal forms which form the bloom. so better to isolate the individual filaments and examine under the microscope.
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This specimen was found to grow in cultured biofilm samples...
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please give details such as size of the filament, is it branched or un branched, type of the chloroplast and  how many cells are present in the filament for proper identification of the species
Thank you
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I just wonder how, when, and where morphological changes happen if an egg became diapause, or if a diapause egg became activated.
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Please see also a paper by Korovchinsky & Boikova, 1996. The resting eggs of the Ctenopoda (Crustacea: Branchiopoda): a review. Hydrobiologia 320: 131 - 140.
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I'm going to start a sistematic research about Tardigrades in Atacama deset mainly in tillandsia plants, it would very helpufull any info you know, thanks in advantage.
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Wonderfull, Cristina, yes I´m plannig to go to Chile, Antofagasta university and a local conservancy association inviteme to colaborate in bromeliad´s proyect which is one of my colect sites for tardigrada. It seems you are the right contact in Antofagasta University about Tardigrades, it will be lovely if you could help me.
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I want to learn more about the cycle of the family
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See: THE POLYCHAETE WORMS
Definitions and Keys to the Orders, Families and Genera
By Kristian Fauchald.
Andrew :-)
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On behalf of a a Dutch co-worker (Paul Veenvliet) I would like your advice on this earthworm seen in Slovenia. It was seen in the Notranjska area near Rakov Skocjan (lat 45.790 lon 14.303) on 7.ix.2016. He described it as a "Blue-green earthworm, about 10 cm in stretched form. When picked up quickly contracting and feeling stiff, firm. Then immobile for a long time. Had a dense, sticky slime. Found near the entrance of a cave.". It was suggested that this might be Aporrectodea smaragdina or whatever its current name is. Can anybody give us a hint. I'm also very intrigued by this beautifull creature. Many thanks in advance
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I know my answer is not very helpful now the species identity has been confirmed (nor very academic either) , but I find this to be one of the most beautiful and striking earthworm species in Europe! It could be really helpful for public awareness of earthworm diversity and conservation as a "flagship" species. In case there is no vernacular name for this beauty, it should certainly be Emerald Earthworm. 
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These small gastropods are really difficult to identify. Can anyone let me know which species they are belong to? These samples are from Penang, Malaysia.
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I would recommend to use keys (for example, Benthem Jutting's ones) instead of posting photographs, without any locality data. Aquatic mollusks are highly variable in conchyliological characters and any identifications made on base of these photographs will be true to generic level only. Especially, considering there are so many sister species only possible to recognize using DNA
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We are in the process of re-starting series of samples with light-traps in western Indian Ocean (Reunion and Madagascar). Until now, invertebrates were considered as “by-catches” and thus not analyzed but we think we are missing some valuable information.
As we do not have time to process the samples when they are fresh (too much work with fish post-larvae), what would be the best way to preserve the invertebrates caught in light-traps (mainly crustacean larvae but also octopuses, worms, etc.).
The aim is to (later) follow the barcoding of life procedures (i.e. taking images, keeping a voucher, etc.). But we hesitate between using ethanol (will make the individuals stiff and difficult to photograph), or freezing the samples (lead to the risk of DNA degradation when samples are sorted out).
Thanks for your ideas and do not hesitate if you are interested getting access to the samples.
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100% ethyl alcohol and store it in a -30ºC
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Name of the species of this pennatula?
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 Feather sea pen, May be from Genus Virgularia, Order - Pennatulacea, Suborder - Subsessiliflorae. 
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Maby who knew what is species insects? It has built its "house" in insulated with polyurethane foam. Near the forest. The "house" is probably the birch leave.
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Thanks :)
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Specimen collected from lakshadweep islands Mitra (Strigatella) discors (Gmelin, 1791) or Pyrene punctata (Bruguière, 1789)? Scale bar 1 cm
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Thank You
Gianluigi Bini
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dived and photographed by a team mate. Taken from Kaptai Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
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Shriraj:
Yes, Spicules and Gemmules are important but general morphological features provide clues for this specimen to be a lacustrine Sponge: S. lacustris. Muntasir would provide additional evidence based on spicules.  Kindly see this link:
Best
Syed
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Found in dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) gut content from River Teme, Worcestershire, UK these images were taken from a high powered microscope. Can anyone help identify what they have come from? I thought potentially hymenoptera or beetle larvae?
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 Viktor, do you think this could be a chironomid hatching from it's pupa?
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this polychaete collected from soft bottom, Persian Gulf, depth:10m
please give me a reference.
thanks a lot
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Hi Soroor
I agree with some colleagues information, It looks like a Onuphidae, plz upload good image 
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These were found in juvenile fish guts (fish length less than 8mm) from River Teme. Images taken under high powered microscope. It has biting mouth parts and hairs all over the body, see images.
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In my opinion these photos show details of Psocoptera (or Corrodentia), not of larvae of Coleoptera. Psocoptera don't live in water, but they can fall down from branches of trees near rivers, lakes an so on, or can be transferred by the wind on the water surface, so becoming prey for fishes. Unlike Coleoptera, Psocoptera are heterometabolous insects (with gradual metamorphosis), so it is difficut to say if the pictures of these fragments regard adult(s) or juvenile stage(s) (nymph(s)). What are the features which suggest my interpretation? A) the shape of the head, the position of eyes, the prominent and rounded postclypeus (see photo 1); the morphology of the antennae, rather well developed (photos 1-3) (and perhaps suggesting a young individual). B) the sclerotization (confused dark spot) within the mouth cavity (Psocoptera have an internal mechanism for chopping solid food), and the shape of the mandibles (photos 1-3). C) diagnostic is, furthermore, the shape of the maxillary lacinia, long and narrow ('baculiform'), in this case clearly bifurcate at the anterior end (see photo 3, on the left side); this is a very peculiar characteristic of the mouthparts in Psocoptera. Finally, also the dimensions are compatible with the size useful for the diet of a very small, young fish: Psocoptera are small insects, adult length is at most a few millimeters, and young individuals, of course, are also smaller than the respective adults. Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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This is burrowing worm build calcareous tube inside seagrass rhizome. Retractable table with fork like structure and a big mouth piece like beak.
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This is probably not a polychaete.  It is likely a teredinid bivalve...or shipworm.  There's at least one such clam that finds its' home in seagrass rhizomes: Zachsia zenkewitschi.  See: Shipway et al. 2016 in PLoS One. 2016; 11(5): e0155269. Zachsia zenkewitschi (Teredinidae), a Rare and Unusual Seagrass Boring Bivalve Revisited and Redescribed
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Hy there,
I'm doing a Bachelor's degree's thesis about Temnocephaloidae, but I din't find anything about animals who use them as food item.
Does someone know an article about it?
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Dear Mattia, Stuart R. Gelder has done some experiments in our laboratory years ago, and showed that branchiobdelids eat temnocephalids. Obviously, this was an in vitro experiments, but may be of some help:
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Hi, I have a serious problem wit identification of this sausage-like worm (totally I have few of them). It was collected in Rijpfjorden, a high arctic fjord of Svalbard, at a soft sediment bed, depth about 250m.
It has mouth on the anterion end and anus on the posterior end, 8 rows of musscles, the intestine is strongly spirally coiled.
I excluded priapulids (coiled intestine, no hooks), holoturians (no calcareous ring or skeletal ossicles), sipunculans (anus on the posterior end, 8 musscles) and have no idea what can it be. 
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Fo me it seems to be an anthozoan species (Edwardsiidae), and in opposite to what you wrote it has probably only a mouth. Please check it again.
The picture with the section: please cut the right hand side (mouth region) in the centre (you only removed the outer mantle) and maybe you will see some small (retracted) tentacles.In your third picture the body part which is sitting in the sediment (left hand side) is visible.
Cheers
Michael
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I found a species by external description:
length: 8.5 cm, setae: closely paired, male pore on 13, clitellum on 25-30, tubercle 26-28, live colour: dark red violet.
Can anyone help me for identification?
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Surely an anomalous specimen with Mp on 13! (In Lumbricidae only the Eiseniella tetraedra complex has Mp. on 13). It would be great to see the prostomium. If it is tanylobic and let's say that it has Mp. on 15, than cl: on 27-32. Typical L. rubellus. The color and the size fit but rubellus usually has a  much smaller Mp. So without dissecting this is all what can be said.
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the pictures are from northern Algeria
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