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Invertebrate Paleontology - Science topic

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I would love to know anyone's thoughts about types of data that would be useful in an open database. I live in the US, and traveling to museums to measure ammonites is not possible for all of the students I encounter or work with.
The database I've started (ammodata.wordpress.com) is similar to Open Dino and not really like Mindat or PBDB, and it makes data easily shareable so that anyone who downloads it has what they need to do a basic ammonite research project, even without access to travel funds, museums, or the best specimens. It mostly has data I myself already have, but I am looking to add coiling and W/D other data as well.
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Katherine Marriott ... please alow me to add some inspiration ...
Molluscabase (Molluscabase.org) is attempting to bring all knowledge on marine and non-marine, fossil and recent mollusca together.
It is primarily based on taxonomy yet in some (recent) families / groups we are already adding specimens and such.
Of what I read above, this might not be entirely what you are looking for in terms of data, but as fossil cephalopods are currently lacking in Molluscabase there might be a future collaboration opportunity here ...
Should you wish further info, don't hesitate to ask.
Kindest regards,
Chris Vos, F. L. S.
Indepedent researcher
WoRMS - Molluscabase editor - Gastropoda
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We have obtained some electron micrographs showing what appears to be developmental stages of some type of small eukaryotic organism colonizing/parasitizing the tissues of mammalian hosts. Samples tested included sterile deep needle aspirate of subcutaneous nodules, filtered lysed whole blood, and urine sediment. The hosts may have a unique genetic defect allowing them to become infected with eukaryotic parasites, or, the putative parasite may have efficient strategies for suppressing the hosts immune response.
We are curious about the identity of this possibly novel organism. None of us in the research group have more than basic knowledge of invertebrate taxonomy, but based on the presence of organized calcified “tube or shell”-like structures, we are hypothesizing that it may be some type of polychaete or mollusk? The opinion or thoughts of anyone skilled in such classification would be very appreciated. Thanks!
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ربما يوجد ذلك
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Paleontologists and biologists work as separate teams, however if they try to work together they can solve a lot of problems related to these two fields. Please let us know your opinion concerning this subject and how to fill this gap.
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Thanks for introducing this interesting topic!
Species is the building block in the systematics of Biology and Paleontology. So the’ gap’ between the two branches may be minimized with commonness in the facets of its definition. Paleontological species (with ambit spanning all past time planes other than the Recent) are morphospecies erected exclusively on hard part morphology that exhibits variations, and differs from other ‘look-alike’ morphospecies. The characteristic aspects of morphospecies are its stratigraphic occurrence and involvement in the changes of morphological features with time (cf. organic evolution and evolutionary lineage), save life activity. Paleontological species has the quality to be a phylogenetic species. On the other hand, the essential parameters of a biological species include sexual reproduction, interbreeding and reproductive isolation which are witnessed in ‘Recent’ organisms. Gene flow within the community is the most distinctive character of a biological species, which however, cannot document organic evolution. ‘Reproductive isolation’ due to geographical, behavioral or genetic differences is difficult to establish in fossil communities; moreover, it is difficult to adjudge if interbreeding of different fossil communities of a species reproduced fertile offspring.
Despite these differences, there are common areas that are to be explored to bridge the gap.
1. Extant species contains distinctive as well as common aspects of both paleontological and biological species and it records physiological and anatomical changes during the span of its geologic age. The changes need to be interpreted by both teams in terms of environmental, ecological, climatic and evolution to arrive at a common definition of species.
2. Fossilized dimorphic/trimorphic forms, conjoined (plastogamic) forms , adult-juvenile association in certain extinct species help in the recovery of life cycle with attendant sexual reproduction and gene flow through interbreeding. Such specimens though rare can be of joint interest; advanced techniques of DNA, RNA can be performed to know ‘blood relation’ between ‘partners’ and ‘offspring’. The will help in genetic classification of a species, which is the aim of both groups.
3. Fossil forms containing signatures of sexual reproduction in their hard parts should be treated on par with biological species, and these may be explored for genetic species based systematics.
best wishes,
Sanjay K. Mukhopadhyay
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I would be much indebted if you refer to some references on using nanotechnology in the field of paleontology!! I also would like to have your feedback on this field of research
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Is there a simple and quick way to differentiate those two types, or do we use a special 'key' for that?
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Thank you very much Obianuju ! I had the same problem, which is solved now.
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Earth have diverse group of insects, if a species of insect got extinct, how we can assess and identify them? What are the criteria’s to follow?
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Dear Kariyanna,
I believe that several other replies here have added useful information for attempting to define this. Though I had some entomology courses and instruct a bit of this in my zoology teachings, I work largely with mammals. Extinction can be difficult, if not impossible, to verify for many species, so a consensus, such as the IUCN description is a useful working application.
In graduate school, a fellow researcher worked on a possible population census of wolverines in the state of Oregon. Though it was assumed that wolverines exist in Oregon, none were definitively sighted for several years. The research was based upon trace evidence - burrows, hair, tracks, and alleged sightings or predation of this species.
I myself assisted a colleague on trace evidence and reports of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) in Tasmania. Largely considered to be extinct, but with continued reports, some from reputable sources. Is it extinct? Most mammalogists would say yes, but I am still uncertain with some of the reports and a large amount of suitable habitat that is difficult to access. On the other hand, species such as the Great auk, the passenger pigeon, and Steller's sea cow have no doubt that they are extinct and no sightings have been reported for a century or more.
Here is one reference for insect sampling and potential declines: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069279/
Regards,
Jeb Bevers
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Based on the many publications from several decades, we came across many classifications of Insects. Among them which one is more updated and approved classification that can be used for research, academics and teaching purpose?
Thank you.....
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The most recient is the Book "Insect systematics and principles of cladoendesis", wich is published in Russian in 2020. English version is in preparing. Information about the adopted basic classification is here: http://www.insecta.bio.spbu.ru/z/sys-ins.htm
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Hello,
We are a group of veterinarians looking into repeatable findings of unusual structures found in a group of animals with similar unusual complaints of unexplained hematuria, tender subcutaneous nodules, and easy fatiguability. We have repeatably found tiny fibers and tube or shell-shaped calcified structures in tissue samples from these animals. So far, we have been unable to definitively characterize the species that may be producing these objects, but light and electron microscopic studies have led us to consider a novel polychaete or mollusk, or even possibly something really unusual such as an organized myxozoan. One of the most obvious and unusual features of these organisms is that they contain fibers (possibly chaetae?) that can evert plume/fan-like structures from their tips, and sometimes from portions along their lengths. These fibers are quite small- generally only 5-10 microns wide, and potentially 200-400 microns long. Despite their small size, they repeatably contain a very intricate and complex system of pulleys, levers, ratchets, etc.. that we presume are present to evert the fan-like structures- which may be used for respiration/feeding? The fibers are highly refractive, and seem to contain tiny crystalline "gears". Portions of the fibers will stain with crystal violet and/or Safranin O, but in general, the fibers stain poorly with the standard H&E type histology stains. In addition to the fibers, there are often structures seen which resemble trophozoite stages of polychaete or mollusk-like organisms. (photos available in data files related to this project).
Is anyone familiar with organisms that have these features? We would be very grateful for any thoughts about what organism these fibers may be coming from, and/or links to any reference papers or atlas etc... that describes these structures and might help us focus our search for an identify of this possible novel parasitic organism. While we began our search in the veterinary patient population, we have evidence suggesting that this putative organism may be a zoonotic agent to immunosuppressed human patients. So, we are very eager to learn more about the candidate organisms that could produce such fibers, and relay those suggestions to the physicians of human patients who may be hosts of this possible novel pathogen.
Thanks you for your time and expertise!
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Hi Abhijit Mitra,
As an updated answer/ongoing question to this thread- we have had an evolution in our thinking about the identity of the objects in this question. We have learned that the filamentous objects are not independent, but rather a structural feature of a larger, more elusive object/organism. We have found that there are large shell-shaped objects, resembling bivalves slightly, that contain these fibers as structural elements. The hinge/latch-like objects along the length of the fiber appear to bind to other elements in the internal contents of the "shell" and help keep them packaged and organized. I'm quoting "shell" because despite the marked resemblance to some bivalve shells, the shell portion is more dynamic. It can stretch and when the shell opens and the internal contents unfurl, the majority of the tissue forming the "shell" shape actually comes away in plumes of sheets of tissue that unfold in a very organized manner. Intriguingly, these sheets of tissue appear to contain a middle layer with a fibrous semi-liquid filling that may be mesoglea. The sheets of tissue are made up of connected small versions of almost exactly the same shell body plan as the larger organisms, and these small objects appear connected by a series of tubes that resemble stolons- leading us to wonder if the organism could be some type of hydrozoa or even myxozoan? I've attached a few new photos to demonstrate.
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I found it in a thin section of a Jurassic-Cretaceous marine limestone which corresponds to shoreface facies.
Can it be worm tubes? a foraminifer? Any other ideas of what it can be precisely? (Photos taken with 5X objective).
I read you. Thank you.
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This certainly looks an incomplete test/shell of a miliolid foram (the arrangement of chambers is giving the flower-like appearance).
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I am looking for a pdf versión of the Part K. MOLLUSCA 3 (Cephalopoda General Features, Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Nautiloidea, Bactritoidea) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology.
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Dear Daniel,
Here you go!
Best wishes, Thomas
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Most authors agree that the oldest paraconodonts like Protohertzina derive from the "Anabarites trisulcatus - Protohertzina anabarica Zone". According to the geological time-scale 2016 (Ogg et al. 2016), this would yield a minimum age of about 532.7 Ma. Of course, Protohertzina already occurs at the base of this zone, so my question would be are there any earlier "First Appearance Data of Protohertzina" or other early protoconodonts which are bounded below radiometric age or can be reasonable correlate to an interval below 532.7Ma. Your help would be greatly appreciated.
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First Appearance Data of Protohertzina might be constrained to 545–540 Ma according to SSFs (including Protoherzina and other protocodonts) reported from Ust’-Yudoma Formation, Russia. see the ref below:
Zhu M , Zhuravlev A Y , Wood R A , et al. A deep root for the Cambrian explosion: Implications of new bio- and chemostratigraphy from the Siberian Platform. Geology, 2017, 45(5):459-462.
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Kindly point out the specified fossils.
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Sincerely, I am beholden to you and wordless to extend my thanks for such an effort and I appreciate your keenness. Well, the reservation, I posses include the name of Mizzia that seems like the poorly preserved Bryozoan to me, though not confirmed. The bottom right resembles Nodosinelloid as you have pointed out correctly. And the biota i.e Macroporella and Briozaories still unknown to me as I haven't read or seen in the literature of Permian strata of the Upper Indus basin of the studied area.
Thanking you again for making out your precious time dear @José Francisco Carrasco
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I am doing research on algae from the Upper Cretaceous of Colombia, South America.  The algae I am working with is approximately 5 to 30 µm in size.  The individuals have a well defined "head" or "cap", a well developed "thallus" or "stipe" (I can't tell the difference) and a noticeable "holdfast".  Because these are fossil forms, about all I have to work with is the external morphology (size and shape).  Some forms have the same general shape as, Udotea, some have a "flower-looking" cap as Acetabularia, and some are more globose in shape with a short stalk and holdfast as in the genus Ulva.  I can not find anywhere in the literature where they have been reported and, in the field of paleontology, I have nobody that seems to be interested in talking with me.  I am will to share my photographs online with anyone.  It would be a real help to know what the environment of deposition was.  I am assuming that it was probably shallow, clear and quite water (because of their size) but I am not sure.  Any help would be appreciated.  
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If I am not wrong, nano-turf algae is totally different from turf algae and I would not prefer to use the term turf algae synonyms with nano-turf algae.
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Corals and floral traces?
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The first figure is the coral Montlivaltia (Coelenterata) while the second is an impression of pinnate leaf of angiosperm.
Obianuju P. Umeji
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I recently read on Catalogue of Organisms (http://coo.fieldofscience.com/2014/05/wasps-with-fangs-on-their-feet.html) that pimpline ichneumonid wasps have enlarged claws on their hind tarsi that may or may not contain a fluid used in defense or host incapacitation. I was wondering if anyone happened to have pictures of these claws, as I cannot find any pictures of them anywhere (and being a vertebrate specialist am not sure where to look) or knows if there are any potential representatives of this group in the fossil record.
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Sorry for the long delay with the answer! Hope you are still interested on poison claws! :-) Ian Gauld published some SEM-images of the pimpline poison claws in his monograph of the Costa Rican Pimplinae (Volume I).
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We found this rotifer in Arenal Reservoir, Costa Rica. We've been trying to identify it, but the rear end does not seem to conform with usual pictures or drawings of the two most likle genera: Ascomorpha or Asplanchna. We just want a confirmation of our most likely bet: Ascomorpha. We appreciate any sugestions. Thanks!
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Thanks Hans. We will consider your suggestion.
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John Huntley and myself are currently guest-editing two volumes for Topics in Geobiology on the evolution and fossil record of parasitism and are having trouble finding a researcher to contribute a chapter on The Evolution and fossil record of insects as vectors and hosts for parasites. Insects are common hosts for various parasites and pathogens which in some cases can even cause characteristic diseases and pathologies in them. Would there be any (paleo)ecologists, paleontologist, parasitologists or evolutionary paleobiologist who might be able contribute such a chapter this year. We will sent it out for review in addition to reviewing it ourselves. Please sent me an private message or e-mail with a potential outline or potential contributors.
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Ken, what about George Poinar Jr.?
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Preferably if lives in Mexico or knows mexican specimens. I found several of them at "Sierra Huichola" (western Mexico) and I'm looking for someone to analyze them. You can see full catalogue at:
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As discussed recently on the Ichnology Facebook page, these are inorganically produced structures. The author of Palaeotrochis, Ebenezer Emmons, wanted to discover fossils of "Taconic" (latest pre-Cambrian) age, and in this case found pseudofossils. His collection was destroyed in the American Civil War. They are certainly worth studying as pseudofossils, and it would be interesting to read a new article about them; however, they are neither body fossils nor trace fossils. See:
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Hi!, i need help with this fossil traces, bryozoos, worms? thank you!
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Talpina? 
Please use the paper Buatois et al. "Categories of architectural designs in trace fossils: A measur eof ichnodisparity". It is good!
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In summer 2007 I could find several fossil objects (see fotos attached) of an interesting bivalve or ostracod at the Lower Miocene location "Altheim-Breitenlauh" ~15 km southwest of Ulm (Upper Swabia, Southwest Germany). The fossil remains were found in an iron-bearing sand layer at the base of the so-called "Grimmelfingen Beds" (Brackish Water Molasse resp. "Brackwassermolasse" within the geological structure of the "Graupensandrinne").
The total shell length amounts between ~1,5 cm and ~3,0 centimeters!
Can anyone help me to identify this invertebrate fossils from the base of the "Grimmelfingen Beds" (Brackish Water Molasse, Lower Miocene) in Southwest Germany?
Thanks and best wishes;
Volker 
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Dear Bettina,
... nice to hear from you! I think you are such an expert on invertebrates, fishes etc. from the Brackish Water Molasse of South Germany, that I have no doubt about your informations. But I will prove your determination (Siliqua suevica) tomorrow :-).
Another question to you Bettina: is this a common bivalve taxa within the "Grimmelfinger Beds" resp. the "Graupensandrinne" or is this taxa very rare to find there?
Thank you very much and all best wishes to Munich;
Volker
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Which species does this foraminifers belong to?
It is cemented with sand grains in a Polichete sandtube
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It indeed strongly resembles a biserial benthic foram, possibly an agglutinated  Spiroplectinella. However, it is rather huge (almost 3 mm in length) and the color is unusual. Can you liberate the specimen form the tube, so that the symmetry can be better assessed?
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I am working with unionid bivalves from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation and have found what I believe is a new genus.  I am currently reviewing the Smithsonian collection of Yen and the Missouri collection of Branson. I am looking for someone to help me describe the specimen and publish the description. 
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Dean:
You may find this classic link useful:
Best
Syed
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I am working on low latitude Paleogene shallow marine fauna of W India and would like to understand the trophic scenario of this fossil community. Where can I find relevant information on extant shallow marine fauna for comparison?
Thank you.
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Siddhartha:
Your question embraces broad spectrum of shallow marine environments, but this classic link would provide you essential insights:
Best
Syed
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On behalf of Kerman coal company I am going to prepare a geological report about the quality of Kerman coal mines and I need some data about coal thin sections ,may I ask you to send me usefull reports or articles or introducing suitable books .Thanks a lot?.
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I am compiling some data from the Cretaceous of North Colombia so I would like to know the geological range of these ammonites.
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German:
For Baculites, you may have a look at this link for Age range in different biogeographic provinces. For R. subtuberculatus kindly provide full citation of the species:
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In the year 1990 I could find an interesting fossil object (see fotos attached) in the Solnhofen Formation ("Solnhofener Plattenkalke", Malm Zeta 2b) at the locality "Blumenberg" near Eichstätt (Bavaria, South Germany). I don't know to what animal, perhaps to a cephalopod (? nautiloid or ammonoid jaw fragment), this fossil remain belongs to!
The scale/dimension of the fossil object is the following: 4,5 x 2,7 centimeter (max. length x max. wide); the convex surface shows little "points" and "fold structures".
Do you have an idea, to what animal this Upper Jurassic fossil belongs to? Please give me informations and/or fotos for comparisons!
Thanks very much;
Volker
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Hi, Volker,
the visible morphology does not support the suggestion of a coprolite well. The "drying lines" or dents would not be expected in a coprolite. Drying dents require at least a coating such as a cuticula or soft shell, under which the drying would occur, or it could be a soft carapace that shows folding. If it were a coprolite, drying or concentration of the mass would appear more or less uniform. The surface would be more or less uniform granular, unless some undigested bodily ingestations are within.
Also, the punctiform indentations do not fit to a coprolite. Certainly, it is difficult to ascertain. To me, a possible explanation is a crustacean shell, e.g. an ostracode shell or that of a bivalved crustacean. It may have been shortly after moulting, thus still flexible and soft.
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Hi, can anyone help me to identify this vertical trace fossil? I really appreciate it. Info: it was found in an Early Jurassic (Sinemurian-Pleinsbachian) marginal marine setting and it was located in siltstones. The first photo (a) corresponds to a cross-section view, whereas the second photo (b) is a lateral view. Scale is 2 mm.
Thank very much in advanced!
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This trace impression showing :
1 -Rate of sedimentation with respect to time.
2-In upper and lower part decreasing and increasing size of width of digging materials
That happens when change in facies. Basically this type of structure occurs in sandy shore zone of marine environment where .That fossil can be skolithos or glassifungites.
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This microscopic photo belong to Devonia icrofacies
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the first picture,s probably is microbal trace and second,s probably is coral fossil remained.
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The rock is Triassic limestone.
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Madani's observation suggests me a possible difference between the rock of the two photos and the Dachstein Limestone of the Northern Calcareous Alps.
While the Dachstein Limestone shows the Megalodon bivalves mostly in-situ, fossilised in the position they lived and grew, this rock could be generated by resedimenting a bivalve-rich calcareous sediment, resulting in a graded bed, with a base (right) rich in bivalve shell, and a top (left) with much less bivalves. This would also explain the relative scarcity of connected and articulated shells.
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Thin section from uppermost Cretaceous mudstone (P. hariaensis zone) Haymana Basin-Central Anatolia.
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Most probably part of a fish..
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How to study Cretaceous benthic foraminifera from fragile carbonate material? You can also suggest suitable literature. 
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If I get your question correctly, i can offer method of disaggregation using Na2SO4 · 10H2O (Glauber's sault or mirabilite). I research the Upper cretaceous foramiferas of Volga refion and I work with different species of marls and chalks. Glauber's sault's method is very successufully. I can send you discription. 
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This specimen corresponds to the early-medium Devonian in a siliciclastic sequence. I consider that it is a orthida, but I can not find jobs where it is described. It is a brachial valve: Do you know the specimen? What gender can it belong to?
Best regards
Dr. María Lidia Sánchez
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Maria:
Different views of this specimens are needed but for now kindly check with Devonian Brachiopods.
Best
Syed
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paleontologists
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Hi Asghar,
I think yours photos 1-2 demonstrate some sections of the small benthic forams. In particular, section of the small shell similar to Nonionidae is shown in the low part of the image 2. About the larger fragment in the left part of the image 2 - it seems to me it is the section of Polimorphinidae.
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I have recovered this specimen from oligo/Miocene horizon, the type of associated fossils belong to fossil fish and may be belong to fish othilith?
Note: the scale is 5 mm using the square that contained the specimen.
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Dear Mohammed! This specimen looks like a small fish otolith, however I can not determine it. If so, You may contact with Werner Schwarzhans (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Werner_Schwarzhans) or with Bettina Reichenbacher (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bettina_Reichenbacher).
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Please help in the identification of the taxa associated with Distichoplax and other algal fragments observed in the attached images. I have marked with arrows where specific demarcation is required.
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no. 6 orthophragminae
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These species provide from Upper Coniacian or early Santonian
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Dear Dr. Elamri,
the photos are unclear. Please send me high resolution photos for better clarification. You can send me the photos by this email address. 
best regards,
Rawand
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This specimen found in the west of yasuj (For first time).
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Try to compare your specimens with Albian terebratulides (chap brachiopodes) from the stratotype area (2010) and with specimens from the vol. IV : brachiopodes du Crétacé, d'Orbigny (1847, 1851), Paléontologie Française. As well, made comparisons with specimens from the Cenomanian in d'Orbigny (1841, 1851), and also with brachs illustrated in the Cenomanian stratotype volume or in Geobios, 2014 - Best wishes
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Hello, where can I find the following papers by Alexander Tornquist:
TORNQUIST, A: 1910 Der baltische Bernstein ; Einleitung in das Verständnis der Kgl. Bernsteinsammlung des Geologischen Instituts in Königsberg i. Pr. - 25 S., mit Abb. u. Ktn., Berlin (Borntraeger).
TORNQUIST A 1910 Die in der Königl. Universitäts-Bernsteinsammlung eingeführte Konservierungsmethode für Bernsteineinschlüsse. - Schriften der Physikalisch-ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg in Preußen 51: 243-247, Königsberg?
Thank you, gratefully acknowledged!
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Addendum ... Sorry, I was in a hurry ... And of course I've attached the requested paper no. 1 NOT no. 2 ... Mike
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A big one and a small one.
I hope Paleontologists can told me.
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Quarzitic geoda with crystals, may be also with agate rim at the margin, it has nothing to do with fossils.
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Elphidium gunteri has been identified in Plio-Pleistocene sediments in the Salton Basin. I'm attempting to determine whether or not this species arrived via a marine incursion from the Gulf of California. (The other possibility is avian transport.)
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Hi!
An arthropod measuring ~3 mm was found on the body of a rescued Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) from Kohora Range, Kaziranga National Park, Assam, by a local NGO named NRSB, Bochagaon. The arthropod was observed wriggling on the soft fur of the rescued specimen. The images of the same are attached herewith for identification (4X magnification).
Regards
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Your specimen of of the family Nycteribiidae, Diptera (ectoparasites of bats), they almost never leave the bodies of their hosts.
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Hello
i have some Brittle stars in my samples
samples have been collected from soft bottom, Persian Gulf, Iran
10 M depth
the specimen are juvenile, and i want to know, is it possible that they be identified?
is it necessary to take SEM photo of them, or only the adult can  be identified?
for example i send 3 photo of them
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I think It is an Amphiuridae
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The locality is from Morocco, any information about the age. The reaction with HCL is positive.
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Dear Hakima,
most likely it is a rugose coral of Devonian age. It is hard to say which genus it belongs to, but I would suggest it is a Phillipsastrea. Thin sections or polished surfaces would help... I would not be so sure about a Scleractinian coral...
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This specimen found in the Badamu formation.
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I fail to see the spiral striae or the lateral furrows typical for Strigoceras on these photographs.
I am wondering if it could be Oxycerites species but those with stronger ribs are usually later than Bajocian. To my kowledge the Badamu Formation only goes up to middle Bajocian near Kerman (is this correct?) which makes it even less likely to be an Oxycerites.
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Can anyone help me to determine ammonites which I found in Bathonian to Callovian age?
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Consult the Thesis and works of Prof. Guillermo Meléndez
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We are currently describing a fossil insect wing from this locality. As not much fossil insects from this period are known it could be of general interest 
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The rock is from Morocco, which chiking HCL was a positive effect. any information about the age.
Is this a coral colony?
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Hakima:
Unfortunately, none of these pictures convince me. Why don't you cut a section of your specimen to show the features, if any, of the last documented specimen. Did you collect your specimen from Palaeozoic rocks or not? Next time when you document a fossil specimen, its locality, lithology, stratigraphic level and associated fauna and flora, if any, must be furnished to attempt realistic and reliable identification.
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Syed
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The locality is from Morocco, any information about the age. When i cheked HCL in this rock, the reaction was positive.
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Hakima,
It strongly looks like a fossil colonial coral, 'star shape' radial septula indicate the loci of each polyp. I'm not an expert, but according my experience these forms probably range from Cretaceous to recent.
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Lorenzo
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The internal moulds of a Cambrian micromolluscan species: Pelagiella madianensis are from North China. Do these concave areas and the radial ridge (very common ) indicate the muscle scars or any other soft parts?
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Luoyang:
P. madianensis is reported from Early Cambrian limestone erratics in Early Miocene glaciomarine deposits of Antarctica. The documented specimens do show fine growth lines but no muscle scars or any other indications of soft parts on apparently original aragonitic shell. See link:
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Syed
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Since Darwin's time there has been much paleontological research that either supports or does  not support Darwin's theory. Please give specific examples from the fossil record
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There is NO paleontological evidence for the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection, but there is substantial evidence for common descent with modification (numerous transitional fossils in nearly every group under study), even though a lot of this fossil evidence would also be compatible with progressive creationism (but not young earth creationism).
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These are from Eocene clay beds
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I am ok
Probabely algal spores or Poaceae spores
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These fusulinid foraminifers belong to Permian carbonte rocks and I only find these fusulinids.
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Hi Mobin,
have you seen this? 
It may help you.
Rena
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Are both of them types of agrichnial trace fossils?
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Paleodictyon can be occured also in shalow marin. Not only in deep water. 
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what is the major difference between nummulites sp., Assilina sp. and Operculina and I need to differentiate between them in the sedimentary thin section and their impact on the depositional environment 
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plz go through  this ppt . avoid age range of operculina, rest is fine. 
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paleontologists
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Check this:
SCHNEIDER, S. & BERNING, B. & BITNER, M.A. & CARRIOL, R.-P. & JÄGER, M. & KRIWET, J. & KROH, A. & WERNER, W. (2009)
A parautochthonous shallow marine fauna from the late Burdigalian (early Ottnangian) of Gurlarn (Lower Bavaria, SE Germany): macrofaunal inventory and paleoecology. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen, 254 (1-2): 63-103.
DOI: 10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0004
Jürgen 
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Macrofossils belong to Bivalvs and Echinoids. You can see them in attached file. Thanks
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The echinoid is a Clypeaster near from campanulatus. See Michelin 1859 Monographie des Clypeastres. Infortunately a very great number of species was described in all the publications...
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When I read some articles, I found the time was not consistent to the geological time scale. For example, In the Article Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family ( Sun G, 2002), the fossil was inferred 124.6 mya, and arttributed to upper Jurassic of China. I checked the geological time scale, the Jurassic was between 201.3 mya and 152.1 mya and Cretaceous began 145 mya. How to explain this?
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In the article by Sun (2002), they had a small note stating the following:
(9) The age of the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China, is uncertain. We allow for a range from 145 to 125 million years, which corresponds with the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous (12, 31, 38–45).
Therefore, at that time, they didn't know whether it was Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous in age. Be aware that since then, there has been new radiometric datings for the Yixian Formation in China showing that it was actually Early Cretaceous in age:
There is a review of all radiometric datings for this Formation in Wu et al. (2013), Palaeo3 and even an astronomical calibration so it appears that this Formation is now very well dated. 
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 The enclosed photographs are from Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous fluvial succession of Gondwana. I am of the opinion of their origin through biogenic activities, however, not very sure. The preservation of the structures is in light to dark gray clayey horizons having abundant leaf impressions of Pteridophytic to Gymnospermus remains. The clay units occur as interbedded horizons with siltstone or, lenicular/poketed occurrence in medium grained sandstone
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Thanks for comments, interesting, approach you shortly.