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International Marketing - Science topic

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Despite the highest ever domestic production production, and comfortable public stock the retail rice price is at the historical peak. The Ministry of Food approved quick import of 1.7 million ton rice from international market to curb the soaring rice price. Do you think that this big import will be able to control rice market? This big import might hurt the rice farmers as well.
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Yes I think
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We want to place a large order, but we are not sure how reliable they are. Our local suppliers costs us a lot more, since they also source it from similar foreign merchants, and we wanted to cut down the expense. 
We want the product shipped to India, and would like to have some assurance before placing the order. Has anyone had any experience with them in terms of international shipping? Any suggestions or information in the regard will be appreciated. Also, if anyone has used their own products, please let us know of your experience.
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See this Nature Article about the "Independent Validation" Program set up by antibodies-online.com to fight the Reproducibility Crisis (https://www.nature.com/articles/521274a)... antibodies-online.com cleary strives to provide reliable products... other than that: antibodies-online has been serving the scientific community since 2006 with offices in Europe and the U.S.
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I am currently writing about the role of national culture (differences in values (especially risk aversion) and attitudes in general) for international supply chains. Does anyone know of an example of a global company that experienced supply chain problems due to the national culture of the host country?
Thank you very much!
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Dewan Hafiz Nabil Thank you, but i am looking for a company example.
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One of the strategies multinational used to enter in international market is joint-venture. The question is what challenges and opportunities to be considered when planning an international business venture.
Thank you for your contribution.
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Various Challenges of International Business
Language Barriers. When engaging in international business, it's important to consider the languages spoken in the countries to which you're looking to expand,
Cultural Differences,
Managing Global Teams,
Currency Exchange and Inflation Rates,
Nuances of Foreign Politics, Policy, and Relations, etc
Opportunities og global trade are:
Increased revenues, Decreased competition,
Longer product lifespan, Easier cash-flow management, Better risk management,
Benefiting from currency exchange,
Access to export financing, Disposal of surplus goods, etc.
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Need to know the method or model through which price integration between domestic and international market can be calculated.
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Informative.
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I am a student trying to write a marketing essay, and I found the topic of standardization versus adaptation is really interesting. But I still don't have any clue about the specific question that I can work on. This topic seems to be very well developed and I don't know if there is still a gap left for a not-so-clever student like me.
Do you have any suggestions? I am quite interested in social media strategy though, do you think it would be an appropriate topic in this area?
Thank you.
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I do agree with the expert views about perfectly answerd
you can also find some more details on
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Give me clue on theoretical framework or market models useful for selecting markets
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You can use PESTLE and SWOT analysis for a start.
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Dear all. It is not often I start a discussion without some contextualisation but this time I do because perhaps it might be more interesting if people can freely discuss without initial guidance at least :-) . How do you view the future of research in to IB in terms of streams? Trends ? new theories on the horizon etc? What is your opinion? The word is free!
Best wishes Henrik
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A Peter Drucker is not born every day, given the life pressure he received.
I have also to mention Israel Kirzner, the mother of modern entrepreneurship.
The future of international business is great as well as related research, look at my publications on entrepreneurship.
Just look at Chinese research; the West is becoming state controlled.
I am tempted to say: karma-darma (and vs.).
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In the International Marketing course at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, I want my students to get an opportunity to talk to students in other parts of the world to understand their culture and work on developing a marketing plan. Please let me know, if anybody is interested in joining hands or passing some leads. I can then share more details and a plan to collaborate.
Thank you
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It is very interesting, however the language barrier can prevent the experience from being more comprehensive.
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Will Covid19 affect the future of international marketing strategies and policies?
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Covid19 will have HUGE effect on business strategies. Also see Bitcoin and oil price changes.
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I am currently working on my dissertation of understanding intercultural challenges in Key Account Management (Global Account Management). Is there any literature in KAM available integrating intercultural challenges. Any recommendations for a quantitative method to analyze intercultural challenges in GAM.
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Not that I am aware of. Do not forget that KAM has been unfortunately interrupted few years ago for obscure reasons
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I am trying to figure out the distinctions between international opportunity recognition (IOR) and opportunity recognition (entrepreneurial). I see in some literature, IOR is defined as to find an opportunity to do business in international market. I want to learn more. Is there any article to refer me? Can you share your thoughts?
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"In this internationalization process almost everything is similar to domestic market except new customer" may be an oversimplification. The competitive situation can be very different, legal and market requirements also. According to a study by Everdingen, Yvonne M. Van and Waarts, Eric The Effect of National Culture on the Adoption of Innovations (2003) it seems that has very uneven diffusion speeds. A new country should be handled as a new business model environment.
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I am working on a strategic project where I am going to design strategies to attract international students for a new program that we recently started. What are the marketing strategies European universities experimenting with in order to attract more international students?
Please exclude Online Marketing & Social media from the discussion below.
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a) Centralise strategy and reporting procedure
A common challenge when working in higher education marketing is budgets are spread between departments and decentralised. Without centralised reporting, it’s easy for different departments to fall into a pattern of using the same strategies year after year just because that's what they did the year before.
b) Develop a digital-friendly brand
Many colleges and universities are now finding they need to update their branding to work on digital devices. Finally, remember that to stand up over time, a higher education brand has to be associated with consistent quality education and alumni success. Showcase the quality of your university using statements backed with data and facts.
c) Personalize communication
People seek higher education for different reasons. Some are coming straight from high school while others are changing careers. So PC is can possibly an important tactics regarding this aspect.
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I am working on my Ph.D. topic and I'm interested in areas such as Marketing, Higher education, Startups, Internationalization, Strategies. Please recommend me different topics that fit well in the defined areas of interest. One of the topic which could be,
''Marketing strategies for the internationalization of higher education''
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Entrar en el proceso de observación y dialogo con ciudadanos profesionales, de investigación y empresarios del contexto donde te encuentras @ Nayan Kadam. Desde las debilidades locales se puede visionar fortalezas globalizantes hacia la internacionalización.
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As a student, I have always read that the probability of getting a job in the oil industry is related to its value in the international market. Please enlighten me with some political reasons associated with unstabilized, always changing oil prices which reaches $ 147 sometimes and sometimes only $30.
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I advise to read the following articles:
Hilal M S Al-Mamaari, Hussein A Kazem, and Miqdam T Chaichan, “Climate Change: the Game Changer in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region”, Elsevier-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review (RSER, ISSN: 1364-0321), September 2017, Vol. 76, pp. 555-576.
Hilal M S Al-Mamaari, Hussein A Kazem, and Miqdam T Chaichan, “The impact of oil price fluctuations on common renewable energies in GCC countries”, Elsevier-Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review (RSER, ISSN: 1364-0321), 2017, Vol. 75, pp. 989-1007.
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Before now natural rubber producers have always been advice by experts to reduce production/supply whenever there is fall in price of natural rubber. The recent fall in the price of natural rubber is not as a result of over supply/low demand of the produce but as a result of the trade war between the USA and China. What advice will you give to the natural rubber producers
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WAIT AND SEE if the fall of orice is due to the recent spat between China and the US because this is a macro issue. Individual rubber producers are at micro level who feel the trickle down effect of condition changes in the market. The present trade war may put Chinese producers on a slow track, but this trade spat will not endure for long because gthe economies of China and US are interconnected and inter-dependent .... protracted trade war will result in mutual losses.
ADVICE TO FARMERS is to keep producing and stock production inventory, then sell when the price returns to its prior higher level. For now sell enough quantity to cover expenses. Postpone gratification always has a larger pay off.
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Discussion helps us all
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This is a tongue in cheek response: I am interested in how social marketing (use of marketing techniques to promote social causes) can differentiate itself from social media marketing, which according to the responses here is a big issue. I find it humorous that social marketing has a branding problem.
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Innovation in International Marketing
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I agree fully with Leonidas and with his suggestions. Understanding other cultures is a key success factor for any international or global business, and for any strategic intention of developing new markets in other countries. Unfortunately many companies ignored this necessity and there were many project failures in internalization business processes. I would strongly suggest you to read the following book: Matt Haig (20030. Brand failures. The truth about the 100 biggest branding mistakes of all time. London: Kogan Page.
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Hello,
I would like to specify a structural model in LISREL with 7 latent variables.
Consistent with other studies in my field, I want to parcel the indicators of the multi-item latent variables into a single composite (i.e. using the average of all 3 indicators as a single predictor of the latent variable) and account for error variance by setting each composite's error variance to (1-α)*σ2, where α is the construct reliability and σ is the variance of the composite taken from the variance-covariance matrix of composites.
This model gets reasonable model fit indices and no warning messages, except for the THETA-DELTA matrix not being positive definite, which I think is normal because I set the error variances of 3 single-indicator variables variables to 0 (the other 4 are the multi-item variables).
So I looked at the completely standardized solution (indicator loadings and their error variances) to calculate the composite reliability of each multi-item construct.
In a next step, I imported a variance-covariance matrix of the composites (i.e. I averaged the means of the multiple indicators of a construct into a single variable, for those that have multiple indicators) and specified them as observed variables. I set their loadings to 1. I set the error variances of all indicators to (1-α)*σ2. For the 3 single indicators, I assumed a construct reliability of 0.8 and also fixed their error variance according to the formula. However, now I end up with the following warnings:
W_A_R_N_I_N_G: PSI is not positive definite
W_A_R_N_I_N_G: Error variance is negative
I just cannot seem to figure out why these warnings occur. My specified model is supported by previous theory and the method of setting error variance to (1-α)*σ2 has also been used before in other studies in which multiple indicators of a single latent variable were parcelled (i.e. averaged). All construct reliabilities are greater than 0.7, by the way.
Does anybody know what might be the source of the error?
Any help or hint is greatly appreciated.
Thank you very much in advance!
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Thank you fopr the suggestion, Karina!
However, I think I solved my problem by setting the error variances of my single-item constructs to 0, instead of assuming a α value of 0.8 and applying the (1-α)*σ2 formula to set their error variances. Now the warning does not appear anymore. I'm fairly new to this, but I think it is common practice to set the error variance of single-item constructs to 0.
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I am trying to make a list of commodities that swifted from "list price" market governance to futures markets during the 1980s. I have individuated the following (but I am not sure about the rubber and cocoa):
- aluminium
- nickel
- tin
- coffee
- lead
- sugar
- cocoa
- rubber
- zinc
Any other suggestions? As general sketch for the difference between a produce exchange and a list price marketing, I refer to the works of Margaret Slade, Two Pricing Systems in non-ferrous metals
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Thanks for the answers!
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I am having trouble locating the names of British and American merchant houses that operated in Yokohama after it became a treaty port under the British and American treaties with the Shogunate. I have spent a considerable time but am only managing to find one name here and another there. If anyone has such a complete list of names, I would appreciate a copy of it which I can use in my article. It will be duly acknowledged. Thanks
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The Asia Book and Western Control can help you with the details of the Bankariar mission
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I'm starting a paper about how international marketing process (as a decision making process) today are impacted because of the rise of anti-globalization policies and feelings, arround the world. I appreciate any idea, concept, theory, data, o bibliography that you'd like to share.
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Dear Edinson,
The anti-globalization movements in my opinion emerged due to the failure of the actors of globalization in some places (not in all places) in the world to be fair to the host counties (the locals). Globalization is seen only as a new means of colonization in a different form and more structured ways. The benefits of the globalization movement in many places only benefits the superpowers in terms of both the economy or the environment. When the idea of globalization is not able to balance the benefits for all parties, there will always be opponents of this idea and certainly it may affect the international market or trade.
For companies that want to engage in international marketing, they needs to bare the liability of foreignness. Under IB theories, international firms need additional investments to overcome the issue of being foreignness. Make locals feel that your businesses (products and services) are theirs. I think Nestle, Unilever, Kraft have done well jobs in this regard.
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CAPITALIST IDEOLOGY: A GLOBAL ANALYSIS (1981-2014)
 Institutional frameworks that favor economic development have been analyzed at a global level by way of multiple indicators, such as those presented in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report. In particular, one of the Report’s sections, “goods market efficiency”, focuses on the conditions that facilitate the creation of a new enterprise, access to the international market and legal frameworks that favor competition. A similar perspective can be found in the Ease of Doing Business Index prepared by the World Bank, which attempts to quantify the business-friendliness of a country’s regulations. Additionally, The Economic Freedom of the World Index, sponsored by the Fraser Institute, measures the degree to which the policies and institutions of countries are supportive of economic freedom. The cornerstones of economic freedom are personal choice, voluntary exchange, freedom to enter markets and to compete, security of the person and privately owned property. 
On the other hand, the absence of institutional frameworks and practices that favor a competitive capitalist economy have been measured in statistics such as the “Crony Capitalism Index,” published by The Economist, and the “Corruption Perceptions Index,” published by Transparency International.  Privileged treatment by governments and regulatory bodies towards certain sectors of the economy create significant distortions in the market, losses in overall productivity, and ultimately a poorer population.
All of these studies show that a country’s prosperity is strongly correlated with a market-friendly institutional framework. But how do these frameworks develop?  What is the relationship between the existence of pro-capitalist institutions and the economic mentality of a society? 
It has been shown that the existence and extension of market-friendly institutional frameworks are interrelated with, and largely dependent on, the ideological beliefs held by a society. According to Michael Porter to achieve sustainable growth a society must have an archetype of productivity, including a comprehension of the factors that influence the efficiency of the economy. These factors include the existence of competitive markets, openness to globalization and international trade, an understanding that free markets benefit a majority of the society, and awareness of the pernicious effects of government favoritism (Porter, 2000). Porter argues that without this paradigm of productivity it is probable that an alternate view of prosperity takes root in a society, one which is favorable to the existence of noncompetitive rents, such as those granted by protectionist economic policies.
The optimal paradigm should not be confined to the upper echelons of a society but instead should permeate through its entirety, including the working class. Absent this diffusion, reforms favorable to a higher productivity will possibly face political opposition.
This project proposes to study the presence and degree of a market or capitalist ideology in different countries over the course of last three decades, via construction of a comparative indicator. The data to be used will be sourced from the World Values Survey, an international survey published in six editions between 1981 and 2014, which allows for the investigation of extant economic ideologies in a variety of countries. The Survey’s questionnaire includes multiple pertinent questions which reflect on the existence of a capitalist mindset, which can be defined as a favorable view of economic freedom, competition, private enterprise and free markets as creators of wealth. Although some components of the Survey have been used in studies which attempt to establish a relationship between culture and economic development, none of those studies have systematically investigated the question of a capitalist culture. Thus, we consider that our approach represents an original contribution which will permit a deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon. The precedent of this proposition is the investigation conducted by Carlos Newland, who analyzed the differences in economic ideologies between Latin American countries of Hispanic origin and countries with Anglo-Saxon cultural roots (Newland, 2017).
Our starting hypothesis is that the world’s most highly developed countries, ones with strong economic institutions, benefit from a “comparative cultural advantage” (Berger, 1990) with regards to their valuation of capitalism (countries such as the United States, New Zealand and Australia are included in this group). It is the economic culture of these countries that sustains the quality of their institutions and consequently their prosperity. Conversely, the economic cultures in countries such as Argentina and Russia are averse to free markets; in both cases, this culture is product of long statist traditions. In China and India, attitudes towards capitalism are ambivalent, at least in terms of how the private enterprise is valued. An interesting case is Chile, where an adequate institutional superstructure has generated important economic achievements. However, the country is coupled with an anti-capitalistic economic culture, which threatens the long run stability of its reforms. There is a worrisome trend visible in certain regions of the world (for example, Latin America and China), where the appreciation of capitalism has suffered during these first years of the new millennium.
The paper produced pursuant to this investigation will focus principally on quantifying both the level and the evolution of a capitalist mentality in a diverse selection of countries over the course of the last thirty years. Additionally, the paper will contain an analysis and explanation of variations encountered in the data.
Carlos Newland is Professor at ESEADE University and Torcuato Di Tella University in Buenos Aires. He holds a BA in Economics (Universidad Católica Argentina); a Master of Letters (University of Oxford), and a Dr Litt. in History (University of Leiden). He has been Claude Lambe Fellow (1990), De Fortabat Fellow at Harvard University (1999), and Guggenheim Fellow (2000). He has published articles in several journals on Economic History and Development, such as the Journal of Economic History, Explorations in Economic History, Desarrollo Económico, Revista de Historia Económica, Hispanic American Historical Review, and the Journal of Latin American Studies.
References
Peter Berger (1990), “Observaciones acerca de la cultura económica”, Estudios públicos: revista de políticas públicas, pp. 11-30.
Michael Porter (2000), “Attitudes, Values, Beliefs and the Microeconomics of Prosperity,” in Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, (L.E. Harrison, S.P. Huntington, eds.), New York: Basic Books, pp. 14-28.
Carlos Newland (forthcoming 2017), “Ideología económica: una comparación entre naciones hispánicas y anglosajonas”, Cultura Económica. Working paper (Spanish) at: https://eseade.wordpress.com/2016/09/08/ideologia-economica-una-comparacion-entre-naciones-hispanicas-y-anglosajonas/
Links to reports cited:
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Dear Carlos
Great to hear from you. I hope that you and your family are well, please give my regards to your wife. Karen and I continue to prosper, she paints and I continue doing research and writing.
I have followed your work and when I got your message downloaded the ESEADE paper. Despite my rusty Spanish I understand it, and I think it could be an important contribution to the literature on ideology, capitalism and economic growth. I would be interested in collaborating, let me know how I can help.
I have been working on a related question. In recent decades some countries have been successful in enacting fiscal rules to constrain government spending deficits and debt. I am exploring how different institutions influence the decisions to enact fiscal rules and the effectiveness of the rules. Some countries with effective fiscal rules have strong institutions of federalism and direct democracy. Of course underlying those institutions is an ideology supportive of capitalism and limited government. If you are interested I can send you some of these papers
In working with different groups to enact fiscal rules at the state and federal level we have conducted surveys showing that a large majority of citizens in the U.S. support fiscal rules to constrain government. We think we will have 34 states pass a resolution to enact a balanced budget amendment at the federal level which will trigger an amendment convention.
My colleague John Merrifield and I have written several papers and published a book 'Can the Debt Growth Be Stopped' in which we use a dynamic simulation model to estimate the impact of fiscal rules on government spending and the economy. We are interested in applying this dynamic simulation model in Argentina. I mentioned to John that you and I had collaborated on a research paper on early economic growth in Argentina. We would like to invite you to collaborate on this research project if you are interested.
I hope we have an opportunity to work together again. In any case I appreciate the opportunity to catch up, let's stay in touch
Regards
Barry
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SMEs contributes highly in revenue collection of many countries but they have not yet used the advantage of international trade to penetrates global market. How can they penetrate to global market, if supply chain technique be applied?
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The fast changing technology  of production processes, and the diversification of marketing channels in the last few decade have bought many changes in the way that goods and services are produced and sold. The integration of SMEs into   low-cost transportation and advanced communications technologies  has bought many changes into global supply value chain and facilitated movement of investment, goods, information, and finance. it is hoped hat further integration of SME will boost the international trade and will bring qualitative change in global supply chain. following link may be useful in taking subject forward.
Regards
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my dear friend
i need a questionnaire about The impact of international marketing strategy on corporate decision-making structure. I would be very grateful if some one sends me some thing.
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I seem to find only general  'entrepreneurship theory' and articles about born globals and seperate aspects of SME internationalization. It's difficult to understand the whole theoretical framework.
Thanks!
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Jones, M.V., Coviello, N., Tang, Y.K., 2011. International entrepreneurship research (1989-2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, 632-659.
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I want please to have your opinion about the best paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs
Thanks 
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Hello Norchène,
According to the refrences below you can have a clear opinion :
Rossiter, J. R. (2002). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International journal of research in marketing, 19(4), 305-335./
Diamantopoulos, A. (2005). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing: a comment. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22(1), 1-9 Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of marketing research, 186-192..
Churchill Jr, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of marketing research, 64-73.
Smith, A. M. (1999). Some problems when adopting Churchill's paradigm for the development of service quality measurement scales. Journal of Business Research, 46(2), 109-120.
Flynn, L. R., & Pearcy, D. (2001). Four subtle sins in scale development: Some suggestions for strengthening the current paradigm. International Journal of Market Research, 43(4), 409.
Kindly Regards
Samy
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I am interested in investigating a research on the concept COO through a multi-cue approach. Although i based my research on theory without any problem, i unfortunately couldn't figure out how to conduct the application of the research. I have read related articles to my study, although i had insights into the effect of price and brand on product evaluations, in the methodology part of articles i read weren't explicitly put forth how the manipulations on price and brand were conducted.
In this context, i would like to test COO effect on product evaluation by giving further details about the product, so i will respectively give COO, brand and price info and see if COO effect is as strong as suggested in the literature when other cues are added to the research.
How can i measure whether COO effect on product evaluation differs when brand and price info are provided?
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COO is employed as a substitute variable for product evaluation when consumers have partial familiarity with specific products. The information processing which guides COO in customers access goods base as intrinsic (e.g. style, taste, quality, performance) and extrinsic (e.g. brand price and name)
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Ipeirotis published "Demographics of mechanical turk " in 2010.
I think some of the data from there was quoted in Paolacci et al's "Running experiments on amazon mechanical turk. Judgment and Decision making"(2010)
The demographics of MechTurk is important for any researcher. Does anybody know of any more recent research on this topic?
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We have a review coming out in a month or so in the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. It includes a fairly detailed description of worker demographics. Keep an eye out for it in early 2016
Chandler, J., & Shapiro, D. (2015). Conducting Clinical Science Research on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12(1).
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Dear colleagues,
I am almost finished writing an article about Chinese sellers on Amazon.de or other European Amazons and the VAT issue.
I would kindly ask you to give me your opinions if you spot faults in my argumentation since the issue seems to be so clear and yet so difficult to verify.
According to Amazon: approximately 2 million external sellers use the platform of Amazon whereas sellers from Hong Kong and China have been growing 65% per year. Overall 40% of the total business of Amazon is done by third-party seller.
A Chinese seller (BestWe is one typical seller example) presents his products on Amazon.de and the webpage of Amazon.de says VAT included (MWSt. inkl.). The impressum of the Chinese seller does not show a European VAT identification number (although he could apply for one via MOSS).
So the customer buys from a Chinese seller on Amazon.de assuming that VAT is included (and declared). Nevertheless Amazon informs that Amazon only withholds VAT for their commission portion according to EU directive 1042/2013 and the rest is paid out to the Chinese seller.
In Europe, according to EU Directive 112/2006 for B2C product sales VAT shall always be declared in the country of the seller.
Letter shipment from Hong Kong to Europe is €1-2 for products like smartphone covers. Wholesale price in Hong Kong is way lower than €1 and sales price on Amazon €6-8
The Chinese seller has three options to deliver to the German buyer
1) Value incl. shipping less than €22 and shipped from China
Customs does not stop the shipping (for administrative reasons of low value) and the seller should declare VAT directly to the tax office on his own. It is free of import VAT but this does not mean it is free of VAT. And on Amazon it is shown with VAT so it has to be declared.
2) Value above €22 and shipped from China
Customs stops the shipping and either the buyer pays import VAT or it is returned or destroyed. A contradiction because the buyer has paid VAT according to Amazon already, the seller has received the whole value and has to declare VAT. And how then does the buyer get his original money back if he does not pay VAT to customs?
3) Seller uses FBA-Service (Forward by Amazon meaning that the seller stocks large quantities of a product at Amazon and it is then shipped from inside the European Union warehouses)
The seller pays import VAT on e.g. 1.000 smartphone covers but since they have not been sold, he declares import VAT on wholesale price and not end price. E.g. €1 value per cover instead of €8. When he then sells, the VAT on the €7 sales price difference has to be declared by the seller at that stage.
So what I see is a massive tax fraud for lower price products. In Europe every chewing gum sold carries VAT but here it seems to vanish somehow.
The question is now also how Amazon comes into this. One could claim that Amazon is somehow assisting tax fraud. Another arguement could be that Amazon is in violation of the European Union Directive 31/2000. It protects portal providers in Article 14 by defining that providers are not responsible for the content they host as long as they are not informed of its illegal character, and they act promptly to withdraw access to the material when informed of it. The obligation to react (in Germany within 24h) has been confirmed in a multitude of court cases. Therefore although Amazon is not responsible for the content created on their websites, they are responsible for the displayed information over time if they do not stop it. And this carries large financial penalties.
By the way, I have made test purchases for all three cases and in each case I was rejected an invoice showing the VAT - which I paid according to Amazon.de
Looking forward to your comments and guidance.
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Lieber Herr Kollege Demmelhuber,
ihre Themenstellung ist nicht nur sehr aktuell und interessant sondern auch gesellschaftlich von großer Bedeutung. ihre Argumentation ist überzeugend und konsistent. Ich  empfehle Ihnen, Ihren Beitrag den mittelländischen Händlern zur Kenntnis zu bringen. 
Viel Erfolg und beste Gruesse 
guenter Schweiger
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I want to explore why some regional cuisines are more internationally known and have international presence than others (think for instance Cajun, Tex Mex, etc.)
Thanks!
Blanca
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Blanca, If you want an historical perspective on these issues in addition to the more mainstram marketing approaches, I'd suggest looking at the work of Angela Tregear on regional foods, such as: Tregear, Angela. "From Stilton to Vimto: using food history to re‐think typical products in rural development." Sociologia ruralis 43.2 (2003): 91-107.
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I have done some preliminary research in this area, not published yet, and I can see a lot of value in creating such programs.
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Thank you so much!
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Multi-Brand Power is the strategy where the local agency enters into the different products portfolio. It’s a process of introducing the ranges of product categories in different brand profile and the making the class in terms of different price segments to the consumers.
When there is more than one brand offer with private labeling, providing the different country of origin products or same line in the competition with the existence agency of multinational company--What will be the Reaction strategies that multinational companies applying..........
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Thank you Prof. Roberts..
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Dear Friends 
We are developing a model on Assessing Benefit Impacts provided by International Marketing. We are looking for a co author who can contribute:
A good level analytical contribution with Structural Equation Modelling 
give a good reading and update the language where it is required. 
Please let me know if you are holding these skills and if you are interested.
Thanks and Regards,
Sudhir Rana
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i would be interested 
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Preferably data from the EU internal market or EU member states
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
Regards
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I want to Review/ Evaluate Benefit - Impacts Generated by International Marketing, to collect primary data and develop a model on this topic please suggest me which should be the input variables and what should be output variables that can measure benefit-impacts provided by international marketing. Also please suggest me any structure of the model if you can. Kindly. 
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The simplest model I can thing of is to relate sales, profit, products etc to efforts such as Advertising and CEO efforts, and countries specific characteristics, which can be captured by dummy variables. In case you want to take a judgmental approach, I highly recommend the method describe by Saaty in his book:
Saaty, Thomas. (2005). Theory and Applications of the Analytic Network Process: Decision Making with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs, and Risks, (Pittsburg, PA: RWS Publications).
If you call RWS, they will give you access to a free software.
Good luck in our research.
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My review of the volunteerism literature, and especially the empirical studies, leads me to conclude that most studies appear to fall into one of two camps:
  • Those that focus on volunteer behavior relative to a single organization, versus
  • Those that investigate volunteer behavior in aggregate, e.g., number of hours volunteered overall.
I am interested in investigating how many organizations are supported, how one's volunteer hours are divided among those organizations, and the underlying decision process.
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 Thanks Christopher & Jo,
I will certainly look into the articles you've mentioned and appreciate the advice you have provided.  I am in the process of lining up interviews with volunteers from a local public radio station as the next step in my research on this topic.
I am realizing that the volunteerism literature is studied from the perspectives of so many disciplines that it is all too easy to miss important studies that may have been published in journals that are common outlets for particular disciplines, but not well known to others from different fields.
Regards,
Rod.
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Livestock Exports and competitiveness on the International market
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Thank you so much Jack for your response, Am actually interested in comparing livestock and its products viz. live animals, different livestock meats (bovine, swine, sheep, goat and poultry), eggs,  dairy products (whole milk products, skimmed milk products) Hides and skin.
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Journals, papers, Phd thesis
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to detect the culture on a territory o economic region you must apply the methodology of radar chart. In this accounting methodology there are financial slacks, they show how companies made its management and you can detect the economic culture of region too. The publication add below present how you can obtain the several kind of financial slacks and the manuscript refered you can obtain how measure the risk of managementa by positive, independent, normalized and objetive variables. 
You can get the last publication on this review.
THE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR OF SWITZERLAND COMPANY BY METHODOLOGY OF RADAR CHART.
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Relationship between E-international marketingand international marketing.
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Privatization is a worlwide phenomenon. There`s an extensive amount of literature has focused on the impact of privatization reform, defined as sale of public assets of public owned firms to the private sector at the micro-level.
International marketing is advertising, promote products and services
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After the articles by Peng & Illnitch '98, Peng '06 and Trabold '02 has there been more development on the research on intermediaries? E.g. when used by small to medium sized industrial firms, why they are still important in the times of the globalization and information and communication technology?
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Business intermediary is a living concept in business operation and research. It can be explored further in the Supply Chain Management research scope (in Operation Research), in Distribution Channel  in Marketing Strategy research, and in Sub-contracting or Outsourcing  concept in Operation Management Strategy research.
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Few indigenous Nigerian, or even African firms diversify their operations into international markets. Is this a coincidence? Or are there more generic reasons to explain this "fear", in spite of the fact that research suggests that there is a positive relationship between internationalization and firm performance.
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Reasons for not internationalizing can be different: for instance, a large enough home market, lack of knowledge about foreign market opportunities, lack of suitable foreign partners, lack of internationally competitive products/services and, sometimes, just lack of ambition to expand internationally... It is not easy to encourage companies to expand abroad if the owners are not interested.
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For example, does exposure to K-Pop improve consumers attitude to Samsung smartphones or Hyundai cars? Please cite a reference if possible.
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We touch on that issue in a consumer affinity article recently published online in International Business Review:
Consumer affinity is a feeling of liking and fondness for a specific foreign country regarding its culture and landscape and/or its music and entertainment, the people and their lifestyle, and its governmental policies. We found culture/landscape (food and cuisine, history, nature and landscape, arts, architecture) is one of 4 dimensions that drive overall consumer affinity. The nature/culture dimension seems to be close to your term “a nation’s cultural product”. We found overall consumer affinity impacts buying intentions directly and also indirectly through a significant impact on quality evaluations of products from the affinity target. This indicates that exposure to a nation's cultural product (food, arts, etc) may in fact contribute to consumer's perception of the nation's consumer product.
I enclose a copy of the article.
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After decades of cultural orientation research in marketing is this concept still relevant?
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Nowadays it all bout individualism and this pressure of being perfect is related with top class buying selections
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A case study on Berjaya Starbuck Coffee SDN BHD malaysia.
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As this world is now globalized, social networking is the only medium (cheapest medium) of targeting the targeted population around the world with economical budget
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Are there theories which can explain the elements of racism in product consumption? I am working on my research framework and have yet to identify such theory.
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Here is how I would go about this, first of all lets not forget that we are looking to explain why something happens, the relationship between two or more things. Things happen all the time but somethings are of special interest. Your special interest is "why people will or not buy something based on the racial origin of the product or service". So we have a decent question, something that if answered with increase our understanding of the world around us, a question that many people may be interested in hearing the answer to. The next step is to figure out why people would alter their probability of purchasing something based on their own racial preferences or predispositions toward being racist.
Here the larger question becomes how do people decide on what and what not to buy. This in and of itself is a massive question, one that I am sure many people are trying to answer not only due to an interest in resolving the many puzzles of human psychological behavior in a social scientific context but to maximize their personal profits.
If we were to model our problem we would see possibly hundreds of independent variable, gender, age, ethnicity, attitudes, nationality, income level, education, origin of product, racist predisposition, religious affiliation would all in some way influencing our probability to buy this or that our dependent variable. We have narrowed down the big picture to a more specific case, we are interested in one of the many independent variable of consumer behavior, the buyers racist inclinations. Our dependent variable "the product or service to be purchased/not purchased" however is not so clear.
Let us say the buyers are Americans and the product/service is "dry cleaning" and the origin of the service is China, the historic prejudice that "made in China" meant poor quality would not hold, since Dry Cleaning is a service that the Chinese ethnic population in the USA have done very well at. In this case at least years back when "made in China" meant poor quality, the origin of the service should decrease the probability of its consumption but as we see it does not hold for all products and services.
This tells us that the product to be purchased is of grave importance. In other words our dependent variable "whether a product will be purchased or not" be it a toy or dry cleaning service will/may have opposite effects on the nature of the relationship.
We also notice that time is also an important exogenous variable. Twenty years back "made in China" meant poor quality, today its hard to find anything not made in China and no longer carries that stigma.
So we see that when we look at our model and try to theorize about why this or that happens behaviorally, we are faced with lots of independent variable that will in addition to having their own partial effects on the distribution of variance in our dependent variable-the purchase behavior-but as well will be interacting with each other in their partial determination.
Here is what I would suggest. In short we have a relationship to explain. Racism, prejudice what ever you want to call it on one side as independent variable and the purchase of a product or service on the other, our dependent variable. We now need a theory to explain why the probability of buying or not buying something will be swayed by the individuals predispositions. We also know that there are many things that will effect the buying behavior, we also know that not only the products origin but what that product is will be very important (toy vs dry cleaning/ 1970-2013). This means that when we set up our hypothesis, an attempt to explanation and test why a relationship between our independent and dependent variable is the way it is, we will have to be very specific. It seems clear that the test of ideas in this case can not be of a broad nature, but that is fine, little things add up to bigger things, whats important is that we have something testable, clear and reproducible. From our discussion we see that we will need to be very restrictive about our dependent variable--the purchase of cars originating from South Korea sold between 2010-2013 to the American female consumer between the ages of 18-25 for example. We will have to be very specific about defining both ends of the hypothesis. From there an eclectic approach using various theories can be employed to test our well restricted and clearly defined hypothesis. Based on the theory to be used instrumentalization of the theoretical concepts to their real life reflections for testing will become more apparent.
I'll go no further since I have no idea what the content of your research is, what region, what racism you are concerned with. Hope this has been helpful..
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I've done a study last year (still unpublished) and it showed poor influence of Consumer Ethnocentrism, compared with other constructs such as brand and corporate image.
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Consumer ethnocentrism is very much relevant in today's marketplace in terms of product preference. But it depends on who you test or interview. Consumers who are general consumers shopping in major grocery stores in large cities would be less likely to be ethnocentric than people in smaller cities or who shop in neighborhood markets in large cities who have less interaction with global products. A study we have in press showed that a spiced fish product common in Northern European countries was not well accepted in Thailand (another country whose consumers commonly eat spiced fish products) because the spices used were too different from those used in Thailand and the fish was much softer than consumers were used to. Even "familiar" products that are too different from cultural norms are rejected.