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In researching the enduring place of racism in society, I have been impressed with Leon Poliakov's 1971 analysis of various social mythologies/genealogies in "The Aryan Myth." I am also interested in hearing other perspectives on the "stickiness factor" of these ideas.
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The cause of racism is not skin color, but human thinking. Therefore, healing from racial prejudice, xenophobia and intolerance should be sought primarily in rescuing from misconceptions that for centuries have been a source of misconceptions about the benefits or, conversely, the lower position of various groups among mankind.
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Hi! I'm looking for theories, methods and approaches to study the history/evolution/conception of a given concept/term/label/topic within a given scientific discipline, mainly through the (textual) analysis of the discipline's (pivotal) writings. I'm particularly interested in approaches that would draw from ontology, terminology, conceptual analysis, conceptual history, historiography, etc., but I don't really know where to start. I'm especially interested in what the discipline's most influential writers have to say about a specific object, however they might have labelled it, and how the discipline's various theories and approaches regard that object. The approach would have to work both semasiologically (from a label to its concepts) and onomasiologically (from a concept to its labels), as there is no necessary relation between a given label and a given concept. Any ideas? Thank you very much!
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For the evolution of a mathematical conception you might look at Imre Lakatos, Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery.
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There have been repeated accusations that Sen systematically misstated the facts in his sources. These have been meticulously referenced, comparing what he said, with what his sources actually said. The implication is that his work on this is a work of fiction.
See for example the work of Bowbrick, Tauger, Nolan, and others.
And Sen has not attempted to show that he did not misstate the facts.
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I think that Sen's work revealed what people working in a more applied way on hunger said even before him: hunger is often the result of poverty than insuffieint food being produced. When the idea of food enttitlement decline came up, many I know said that this is little new, but obviously it was new in academia. The myths about hunger were taken up already by Frances Moore Lappé, Joseph Collins in 1977. Also in many NGOs working in the fields of food security the idea that hunger and also starvation is caused by poverty was not entirely new. Beyond that, of course, one can only establish command over food that is there, so the supply side is not entirely out, but food security is a combination of the supply and demand side of food.
Lappe, F. M., Collins, J., & Fowler, C. (1977). Food first. Beyond the myth of scarcity. Houghton Mifflin Co..
Lappé, F. M., & Collins, J. (1986). World hunger: Twelve myths.
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Dears,
Does anyone know the research about a German newspaper called Hamburger Echo? By the way, is there any online database about this newspaper I can get? I am carrying out an research about this newspaper related to Marxism  during the period of 1887-1895.
Thanks,  
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Nein.
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A must-see film addressing a sensitive topic: " Je ne suis pas votre nègre " (I Am Not Your Negro).
First, let’s give a big round of applause to the Haitian filmmaker Raoul Peck, for his Oscar-nominated film I Am Not Your Negro. The film is coming soon to theaters near you, probably in February 2017.
This post is rather an attempt to create an analysis of the film – in order to help audiences decipher the anagrams and thus discover the central message behind the film. 
In this film analysis, the term “America” is used to collectively refer to the Americas — encompassing the totality of the continents of North America and South America (including the Caribbean).
James Baldwin was an American novelist and an outspoken advocate on the topic of “The Negro And The American Promise.” In 1948, he left the USA and moved to France, due to American prejudice and harassment.
On the other hand, Raoul Peck was only 8 years old when he fled post-colonial dictatorship in Haiti. He then landed in the colony of Congo during its decolonization. Peck studied various subjects and resided in different countries, including Haiti, Congo, Belgium, and France. In the end, he settled in Germany where he studied industrial engineering, economics and filmmaking.  His company Velvet Film is also based in Germany.
I Am Not Your Negro was an unfinished piece written by James Baldwin. In 1987, Baldwin died of stomach Cancer. Raoul Peck finished the screenplay and made the film in 2016.
I Am Not Your Negro is, without doubt, a mesmerizing collation of artwork created by the revered director Raoul Peck:
Following is a transcript of Baldwin's voice in the film I Am Not Your Negro:
 “The future of the Negro in this country is precisely as bright or as dark as the future of the country — it is entirely up to the American people whether or not they are going to try and find out in their own hearts why it was necessary to have a nigger in the first place, because I’m not a nigger, I’m a man, but if you think I’m a nigger, it means you need it. Then you’ve got to find out why. And the future of the country depends on that.”
It appeared that Raoul Peck rewrote and/or finished Baldwin’s manuscript with a brush of another story that has not been told.
In terms of previous achievements, cultural and historical background, the Haitian director was a perfect match for the direction of the film.
Due to the controversial sensibility of the topic, Peck presented the film — as if he was neither for, nor against “skin-color privilege” in the world.
Naïve audiences might have a difficult time to understand this movie, due to untold or hidden histories. The de-colonialists were afraid of so-called “fear of blaming.” Therefore, a huge part of history has been deleted in the textbooks and not taught in school... The new generation is therefore in a state of blackout and repeats the past in different forms. Not giving the new generation a chance to learn from its past caused the world to preserve and perpetuate the systems of abuse and victimization of the victims. It is probably the most powerful contributor to racial profiling, stigma/prejudice, and the police-brutality that we see today, especially against people of African descent. The act had already caused an incredible amount of deaths in the USA alone, in the 21st century.
To perceived the central message hidden in the film, it could be helpful to know a bit about American history:
- The 15th century was a century of change. Christopher Columbus arrived in America. The amount of “PACTOLE” (gold, sugar and other precious resources) found or produced on the island of Hispaniola made it become known as the “BIG APPLE” of America. The lucrative discoveries on Hispaniola attracted pirates from all over the world.
- The American inhabitants of Hispaniola were nearly exterminated. New slaves were needed to put food on the table of the colonists.
- In 1516, Bartolomé de las Casas, a priest of the Catholic Church, advocated the use of African slaves instead of the natives in America. He succeeded in selling his ideas to the European Great Powers (monarchies) of the era.
- Bartolomé de las Casas is infamously credited for the ideology behind the Atlantic Slave Trade, the largest deportation of mankind, to this date.
- Then the French colonists wanted the best and strongest African slaves to generate an extraordinary production of wealth to outcompete the Kingdom of England. The French empire purchased and/or captured gladiators from Dahomey,  and enslaved them on Hispaniola.
- 1685: The Code Noir (The Black Code) was introduced in America by king Louis XIV. It taught the African slaves arrogance and violence.
- On Hispaniola started pseudo-scientific research for “fabrication” or “manufacture” of human beings in America: selective breeding of human beings and the development of ideas of race. Joseph Arthur (Comte de Gobineau) wrote An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, in which he claimed that aristocrats were superior to commoners and that they possessed more Aryan genetic traits because of less inbreeding with inferior races (Alpines and Mediterraneans).
- As a result: Chevalier de Saint-Georges, the favorite American of Queen Marie Antoinette, was born as the son of an aristocrat and an African slave woman. Saint-Georges was privileged and considered superior to even some White noblemen in Europe. Saint-Georges was the first African descent to ascend to the rank of colonel in a European army. On behalf of King Louis XVI, Saint-Georges negotiated with Haitian rebellion leader Toussaint Louverture. Saint-Georges then urged the conscience of France to give the slaves hope for a better life, after centuries of extremely-hard labor to put food on the table of Europe. The absolute monarch somewhat listened... Saint-Georges actual dream was to be in the performance arts, not in the royal army. Further promotion of Saint-Georges quickly became a scandal and an embarrassment for the French kingdom.
- In 1779, Louis XVI abolished serfdom on all land under royal territories.
- In 1784, Louis XVI signed an ordinance allowing slaves to trial their owners for abuses.
- In 1791, Louis XVI abolished slavery on all French territories.
- In 1792, Louis XVI was overthrown.
- During the revolution, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were both decapitated by guillotine.
Napoleon’s dream was to conquer the entire world. He wasted the precious wealth of France...and needed more wealth to capture Russia and defeat the British naval blockade.
In 1802, Napoleon reestablished slavery in all the French territories, including Hispaniola, in order to generate more wealth to boost his army.
Indeed, France succeeded in conquering world commerce with a single piece of land in America (i.e. Hispaniola). At one point, France owned almost the entire North American continent (including the Caribbean). England and its allied nations raged wars after wars against France to sabotage Hispaniola. England’s Royal Family nearly became bankrupt. France flourished and became the world’s superpower. The French strategy was long regarded as a smart idea — until Haiti led the greatest slave uprising in the history of mankind, since the Spartacus slave uprising against the Roman Empire.
When a smart idea — that was already known to be a mistake —  is repeated, it is no longer a mistake but a decision.
The Haitian revolution seemed to be an evidence for further dehumanization of the people of African descent in America.
In 1865, the US Congress sign the 13th amendment to formally abolished slavery in the USA.
Even though the film is set in the USA, the original intent seemed to actually explore the people of African descent within America and beyond — from pre-colonialism... colonialism... decolonization… to... post-colonialism… neocolonialism.
The central message seems to be: Was it really the last stage of colonialism? To this date, is it?
Please share your thoughts.
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Have not seen it....
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Regeneration or the rise of Hindi literature in 21 centuries - logical expression ? special issue sarhad e patrika http://sarhadepatrika.com/
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Dear surjit,
We do not know what will happen in coming days, but the issues that he raised in Indian life and literature remain alive today, in fact have become more urgent and are likely to remain urgent at least till the end of the century. The function of literature was both to reveal life and to ‘make men better’.  we will proceed different discourses like aadivasi, kinnar, pravasi, terrorism affected people, technological Hindi, translated literature etc. Prem Chand had identified himself and made the focus of his writings still remains on the fringe of our social, political and literary concerns. Hindi literature under the impact of the West as well through its own experience has become technically more accomplished, more sophisticated, its language more precise and less verbose and its mode more introvert and introspective. Human of all genders to maintain and balance the integrity, peace and purpose of the life and natural way of living with all its simplicity, values and strength. Therefore, although literature has to change with society, authors are still trying to address immutable human questions in new ways and reconcile them with the ever-changing technology that surrounds us.
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I headed the diplomatic phase of UNDP's Tunmen River Area Development Programme (a multilateral trade facilitation and infrastructure development project) and have first hand knowledge of the DPRK ports.
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Dear Cesar, I will actually be in Brussels on 4 May as I am on the Erasmus+ Expert Panel.  I have not yet finalised my flights, but could, for example, return through Paris if you are not on holidays then.  That should be before the big French summer shut-down.  Regards, Michael
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The current Metropolitan Opera production (Feb. 2017) is Antonin Dvorak's Rusalka.  This opera contains what may be viewed as current events references. 
The Grove Dictionary of Music entry on rhetoric and music states that after the Baroque period, the rhetorical underpinnings of music were no longer studied.  But in the 20th C., such highlighted rhetoric in art music is causing a revival of interest.
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What still remains to be fully explained is how these critical interrelationships often controlled the craft of composition. These developments are unclear partly because modern musicians and scholars are untrained in the rhetorical disciplines, which since the beginning of the 19th century have largely disappeared from most educational and philosophical system. It was only in the early 20th century that music historians rediscovered the importance of rhetoric as the basis of aesthetic and theoretical concepts in earlier music. An entire discipline that had once been the common property of every educated man has had to be rediscovered and reconstructed during the intervening decades, and only now is it beginning to be understood how much Western art music has depended on rhetorical concepts. ("Rhetoric and Music." Grove Dictionary of Music. Blake Wilson et al.)
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Does anyone know of research that specifically analyzes the rhetorical aspects of modern era opera since Wagner to now?
Given that directors have much leeway in creating subtexts in classic and contemporary works, this is a topic that is open for more study.
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Dear Hasitha,
Thanks very much.  I will look at them.
G
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I am searching the history of the international exhibitions held in the UK before 1945 and also 
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Eriko,
I think you could have a look into these books and articles (on file below also) :
- Bancel Nicolas, Blanchard Pascal, Boëtsch Gilles, Deroo Éric, Lemaire Sandrine, Zoos humains, Paris, La Découverte « Poche/Sciences humaines et sociales », 2004, 490 pages. ISBN : 9782707144010. 
- Durbach Nadji, Spectacle of Deformity: Freak Shows and Modern British Culture, Berkeley, University of California Press, 2009.
- KUZNICK, P. J., « Losing the World of Tomorrow: The Battle over the Presentation of Science at the 1939 New York World’s Fair », American Quarterly, n° 46, 1994, p. 341-373.
- RYDELL, R. W., Gwinn, N. E., Fair Representations. World’s Fairs and the Modern World, « Introduction », Amsterdam, VU University Press, 1994,
- BENEDICT, B., The Anthropology of World’s Fairs: San Francisco’s
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Berkeley, 1983.
- Pascal Ory, 1889 L’Expo universelle, Bruxelles, Complexe, 1989.
- Alfred Heller, World’s Fairs and the End of Progress: An Insider’s View, Corte Madera, World’s Fairs Inc., 1999.
Some are in french language so that, at least, you can have a look on their bibliographies.
Hope it can be helpfull
Christophe Gibout
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I am reviewing the concept transdisciplinarity by doing an intellectual history.  I am only familiar with Foucault's work - a history of the present.  Are there any other contemporary methodologies worth exploring?
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Hi Jane,
One work that I think is going to make us rethink and rework the history of ideas is Robert Stam & Ella Shohat's "Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media" (Routledge, 1994). It makes us realise that an awareness of the intellectually debilitating effects of the Eurocentric legacy is indispensable for comprehending not only contemporary media represntations but even contemporary subjectivities. An earlier work on the same lines was Edward Said's 'Orientalism" that shows, among other things, how Eurocentrism is naturalised as "common sense" often through an opposition with "other" cultures that are positioned as "inferior". We have to challenge the notion that the West constitutes the world's center of gravity and once you do that, entire histories demand to be rewritten. 
Best,
Indranil
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I am conducting research on the moral and intellectual history of the idea and its practice especially in European thought from classical times, through modernity, and to the present.  I am seeking to understand how honour, even in its most mundane sense, may come to positively underwrite obligations of governmental bodies or individuals (including sovereigns) holding formal political authority.
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These are helpful.  I welcome others who have ideas.
Briefly, the association with artistocracy is quite of interest to me.  And, the notion of fulfillment of a social demand in honour killing (even if reviled by others) is helpful to think with as well.
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A small lutheran community coming from Germany exists in Lyon from the 16 century. This group owned a church, settled in Geneva from 1707.It was mostly composed of traders who went to Geneva four times a year for the holy communion. But, from 1770 onward, when the Calvinists from Lyons got their priest, the Lutherans went more and more to that church, letting down Geneva. For about 75 years, the Lutherans disappeared from Lyons. At the turn of the eighteen and nineteen centuries, the community spent her life in the shade of the Calvinist church. Between 1800 and 1850, the immigration movement of swiss, germans and Alsatians was quickening. In 1851, after multiples fruitless tries during the last fifty years, the Lutheran reverend Georges Mayer create an evangelic german church which is quickly linked with the Augsburg Confession. The german community managed the church for nearly 30 years until the arrival of the first French vicar in Lyons .For another 30 years, the relations were stormies between the two communities. The first world war marked the death of the german parish. The French church survived with difficulties during the twenties and thirties. The “renaissance” was due to two extraordinary personalities: André Desbaumes and Henry Bruston The Lutheran church became an inescapable part of the Lyons’s oecumenism and opened itself to the world.2007 marked the beginning of the merger between the Calvinist and Lutheran churches.
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Dear Stephen,
Thanks for your answer.
I wish you a happy new year 2015