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The boundaries of my investigations limits by real implementation on cities which are too far from driverless cars, ITS or other hyperllops-like decisions. I carefully examined,perhaps, all the existed models and approaches from japanees "Jamology", limitations of transport flows in the centre (of London,tax model), VANET, platooning, V2X, SCATS, SCOOT, traffic lights management and other methods which have some limitations from 'non detected' [without any sensors] vehicles (old cars, mini bus taxies or so-called "root taxy" , horses and carts , motocyclies, scooters, etc. or the bypass roads (which have exits in the centre of calculating zone and make some deviations in algorithms).
Not everything is solved by the development of public transport. In our city, it is planned to build a subway for 20 years, but the zones of the city are developed according to their own laws without taking into account the plans laid down for the metro, and therefore part of the dug canals under the ground do not meet today's needs.
Similarly, with the development of cycling and pedestrian zones. In countries with sharply continental weather in the cold season, it is unlikely that the city dweller will choose a bicycle instead of his personal car while the temperatures below 20 °C. Bus routes can have a certain effect, but again, dedicated lanes are needed (consider adjustments to the law and traffic regulations) and the replacement of a fleet for more comfortable trips as well as more developed routes. Inspection of road regulation(the police) is not as much interested in solving the problems of traffic congestion. The main indicator of the success of their work is the minimum number of accidents and victims on the roads. Therefore, the lower the traffic flow rate or its "standing", the calmer. Thus, what solution can really be implemented in cities where there are no autonomous and flying cars, where the budget is not enough to build monorails and tunnel stations (junctions) to connect metro, buses and other vehicles in rooms with comfortable conditions (for example, Queensland , New Zealand)?
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Dear Alexei
Sorry for the delay. The Thesis is in Portuguese, but the results were presented in the 2020 PLEA.
FORTES, M. B. ; GIACAGLIA, M. E. ; DUARTE, Denise . Disruptive Technologies on Mobility Raising New Opportunities for Urban Design. In: PLEA 2020 - Planning Post Carbon Cities, 2020, A Coruña. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. A Coruña: University of A Coruña, 2020. v. 1. p. 600-605.
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the traffic light sometimes is easier to cause the traffic jam problem, if the designer don't make to many change to the both side of the road,such as the house and block building, what other aspect of things can be done to mitigate the traffic jam problem.
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Dear Dr. Yang Ying ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
Modern, sophisticated initiatives that are better than typical ‘big ideas’ include:
  • Optimise traffic-light management
  • Use CCTV to monitor road conditions
  • Enforce existing road traffic laws
  • Improve perceptions of buses
  • Extend residents’ parking zones
  • Charge for workplace parking
  • Improve cycling infrastructure
  • Improve bus services
  • Develop and refine park-and-ride
  • Use Inbound Flow Control
  • Rationalise distribution and deliveries
  • Existing rail network
  • Light rail
  • Strategic Road Network resilience
  • Road pricing
It is often incorrectly suggested that congestion may be solved with one big idea, such as:
  • Widen roads
  • Narrow roads
  • Add bus lanes
  • Remove bus lanes
  • Build tunnels
  • Build a new ring road
  • Build a light rail network
  • Switch off traffic lights
  • Ban cycling
  • Ban cars from city centres
  • Close through-routes to private vehicles
  • Close car parks
  • Build more car parks
  • Build more park-and-rides
  • Make buses free
  • Make park-and-ride free
  • Introduce a congestion charge/road pricing
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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For example; When Intelligent Transportation systems applications become widespread, carbon emissions will decrease and it will have a positive effect economically and environmently.
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Dear Dr. Mehmet Tektas ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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For example;
  • At the 16th ITS world congress, the Prime Minister of Japan said and realized that transportation will be autonomous in the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Olympic Games.
  • What is your opinion in this issue.
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It has triggered international competition and popularized the use of Intelligent transportation systems.
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Dear researchers,
I want to apply clustering tasks for city traffic time series for a research in Intelligent Transportation Systems.
Can you recommend a city traffic dataset that contains the speed, flow, or occupancy measurements for roads and also contains the type of traffic pattern for each road? This type can be provided as a class label for each road, or a class label for each day measurements on each road (a class label for the whole time series).
Any help is much appreciated, thanks in advance.
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Hi Muhammad Zahid Khattak , I have this kind of data.
Write me and we will discuss about the possibility to make some experiments together.
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Intelligent Transportation Systems(ITS) are widely used in the world for traffic management. However, there are still many questions about the effective use of these systems. For example, are intelligent transportation systems used efficiently enough? Do different intelligent transportation systems have the ability to interact with each other? Is proactive control possible with traffic control centers? Can Artificial Intelligence be used for proactive work? Can the performance of the system or center be increased with artificial intelligence? I am curious about your ideas and/or experience on this subject.
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The following is a scientific research article which is available by Open Access on the Internet; simply click on the LINK:
Best wishes with your research.
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Dear researchers,
I'm doing research in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Currently, we are studying the traffic status, trying to detect any traffic congestion using AI-based solutions. I have used synthetic data (generated by Simulation of Urban MObility) in order to validate our proposed algorithm. However, we are also interested to validate our algorithm in a real-world environment. Can you help me to find a free source for traffic real-dataset?
The data I need should contain:
  • Speed, flow, or occupancy parameters on a particular road.
  • Labels for the traffic jams (if it's happened), with the starting time of the jam.
Your help is much appreciated, Thanks in advance.
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Use remote sensing euipments such as drawns with high resolution camera
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Positive or negative effects of disruptive technologies on Intelligent Transportation Systems
For Example;
Artificial Intelligent
Internet of Things (IoT)
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Generally, I am agree with Javid Jafarov and Volodimir Mitarchuk. Additionaly;
As the unpredictable development of artificial intelligence systems continues, there will be more than autonomous vehicle systems combined with developments in the internet of things. For example: While planning the routes and times of existing lines with artificial intelligence, it will also indicate how many vehicles you need to have in the future. However, the system that performs these will also inspect and route autonomous public transport vehicles on the field, provide a route to them, immediately intervene in judicial incidents, inform the authorized units in case of natural disasters and inter-city accidents passing through rural areas. To give another example; Artificial intelligence, which constantly monitors the images inside the vehicle, will automatically detect the person who committed theft crime and inform the nearest police units ... Maybe in the future, such forensic cases will be intervened with humanoid robot cops.
Advances in the internet of things will lead to incredible advances in the field of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. While communication costs are falling, almost the limits will be lifted in areas where you can control autonomous vehicles.
As far as this goes, it goes with imagination .. But I think most importantly It should be studied on artificial intelligence roof systems that will control artificial intelligence systems.
Regards
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Very important parameters have changed, from transportation preferences to use of public transportation. Priorities and investment planning were affected by this process. I would like to hear your opinion or valuable contributions on this matter.
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Dear Prof. Tektas!
You pointed to a very relevant point. May I argue that digital transformation brings in opportunity for intelligent transportation systems and so accelerate the emergence of novel solutions:
1) Hassanien, Aboul-Ella, Darwish, Ashraf (Eds.) (2021). Digital Transformation and Emerging Technologies for Fighting COVID-19 Pandemic: Innovative Approaches, © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Available at: https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030633066
2) A case-study: Nigel Halpern et al. (2021).Ready for digital transformation? The effect of organisational readiness, innovation, airport size and ownership on digital change at airports, Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 90, January 2021, Open access:
3) Feng Li (2020). Leading digital transformation: three emerging approaches for managing the transition, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, July 2020, Citation: "The research finds that at least three new approaches are emerging in leading organizations, which are (1) innovating by experimenting, (2) radical transformation via successive incremental changes and (3) dynamic sustainable advantages through an evolving portfolio of temporary advantages." Available at:
In conclusion please let me argue that successful implementation of digital transformation in intelligent transport system - projects needs utilization of strategy combining open innovation with open science.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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For example;
Genetic Algorithm in intersection optimization
Fuzzy logic in attendance control
Ant algorithms and Dynamic programming in shortest path problems
ANN in passenger demand forecasting and other forecasting problems
Soft computing technic in adaptive intersection design
In many optimization applications Swarm Optimization technics etc ..
I am waiting for your contributions on similar applications and techniques to be used.
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Thank you very much Dear Sevcan for your contribution. ANN is widdely used in recognition and classification and prediction .
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I have a question about the local pollution impact of automated cars.
The possible energy impacts are well understood, I think, even if the net effects are very uncertain: automated cars could lead to smoother driving profiles & platooning (good) but
also to a lot of induced traffic and modal shift away from other modes (bad).
But what about pollutants? How are changing driving patterns expected to affect the emission factors HC, PM and NOx (assuming that automated cars will not all be BEV in the long run)? Even in recent literature reviews (Milakis et al 2017), I find few references to papers that address directly this issue. Any new insights since then?
Dimitris Milakis, Bart van Arem & Bert van Wee (2017): Policy and society
related implications of automated driving: a review of literature and directions for future research, Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, DOI: 10.1080/15472450.2017.1291351
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If self-driving reaches car-as-a-service companies (uber is working on it), you might the strange scenario of see empty cars running around, burning fuel while picking up customers. While this is probably a slight emissions reduction (80-90 kg less weight), it will certainly look odd and unecological to people watching it.
Anyway, there aren't many studies because self-driving is still in its infancy and we lack field data. There may be a reducion overall, but I don't believe it will be significant. Those 2-4% mentioned by Zeashan look about right.
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IoT/LPWAN User Survey Link: https://lnkd.in/dVdK-ea
-----------------
Dear Sir/Madam, We are surveying the use of Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technologies (e.g., LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT) for the Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for Smart Cities and Transportation Systems. If you or your organization has relevant experience/practices in deploying LPWAN technology, we appreciate you can help take this survey on LPWAN applications. The survey is part of a research project sponsored by VDOT. We greatly appreciate if you can complete the survey by August 14, 2020. Thank you very much. ----------------- Thank you for your help in completing the survey!
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I do not know anything about LPWAN
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I am working on traffic prediction and looking for free simulation software for Intelligent transportation system, thank you.
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You can try PTV VISSIM or AnyLogic Simulation softwares
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Intelligent transportation systems provide many advantages as part of our daily lives. One of the most common applications of these current and increasingly widespread systems in our cities is intelligent junction control. The scope of the intelligent junction control concept which includes different approaches and algorithms, is quite wide. It is known that it needs realistic and objective technical knowledge to guide decision makers correctly. In this sense, what do you think the definition of intelligent intersection should include? Is a high-cost intersection control system with a lot of equipment always necessary? Or are the lower cost solutions that enable multi-plan control by only increasing the number of control programs? What should be the threshold or the transition point for the preference? Is it sufficient to make only cost-benefit analysis? To what extent should social benefits be taken into account for feasibility analysis? Sharing your views on this issue can be beneficial to many researchers and interested parties and can contribute to the spread of sustainable transportation (traffic management) systems.
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I heard recently from an agency that they consider that signals operate effectively if they change light from green to yellow to red, in that consecutive order and without interruption. So, what exactly is a good control is like a "beauty in the eye of the beholder". So, an agency first needs to be comfortable with level of operations quality or misery that non-optimal control generates to participants in traffic stream. Then, an agency needs to define operational measures (or objective functions more formally) that they would like to improve. If there is more than one such measure then they should be able to judge how to weigh each criterion. At this point we probably already lost their interest and attention as this is usually an overwhelming task for them but if anyone survives this point then it makes sense to talk about level of ITS equipment, primarily for sensing purposes and then finally the quality of the control algorithm. So, what we in academia usually put at forefront of our research (control algorithms) folks in practice usually care less.
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I am conducting a study on connected vehicles and intelligent multimodal lane management and I was wondering if RM could be used with connected vehicles and how? (during the deployment period and after a hypothetical full deployment)
Also I recently read about the 2009 Path IRMP and was wondering if it was possible to download it.
Thank you a lot for your kind help.
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I think future ramp metering for connected vehicles will take place automatically according to the communication protocol of the vehicles. You can review the following publication in this regard.
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I am very keen to collaborate with researchers who are native in English, and interested in the field of 'Intelligent Transportation System', 'Blockchain' so that s/he can input our idea-based papers. Anyone interested, please inbox me 'Hi'. Cheers.
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What journals would you like to target?
Do you aim for a conceptual or empirical paper?
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I've not seen many studies on applications of ITS in fleet management. The literature seems quite old. Are they still a hot topic?
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Yes. Broadly speaking, there are several topics, which come under the umbrella of ITS. Recently, IEEE has encouraged to address the subject topic using novel technologies, which are very common nowadays, for instance, Blockchain, deep learning, and so on.
For your reference, please have a look at the various upcoming issues of ITS. This basically shows the importance of the domain. Researchers from academia and industry are putting a solid effort to address the issues pointed out by IEEE society.
Here is the link to see the upcoming issues of Intelligent Transportation Systems.
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I am interested in the extration of speed limit from Longitude and Latitude coordinate values. Is it possible to find speed limit attribute assigned to specific Open Street Map position and is there an available script/API?
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The speed limits have the key=maxspeed and value=Speed in OSM and are displayed as lines ( https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_Features ). After extracting all lines with the given key and value you could extract the points in R using the SpatialLinesMidPoints-function:
Good luck!
Philipp
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I want to draw an example of V2V and V2I communications in VANET with a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). How can I do it?
(I attached an example from a selected paper).
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hi Mahdiyeh
conceptDraw is the most completed application in this field and its link is :
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I need to find a tool for road traffic modeling which permits the implemention and testing of any type of algorithms for traffic flow prediction, especially neural networks or fuzzy based algorithms. It will be helpful if that tool provides a graphical view of car movement and crossroads configuration.
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Simulation of Urban MObility
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Question about Cyberserity and Machine Learning on intelligent transportation system (ITS).
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What exactly are you looking for?
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In my thesis, I used queueing theory, in order to evaluate the traffic conditions of a intersection, which produced waiting time, service time etc for vehicles approaching the intersection from each road. Now, a question arise in my mind that can I use this type of data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
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interest
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Hybrid model that uses fuzzy logic, neural networks etc.
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Dear Kirti,
I suggest you to see links and attached files on topic.
Soft Computing Applications in Traffic and Transport Systems: A Review https://www.researchgate.net/.../225333572_Soft_Computing_App...
Soft Computing for Hybrid Intelligent Systems | Oscar Castillo | Springer
A Hybrid Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction Model Based on Singular ...
Applications of Soft Computing in Intelligent Transportation Systems
Best regards
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I wanted to know the advantages of data mining techniques are, when compared with macroscopic traffic flow models, microscopic models, simulation models for transportation traffic congestion prediction? Which one has a higher performance data mining techniques like decision tree, SVM or simulation approaches or simple travel time and speed prediction approaches?
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There are many advantages of data mining over the macroscopic approaches, In general the macroscopic approaches are less complex and easy to implement. Anyhow, congestion in many traffic scenario can be approximated by by higher order traffic flow models, one can get the realistic characterization of traffic flow using the HOM.
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I would want to understand the general perspectives of researchers in the world with respect to improving ITS applications that would protect lives and properties on our road networks.
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Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are advanced applications or services that combine communication, information and positioning technologies withtransportation engineering.
They favor:
The quality of service and comfort for the user, safety, better coordination for traffic management. They facilitate the transfer to means of transport that are more economical in terms of time, cost or ene
ITS can be found in several fields of activity: optimizing the use of transport infrastructure, improving safety (including road safety), and developing services. The use of ITS is also part of a context of sustainable development: these new systems contribute to the control of mobility by favoring other modes that are more respectful of the environment.
ITS intervene in a global context of traffic congestion on the one hand and development of new information technologies on the other hand, particularly in the fields of simulation, real-time control and networks of information. telecommunication.
The world of research has begun to mobilize around the 1960s to fight against the harmful effects of traffic congestion.
To know the characteristics of the networks, the characteristics of the demand of traffic and the recurring problems, it is essential to have databases. The new technologies based on the ITS make it possible to store large volumes of information.
The challenge today lies in managing these data. For example, creating a common database of data from different operators is useful for analyzing and understanding traffic situations.
ITS are used in public transport to optimize the operation of the network, to improve user comfort and safety. They are grouped under the name (Operating Support Systems and Traveler Information)
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PhD Student Positions Available (Summer 2019 / Fall 2019):
There will be 1-2 PhD Student Positions available in the Department of Modeling, Simulation & Visualization Engineering (MSVE) at Old Dominion University. Students are expected to work on Transportation Research projects, with a focus on Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning, Virtual/Augmented Reality (VA/AR), Transportation System Modeling & Simulation, and/or Transportation Safety.
If you are interested in the opportunity, please email me (E-mail: hyang@odu.edu) your detailed CV and other supporting information (e.g., sample publications, GRE test score, etc.).
Thank you very much!
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I noticed that some applicants have listed me as his/her reference. Please DO NOT list me as your reference when applying. The reference letters should be from those who know you. Thanks.
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"It is a world trend that digital economy is merging with real economy. Through the use of digital technologies, investments and innovations take place in the fields of smart grids, self-driving vehicles, e-government, advanced manufacturing, etc. Our question whether there is any general or formalised technology which could be equally used in various fields, and which could help to achieve digitalisation in everyday life, also in the transportation."
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as a part of circular economy such transformation brings smaller, greener, flexible autonomous vehicles that impact transportation in smart cities
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I need journals name who gives me review within two months. My paper is belongs to Intelligent Transportation system and i achieved my research using Machine Learning. Now i am confused, where i will send my paper?
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I would strongly suggest to submit it to Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual meeting. If it passes the peer review process successfully, there is a chance to be published in their Journal (Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRR).
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The Public transpiration system of all developing countries are getting popular because of the integrated transportation development projects.
Having practice a different kind of technology with developing country public community is hard to continue. The world have lot of experiences. Can we share some ideas. It will add more values for my project
Thank You
Dilshan
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Dear Dilshan,
Here are some experiences from Singapore on developing an integrated multi-modal transport system.
Hope you find these articles are interesting to read.
Best, Tao
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Different stakeholders of transportation system are often found concerned with different aspects of it. For instance,
  • The traveller or commuter thinks about what will be the travel time on a particular route? Whether he/she will be able to reach the destination in time?
  • The transportation manager thinks about how the system performed yesterday? which locations are the worst performers?
  • The traffic engineer thinks about the locations of congestion hotspots and the peak hours for various routes.
  • The planners and researchers think about what will be the travel demand in future and how they can address it.
Based on their concerns, they have different expectations from the "Intelligent Transportation System". I am looking for these expectations from different perspectives especially for developing countries like India.
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Intelligent Transport Systems cover technologies based on the use and application of information and communication technologies in the transport sector, which are used to provide services for people, vehicles and infrastructure on the way to a Smart City.
The basic concern is to guarantee, secure and increase the mobility of road users. Mobility must be seen as a basic human need on the one hand, and as a possibility linked to infrastructure to pursue daily activities at different locations on the other. Mobility is therefore both a characteristic of the quality of life of individuals and a prerequisite for the economic success of society as a whole.
Intelligent transport systems make significant contributions to maintaining mobility into old age. It can be assumed that the future demand for individual and public transport will continue to increase, precisely because of the demographic development in industrial nations. To be able to meet this higher demand, the existing traffic infrastructure must be operated efficiently in terms of energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. A major contribution to this must be made by the increased use of intelligent transport systems with which an increase in traffic efficiency and traffic safety can be achieved.
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I am designing a car alert and automatic braking system which will check a drivers mental state based on EEG. I have detected drowsiness based on eye blinking through EEG. Now I want to detect stress but facing many problem in doing so. Now I am using Fuzzy classifier to classify EEG signal. Any1 who can help me on this? I mean how to classify EEG signals using classifiers (not necessarily using Fuzzy)?
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We have done some research based on our concern. I am agree with Murugappan M. Classifier is not a problem, even statistically it can be classify. What you need is significant information in your EEG signal. All the best for your research....
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“How to solve traffic congestion” and "why is it so congested" are questions usually asked by my friends, when I told them that I am a researcher focusing on transportation. It seems a very basic question but really difficult to answer in a short time.
In your opinion, what is the most effective way of solving/mitigating traffic congestion? Various and interesting points of view are expected. Thank you in advance!
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if the question is efficiency  (see your choice of the word "effective"), authoritarian restricitions of any kind could meet the target in various ways. If instead we want to take a broader view and want to take into consideration costs and benefits to the users (and non users) the most desirable measures, to my view, are directed upstream: I mean on what generates congestion. Which means broadly trip generation and mode choice.
to be concise:
1  - urban planning that minimize the km of trips (this includes density as a transport planning tool)  and favours public transport
2 - fair pricing of private vehicles (this may include congestion charging)
3 - good supply of non private transportations (Public transport infrastructure and operations)
I would generally suggest that the above ranking goes corresponds to a decreasing order of net socio economic benefits. So policy 1 should could often be more desirable than policy 2, and so on... THis obviously depends as well oon the specific context to which your analysis applies.
These are heavily debated questions... other points of view welcome.
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I need references to get idea about the possible challenges in access management if autonomous vehicles becomes available for public use.  I have been searching for relevant references on the internet for couple of days and so far I haven't got anything much useful. It will be greatly appreciated if someone can help out. 
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I read numerous of papers and never met this topic. Do you mean e.g. limited access for S-D cars?
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Hi,
I am working on optimization approaches on an intersection. And I have been getting some questionnable results on the simulator. I get some high troughputs of vehicle in the intersection but with big average delay of vehicles e.g : 
In a scenario I get a throughput of 4544 with an average delay of 31.22 seconds and average queue length per phase of 41 meters
And in another scenario I get a 4551 throughput with an average delay of 31.26 seconds with an average queue length per phase of 39.68 meters
This compared to the average study of the same intersection we see different results, e.g  in a scenario a throughput of 4343 with an average delay of 30.7 seconds and an average queue length per phase of 21.1 meters.
I am starting to question my results performance. Doesn't higher throughput mean minimum average delay and lesser queues on lanes ?
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Dear Saad,
There is a mathematical theorem linking some quantities: Little's law for queuing systems isL=λW: the average queue length equals the average arrival rate times the average waiting time in the system.
It means you should not diverge too much from that without clearly violating at least one hypothesis. Usual deviations are:
  • bad definition/calculation of quantities (throughput...)
  • using the wrong quantities (what is the delay?)
  • your system is not stationary (i.e. the simulation is not long enough or you don't cut the first part that is usually very non-stationary)
  • you do not compare the same quantities.
Then, I can discuss more about interpreting results, because cooperative intersection is a topic I have highly investigated. But before going to theory (optimization criteria, mathematical tools, hypotheses...), check the simple issues I have mentioned.
Best regards,
Arnaud
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Dear All,
I am working on Vehicular Networks and on a problem that is concerned with the %age of public buses in metropolitan cities. 
What would be the safe assumption to make as to what is the percentage of public buses of the total vehicular density in urban scenarios? Somewhere I read that public buses would be 25 to 30% of the total vehicular density in the urban scenarios, but I cannot find the reference. 
Any resource and/or reference would be highly appreciated. 
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I agree with Ashu and Kolita,
I would add density (of population) and urban form. Usually, you can have access to traffic with the help of transit company. regular survey provide a measure of car traffic But the modal share is not the same in all parts of the city (in the center of Paris public transit accounts for more than 50 % of the trips, but in the outer suburbs it is less than 5 %.
But you are interested in vehicle density which is another matter. ..  
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I am interested in topic on Low-Carobon Future and in that regard I would like to know more on green and sustainable transport.
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 You are welcome; I guess the first link is the nearest to your question. 
Best regards
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PTV Visum
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You may want to watch this video:
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I would like to know if there is any study that estimates how many minutes europeans spend to search a free parking lot per trip, for different urban zones.
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I am working on an ITS technique which is called dynamic lane grouping at signalized intersections in which the lane group will be chosen based on the movement traffic demand. The inputs of the neural network model will be 12 volumes ( 3 movements (left, through and right) at 4 approaches) and I  have 4 outputs (the optimum lane group at each approach) which are represented by integer values (from 1 to 10). Should I convert the inputs and outputs to any format before applying neural networks?
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you can normalize inputs using formula: x_norm = ((x-x_min)(d2-d1)/(x_max - x_min))+d1. xmin, xmax - inputs interval. d1,d2 - normalize interval. i know recommends than d1, d2 are the values as output interval of neuron activation function.
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I need it for my literature review for planning strategies in implementing non-motorization as a sustainable transport? I only have one and is published way back 1995 by the Florida Department of Transportation.
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Self-driving cars are one of the major technological trends for the near future. However it is not clear if private users will have their own self-driving car or will they become a public service or mostly for shared usage by companies like uber, lyft and others.
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All of the above.  I paste below a section excerpted from a recent chapter I have written.
The emergence and adoption of autonomous vehicles is expected to accelerate certain trends already underway in terms of shared urban mobility, and to enable new mobility service models that bridge traditional transit service and personal mobility, resulting in new hybrid forms....These potential changes in the supply of transportation and mobility at the urban scale are difficult to predict and characterize for the purpose of developing specific planning tools, and forecasting the demand for these services over time.  
While it may be difficult to predict exactly which services may emerge in a certain locale, and the extent and type of demand these might serve, the following aspects can be noted based on current understanding of travel behavior and the expected features of autonomous vehicles.
a.    It is a given that driverless vehicles will enable new forms of mobility supply.  By eliminating the cost and performance limitations of human drivers, and increasing the ease of communicating instructions to both vehicles and travelers, autonomous vehicle fleets can be operated efficiently to deliver dynamically scheduled services to individuals riding privately or in shared vehicles.
b.    New forms of car sharing with greater convenience may reduce the motivation for individual ownership.  With driverless cars, availability of a vehicle in sharing services such as Zipcar and Enterprise car share (formerly Igo) is not limited to the nearest lot. Vehicles can be repositioned dynamically to the user’s location from anywhere in the city.
c.     Ride and car sharing marketplaces will likely expand with driverless vehicles, following, for example, platforms developed by ride-hailing app companies like Uber and Lyft.  This would contribute to reducing the cost and uncertainty of the sharing model by increasing the supply pool and enabling rapid dispatch of driverless vehicles.
d.    The realm between personal transportation and public mobility can widen considerably to include various hybrid forms.  Many agencies have already embraced a spectrum or suite of services in order to reduce operating costs in lower-density metropolitan areas. Experimenting with a fleet of smaller vehicles, casual sharing, and more traditional vanpools and guaranteed ride home programs, agencies have explored many options to move people over low-density areas or at odd times of day. Services in this spectrum, which fall between purely fixed-route and purely demand-responsive and can be described as “semi-flexible”. These services typically include a set of stops with a predetermined schedule along with sections of a service area where service is flexible (e.g. route deviation), possibly with door-to-door service. The premise of these services is that in low-density areas, certain points will have higher demand at different times of day (e.g. hospitals, dedicated guideway transit, major employment/retail centers). Imposing some structure, but still allowing flexibility, can create more efficient tours while remaining intuitive and user-friendly.  With autonomous vehicles, greater dispatching flexibility is possible, enabling the equivalent of personalized service at times, and shared rides at others, depending on the specific demands prevailing at a certain time.
e.    What will become of public transit as we know it?   With transit companies adopting a broader portfolio of services, possibly in conjunction with third parties, one could envision disappearance of conventional fixed-route, fixed-schedule bus service in most lower-density communities, supplanted by driverless, personalized service at low density and shared hybrid forms at medium densities; and greater focus on frequent rapid service along dedicated right of way (rail and/or BRT) in higher-density travel corridors, made more efficient and accessible via driverless hybrid options.
Some of these trends are beginning to emerge today.  Several communities are experimenting with hybrid forms of public transit. Car sharing programs are thriving in many cities.  Ride-hailing app companies (Uber, Lyft) that dramatically increase the pool of available vehicles to serve customer requests (albeit on still controversial regulatory grounds) have become household names in many cities around the world.  Some of these same companies, especially Lyft, are making a concerted effort to tailor services to better complement existing transit services by, for example, providing access to rail transit stations (e.g. http://take.lyft.com/friendswithtransit/, accessed December 21, 2015).  In Finland, the city of Helsinki received a lot of attention in transportation planning circles when it announced its goal of no more private car ownership in the city, all the while while offering individual and shared public personal urban mobility through a city-managed virtual platform.  
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 Taking into consideration the main shipping routes through the English channel.
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There is overcapacity at the moment.
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Can we apply any data mining technique on time-series data such as provided by NGSIM project to model the car-following behavior i.e. uninfluenced driving, following a lead vehicle, emergency braking and approaching a slow vehicle?
Which techniques are useful in this context? 
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Hi Umair, I recently proposed a data-driven car-following model in the following paper: A simple nonparametric car-following model driven by field data. Transportation Research Part B, 80(2015), 185–201. Hopefully, it may help. 
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I've seen that the typical 40ft container empty/tare weight is 3.8 tons (20ft around 2.2 tons if I remember correctly) which is quite a lot heavier than I thought.
Firstly, How would the shipping world react if you could make containers half that weight? Say, under 2 tonnes for a 40ft and 1 tonne for a 20ft.
Would this be a game changer or would the weight saving be considered small and negligible when total tonnage weights are all added up for the ship? Given that I read fuel is $600 per tonne, this must mean a much lower cost?
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In my opinion, either 40f. containers or 20f. containers are structure in that way so that they can not easily be damaged while stowing or causing any other deficiencies in the  operation processes when loading, discharging or transshipped. Added to this regarding your consideration it can be note that YES it might be possible to make containers weight a little bit less, but this will for example save 1 container out of 20 in terms of weight.
Moreover, making such innovations like reducing the weight of the construction would not be a solution that will bring a development in the liner shipping industry, unless this is proved to be efficient whilst avoiding any deficiencies, since lots of losses will be created.
Instead. economies of scale can be illustrated through the reduction of fuel prices, taking into account its particulars.
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Recently, several studies on calibrating traffic flow models have been undertaken using support vector regression (SVR). For me, the method seems to be a bit counter-intuitive. Rather than the sum of the squared errors, the sum of squared prefactors of the model function is minimized. However, this seems to have nothing to do with the fit quality itself. The fit quality enters only indirectly in form of some constraints, and small deviations are not penalized at all. Furthermore, you obtain a sort of black-box model which is lengthy to write down explicitly and which cannot be understood intuitively. Under which circumstances, the SVR should nevertheless be preferred to an ordinary LSE minimization?
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Hi Martin, thank you for the nice clarification.  I now have a better appreciation for your question.  Here's my take: consider the following estimation problem: Let x_i denote the a sample of exogenous variables and let w denote the vector of prefactors of x.  For simplicity, let's say f(x_i) = w.x_i + w_0, that is, we are fitting a linear function and where w_0 is an intercept.  A general estimation problem is given by 
minimize [ \sum_i L( x_i, f(x_i) ) ] + \lambda ||w||_2,
where L(,) is a "loss"/distance function, \lambda is a constant weight (Lagrangian multiplier) and ||.||_2 is the l_2 norm.
The second term "\lambda ||w||_2" is interpreted as a rugularizer, which is usually included to mitigate the possibility of over-fitting and to promote a unique solution to the estimation problem.
For LSE minimization, one chooses an l_2 distance for the loss function, "L(,)".  For SVM regression, one chooses an l_1 distance function (the absolute value).  The difference between these two loss functions is that the l_1 distance function promotes solutions which are sparse, i.e., solution vectors with many zero entries.  In the context of SVMs, this translates to only a small number of points in the dataset dictating the form of the fitted function f(); namely, those which lie on the boundary of the margin.
So, I guess your question boils down to: when is sparsity a preferred property?  In general, I think the answer depends on context.  Sparsity has its advantages when dealing with very large datasets and one is interested in understanding which small subset of the samples is most representative of the entire set.  It is also a key attribute for compression. 
I hope this provides some clues towards an answer to your question.  This is indeed a very interesting question.
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What is the suitable ITS plan for traffic problems in developing countries with dense traffic jams and absence of traffic control plans. In such cases, is the environmental dimension considered in planning a new ITS system for developing countries societies? Or, just to focus on the operational performance of the street network.
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Information and education - the most important factors. It is very important to get society (and institutions will be involved in the process) acceptance before implementation.
You can start with ITS architecture e.g. eframe (http://www.frame-online.net/)
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Could you recommend any reports, books etc. about the influence of automatic incident detection or incident management on the traffic safety? especially road infrastructure...
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Hi, Maybe this report can be useful for you.
Road Safety Impact of New Technologies, by OCDE
Here there are others...
(2013) The evolution of urban traffic control. changing policy and technology
(2009) Beyond ‘‘best practice” road safety thinking and systems management
Kind regards
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Is there any theory or results (e.g. in behavioral psychology or social sciences) that might support or disprove such an assumption? We need to know if it's reasonable and why.
By "passenger's decisions" we understand their reasoning about accepting the taxi trips based on prices, delays, travel times, etc. We suspect they will think about those things in almost the same way, regardless of whether the taxi company uses dynamic or static pricing scheme. Is that so? And if so, what research supports this belief? Thanks for any pointers!
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Of course  there can be more than one company available and that one company may use one system and another May use another.  Yes, this widens the choices set available.  But really to answer his question appropriately, we really need a better understanding or the problem under consideration, rather than both of us guessing at the problem.  Still, if the elasticity of demand is minute and/or price "explains" only a small proportion of the overall variability in use (cab ride choices). And these are not the same things, while other factors seem to explain much more, then price is playing a very small role in the decision.  
Yes, the choices available under monopoly, which may occur in certain times and places, is not at all the general case, but might be a good starting point in understanding the decisions involved.  From there, one may consider the case where the choice set is expanded to two competing selers.  Then it might be instructive to consider the choices of the competitors seeking customers and revenues (what they are really after) and then the "competitive game" between the two sellers.  From there, the choice set can be expanded and then finally generalized to many sellers.  
I would think hick that two sellers would probably adopt similar policies as is suggested by the work of Harold Hotelling, 1929, "Stability in Competition." Others have shown that if competition plays out in multiple dimensions, this result may not hold, so if competition is in both a price system dimension and a greeness dimension, then the stability is lost.  With odd numbers of competitors, stability is also lost.  
You are right that I was presumptive about the choices of pricing systems being just a seller choice, but unless forced to give such choices among pricing schemes to customers, it seems that giving customers such a choice of schemes is a decision made by the seller.  I would think that if the rate schedules are the choice of the sellers, not regulators, then in rates will be adjusted so that the expected value (EV) is the same across pricing systems--same  expected value from the seller's perspective,  from any one buyer's perspective, the EV may not be the same.
Peter, what I had said at first to Mr. Certicky was that he should look not just to psychology for answers but to other social sciences as well.  The answer to his question depends less on the discipline perspective than on the ultimate rem
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The BPR function is the most used in static models but is seems not suitable for dynamic models.
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The bottleneck model may be a good approach for dynamic modeling. It assumes a fixed capacity to the bottleneck, with all demand exceeding capacity forced to wait before the bottleneck.
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I am working in travel time prediction area. I had travel time data with high variance. Can anyone one suggest any prediction method which deals with high variance of data.
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Some of the Undergraduate students of my college developed a code for license plate detection but for the following image the car grill is also coming along with the number plate. How to avoid it?
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Normally, there are two steps for license plate recognition. First is to detect it (plate localization), then second is the recognition part. In of one my students work, we were trying to detect and recognize white characters with blackbackground (normal plate) and black characters with white background (taxi plate). First, we find valid blobs after thresholding the image (using Niblack's method). Then, we measure the inter and intra properties of this blobs. Inter properties in basically is what Ka-Chu Wong mentioned in his 1st approach. The intra propeties in the distance and angle between blobs as well as their consistency in size. Once this is confirmed, the blob is then passed to the recognition part.
This just a short summary of what we have done in our approach for detecting and recognizing Malaysia car plate, which is quite tough since the plate can come in many different styles.
If you're are interested we can pass you some of our papers that we have published.
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Is there an opensource software to route openstreetMap data based on database?
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If you want to do it on your infrastructure, you can use pgouting (http://pgrouting.org/ for routing) which works with OSM data (http://pgrouting.org/docs/tools/osm2pgrouting.html)
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I want to study the performance of MIMO system in Obstructed LOS Vehicular channel through MATLAB simulation.
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Can any body suggest how to build Obstructed LOS Vehicular channel?
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I am using a GPS module to get the geographical location (Longitude and Latitude), how can I inject this position on the OSM map, so I can find the maximum allowed speed limit attribute assigned to that map segment?
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Yes, Saed. When I get coordinates I store them into a PostGIS database. I don know if you understand spanish but here you have an example
At last, you oly have to store latlon data. OSM data are available from the OSM website and you can display your data on OSM maps as WKT vector objects
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WHat do you think about a vessel that is designed to discharge and load all of the containers by utilizing a shifting pallet system that does not require handling equipment in the berthing area?
What are the obstacles to such vessel design?
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Turkay, Thank you for the file.
As far as I can figure it out, this resembles an automated warehouse that would be fitted inside the container vessel. The platforms, horizontal and vertical, are moving platforms, right?
I am afraid I don't like the idea because it steals a lot of space from the vessel, probably a quarter to a third. This would require much larger ships for the same TEU capacity and the extra saved time at the port, even with the savings from suppressing the gantry cranes and the corresponding lower port tariffs, wouldn't compensate. Besides, existing quays would have to cope with extra size for the same cargo.
Some 3 years ago I had the idea of a "container wall" for the container yard, to replace the stacking/unstacking of containers with a system that is no more than a simple structure where containers are fitted to by using the corner casting twistlocks. There would be containers on both sides of the wall and a pathway between walls for trailers - a street. A loaded trailer would enter the street and a moving crane on top of the wall would pick the container and fit it to a slot on the wall. To pick up the container, the inverse operation is performed. No stacking/unstacking and no gantries in the yard. Some details are still not solved, but one of these days I will probably look at it in a deeper way.
In fact this has similarities with your pallet system.
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Fully automated container terminals are utilizing only unmanned terminal vehicles and using automatic stacking (AS) and retrieval systems (RS) for container storage, and many other automated systems.
For instance, it is known that the current limitation associated with the use of AGVs are slower than the manned terminal vehicles and thus have, to some degree, an adverse effect on terminal efficiency.
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Slowness is offset by optimization of available space, ease of predictability, reliability, 24-hour operation, lack of labour strikes, lower long-term costs.
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We have an ad-hoc network that packets follow with certain protocol by mobile nodes. Here the nodes are vehicles and network is VANET. Any vehicle has a unique id such as a MAC address in computer networks. Any packet has a unique sender which is determined by the sender id or perhaps for protection pseudo id. I want to know is it possible for anyone to be able to change the packet id easily and without additional hardware installed on the vehicle and sent it again?
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you're right Imegh but time is an important factor in message communication (specially safety messages exchanging in VANET) and full encryption is a time consuming process that where possible, we should avoid it.
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Anything to do with FlexRay in particular? Scheduling, optimization, security, fault tolerant, gateways?
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Maybe you should contact Dr. denis Gingras at University of Sherbrooke
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I am looking for a way to relate nonlinear multiple input multiple output systems approach to macroscopic traffic flow parameters.
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If I understand your question correctly, this is a standard way of doing traffic control. You can look at one of our books or papers to get an idea.
Feedback Control Theory for Dynamic Traffic Assignment (Advances in Industrial Control) - Pushkin Kachroo (Author), Kaan Ozbay (Author)
Feedback Ramp Metering in Intelligent Transportation Systems
Pushkin Kachroo (Author), Kaan Ozbay (Author)