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# Introduction - Science topic

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I'm using some words in my research paper's introduction like "task compilation time," "fixation," "fixation duration," etc. I define those variables or terms in the methodology, but readers may not be able to understand them in the first place. So, how does the researcher deal with such a problem? They are not new terms or variables. In eye-tracking research, they're common terms. So, should I mention these kinds of terms in my introduction?
It is not the known definition, but just explain . Regards.
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Do anyone have examples where the introduction of new overall or specific methodologies have led to significant changes/results within an academic field or within the real-world dimension that a specific field targets?
In the social sciences, I would list the introduction of mixed methods research. It not only opened up a wide range of new research possibilities but also helped put to rest a number of controversies from the previous two decades.
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I'm working on the thesis in the field of physics particularly physical chemistry in electrolyzer cell technology (related to fuel cell technology). but i'm confused which contents should I include in the introduction? If you help
thanks and regards.
In principle the structure given by Ali A. Al-Allaq is correct. About the degree of detail you should discuss with your referee because that's a question of the standards within your department/faculty:
Some want a "closed" document in which you find everything so that the thesis is self-explanatory and does not require actually checking out the references while others have the attitude that they don't want to read too much so they want you to just briefly summarize your method and then reference more detailed introductions.
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Describing the challenge of the study in a review paper
Very section dependent - General rule of thumb is the discussion as part of the limitations or a separate commentary on the challenge. However, I have also included some information in the methodology before if it was relevant to the delivery of the study vs what was planned e.g. I planned a hospital study, but during the pandemic it became challenging to recruit the way we intended so we had to reapply for ethics in order to redesign and deliver a new recruitment strategy. I commented on this in the methods as well as the discussion
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can some one guild me how to best answer this comment from examiners?
Hello Mufarrah,
At first glance, it sounds as if the reviewer is asking for justification for the inclusion of the target moderator in your model. The second part may be as simple as explaining how you created the interaction term (e.g., did you use mean centering for the product term in your model?).
If you're still unclear, it's always fair game to ask the action editor (or whomever is running this show) to request clarification of any concerns raised by reviewer/s that you don't understand.
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...For research purposes to help others. If you are or know of anyone who is who would be willing to share his/her story, I would greatly appreciate the introduction! Thank you so much!!
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I would like to prepare a lecture on "Introduction to Statistics" and am looking for a suitable textbook on which to base the lecture. Any recommendations?
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I want to know about introduction, definition, explanation, examples and application of soft multi set topology
The multi set (mset) topology you asked for is given in the following article:
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The attached image is the introduction of part D - Complex Analysis from [Kreyszig, E. (2009). Advanced engineering mathematics, 10th edition.]. At the end of the introduction, the author explains why complex analysis is important in three points. I am having difficulty understanding point (3), my questions are: 1- How studying analytic functions as functions of a complex variable leads to a deeper understanding of their properties? 2- How studying analytic functions as functions of a complex variable leads to interrelations in complex that have no analog in real calculus. I am grateful to anyone who could or tried to answer my questions and if possible provide examples to get a full understanding.
Thank you all
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I plan to divide my long research article(simulation + mathematical) into two parts, but I am clueless about how to do this. (I can not separate the simulation and mathematical analysis)
I have a few questions regarding the same
1) Do I need to show the common mathematics in both parts?
2) Can the introduction be the same?
3) Can some explanations remain the same in both parts?
Can someone give me the reference of any article divided into two parts?
Dear Amit Das,
See my comment precede by >>
I plan to divide my long research article(simulation + mathematical) into two parts, but I am clueless about how to do this. (I can not separate the simulation and mathematical analysis)
>> If the mathematical model is highly original and valuable by itself - you can publish it either separately or along with key simulation results. If the model is quite standard, just briefly refer to it and focus on simulation results. Either way, splitting it on two articles hardly makes sense.
I have a few questions regarding the same
1) Do I need to show the common mathematics in both parts?
2) Can the introduction be the same?
3) Can some explanations remain the same in both parts?
Can someone give me the reference of any article divided into two parts?
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I am writing my master's thesis in the structure displayed in the attached picture.
I write about the new methods I developed in the methods section. There are some topics that I don't know in which chapter to include them. For example, one of my methods is related to Cross-Validation. I want to add some background about Cross Validation from the literature. Where should I write about it? In the introduction, or to add this paragraph in the methods before the relevant method?
Introduction is a part of thesis or article shows some old findings of that topic and shows the importance of your work that you are intending to do. Materials and methods is the part that explains materials used and method of application. I suggest to you to read any published article ,and you will get more information.Regards.
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I cited a piece of information while submitting my article back in 2021. During submission, it was state-of-the-art. After being accepted in 2022, I found updated state-of-the-art published very recently. Should I update my citation with the 2022 data?
In the current stage, we, the authors, will submit the final files, and the editorial office will give us another chance of proofreading after adapting to the formats. And, it is just a piece of information in the Introduction section and doesn't affect the result/outcome of the article.
Once a paper is accepted, you cannot update the accepted version of the paper.
If you need to update the paper, you have to write a letter to the Editor explaining the reason for wanting to update the accepted version of the paper.
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Is the hypothesis (formulated in the introduction to the ) about the one-to-one correspondence between Abelian and non-Abelian finite groups correct?
There are more non-commutative groups, since any commutative group can be re-written in "non-commutative" terms, yet the converse does not apply really.
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Hello Gurus,
I have two ideas for a research topic, yet combining them is not working in my ADD head.
I am struggling with my introduction, not the methods or other sections yet want to combine self-affirmations and testing the emotions in a participants writing.
Suggestions?
JDM
Thank you so much Ayesha!
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Sometimes you find it necessary to include literature/cite work to firmly assemble your introduction, and too, thrash some disagreements, and differences to give your introduction a sense of purpose. Yet, in the literature review section, you will be forced to repeat identical discussions. So, what about joining both intro and literature review?
There is no single answer to this question, but personally I would not mix the introduction with the literature review. A reader expects to find out about the background information in the introduction section as well as some literature gaps whereas the literature review has the purpose of trying to find answers to those literature gaps. So, I do not think, as a reader of such mixed article would get a good impression from it.
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The introduction of smart foresight in the decision making process opens new possibilities for the decision making centers by upgrading aspects such as transparency, flexibility, risk aversion,, rate of adoption in both private and public sector, etc. Please comment
Many tools, approaches, and techniques underpin foresight and futures studies and responses to this query will be a function of the case-by-case relevance of each to the five phases of a particular SMART foresight process (i.e., Scoping, Mobilizing, Anticipating, Recommending, Transforming). Not to forget, decision-making is not a monolithic enterprise and several decision-making styles exist: the options range from autocratic to unanimity-based decision making, each with its raison d'être and related pros and cons.
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Some modern-day commercial aircraft engines employ chevrons (sawtooth pattern or serrated edges) at the back of their nacelles and engine exhaust nozzles essentially to reduce jet noise from separated-flow turbofan engines. Aside the reduction of acoustic level of the exhaust, other technical benefits may accrue from the introduction of such mixing devices. From point of view of a researcher/industrialist, what are other technical or economic benefits of chevrons' usage in jet engine nozzles of modern aircraft? This discussion is a precursory background to further research or explore other significant effects of chevrons' installation on the overall performance of a typical turbofan engine, which may include investigation of acoustic characterization, fluid-structure interactions and specific fuel consumption of such an aircraft engine.
Other technical benefits may be associated with overall reduction in engine's weight and cost of providing active noise control mechanisms in such aircraft engines. Other technical benefits need to be uncovered through CFD analyses and experimentation on such turbofan engines.
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Some modern-day turbofan engines employ chevrons (sawtooth pattern or serrated edges) at the back of their fan housings and exhaust nozzles essentially to reduce jet noise emanating from separated-flow engines. Aside the reduction of acoustic level of the exhaust gases, other technical benefits may accrue from the introduction of such mixing devices. From point of view of a researcher/industrialist, what are other technical benefits of chevrons' installation in the exhaust nozzles of a modern turbofan engine?
Chevron nozzles aid in reducing pressure variation and, as a result, jet noise. The chevron nozzle minimizes jet noise by influencing how air mixes after passing through and around the engine.
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There are different segments of a paper. However, to me writing the references is the most irritating part as I have to rewrite it again and again whenever it gets rejected. What about others?
In my opinion methodology..
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Recently， I am working on a study about PWHT. I curious on when did PWHT first appear? How did PWHT develop with history time ? Which research institutions have made outstanding contributions in this regard?
hope to update the knowledge of PWHT, looking foward for your reply.
Please check the attached file, I hope it would help
Thanks
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I know nothing about this two related subjects and I need, for the moment, a concise introduction and, later, a more deep explanation with implementation techniques.
This paper provides a very good overview:
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Currently, I am using Q5® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit for introduction of desire mutation in genome. instead of getting single desire band, I am getting multiple band on agarose gel;. I have cross verified DNA template, Primers.
I will try my best to help you with the limited information given. I have used the Q5 Site-Directed Mutagenesis kit extensively throughout my Master's and PhD, and for me, it has worked with troubleshooting at times. I have had the issue amplification of other DNA bands in the past which were non-specific or undesired. In the event of such situations, I would go back to the beginning and modify the ratio of primer and DNA added to the reaction mix. Trial and error with the annealing temperature is also another approach that should be investigated. Usually, when the manual suggests the time lengths for amplification in the last step based on the size of the DNA, it should be followed to the point. When I have shortened the time length in the last step in the past, I have seen amplification of undesired DNA as well. I hope this helps and good luck with the SDM!
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Hello everyone,
I am preparing two courses, one for Master students (semiconductors) and another about solid-state physics (PhD students)
Do you have any complete book references with exercises and corrections to prepare for such courses?
I ll have students with different backgrounds so I ll have to do some introductions
Joseph
In addition to the previous post, this old USSR course might help. It is free to read, and a really good reference for the theoretical part:
Best Regards.
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I am undertaking a project which aims to compare the incidence of VTE between two groups with the same treatment. One group includes patients before introduction of a routine risk assessment tool and the other group includes patients after introduction of a routine risk assessment tool for VTE. Data will be collected retrospectively from a bespoke database and patients will be followed up for 3 months after the treatment was started. I was wondering what the best way to approach this would be. Also, can I do a study that just investigated this specific aim or do I have to look at other things too?
Iant to know as well
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Can you extend Jones polynomial, Khovanov homology, Khovanov-Lipshitz-Sarkar stable homotopy type of links in the 3-sphere to any other 3-manifold? Kauffman, Manturov, Rushworth, Asaeda, Przytycki, Sikora, Tubbenhauer, Nikonov, and the author gave a partial answer in the case of thickened surfaces. See section four for the following article for detail.
I will concur with Eiji Ogasa here
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Dear fellow scholars, can someone explain how can I prepare for my Interview for the post of Assistant Professor (Environmental Science) in a Central University. I know that I should prepare my CV, ready for self introduction.
For further interactions, how should I prepare myself. Because all we aware that no one can expertise in all the subjects. Most interview panel contain mixed group of experts, age groups etc. I have a short time to prepare and tell me how can I achieve this.
Excellent question. I look forward to the answers!
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Hello everyone,
I am aiming to write a PHD proposal of 1000 words. The research is described by the supervisor. That means, research questions, aim, and instruments are well defined by the supervisor.
I developed an introduction along with a brief literature review. I also refined the aim to specific objectives and outlined the reseaech methodology.
My questions are:
1- Should I paraphrase the research questions and research significance defined by the supervisor in my proposal?
2- In view of words limitation, what are the the sections that should be given more attention?
Thank you so much
With ref to my previous thread I would request you to publish one or two papers in standard J. in the field of your specialisation . This will help you in writing your synopsis very clearly .
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Let me consider harmonic oscillations x'' + x = f_t(t), where f_t(t) describes thermal stochastic force <f_t(t) f_t(t')> \sim \delta(t - t'). I have already understood, that I can switch from such differential equation to the integral equations, where the integrals can be performed in Ito or Stratanovich sense. Which one relates to the real situation?
Another case: escape probability. If I want to numerically extract mean lifetime of a classical particle in a potential well due to thermal fluctuations, what kind of stochastic modeling should I use?
All this and more is described in van Kampen’s book Stochastic processes in physics and chemistry".
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Hello,
Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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As the main research parts including, the abstracts, introduction, literature review, research methodology, research findings, discussions, reccommendation and conclusions. So, What does it mean by tenses (a set of forms taken by a verb to indicate the time).
The guidance as per the following publications and link (see some more discussions and recommended publications) may further help:
• Day, R. A. (1998) How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper.5th edn. Phoenix, Arizona: The Oryx Press.
• Day, R. A. and Sakaduski, N. (2011) Scientific English: A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals.Third edn. California: Greenwood.
• Evans, D., Gruba, P. and Zobel, J. (2014) How to Write a Better Thesis. Third edn. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
• Hengl, T. and Gould, M. (2002) Rules of thumb for writing research articles, International Institute for Geo-information science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede, pp. 1-9.
• Parija, S. C. and Kate, V. (2018) Thesis Writing for Master's and Ph.D. Program. Gateway East, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
• Wallwork, A. (2013) English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar. New York: Springer.
• Which tenses are used in writing literature review?: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Which_tenses_are_used_in_writing_literature_review
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Its a question from book introduction to machine learning by Ethem Alpaydin.
Let us say we have two representations for the same object and associated with each, we have a different kernel. how can we use both to implement a joint dimensionality reduction using kernel PCA?
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I found this image that I wish to use in a scholar publication but its author is unknown. Can someone please tell me the original source of this image (some old book or text ?!)?????
Details - I downloaded a document from the internet called Introduction to fungi. This seems to be some unpublished work (a leaked thesis maybe?!). No names or citations are shown on this document (68pp). It featured this graphic as Fig1.1 (no credits given anywhere) which I wish to use in my thesis. So I would like to give the proper citation for the image!
You can cite ppt published in online using following format.
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Hello All;
Recently, I got a comment from a reviewer, saying that recent works have not been cited in the manuscript. However, i had cited the most relevant and important older works in the introduction section of my manuscript. I looked for the recent literature but could't find any good one related to my work. As-per the comment of the reviewer; should I add the new unimportant literature in my manuscript as well or not?
Thank you very much.
Hello Dr. Subir,
I don't have enough experience like many other researchers who will provide good insights about it but I feel what you have said is right to me. I guess most will agree that we only consider most relevant historical works and recent findings only to cite in our paper. Thank you.
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I would like to discuss this suggestion for editors of science journals (eg MDPI). It is about adding a "Practical application" or "Practical application of the results" section to the article structure, preferably right before or right after “Conclusions” section. In one of the reviews of our papers, the reviewer suggested adding such a section to show the practical implications of our research, as given for practicing professionals in the respective field of expertise. I believe that this is a very important suggestion. Not all research has practical, direct application, and is very often within the boundaries of basic examination, but it is advisable that the authors indicate (consider) areas for which the described results may be of practical importance. It does not have to be a commercial use, but a support for another area of science, for the benefit of society or community. You can say that there is an “Introduction” already, so why give another section? Unfortunately, a very common phenomenon in the Introduction section is to provide sources of applications without their verification, purely based on the luxuriant imagination of the authors of the reports being cited. A separate section on "practical applications/implications" will allow the application directions to be clearly marked and the authors to take responsibility for this part. Quoting other authors is a cover from this responsibility, but is also responsible for misconceptions growing within the scientific field and community. The introduction of such a section may be beneficial for both authors and publishers. It will increase the interest in the article and is more useful than the so-called research highlights. I am curious about your opinion on this matter.
I think this is a great idea, since the instrumental / applicative value of scientific results is not always intuitively clear for the reader.
I also see this idea as a bridge between the so often split academics disciplines and "business best practice". To close these gap should be of highest importance, especially in our day and age where interdisciplinary research often is necessary to advance different fields of research.
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Dear Colleagues
Could you share with me your ideas on writing the introduction to a journal article? Does a research article need a separate literature review section or it can be included in the introduction section of the article?
Regards
Krishna
read more and more literature review(GNL)
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I heard and following that an introduction of the article should the last attempt, and I have finished methodology, findings, discussion, and conclusion but trying start to write an introduction. I am expecting any suggestions/guidelines from the expert (who recently finished SLR) for the Good/Standard Introduction write-up.
Begin with a broad statement of your research problem .Then narrow down to your area of interest. You You may begin with one or two broad statements about the field and cite published or unpublished( but authentic) papers or books to support your case. Then classify your literature into groups . Then begin to write a tend report on each of these groups.
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hello RG community,
I am looking for articles and information about what the French call: « Introduction à la pensée complexe » (Edgard Morin). It is a new concept for me so I please send basic information if you have any!
Thank you,
Jessica
Hello
I suggest the following articles in this regard
Regards
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Wondering if anyone here has done this Certification course before and can give a review. Is NIH Introduction to Principles & Practice of Clinical Research course worth doing?
Although the content is good at explaining theoretical aspects of clinical research, I am not sure if the certification could be a plus in the CV. I took my chances and will see if it can be used as a hint in further PhD opportunities
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Dear community,
Do you have any book suggestions for a nice introduction to Bayesian statistics? (Preferable for ecologist)
Many thanks
Jannis
"Statistical Rethinking" by Richard McElreath and "Doing Bayesian Analysis" by John K. Kruschke are really great entry points. Any book by Andrew Gelman is a reference but maybe better for more advanced readers in my opinion. Hope this helps!
Note: Statistical Rethinking also has been 'translated' into brms code by Solomon Kurtz here: https://bookdown.org/content/4857/
brms is a very user-friendly package for Bayesian stats that runs rstan on the background but with simpler syntax
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i want to write a case study on the defects of timber with nothing less than six citations
Wood, like all plant material, consists of cells. “Woody” plants are able to attain a large size because of a complex substance know as ‘lignin’, that binds the various cells together. Wood is classified as ‘hardwood’ if it has vessels in its structure, or ‘softwood’ if it does not. Softwoods have a more fibrous structure. The term hardwood does not relate to the hardness of the wood, but is the common word for plants of the dicotyledon sub-group. Hardwoods are often more dense and more difficult to work than softwoods, but there are many exceptions to this. The major chemical components of wood are cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. There are also a number of minor components known as extractives, which vary depending on the species.
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Where can the Pilot study be presented in a formal paper? I'm going to use IMRD mode for my manuscript. Is it better to have it in the introduction? or put it in Method while describing research design? Or any ideas? Thanks.
Thank you so much. Yes, I will briefly describe the pilot study in the Method section. After all, my new study is based on the pilot study.
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The article title is:
The purpose of this study is to: Connecting lexical bundles and moves in research article introductions
By Viviana Cortes
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Engineer design is unimaginable without standardization. However, as they are now, the standards have not been adaptable and they cannot be used to predict future requirements. In the last couple of decades self-organizing has been increasingly used for solving complex problems in certain contexts. The intention of this question is getting answers regarding the introduction of expectations of changes in the development process. How can we expect the unexpected?
The answer is simple. The nature teaches us that strong ecosystems are diverse. The medicine and epidemiology teach us that strong species are genetically diverse and physiologically robust.
The way to implement those approaches in technology is to have multiple designs that will mutually compete and which can adjust to changing external and internal conditions dynamically.
When we look at paleontology, we see that most of the time ecosystems adjust. Some species are disappearing and others are taking their place. Yet there are observed event of mass extinctions.
What happened there? The used design was unable to cope with too much of the change that occurs too quickly. The way to go in engineering is to develop self-organization adaptive systems that will get the capability of healing.
We are yet to discover those principles upon which such a system will be working. Our best teachers are biology and microbiology with their endless capabilities to self-regulate, self-replicate, and self-repair.
Computationally mimicking such systems is one of the core parts of my research. It is a really fascinating area to be in.
***
Selected research from many authors dealing with the discussed issues can be found in the project "Complexity Digests ..."
See for details:
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We are analysing scientific reports at University in great detail, so I wanted to find a scientific report about how to write a scientific report. Including detail such as what information to put in each paragraph of the introduction, the purpose of the discussion, how to lay out the results etc. I wondered if anyone could recommend a study paper on this or could offer any advice? Thank you
Good scientific effort, good luck
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While teaching Quantum mechanics to beginners, do you feel that the traditonal historical development of the subject followed by wave mechanics approach be replaced by axiomatic introduction to the subject, followed by discussion on Quantum mechanics of spin ensembles approach ?
which would be better mode of exposition option for such studentship level ?
Dear Debopam Ghosh, interesting question.
I would suggest two approaches, following my own humble experience as a student and as a teacher.
If one wants to teach Quantum Mechanics for Quantum Computing and related fields, a more linear algebra (math) approach can be used.
If one wants to teach Quantum Physics to engineer, physics and chemistry students, a modern physics approach is needed, since students need to understand all experiments before going into the math.
It is just an opinion.
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Introduction:
Blog date: Oct/22/2020
How to form a bond with others online? It can be done, using information (what one does not expect) and trust (what one knows that one knows). I am studying this, directly and online, for 17+ years, though it takes time to develop finesse. I am also learning computer programming and Brazilian Portuguese. Programming is the process of breaking a large, complex task into smaller and smaller subtasks until the subtasks are simple enough to be performed directly. Portuguese is very intersubjective.
Current entry in Blog: see last answer with Blog posting date.
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I have synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles need surface modification when introduce TEoS I got silane layer but not Oh group .Since this Oh group is necessary for further introduction of double bond .
Have you done preparation through a basic solution?
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In view of the research question I posted recently, this book will be of great importance, however, I can't get the soft copy so I was hoping if anyone happens to have it and would really appreciate it if it can be shared.
@ H.G. Callaway, thanks a lot for your recommendation
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Chapter 1 is the introduction, so combination of present and past tense should be used.
However, Chapter 2 is the literature review, should it be the past tense since they are those previous works that have been conducted? OR Should we use present tense in the literature review because the results have become the truth?
Chapter 3- Past tense
Chapter 4- Combination of present tense and past tense?
Chapter 5- Present tense?
Ideally, Chapter 1 (introduction) should be past tense, chapter 2 (literature) can be present or past depending on how you quote, chapter 3( methodology) definitely past tense, chapter 4( results, analysis and discussion) can be a combination of past and present and lastly chapter 5 (recommendation and conclusion) should be present and future. aim for consistency.
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Hello Scholars!
I am wondering if I am violating copyrights issues and risking plagiarism if I copy-paste certain amounts of text from my own previously published papers. This is since I am working in the same research area and sometimes, the introduction of the papers are more or less the same.
Can anybody please let me know?
I think that Dr. James Keane Bashkin summarize this issue deeply. Thanks to him. Since it is a crucial issue and I have a similar case, I expect from Dr. Dakshitha Weerasinghe to give us his final conclusion.
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I feel I have a reasonable sense of the contribution made by the French Annales school in the interwar period and its postwar reception but am certainly not an expert. As such I find it very hard to recommend an introduction for people who are unfamiliar with it - "type 'Annales' into JSTOR and read the first hundred results" seems unreasonably burdensome. If you had to recommend either a single monograph or no more than three articles to introduce someone to the history, impact, and key insights of the Annales school what would they be? And to make it trickier, since I know who I usually have to recommend things to, without recommending anything in French.
In the French Annales school in a mixture of Durkheimian and Marxian ... and to understand how books have interacted with other social developments and ..
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Writing the discussion section is always the scariest part of a paper or a thesis. I came up with some ideas to make it less difficult, but would like to hear other tips! Here are my two bits:
• When writing an article, it is easier to start with the factual sections (methods, results) followed by the introduction and the discussion/conclusion at the end. It is important to identify the biggest gaps in the introduction, as you will come back to them in the discussion.
• In the discussion, always start with the limitations: it is quite factual.
• Then, focus on 3-4 main results that benefit from some additional context to understand what they mean, e.g. data from other studies or other countries, which can suggest some possible explanation.
• Finally, try to relate these findings with previous theory or practices, and explain what your work adds that is new.
Do you have other ideas?
Maria Moitinho de Almeida , I agree with what Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman has mentioned. Good luck with your publication.
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How globalization influenced international security and what is the future of globalization? Is it helpful or harmful ?
The social and cultural effects of globalization are the most dangerous thing on the subject (and the majority agree with this view), where objective changes occur, unemployment ramps up and the number of deprived increases, neglects the social and human dimension, weakens social cohesion at the family and community level, and creates new customs, traditions and social norms, and thus moral values. And behavioral patterns that contradict the usual, shrinking social services provided by the state, weak responsibility of the state in creating decent work opportunities for citizens, and finally creating situations of social tension and working to implant a spirit of alienation.
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In my thesis, I cited some data about the incidence, definition, diagnosis of human disease from the introduction section of an experimental study that mentioned these information. I was wondering if this is scientifically appropriate or I should cite these data from human studies
It's okay to use it as a model, but not a proxy, since there is no direct link :)
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I am a social scientist and I want to learn the basics of Bayesian Statistics without going deep into technical details (scary formulae, equations, etc.). Can someone please suggest some books, videos, websites that provide a lucid introduction to Bayesian Statistics?
As a statistician I am not sure this is possible but this link should give an introduction to what some perople think. Best of luck, David Link:
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It is useful for research ers in field of natural products
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1 / What are the images of natural reasoning? In the sense that it provides the process of moving from introductions to results or vice versa from results to imposition of introductions.
l have no idea.
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Hi
Does anyone know where to open pdf of Introduction The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)?
you can also go with this URL
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Hi,
I am conducting a simple mediation model (X, M, Y) using Hayes PROCESS macro on SPSS. I have read that there is no assumption of distribution for this method but I was unsure if I have misinterpreted this?
My M variable and Y variable are both non-normal, so is it still appropriate to run a mediation or should I transform the variables?
I have read over Hayes (2013) Introduction to Mediation but I want to double-check that I am not violating any assumptions here
Amarins J. Wijma generally, PROCESS estimates robust standard errors. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that in the end, PROCESS is just a tool that helps you specify structural models and not a new method in itself. Thus, the same fallacies and problems apply with any property of your data that would in the context of structural models.
I think due to the everyday-use of the tool across various departments and disciplines (some more trained in quantitative methods, some less) this does not receive enough consideration. I think in their 2007 paper, Preacher, Rucker and Hayes discuss some of these issues and properties of estimates.
I think it is also important to keep in mind that for many current studies in psychology and behavioral research (including Marketing, which is my field) the average sample size per cell for (online) studies is between 50-100. Thus, samples are generally larger and should detect sufficiently large effects (if they exist) even with noisy/imperfect data. I think there is also some debate about bias in SE as used in PROCESS, but this is not my expertise so I would rather ask a statistician if I were you :-)
Reference
Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007): "Addressing Moderated MediationHypotheses: Theory, Methods, and Prescriptions". MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH, 42(1), 185–227.
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Looking for paper/review about holographic superconductivity.
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Would like to have a simple introduction to this group of bacteria
- where and how to isolate
-growth conditions particularly hydrogen sulphide and reduce sulphur organics like thiols and mercaptans.
Many thanks Andrew
Have you pointed me to the correct project, project 42 doesn't seem relevant to the biology of purple bacteria.
Andrew
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Hi, I am looking for this book "introduction to magnetic material" by Cullity , how can I find it?
Thank you kindly for your guidance.
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Hi,
Basically, I aim to develop a one semester (6 -months) coursework on Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJ).
I am able to find a lot of books on Spintronics with a few chapters on MTJ.
1) Can anybody suggest me a book that specially focuses on every aspect of magnetic tunnel junctions ( Basic introduction and priniciple, working of Magnetic tunnel junctions, theory of spin transfer torque in MTJ, experimental fabrication of MTJ - Materials as well as synthesis perspective, Heusler alloys in MTJ, Theoretical models for characterization of MTJ, Experimental characterization of MTJ).
OR
2) Can anybody suggest a book or two on Spintronics that focuses on MTJs.
Dear Eesha Andharia.
For what you are looking for I think that you will find this book quite useful:
"Introduction to Magnetic Random-Access Memory", from Bernard Dieny, Ronald Goldfarb and Kyung-Jin Lee.
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Hello fellow researchers,
I am writing an introduction on a new article on social marginalization in school, where I wish to refer to leading research on well-being (or school belonging) and academic achievement in school. Do you know any articles in which the relationship between student well-being and academic achievement is analyzed thoroughly? Is there any evidence that more well-being leads to higher academic achievements? How strong is this relationship and has it been quantified in former research?
Good question, and often overlooked.
Science and philosophy in Western countries began in the Greek province of Ionia, in present Turkey - and an degree of riches and wellbeing and access to free time was an important factor it seems in this province Which had become rich by trade.
in the same way, a student that is homeless, sick and hungry and on the brink of survival cannot be expected to be very engaged in his or her studies.
A very interesting read on the subject is
Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2013). Scarcity: Why having too little means so much. Macmillan.
The authors say that ”scarcity captures the mind”. See parts of the book in Google books and see also a review below. Interesting read!
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I'm looking for a very good textbook on Nanotechnology that can be given for the final year BSc students in physics and materials science could anyone suggest a book?I
Dear all, these are additional Books. My Regards
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Dear all,
I am writing the systematic review. For the introduction part, first, I breifly described the rationale and objective (1 page, double line). However, I am afraid that the reader may not clearly understand what I mention in the result part, therefore, I want to write the short description for the related information after my objective. It may take 2 pages. Is it possible for the format of systematic review? If can, please give me the articles which did like this.
Thank you so much!
If you are concerned about the reviewer understanding the results, I would add a section to the methods (instead of the introduction). This will give you an opportunity, in the appropriate place, the more thoroughly describe your methods, analysis, and outcomes of interest.
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Hi
I need some technical help. I am trying to insert an image in the introduction of a survey in Opinio. I click on 'insert image' button, then I am prompted to paste the url of the desired image, which I do, but nothing other than a tiny blue box appears in the draft. There is no image or blue box in the survey preview. How can I insert an image in my survey??? Thank you!
Hi Muhammad Ali . Sorry, the link you provided is for a google search on how to insert image in introductory text in a website. However, there is nothing on how to do it in Opinio. From what I understand I am supposed to add code in the editing window in opinio??? Thank you! How do i do that? i have no idea about codes/ html etc, I just need to add an image in a survey
Thanks a lot!!
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Some journals do require that a manuscript contain Introduction as a heading as well as background as another heading. This clear separation make it difficult for distinguishing what information goes directly under these headings. I therefor need clarification on what constitutes Introduction and Background.
The introduction is where you define the "problem" your study was performed to address, indicate your study goals and research questions, and state why the topic of the study is significant. The background is presented as part of your literature review.
See this outline:
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Can I republish the introduction section of a work in progress? The copyright of the first work is CC BY 4.0 Does that count as self-plagiarism?
There is no such thing as "self-plagiarism". Full stop. If you have assigned copyright to the publisher of article (1), then in article (2), with a different publisher, you can quote a little bit, you can re-present in a totally different way, and you can ask permission. DO NOT COPY LARGE SECTIONS OF TEXT OR CONCLUSIONS. Remember, the reason that publisher (1) may seek to use copyright is because she does not want to lose SALES.
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Why the introduction of a random slope effect in a two-level mixed effect negative binomial model significantly alters the estimated coefficients, when compared to the estimated coefficients of the two-level random intercept negative binomial model?
Many thanks for your prompt reply and the useful documents you shared.
Best,
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Hello!
I ’m Song Yufeng, a Ph.D. student from the School of Finance, Nankai University, China. I am very interested in environmental economics, climate change, and financial stability. I am very honored to read your working paper "Climate Transition Risk, Climate Sentiments". , and Financial Stability in a Stock-Flow Consistent Approach ", I am very impressed with the introduction of the" bank climate sentiment "research method in FSC for the first time in this article, but due to the initial contact, there are several details that I would like to consult you and look forward to answer:
1. Regarding the non-linear prediction module in the third part of the article, I have understood the logic of construction, but it is not clear how it works. In short, how is the scenario simulation diagram in Part 5 drawn from the previous model? Can you elaborate on the technical route or suggest what kind of software and data I use?
2. I pay attention to the brief introduction in Appendix B, in which there are several colors of lines attached to the figure, and the meaning is not explained. This makes me understand that it is more difficult to construct your innovative model. Could you give me some explanation?
3. I hope to deepen my understanding of the research content of "climate change and policy impact, financial stability" by replicating your work. I look forward to your response

Good and healthy collaboration
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I am researching the nuances of materiality in the making of Art. I am looking at natural materials as opposed to synthetic to try to reduce my Carbon foot print in the making of Art.
So far I have been experimenting casting sculptural works in Hydraulic Lime (NHL3.5) instead of Conrete in order to reduce CO 2. However I am looking to try out the more durable Roman concrete whci uses Lime, Valcanic ash and or sand. Key to its setting is the introduction of sea water and actually setting it in Salt water.
‘Production of alkaline pore fluids through dissolution-precipitation, cation-exchange and/or carbonation reactions with Campi Flegrei ash components, similar to processes in altered trachytic and basaltic tuffs, created multiple pathways to post-pozzolanic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite crystallization at ambient seawater and surface temperatures’.
cited:
Jackson, M. D. et al. (2017) ‘Phillipsite and Al-tobermorite mineral cements produced through low-temperature water-rock reactions in Roman marine concrete’, American Mineralogist, 102(7), pp. 1435–1450. doi: 10.2138/am-2017-5993CCBY.(accessed 2nd February 2020)
Dear Louise,
I’m working on Geopolymer Technology with in Italy and in Russia, following the teachings of Professor Davidovits. But Geopolymers aren’t hydrated materials so Roman cement that comes from reaction between hydrate lime and Natural pozzolana (from Italy , close to Pozzuoli, near to Vesuvio volcan to understand better the geographical area) isn’t Geopolymer . Roman cemento is possible to realize even at our time using artificial (lot of sources, from nature and from by products) and only natural pozzolana (but different from the original one, that is finished ).
All Roman cements crystallized thanks to CSH from pozzolanic reaction and cocciopesto, broken brick powder, can be used as cobinder and aggregate, following the ancient recipe.
Write me at reggianella@gmail.com if you need more info and for orders.
Find attached picture about the most common recipes of “modern” Roman cement that is possible to realize in Italy. Mechanical strength from 7 to 20 MPa of the mortar after 28 days of water curing. The control made using NHL 3,5 and metakaolin as stabilizer had 4,5 MPa.
All the best
Alex Reggiani
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We are beginners in Engineering Geology and want to set geotechnical laboratory. We are looking for theoretical material an an introduction and focused on eurocodes.
Please, let us know how can we start.
This book is always useful to me
Designers' Guide to EN 1997-1 Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design
(from the same authors of Eurocode, then they should know)
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