International Trade Law

International Trade Law

  • Awadhesh Bahadur Rai added an answer:
    Does India signed the UPOV 78 in vegetable varieties?

    Hi, I want to ask, India had sign the UPOV 1978 or UPOV 1991 in vegetable obtention, which is the applicable law now? Are they going to sign UPOV 78 as they want to be part of free commerce trade with Europe?

    Thank you

    Awadhesh Bahadur Rai

    India is not a signatory member of UPOV. However in view of the international IPR regime India has enforced new act PPV & FRA 2001 and biodiversity act address farmers right, community right and breeders' right and also save guard the available biodiversity in India.

  • Ria Tandon added an answer:
    What were the achievements of GATT?

    Please give citation and articles for the clear understanding especially if it relates to Law. As I am a Law student.

    Ria Tandon

    thanks for the response. I am planning to compare it with ITO so as to show it's supremacy but it was not binding which is major roadblock in my research to show GATT as an agle one.

  • Lisa Toohey added an answer:
    Does anyone have any examples of successful market closure or regulation for the illegal trade of species in border regions?

    In a number of Southeast Asian countries black markets are known to exist in border regions. Examples include Mongla between Myanmar and China (on the Myanmar side, but running on Chinese currency), Bokeo in Lao (; and various Vietnamese markets where "wildlife" restaurants are able to provide virtually any species upon request.

    These markets are well known, and appear to cater for a largely Chinese and Vietnamese clientele (Bokeo and Mongla are both outside China but both use Chinese currency and timing), yet there seems to have been no successful efforts to regulate these markets and restaurants despite their illegality-any examples (successful or unsuccessful) would be useful

    Lisa Toohey

    The Guardian reported just recently on the seizure of Pangolin bound for these markets - not successful though as the animals were already dead.  See 

  • Ayyoub Mansouri Razi added an answer:
    Does price fluctuation exempt one party from his/her obligation under Swiss Law?

    Under Swiss Law can a party avoid performance if the market price for the commodity increases or decreases after conclusion of the contract in case of absence of  the price adjustment clause? please refer to icc arbitration awards if you have any.

    Ayyoub Mansouri Razi

    thank u dear Frank. please see icc arbitration award no 2508 in which an increase in contractual price  up to 50 % didn't justify refusing performance by the seller under Swiss law.  have u seen any award or sentence that contradicts the argument of this award?

  • OMKAR SINGH KUSHWAHA added an answer:
    Is anyone looking at imports of commodities like natural rubber from Malaya by Lebanese traders prior to WW II?

    I am trying to understand the trade patterns between Lebanon and the Malaya prior to WWII.   Was there a spike in imports of rubber by the Lebanese due to the demand for rubber during the WWII and also after the Korean War?   


    I know about India and USA. No idea about Malaya.

  • Alessandro Bonadonna added an answer:
    Do you know if certification schemes and/or labeling schemes dedicated to "mountain products" have already been implemented?

    EU Delegated Regulation no. 665/2014 defines the requirements for applying the optional quality term "mountain product", which was introduced with EU Regulation no. 1151/2012. These requirements are the result of a long process to standardise the different approaches presented by EU Member States. Previously France and Switzerland had already implemented a scheme dedicated to mountain products.
    Do you know if certification schemes and/or labeling schemes dedicated to mountain products have already been implemented (excluding Europe and Switzerland)?
    Does anyone have a scientific reference about quality term "mountain product" in France, in Swiss or in other country?
    Thank you.

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    Dear Adel, thank you for your answers and link.

  • Javad Abedini added an answer:
    How can I estimate the cost of sanctions on the target country's economy?

    I am trying to estimate the effect of economic sanctions on the target country's economy. For that I need the cost of sanctions on the target country.

    I have been searching for a database that might contain this information, but no such thing exists. Most papers have estimated the cost of sanctions themselves, but it is not clear how.

    If you have any information or suggestions regarding this matter, please let me know.

    Javad Abedini

    Hi Hamideh,

    Actually, it could be seen much easier. Not to forget that all (numerical) values in economics are calculated using a basic equation of P*Q.

    In this case,  you should first calculate what the real GDP might be if there was no sanction at all in place. It is actually calculated through a simple projection of the previous trend of real GDP (before the sanctions).

    Then you need to calculate the impact that the sanctions have had on the general consumer price index. The final step consists of calculating how much more the consumers have to pay (with the sanctions) to achieve the real GDP estimated with the assumption of no sanction.

    Good chance,


  • Pablo Klein-Bernard added an answer:
    What is the true effect of distortion through subsidy on food security, poverty reduction and income generation at the national and regional levels?
    In as much as some countries use subsidies to revitalize production in their collapsing agricultural subsectors (with a purpose of not only increasing production but also enhancing incomes of small-holder farmers), such distortions at times have adverse (and at times beneficial) effects on global trade with the true effect so far being blur. I humbly would like to have expert views on some of the findings from empirical studies so far on this issue.
    Pablo Klein-Bernard
    For more news and data on subsidies (agricultural and other), you can join the "Subsidy Wonkrs" group on Linked-in. I recently started a discussion there on the fight over Agricultural subsidies at the WTO.
  • Tomaz Strojnik added an answer:
    How effective is the doctrine of comity in arbitration and what is it's relationship with international trade?
    Given that in international law it exists between courts of different jurisdiction while in arbitration the public policy comes in especially with the issue of immorality.
    Tomaz Strojnik
    trade agreements are only enforceable if both parties are subject to the same treatment in arbitration. Most trade treaties involve a third party in order to settle disputes. Comity become problematic when the foreign policy conflicts with domestic policy. For example, for the TPP, there is a section on investment protection that allows investors to sue states if they enact laws that would hurt their investment and therefore affect the creation of laws. Of course the United States would be obligated to allow this to occur but the country is also obligated to protect its citizens from from "things" that affect the well-being of its citizens. Then there is the mentality of "you scratch my back, I scratch yours". This would involve the national government to be involved in the decision making powers of the judicial system of their respective country. Now I do not have to tell you how unconstituional that would be in the United States but you get the idea of how problematic comity could be
  • Tiia Vissak added an answer:
    What are the latest trends in international trade?
    What are currently the most profitable business and which countries are most attractive traders? I am interested in international business and its low details. If you can give me more information for a few specific countries.
    Tiia Vissak
    Have a look at these:

    NB! A new one should come out in a couple of weeks.
  • Louis Brassard added an answer:
    I would like you all to reflect upon the notions of 'free trade' and 'competition'
    Can trade be something else than free? Can trade still be possible in the absence of competition? We all understand the idea of perfect competition which presupposes among other things trade in homogeneous products. In an economy dominated by services and complex products (that can never be homogeneous) comparison between products is not possible on objective bases. We do not buy products, but images that appeal to us and fit to our self image. Would you consider that the notion of trade and competition should be revisited and maybe redefined?
    Louis Brassard
    Deneault's thesis is that the Offshore is not simply a realm of tax evasion, but a realm of legal evasion that has an invisibility cloak where corporate and financial sovereignt agents whose power is superior to many states. This new realm of sovereignty has been put in place by the financial oligarchy with the political backing of all the most advance states. Invisible actors are taking financial decision behind the invisible offshore cloak which have major impacts on African conflicts, arm deals, delocalization of jobs, closing of factory, etc… Hidden behind the expression of “globalization” is the reality of the offshorisation of all economical actors, including all the large scale criminal organizations. Real economic powers is gradually moving behind the offshore cloak and gradually escaping any national regulations and laws with the the full collaboration of the political and financial and criminal elite of all the most developed countries. If this trend continue, all profits will be offshore with no taxes to be paid, all major economic decisions will be offshore by unknown agents, and financial broken states will compete with each other for the localization all economical activies that can be moved or can be done online. How these states will manage to build their infrastructure, educate and care for their peoples will not be part of the concerns of the offshore agents.

Topic followers (284) See all