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Intellectual Disabilities - Science topic

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The test is developed by Power, M.J.; Green, A.M. and Published in: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research in the year 2010.
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The scales were created on the basis of developmental scales in children. Usualy in developmental psychology
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It needs to be a validated for use with people with intellectual disabilities
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Dear Anand, please look at San Martin Scale: https://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO26729/San_Martin_Scale_Borrador.pdf
I have used this in my post-doc research and it was a good tool to measure QA in people with ID.
Hope it can be useful.
Regards,
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I need to find an instrument to measure quality of life in adults with Intellectual disability (mild - moderate) in Cyprus. Any Recommendations? (Spoken language is Greek)
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The INCO-FEAPS Scale has both self-report and report of others versions. The original version is in Spanish but there is also a translation into English. You can find both at
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we are developing a gaming application for intellectual disability children. in that application, we give points/rewards as a motivational technique. to do that, we like to know the names of algorithms that we can used for that.
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based on my experience designing games and balancing games for a few years, there are no single rule or formula to follow for this case. I believe it comes back to what metrics are you aiming to get from the score. If you are still working on this project, I would gladly help you comes up with a formula that you can use for this.
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I am interested in reading on any theoretical treatises and empirical studies on the application of critical pedagogy & education / feminist (if any) with with children and/or adults with intellectual disabilities. Reference to critical pedagogy with children and/or adults with physical disabilities is also of interest. Yet, I seem to be drawing a blank on both accounts but especially the former. I would appreciate any suitable directions.
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Marvin Formosa It is an important connection you are searching for. I am a action researcher currently working with people with severe intellectual disability. My PhD is from Roskilde University and my mentor was Kurt Aagaard Nielsen. Nielsen inspired me to work with critical theory and critical pedagogy. Participation and collaboration are very difficult challenges working with people that cannot read, write and struggle with verbal communication. The core ideas of «critical», of «participation», of «collaboration» become deeply ethical and creative challenges. My main co-researcher Sofie Daae Kversøy has a severe intellectual disability. Paying attention and seizing the moment is a methodological focus. Sofie is showing and leading and the rest of us co-researchers are enterpreting and facilitating. Are open access articles here on ResearchGate shows our methodology. Even the thought of having Sofie as a co-researcher has been an ethical challenge. We agree that people with intellectual disabilities have the same right to be credited for their development work as any other reseacher. Even though both feminist and critical theory is not applied explisit, you will see our work is radical, critical, enmancipating and creates change and autonomy. You will find ideas from Freire, Dewey, Habermas, Lewin, Jungk, Müllert, Sennet, Vagle, Møller ...
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Autismo y Ansiedad
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I and my colleagues have just published this paper which may be of interest:
Samadi, A., McConkey, R. and Rodgers, J. (2020) Assessing anxiety in Iranian children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2020.101673
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Information on impact of persons with Intellectual disability during COVD19
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I Agree this Pandemic is rather severe on Autistic People, I can speak from experience in saying that the routine from Monday-Friday has now moved to a different phase of mostly family running the Applied Behavioural therapy programme seven days a week. This is so challenging for parents.
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What do you think about inclusive social-interactive theater as a method of destigmatization people with mental illness and with intellectual disabilities
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I am looking for evidence-based guideline for prescribing benzodiazepines among patients with Intellectual Disability.
Thank you.
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Dear Prof. Gautam Gulati ,
I will definitely look into the Frith prescribing guidelines.
Anyone familiar with a recent study conducted on Benzodiazepines usage among people with Intellectual disability?
Thank you,
Faisal
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To conduct a study with people with severe/profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities, it is important to ensure that the participating persons actually meet these sample criteria. -> From an international perspective, what are the most common ways/assessments/approaches to achieve this? Based on a little literature review, there are three possibilities:
  1. Questioning the direct support persons about their estimation within an open interview.
  2. Questioning the direct support person with a (semi-)structured interview/questionnaire (e.g. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales -> Arthur-Kelly et al. 2017; Mechling & Bishop 2011; Lancioni et al. 2015).
  3. Direct testing (e.g. Bayley Scales or Kent Infant Development -> Nijs et al. 2016).
(In terms of an assessment/questionnaire, it would be great if there were an English and a German version.) I am really interested in your feedback and your experiences.
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I'm working on rehabilitative programs to promote adaptive behaviors in individuals with severe to profound developmental disabilities and multiple disabilities. I usually use the VABS to assess the severity of the disability and found it valid and reliable. Accordingly, I feel that the VABS constitutes a solid way to evaluate multiple disabilities. I wonder whether a german version is actually available in the literature.
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I will be performing an experiment for testing Acceptance and Usability of a technology by intellectually disabled people through a likert scale questionnaire. Unfortunately, I am not able to access previous research work related to the Pretest questions used to train the experimentees for Likert scale responses. I need help with formulating these Pretest questions for my experiment.
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Paul Louangrath . Although I never meant to, I sincerely apologize if me using the term 'Intellectually disabled' offended anyone. I have been working on this project for over 4 months now and everywhere, it was mentioned that 'Intellectually disabled' is the most polite term to use. In fact most of them mentioned that 'Mentally retarded' or 'Mentally disabled' have become derogatory and obsolete and hence must be avoided.
However, my question here was not concerning the use of the term, rather how can I help my experimentees understand my questions better and get reliable answers from them using a Pretest training. So if you could help me in this part, I would be really grateful.
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The set of questions designed to test Acceptance and Usability of Human robot Collaboration by Intellectually disabled people working in Sheltered Workshops of Germany needs to be checked by an expert in the field for reliability and clarity.
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Also, what pattern is better suitable? Fill in type like the very first question, or a straight forward question. or statements to respond on a 5 point scale or 7 point scale to.
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I know people with intellectual disabilities who recently have been recommended to do new genetical tests if their last test is more than ten years old. What are the key differences when searching for genetical anomalies in samples from people with intellectual disabilities today compared to ten years ago?
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Dear Professor I will follow this awesome question, as it is one of mine, however I guess ten years ago most of the labs/hospitals couldn't find any sign for mild ID children And I believe that the best way to help these types of children is to findout through genom, however, unfortunately, most of these children,especially mild categories diagnose after birth.
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I am interested in research that shows the development of mathematic skills and knowledge in high school students with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. What are teachers doing? What is the best practise for teaching these students?
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discuss with the counselor to find out the problem. it could be because the student doesn't like his teacher or because of other factors. With that the teacher can provide a method that is suitable for his student
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Hi there
Can anyone recommend an assessment of risk for suicide and self harm for people with an intellectual disability? I have had a brief look at the evidence base and risk factors for this population are similar to the general population, so if there are no specific risk assessment for this group, which risk assessment would you recommend more generally for suicide and self harm risk?
Any advice would be gratefully received.
Best wishes
Bronwen
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Hi Bronwen,
I think this is a fascinating topic - I echo the sentiments of my colleagues who have previously responded in that there is very little information on this topic (Possibly because there was historically a widely held mistaken belief that people with ID did not die by suicide?).
These papers are not risk scales, but they seem relevant to what you are looking for:
* Mollison, E., Chaplin, E., Underwood, L., & McCarthy, J. (2014). A review of risk factors associated with suicide in adults with intellectual disability. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 8(5), 302-308.
* Ludi, E., Ballard, E. D., Greenbaum, R., Bridge, J., Reynolds, W., & Horowitz, L. (2012). Suicide risk in youth with intellectual disability: The challenges of screening. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP, 33(5), 431.
I am not sure that an ID-specific suicide risk measure does exist, but I suspect there is a clear need for one to be developed (I am unconvinced by the idea that a scale developed and intended for the general population but have the same value in people with ID).
Best wishes
Sam
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I'm looking for information regarding the experience of individuals with intellectual disabilities in grieving. I'd also be interested in any resources to assist those with ID through the grieving process.
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Cynthia A. Waugh We have first hand experience with this. Our daughter, with moderate to light ID lost both her beloved grandparents only a few weeks apart. She was 7 years old at the time. We tried to get advice, but very little was available from the «experts» in the field. We are more than willing to share the reaction of grief, the strategies we chose and our reflections on this now five years on. The key for us was a advice we gort from an intencive care nurse. Her simple message was: «Let your daughter take part in as much as possible of the prosess. Let her see and touch the bodies. Talk about the dead. Let her attend the funeral and put flowers on their grave. It is the abstract that is most difficult to handle. Sorrow is hard, but it is part of real life.
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I'm seeking a very brief, nonthreatening tool that will be used with parents who are enrolled in a family support program to identify potential intellectual disabilities. The tool will be used by family support workers to help them tailor services. It will also be used in research. Thanks for ideas...
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The HASI may be usefull. Although its items are more like intelligence measures it is validated against IDD diagnosis that includes both IQ and adaptive behavior. Not sure if it is validated in a general population sample though. Check out the HASI-NV. It says that it is developed for community settings (https://www.hasi.com.au/index_hasinv.php)
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I am looking for short educational (and preferably fun) videos 1 to 5 minutes in length that can motivate and teach people with intellectual disabilities everyday activities like vacuuming, brushing your teeth, washing up, washing windows, washing clothes, folding clothes, paying for groceries ...
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Hi Kjartan,
if you want to chat or share ideas or doubts on your research activities we can arrange a Skype meeting (my Skype contact is: i.traina).
please find below a list of Apps I am using here in Ireland:
- Do! - Simple to Do List
- myHomework Student Planner
- My Talking calculator
- AroundMe
- Supermarket Cash Register (Kids Fun Shopping Game)
- Speech Central: Text to Speech
- iBook and calendar
- Avail (it is not a free App like the others)
I really hope it can help you!
Have a nice week-end!
Ivan
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I look for possible different and additional tools from those related only to adaptive behavior (Vineland etc.) or to support (SIS) or functional needs.
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Tiziano Gomiero This is a link to her project https://www.asker.kommune.no/helse-og-omsorg/bruk-av-ipad-som-styrings--og-motivasjonssystem/evalueringsrapport/ She probably speaks english like most Norwegian professionals.
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A 17 year old male presented with psychotic symptoms, trichotillomania and intellectual disability and likely FASD . On routine CT scan he was found to have a large fibro- osseous growth extending from the pterigoid process , sphenoid sinus to zygomatic bone, which was asymptomatic. He also was born with atrial septal defect and had reconstructive surgery. What would be the etiopathology of such finding and what would be it’s prognosis.
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fibrous dysplesia Prajjita Bardoloi rajjita Bardoloi
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Hello
If i want to calculate IQ, DQ and SQ of my subject using Seguin form Board Test (SFBT), Developmental Screening Test (DST) and Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) respectively. Suppose age of my subject is 22 years who have been diagnosed with intellectual disability. Suppose his Mental age comes out to be 10 according to SFBT, his developmental age comes to be 9 according to DST and his Social age comes to be 12 according to SFBT. So what we will take in denominator for calculating his IQ,DQ,SQ? As these scales are only meant for not above age range of 15 so will we take it to be 15 ? or we will take the original chronological age of 25?
Thank You :)
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Since mental age doesn't increase beyond 15 yrs as defined by Stern, chronological age would remain 16yrs. you may consider CA 16yrs. Syed Zafar Sultan Rizvi
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Oxytocin is being found to improve prosocial behaviour in autism. It also seems to help reduce anxiety in social anxiety. It likely improves the neuroplasticty in the orbitofrontal area , in which case it is possible that it can be tried to reduce aggression in violent patients, specially with Intellectual disability. Is there any research in this area?
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I want to take a deeper look at the facial expressions of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to analyse their emotional expressions.
For this purpose, I am searching for a ready-to-use software, which combines image processing (e.g., OpenPose, OpenFace) and machine learning. In addition, I would prefer a software that is free (i.e., Open Source) or at least for non-commercial research purposes.
So, I am not looking for methods, but for ready-to-use software, which includes a feature to train my own models. The reason is that every person with PIMD shows very unique behaviour signals and, therefore, you need one model for each emotion of a person.
Finally, I do not need a GUI or visualization, a simple command line application would enough.
A hint would be very helpful.
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I do not know if there is a "ready-made" software available for this, but my collaborators at University of Basel, GRAVIS group in the Department of mathematics and informatics have been working on facial recognition software.
Their project that comes close to what you seek is "Social judgement of faces" lead by Sandro Schönborn.
You can visit their webpage here:
The software they use - scalismo - is opensource.
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The authors of DSM-5 chapter on intellectual disability made a significant error (typo!?) in reporting the prevalence of intellectual disability. Actually, subheading PREVALENCE in DSM 5 consists of only two sentences:
Intellectual disability has an overall general population prevalence of approximately 1% and prevalence rates vary by age. Prevalence for severe intellectual disability is approximately 6 per 1000.
So, it means that there are 10 people with intellectual disability (all levels of ID) on 1000 people. According to DSM-5, 6 out of these 10 people are people with severe intellectual disability. However, most studies point that out of all people with ID, the majority of them (85%) have mild ID. I think this needs to be corrected!
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I believe that the prevalence of ID in the overall population is around 1%, and the prevalence of severe ID within the population of people with an intellectual disability is 6 in 1000.
That is, 6 in 1000 individuals with an ID have a severe ID.
I have read that about 85% of individuals with ID have a mild ID, about 10% have a moderate ID, and about 10-15% have a moderate ID, and a small percentage (under 1%), have a severe ID. This fits with what is written in DSM-5.
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In the field of intellectual disability, data are often hierarchical. As in the case of the classic example of schools (school, class, student), data in our field are often hierarchical ( residential setting, life unit, individuals).
In this context, I am looking for studies that have analyzed the impact of this hierarchy in the field of intellectual disability or empirical studies that have at least controlled for this using multilevel models.
is anyone aware of the existence of such studies?
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Just to say that there is now no need fro a strict hierarchy with random effcets multilevel models. You can cross classifiactions and multiple memebership wich can take account of individuals being nested in more than one setting and spending different amonts of time in them
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I'm looking to see if there is a validated questionnaires to use in a small study to assess Health Seeking Behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities.Thanks in advance.
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You are more then welcome. If you need any further help, just let me know.
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Is there a difference or relationship between life skills or living skills with intellectual disabilities?
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Are you referring to the terms "life skills" versus "living skills"? They can be used interchangeably. They are skills that one would need to live independently. Often also referred to as "independent living skills."
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from 8-19 years
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Hello,
I could only see this, but is not particularly for young people and not for those with a mild intellectual disability:
This is a ResearchGate link; perhaps the authors might know of others:
Verdugo, M. A., Gomez, L. E., Arias, B., Navas, P., & Schalock, R. L. (2014). Measuring quality of life in people with intellectual and multiple disabilities: Validation of the San Martín Scale. Research in developmental disabilities, 35(1), 75-86.
Nota, L., Soresi, S., & Perry, J. (2006). Quality of life in adults with an intellectual disability: the evaluation of quality of life instrument. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(5), 371-385.
These questions were asked about in the past:
I don't think there is anything that is just whst you needed, but there may be some responses to the questions that help.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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I'm starting my PhD and for my dissertation I would like to propose a (pedagogical) framework that uses ICT in learning for people with intellectual disabilities, so I was wondering if there are there any existing frameworks?
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Dear Kristian,
There is a very wide spectrum of neurodiversity, some of which are congenital whilst others are developmental. It may be difficult to establish a framework that is universally appropriate. I suggest that you search the literature for specific learning differences and their suggested educational approaches in relation to the use of ICT.
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I am a social work student of Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India.
As part of my master's dissertation I wish to explore 'The relationship between attitude towards intellectual disability and degree of belief in God/religiousness/spirituality among parents of children with Intellectual Disability.'
Looking forward to suggestions regarding scales on belief in god, religiousness or spirituality that would be easily accessible along with scoring, reliability and validity data. Thank you.
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Your question & view s points have attracted my attention . Being the student of social science it is obvious that you may have an inclination for Belief in God, Religiousness & spirituality . It is a fact that spiritual map can not be a subject of measurement ,it is a relation with the mind , brain ,inner urge with divinity within us that may help us to transform our vision to spirituality . Which may subsequently direct us to power of prayer,meditation breathing exercise for few minutes . This will help to every spiritual person the creation of serene mind which may with the passage of time may help the inner power of inspiration ,intuition, & visualization ( which is higher one ) may certainly help for our progressive development of spirituality .
Even though we do not know each other but by way of your feeling note I feel that your thinking phase & vision for visualization may certainly help for your progress you may also certainly guide the student in the way you are present thinking .
This is my personal opinion
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How do we evaluate the independent living skills of adolescents with mental disabilities? Are there any recent references on this subject?
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thank you very much for answer but there are independent living skills of adolescents with ID and there are difference between life skills for children with ID and independent living skills of adolescents with ID
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There are many studies concerning people with Down Syndrome, but I do not find references to people with other etiologies of intellectual disability
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Dear Tiziano,
Please find attached studies and references, James.
Head et aL (2007). Possible Compensatory Events in Adult Down Syndrome Brain Prior to the Development of Alzheimer Disease Neuropathology: Targets for Non pharmacological Interventions. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 11(1), 61-76, DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2007-11110
Kendall, R. & Jablensky,A.(2003). Distinguishing Between the Validity and Utility of Psychiatric Diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:4–12. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/34d5/f3ff43453b57f338b149230e3b30d4ed3f1b.pdf
Hagberg B, Aicardi J, Dias K, Ramos O. A progressive syndrome of autism, dementia, ataxia, and loss of purposeful hand use in girls: Rett’s syndrome: report of 35 cases. Ann Neurol. 1983;14(4):471–9.
Jellinger K, Armstrong D, Zoghbi HY, Percy AK. Neuropathology of Rett syndrome. Acta Neuropathol. 1988;76(2):142–58.
Rumble et al (1989). Amyloid A4 Protein and Its Precursor in Down's Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 320:1446-1452. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198906013202203
Rodakowski, et al (2015). Non-pharmacological Interventions for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Dementia: An Updated Scoping Review. Mol Aspects Med. 0,38–53.
Rivas-Vazquez et al (2004). Mild cognitive impairment: new neuropsychological and pharmacological target. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(1), 11-27. https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0887617702001671/1-s2.0-S0887617702001671-main.pdf?_tid=f2a44ed4-c604-11e7-b5c7-00000aab0f26&acdnat=1510311201_dcf3f73c724ef95f655f7c1ff52a88b6
Hashimoto et al (2004). Executive dysfunction can explain word-list learning disability in very mild Alzheimer's disease: The Tajiri Project. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (2004), 58-60. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2004.01193.x/epdf
Lifshitz, H. & Klein, P.S. (2011).Mediation between Staff and Elderly Persons with Intellectual Disability with Alzheimer Disease as a Means of Enhancing Their Daily Functioning. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46(1), 106 –115. http://daddcec.org/Portals/0/CEC/Autism_Disabilities/Research/Publications/Education_Training_Development_Disabilities/2011v46_Journals/ETADD_201103v46n1p106-115_Mediation_between_Staff_and_Elderly.pdf
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I have a question about the use of publication bias modeling approaches in meta-analyses of proportions.
The traditional approaches of assessing publication bias, such as the rank correlation test, Egger’s regression model, and weight function approaches have all assumed that the likelihood of a study getting published depends on its sample size and statistical significance (Coburn and Vevea, 2015). Although it has been confirmed by empirical research that statistical significance plays a dominant role in publication (Preston et al., 2004), this is not entirely the case. Cooper et al. (1997) have demonstrated that the decision as to whether to publish a study is influenced by a variety of criteria created by journal editors regardless of methodological quality and significance, including but not limited to, the source of funding for research, social preferences at the time when research is conducted, etc. Obviously,the traditional methods fail to capture the full complexity of the selection process.
In practice, authors of meta-analyses of proportions have employed these methods in an attempt to detect publication bias. But, studies included in meta-analyses of proportions are non-comparative, thus there are no “negative” or “undesirable” results or study characteristics like significant levels that may have biased publications (Maulik et al., 2011).
Therefore, in my opinion, these traditional methods may not be able to fully explain the asymmetric distribution of effect sizes on funnel plots. It is also possible that they may fail to identify publication bias in meta-analyses of proportions in that publication bias in non-comparative studies may arise for reasons other than significance.
I'm not sure if my reasoning is correct. Can someone shed some light on this? If someone could point me to some papers regarding this topic, that'd be wonderful.
References: Coburn, K. M., & Vevea, J. L. (2015). Publication bias as a function of study characteristics. Psychological methods, 20(3), 310.
Cooper, H., DeNeve, K., & Charlton, K. (1997). Finding the missing science: The fate of studies submitted for review by a human subjects committee. Psychological Methods, 2(4), 447.
Preston, C., Ashby, D., & Smyth, R. (2004). Adjusting for publication bias: modelling the selection process. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 10(2), 313-322.
Maulik, P. K., Mascarenhas, M. N., Mathers, C. D., Dua, T., & Saxena, S. (2011). Prevalence of intellectual disability: a meta-analysis of population-based studies. Research in developmental disabilities, 32(2), 419-436.
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Hello Naike,
When the goal is estimation of a parameter (like a population proportion) rather than a comparison of conditions/treatments/methods, then publication bias (due to nonsignificant results) really isn't pertinent, as you correctly suggest. You can, of course, generate funnel plots and use checks such as Egger's to see whether the distribution of sample estimates follows what one would ordinarily anticipate (less variation with higher N, roughly symmetric dispersion about the middle values). Past that, though, the exercise is not very informative.
Proportions, though, are often transformed to behave more like continuous (e.g., unconstrained) variates; the arcsine transform (2arcsin(sqrt(p)) and logit transform [ln(p/(1-p))] are common methods (see http://strata.uga.edu/8370/rtips/proportions.html).
Good luck with your work!
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what statistical analysis would i have to use to find out out if increasing knowledge influences an individual's attitude towards physical and intellectual disability if i am using pretest and protest for both my knowledge scale and attitudes scale? and i'm also trying to find out if contact also has an influence on people's attitude towards physical and intellectual disability
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Hello Farwa, the theoretical formulations of regression and Anova are quite different . They are indeed opposite. While regression analysis computes relationships, Anova computes differences. In short, Anova is used for making comparisons whereas regression is used for computing strength of relationships.
So I will go with the suggestion made by Chukwuma.
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I would be thankful if you provide me by methods of gm and types of food, what is the effect of each also. Waiting your professional answers 👍
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As far as I know, there are no well documented cases of GM foods causing any diseases other than hysteria in GM opponents.
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I am looking for a standard method for evaluating interventions to reduce dog phobias in individuals with autism and severe intellectual difficulties. Most of the participants in the programme become known to us because they have dangerous reactions to the presence of dogs e.g. they run across the road or they hit their caregivers or they scream very loudly. Can anyone point me in the direction of a published dog phobia scale that could be filled in by caregivers. 
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Anthony and Sudeep
thank you for your comments. 
the noise issue is one that we have thought about. We do not have systematic evidence that the noise (bark) of the dog is the issue, although classical conditioning theory can provide a simple explanation of the fear being a response to a conditioned stimulus (barking) being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (sight of a dog). And our intervention (hierarchy and exposure) would I think conform to an extinction procedure, hence answering Sudeep's points.
However, our problem is that the only measure that we are aware of is a simple proximity scale - how close can a person come to the dog. This takes no account of those individuals who will not even look at pictures of dogs.
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For example in Dyslexia, Memory retention problems, Poor concentration, Problems of lexical fluency, School stress, Slow learning, and the like.  Especially if simple electronic instruments of medium technology are used.
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We are also interested on families adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome
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I am currently seeing a boy diagnosed with Autism and Fragile X. We have found Applied Behavior Analysis to be very effective. In terms of family adjustment, this has been a challenge and dealing with the challenging behaviors has been difficult as well.
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We used structural equation modelling with latent variables using items indicators for our analyses. Given the sample size and the complexity of the model, the use of structural equation modeling using parcels/packets as indicators might be a good alternative. Although I have read some disadvantages about parceling, I would like to give it a try. However, I cannot find a tutorial or something similar that explains step by step how to use parceling in mplus. Does anyone have a suggestions?
Thank you very much and kind regards,
Noud Frielink
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Dear Noud,
You can use the DEFINE command to create parcels within MPlus. 
For example with three items:
DEFINE:
parcel1 = (item1 + item2 + item3)/3
Than add this new variable in the USEVARIABLES ARE line behind all wihtim data set variables u use in your model and it should work.
Best
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We are considering to use the Cantril Ladder (Cantril, 1965) to assess subjective well-being / satisfaction with life with a single item. The Cantril ladder has been used in numerous studies among various populations and in different settings and is considered to be a valid and reliable measure of subjective well-being. Does anyone know of any studies using this questionnaire in people with mild intellectual disability?
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Hello Noud
I have not accessed the full text of this, but in the Google summary, Cantril is mentioned:
Wellman, J., Barter, B., & Steele, A. (2015). Group top-up therapy for service users: Joshua Wellman and colleagues argue that those with learning disabilities could benefit from having a mix of individual and group therapy. Learning Disability Practice, 18(8), 33-38.
There is one reference to Cantril  in section 4.2.1 of this thesis:
Martindale, K. J. (2010). An investigation into the subjective wellbeing of people with an intellectual disability (No. Ph. D.). Deakin University.
Also see this RG link:
This might be relevant:
Riemsma, R. P., Forbes, C. A., Glanville, J. M., Eastwood, A. J., & Kleijnen, J. (2000). General health status measures for people with cognitive impairment: learning disability and acquired brain injury. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England), 5(6), 1-100.
This is the full text:
This is the RG link:
And this is one of the references:
Ormel, J., Kempen, G. I., Deeg, D. J., Brilman, E. I., Sonderen, E., & Relyveld, J. (1998). Functioning, Well‐Being, and Health Perception in Late Middle‐Aged and Older People: Comparing the Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Medical Conditions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(1), 39-48.
I hope there is something of help here.
Very best wishes for your PhD,
Mary
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I was wandering if anyone has any advice on the use of effort tests with an individual being assessed (using the WAIS-IV) for an intellectual disability.
Thanks
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Hi Tom,
the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) might be worth checking out.  It's a 50 question verbal recognition test that's been shown to have sensitivity to malingering but robust enough to use with cognitive impairment (and as I understanding it, intellectual disability population).  Have a look and see what you think.
Good luck,
Tamily
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Does anyone have article /articles attitude scale (Science, Technology, Maths...) for with intellectual disability students?
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Does anyone have any walking exercise program for people with intellectual disability ? Can you help me?
Or know the literature in this area?
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Hi Saeid,
I have just finished working on report rethinking public health interventions with disabled people.
The study aimed:  (1) To examine the literature on theories and models of disability; (2) to assess whether or not, and how, intervention studies of effectiveness could incorporate more inclusive approaches that are consistent with these theories and models; and (3) to use the findings to draw out implications for improving evaluative study designs and evidence-based practice.
You might find some of the research we have included  and findings helpful.
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All three of my clients who have been barred from hugging, kissing, and sex whilst detained as special patients for the last 11-20 years originally as being unfit to stand trial. All are intellectual disabled, two have autism, and all have had mental health problems. They are suing the Health Boards for a numerous reasons. Can anyone point me to research on the psychological and/or psychiatric effects of such lack of tactile experiences.
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My specialty is pediatrics, high risk infants and their long term outcomes. Some of my research from years ago was on  the effects of touch. There is a great deal of literature on this topic, some of it concerning institutionalized infants and infants who spent their early months in neonatal intensive care units. Spitz's classic work on anaclitic depression from the 1940s was cited by Beatrice. Support for Kangaroo care grew in the US out of wanting to find a way for very small premies to be able to be held long before was customary. My own research demonstrated that premies held did better over all in terms of lower heart and respiratory rates, and higher levels of oxygenation. We saw clinically significant, if not statistically significant increases in weight with holding. The research on Kangaroo Care examines additional benefits to the infant including shortened length of stays..
More recently, anecdotal accounts of adults who survived the Ebola outbreak reported that the infection precautions that cut the patient off from touch was one of the most stressful parts of the experience, which is striking considering the severity of this particular disease.
Lack of touch over time produces such severe symptoms in children that with exceptions, parents are not obligated in our medical center to handle the children with gloves. There are handwashing protocols and instructions on where the parents can and cannot go on the unit if handling their children without gloves.
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Outcomes studies for adults on the Autistic Spectrum with no intellectual disability would also be useful.
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Hi Sharon,
It would be worth contacting NAS Prospects (UK) as they have been working in this field for many years and have some internal research reports which you could perhaps access.
Best wishes,
Prithvi
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Not an expert on CNVs.   I have a few samples from children with autism and their typically-developing siblings, which contain a few previously identified CNVs.  Would like to get a sense if these CNVs have been reported in association with developmental phenotypes (autism, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, etc).    Wondering if their is a streamline way (a database?) to assess these loci in the previously published literature.  
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This is a good question coming up periodically. When I have this problem I usually check the DECIPHER database (available at https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/). You may get answers from there, as it includes an estimation of how every gene is likely to be involved in haploinsufficiency. Not every CNV has links to bibliography, but it is certainly of help.
1000 genomes or other databases may also be of help (you will find the common "wild type" human variation there).
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There is a lot of thoughts on gullibility being a component of intellectual disability. I have been reading works on open-minded cognition and how it can be situational. What if the actual component of intellectual disability is not gullibility but an inability to be open-mindedly situational. How would the landscape of our knowledge change in an educational and caring context? Does anyone know of any works in this area? Thoughts?
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Dear Merisa, 
Given 40+ years as an academic with a background in educational psychology, I would state, based upon extensive reflective observation, that "gullibility is NOT a component of intellectual disability", but rather a component of "laziness". I hope that this is of some assistance.
Sincerely,
Lou Pagliaro
PS One could, of course, define "intellectual laziness" as a component or factor involved in intellectual disability, BUT this is a different question that you will have to answer from your own theoretical perspective or vantage point
!!
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i want scale to measure attitudes and adjustment from parents towards intellectual disabilities
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Attitudes and adjustment are two very different things--adjustment could be measured by parental stress--there are several measures here, e.g., parenting stress index, attitudes towards disabilities will be more difficult to find, don't know of anything that covers this.
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I would be interested in any studies that have looked at agreement between parent/caregiver rating and self report ratings of social or physical competence for participants with Intellectual Disability. Anything you know of with child or adult participants would be very helpful.
Thanks, Rosie
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Hi Rosie
This might be slightly off topic, but we recently conducted a study examining client, carer, and clinical psychologists' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change within an intellectual disability setting. Although our study did not look at quantitative consensus in relation to social competency, etc., the paper may be useful background reading for highlighting aspects of convergence and divergence between individuals with an ID, their carers, and the professionals involved with them.
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Paraprofessionals respective teacher assistants play an important part in learning of students with special needs in inclusive settings. Most of the available studies don't distinguish closely respectively the kind of special needs. In Germany the differentiation between various kinds of special needs is traditional high. So I'm searching specific finding for children with intellectual disabilities. Thank's for a hint!
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Read the work of Giangreco on teaching assistants - very illuminating. Such asBroer, S. M., Doyle, M. B., & Giangreco, M. F. (2005). Perspectives of students with intellectual disabilities about their experiences with paraprofessional support. Exceptional children, 71(4), 415.
Also there has been an huge evaluation of how teaching assistants have impacted student outcomes in the UK. Read some of their findings in the work of Blatchford and others e.g.Webster, R., Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., Brown, P., Martin, C., & Russell, A. (2010). Double standards and first principles: Framing teaching assistant support for pupils with special educational needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25(4), 319-336.
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the title of my study is "Challenging Behaviors in Relation to Social Skills in Adolescents with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities"
I like your papers published in  this field but I need to know you point of view about this topic. Unfortunately, there are not enough resources about this topic in Egypt. I wonder if  you could help me by any means. If you have any scales and researches available about this topic, would you please tell me where I can find them?
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Dear Ali, i never used the scale, however, after reading somepapers i have get the impression that this is a psychometric sound instrument that is well defined and constructed and matches the current understanding of ID perfectly, so it could fit. Take into account that it is like the vabs an interview based procedure, probably a scale is easier to use in research context 
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I want to explore the reported barriers that face adults in the transition from sheltered to competitive employment. There are adults with an intellectual disability who first began in sheltered workshops and find it difficult to move on?
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The work of Richard Luecking et al., the organization APSE and IEL - all U.S. based are resources.
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 I wonder if you could help me by any means. If you have any scales and researches available about this topic, would you please provide me with them? I would be grateful if you could attend to this matter as soon as possible. Appreciating your consideration and cooperation
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there are mail for contact with Dr John N. Constantino
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Hello,
Does anyone know of any available data (either published or upon request from a researcher) which involves reading/writing and people with cognitive disabilities or deaf people? It would also be interesting to hear about multimodal corpora, e.g. text accompanied by eye tracking fixations. My research is focusing on automatically determining the difficulty of text passages for people with autism and I have been doing comprehension studies and collecting eye-tracking data. I was wondering what other resources there are, which may contribute to the topic. I am only aware of the LocalNews corpus by Feng et.al. (2009), which contains 11 original and simplified texts evaluated on readers with mild intellectual disability.
Any information and opinions about different disabilities, sources and languages are welcome.
Thanks,
Victoria
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First, I intend to use Rosenberg's self esteem (RSE)questionnaire but some papers told that it is suitable for adolescent 13-17 years and older. So, I wonder that can I use the RSE in children with ID or is there any other questionnaires that more proper for this group? 
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Hi,
There are resources that I hope it will help you, either in the following link or in the attachments. One of the attachment is Meta analysis for self esteem among children, and the other has in addition to the content , useful references you may check.  regards
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My experience leads me to believe that the values of respect are learned but not really taught how to treat people with disabilities.
Inclusion in schools is not real if it is not taught to relate well to children with disabilities
The lack of skills and lack of positive experiences is a reality. Avoid contact children not to fail in their relationship
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The original question can be answered with an opinion rather than a reference to research, I joined the discussion and have been following it in hopes of learning about evidence related to the question.  For that reason, I know that I have found the answers from Ibrahim Acar, Yvette Hus, and Beata Borowska-Beszta particularly helpful and how that others may also be able to contribute research-based answers.
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It would be useful to have a standard outcome measure to facilitate service audit. The difficulty is that whilst there are various outcome measures recommended for people with mild to moderate learning/intellectual disabilities, there seems to be a dearth of measures for people with more severe intellectual / learning disabilities. 
The ideal measure would be:
  • Quick to administer
  • Easy to understand
  • Applicable to people with as wide a range of intellectual disabilities as possible.
Any information / recommendations would be very much appreciated!
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Thanks, Charlie. A lot of work went into them. Hopefully they'll prove to be a useful addition to the world of mood assessment...
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I'm looking for meaning of the theoretical assumptions of the lifelong learning for adults with intellectual disabilities. 
Would you share a references, authors or inspiring ideas ? 
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 This is a gut level answer - not one based on having thought much before about the concept of lifelong learning, never mind its relationship with disabilities.The first sentence below may indicate that I have taken the concept of lifelong learning pretty much for granted and with too little thought, but here goes.
'Lifelong learning' is just what the term implies - learning for all from the beginning of life until it ends. Such learning can take place both with and without the help of educational systems. At some stages of life, and for some areas of learning some of us without disabilities are more pro-active in learning and some of us need more support and encouragement. Educational systems are there to provide support and encouragement to both the more pro-active and the less proactive. Reasons for needing support and encouragement include different social and domestic backgrounds, attitudes to learning, self-beliefs, prior knowledge and understanding - the list could go on. When people come to our educational facilities with such variations, we have to try and support them as required. It is difficult to generalise what that support should be because it is different for different people.
Gache's contribution I think reinforces that point for those with disabilities.Disabilities cover a wide range, including some we may start life with - autism, for example. Others which may hit us later in life, such as dementia. As Gache points out, the effects on intellectual abilities are very different. However, we have to be optimistic that problems can be solved. There seems to me, (from contact with people working in the field, not direct experience) that progress is being made in how to better support the learning of people on the autistic spectrum - people who in the past might not have received much (or as effective) support and encouragement. From what I understand, that often entails individually tailored support - or elements of that in a more collective setting.
The important point is that the educational systems should not 'write anybody off' as not being able to learn, but should instead seek ways to support them in learning. This will be very challenging at times and we may not always have the required knowledge  of, or expertise in, how it can be done, but that does not excuse not trying and not trying to develop such knowledge and expertise 
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There is a plethora of evidence to support the need for increased training of healthcare providers to improve the care, and decrease the healthcare disparities of adults with intellectual disabilities. I am interested in any studies that have implemented training of the healthcare provider and the impact it had on the care and experience of the adult with intellectual disability in the acute care setting. 
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Donna
It's not a direct answer to your question, but a few years ago I was involved in a scoping review of nursing research in this area. We found a dearth of studies of the effect of interventions of any kind. While not directly helpful thyis might give you a place to start....
Griffiths P, Bennett J, Smith E. The size, extent and nature of the learning disability nursing research base: A systematic scoping review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(4):490-507.
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I want to assess temperament dimensions in patients with intellectual disabilities. A common instrument to assess this is the Temperament and Coping Inventory, but to my knowledge the TCI is not validated nor intended for ID samples. Other instruments that I found were the Child Behavior Questionnaire, and the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability (EAS) Temperament Survey, but these apply more to children than to adults (i.e.., they seem too childish). Does anyone have any suggestions? It's for diagnostic (and ultimately research) purposes and adult patients.
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I am not sure if there are any especially designed temperament assessment scale for intellectually disabled patients. However, being a paediatrician & a child neurologist in-training, I am used to modified temperament assessment tools for children (like revised infant temperament questionnaire), which can be somehow inspired to formulate a realistic assessment scoring system. The big challenge is that intellectual disability itself is a very wide spectrum with hetergeous etiologies & variable presentations.  
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Does anyone know some instrument to assess perceptions about self-determination and how to promote it? (For families, specially parents of young children with intellectual disabilities)
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Hello Araceli
I am undertaking research (as a PhD student) on self-determination of adults with intellectual disability within the context of family relationships. As part of this I am trying to understand the family's experience of supporting the development of self-determination in their family member, the role they play, any changes in their relationships and how these are negotiated. I will be doing this as a qualitative study using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). So your topic is of interest to me.
In regards to your question, there are instruments for assessing self-determination, not sure if they relate to family perceptions, however might be worth looking at - ARC Self-Determination Scale (1995) is one, another is the AIR Self-Determination Scale (American Institutes for Research, 1994). Another that might be of interest to you is the Choice Questionnaire (Stancliffe and Parmenter, 1999).
Regards
Bernadette
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We are investigating the trustworthiness of individuals with mental disabilities for legal expertise
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This might be of interest to you:
kind regards,
Marion Kiewik
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I'm looking for a scale on friendship quality I could use with teenagers and adults with intellectual disabilities. I'll be grateful for any suggestions.
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This friendship assessment scale contains an example, and some good references at the end that include works on underprivileged groups. 
I suggest you also consult established scales on:
-- social anxiety
-- self-perception 
-- attachment styles
***
I think it would be interesting to find out if there's variation between individuals whether they are aware (at all) about their handicaps, and whether that self-perception affects their social confidence and ability to bond with others, and ultimately, how those affect the social experience / bonding they have with others. 
***
An example, Down Syndrome people are easy to recognized. It is not clear to laymen and general public if they are aware that they are physically (not to say mentally) different from "normal" people. 
Yet, in many societies, it is quite well recognized that Down Syndrome people, despite intellectual retardation, have kind and almost "angelic" hearts. They are favorably perceived in the media as innocent, blameless individuals. Therefore to look down upon them or treat them wrongfully, would be socially unacceptable. 
***
You may want to narrow down your subject types to make a more focused investigation. (Like a particular type of retardation, rather than any retardation). Autism, for example, presents very different cases: autistic individuals look physically normal, but their coldness and self-fixation could arouse unpleasant surprises. This is going to affect their social experience. 
Good luck on your study. 
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I'm looking for publications on the development of sexual behavior in children, I would appreciate any suggestions.
I also look for indications of research on sexual behavior in children with intellectual disabilities, especially Down syndrome.
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Hi Martine.
I´ll try to get your book here in Brazil.
Thanks!
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All is said in the title. Thank you ! 
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I'm not sure about a measure of "empowerment" but Mike Wehmeyer developed a "self-determination" scale for persons with intellectual disability - called the ARC Self-Determination Scale: http://www.thearc.org/document.doc?id=3670.  It might be well worth a look at. 
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Preferably not too long and suitable for inpatient and outpatient adults. Thank you in advance!
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Hi Monique,
There is also the Personal Wellbeing Index – Intellectual Disability (English) (PWI-ID) scale to consider.  The scale is available via the Australian Centre of Quality of Life (ACQOL)
McGillivray, J.A., Lau, A.L.D., Cummins, R.A., & Davey, G. (2009). The utility of the Personal Wellbeing Index Intellectual Disability Scale (PWI-ID) in an Australian sample. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability, 22, 276-286.
Regards,
Jane
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I am reporting research-based family-professional partnership practices that promote inclusion for students with intellectual disabilities in general education settings. Any suggestions for studies are welcome! Thank you!  
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Thank you, all, for your recommendations. It is good to be connected with you and to share resources. Jessica, I already have your paper saved in my writing folder; I look forward to citing your work! 
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I am looking to construct a rationale for the need to supporting interventions  for parents whose children  may be referred to safeguarding services on the grounds of neglect when these parents have a diagnosed LD.
I would like to know whether there have been specific  interventions identified to support these parents to raise their children safely, with nurturance and stimulation  to help their development into adulthood. or whether some interventions focusing on parenting and/or the relationships between parents and children have been found to be adjustable to meet these parents' needs.
this could inform preventative strategies aiming at reducing the need to refer to safeguarding services if it is also found to be cost effective as compared with current safeguarding interventions such as foster care placements, residential homes or adoption.
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Thank you for your answer. I'll give you my e-mail address: katarzyna2710@wp.pl in case you or your MSc student would like to get in touch.
Best regards,
Katarzyna
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Which could be the best instrument to  measure:
1) readiness and capacity to resolve conflicts
2) ability to maintain and understand social relationships
3) interest and ability to communicate
4) ability to cooperate and provide information
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Thank You very much for your advice. 
ARC scale made by Michael L. Wehmeyer looks good.
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Could anyone recommend references about implementation of meeting space for individuals with intellectual disabilities ?
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Here's something in Ireland based on engaging in the arts
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From a legal perspective, children entitled to special education are entitled to an individualized plan.  Only so many approaches are likely to work, however, so I'm trying to locate research on the question of whether differentiated education is actually necessary in order to deliver special education services. 
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Suggest you read: Hattie, John (2008). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. NY: Routledge. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-415-47618-8. Whilst it could be argued that differentiated education is not actually necessary in order to deliver special education services or, indeed, any educational services, such education that lacks differentiation is not likely to deliver any worthwhile educational outcomes. In the UK, OfSTED inspectors and peer observers are not likely to endorse teaching practice that does not contain elements of differentiation as a matter of routine for all children. Differentiation is likely to be of particular importance for children with special educational needs.
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I want to assess the association between several variables and the eating behavior in individuals with intellectual disability. Since I have missing data on some variables I want to calculate my regression using FIML in Mplus. In addition I have some clustered (some individuals live in institutions with several individuals from the same institution in my data set) data and some unclustered (some cases life with their families, only one individual out of each family in my dataset) in my data set.
Is it appropriate to use TYPE=complex in this situation? Any good reference?
THANK YOU!
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I agree, it would be the more conservative approach and honor the nature of your data.  You could also check the ICCs from the unconditional model and if they are low enough, ignore the clustering, although there is debate about that option.  Best of luck, hope it goes well. 
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Are Intellectual Disability Nurses perceived differently to other nurses?
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Wow what a huge question!! This is becoming very relevant in New Zealand where psychopaedic (ID) registration is becoming extinct as those nurses with single scope are retraining. Anecdotal evidence here suggests ID nurses are seen as a very particular specialist area as there are so few of them now and they are perceived to have little skills around mental health assessment despite working in the geographical area of mental health. They are also perceived to be 'trapped' by their limited scope (NZ Nursing Council regulations) and cannot work in all areas despite most of them having a huge array of skills and experience. The changes and recognition of mental health issues in the presentation of our ID population are proving challenging as NZ promotes the social model of care for ID and most carers are not registered or even trained in ID or MH which is causing concern for care delivery. On the whole ID nurses (in my experience) are valued in mental health services but the push for comprehensive registration is whittling away this speciality.
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Psychosis is more common in people with intellectual disability than general population. Can you share your experience of diagnosing and treating psychosis in this population. Have you across any issues which are unique to this population.
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I work as a clinician (case-manager) in an early psychosis prevention and intervention centre in Australia. We have many clients who come through our service with diagnosed intellectual disabilities and psychotic disorders. Here are some of my thoughts from working clinically in this area. 
The severity of the intellectual disability definitely impacts the treatment of the psychotic disorder. For example, a client with a severe intellectual disability will not be able to fully engage in the cognitive behavioural case management model that we provide - and we have to be more creative in how we present psycho-education on psychosis (e.g. watching videos, drawing out diagrams, teaching basic distraction techniques to help manage - rather than challenge - psychotic symptoms). The family, or a larger care team (e.g. residential units, special needs schools) are also more often heavily involved in caring for the young person and require more intensive psycho-education and support in managing the young person. A lot of our work also focuses on building a support network for the young person who understands psychosis and can help the young person identify when psychotic symptoms start to re-emerge. It should also be noted that the concept of "capacity to consent" to treatment requires thorough assessment. Another challenge is supporting the young person to be able to communicate their psychotic symptoms.
For less severe intellectual disabilities however, I have personally found that clients can engage well in the usual treatment model as long as it is presented and discussed with them taking into account their learning strengths (visual, oral etc). 
The main challenge in co-morbid intellectual disability and psychosis is differentiating between which behaviours are due to the intellectual disability and which are due to the psychosis. There is no easy answer to this, and longitudinal assessments are often required.
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I need something that can be completed by the adult themselves rather than an informant, and preferably a direct measure (e.g., a test where the person performs tasks to demonstrate competence).
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You may be interested in the scale below.  I have used this scale as part of court ordered assessments.
Independent Living Scales
Independent Living Scale (ILS)
The Independent Living Scale (ILS) can be used to assess an individual’s competence for several purposes.  The following information was taken from the ILS manual:  “The ILS was originally developed for use with older adults. Questions about older adults’ abilities to care for themselves often arise from their own concerns or from the concerns of family members or social service providers. The ILS can be used as part of an assessment to determine if an older adult can manage his or her property and/or personal affairs. Furthermore, the ILS provides information to aid in decision-making about the most appropriate living environment and any specific support services required. Annual or periodic evaluations with the ILS can help monitor an individual’s improvement or deterioration. In cases where questions arise in court guardianship proceedings, the ILS may be used by the professional to describe an individual’s specific strengths and weaknesses with respect to functional competence.
The ILS is comprised of five subscales: Memory/Orientation, Managing Money, Managing Home and Transportation, Health and Safety, and Social Adjustment.  The five subscales scores are added To obtained and overall score reflecting the examinee’s ability to function independently.  The following list briefly covers the area assessed by each subscale
Memory/Orientation assess the individual’s general awareness of her or his surroundings and assesses short-term memory.
 
Managing Money assess the individual’s ability to count money, do monetary calculations, pay bills, and take precautions with money.
 
Managing Home and Transportation assess the individual’s ability to use the telephone, utilize public transportation, and maintain a safe home.
 
Health and Safety assess the individual’s awareness of personal health status and ability to evaluate health problems, handle medical emergencies and take safety precautions.
 
Social Adjustment assess the individual’s mood and attitude toward social relations.
There are two factors that may be derived from some of the items on the subscales; Problem Solving and Performance/Information
 
Problem Solving is comprised primarily of items that require knowledge of relevant facts as well as ability in abstract reasoning and problem solving.
 
Performance/Information is comprised primarily of items that require general knowledge, short-term memory, and the ability to perform simple, everyday tasks.”
Description of the Nonclinical Sample
The criteria for inclusion in the nonclinical sample stipulated that adults be fluent in English.  Medical exclusions included the acute stage of a serious medical illness, a recent head injury or stroke (less than 6 months prior to testing), dementia, psychiatric diagnosis, or ongoing dependence on alcohol or other drugs.  Examinees with medical conditions could be included only if their health had stabilized.
Within the nonclinical sample, data were collected on three groups according to living status; Independent, Semi-Independent, and Dependent.  The Independent and Dependent groups were used for setting cut scores and establishing validity.  Living status was based on the level of assistance required with the activities of daily living (preparing meals, taking medications, using transportation, bathing, dressing, toileting, and attending social events), the need for supervision adult daycare or skilled nursing and the person’s current living situation.  Information for classification was provided by the examinee and was verified, if necessary, by a caregiver.  In general, the Independent examinee resided in a private home, either alone or with family, and was capable of all aspects of self-care, including meal preparation, housekeeping, and attendance at social events.  Someone classified as living independently might also have been living in a retirement community without utilizing any of its services except the social functions-living there out of convenience rather than necessity.  The semi-independent examinee was most likely in a supervised living situation, such as a retirement community or a nursing home, as a relative high-functioning resident who required assistance for some activities of daily living (e.g., housekeeping, medication reminders, meals, transportation, social activities) or needed some nursing or rehabilitation services on a part-time basis.  This groups also included persons living at home but receiving some assistance from a family member or a visiting nurse.  The Dependent examinee may have lived in a nursing home or a rehabilitation hospital or at home with full-time caregivers.  In general, he or she required full-time supervision and assistance with most activities of daily living. 
The ILS nonclinical sample included 400 older adults living independently, 100 living semi-independently, and 90 living dependently.  Each living-status group was stratified according to adults age, sex education level, race/ethnicity, and geographic reason.  The target percentage for education level, race/ethnicity, and geographic region were based on the 1993 U.S. census for adults 65 years of age and older (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1993).
Level of Interpretations of ILS
Information can be obtained from the ILS on a variety of levels, ranging from the Full Scale score to the individual item scores.  The IlS Full Scale score is a global indicator of whether the adult can live independently (high functioning), semi-independently (moderate functioning), or dependently (low functioning)  The subscale scores should then be referred to form more specific information about the adults level of functioning in a particular area.  Information at the item level identifies which aspect of a particular area of daily living is causing the adult’s difficulty.  For instance, in regard to Managing Home and Transportation, one can determine, by looking at the pattern of responses across the items, whether the individual is having difficulty maintained the home, utilizing public transportation, or using the telephone.  Item-level information is most useful in designing intervention or detailing the type of assistance required.  Furthermore, the items that require problem solving are scored in a way that allows a degree of idiosyncrasy in the response.  An individual’s response may vary depending upon whether the person lives in a rural or urban area, lives alone or with a spouse, or belongs to a particular cohort.  In some cases, the individual’s response should be investigated to determine whether it is a reasonable response.  If the individual’s idiosyncratic response is appropriate for his or her circumstances then this fact should be taken into account by person interpreting the scores and making recommendations.  For example, an individual living in a rural area w9th no public transportation or telephone service may give responses that are unique but appropriate to such an environment.  
The factor scores provide additional information to interpret the individual’s performance.  In general, the factors contrast reasoning ability (Problem Solving) with the ability to perform simple tasks (Performance/Information).  The majority of tasks that make up the Performance/Information factor can be taught (e.g., performing simple mathematical calculations or using a phone).  The Problem-Solving factor, however, concerns the individual’s ability to apply this knowledge.  With respect to Health and Safety, for example, an individual may have factual knowledge about which number to dial in case of an emergency (Performance/Information) but may not comprehend that a doctor should be called if chest pain occurs (Problem Solving).
Adults with Chronic Psychiatric Disturbance
The ILS was administered to 110 adults, ages 18 to 84 (mean =51 years SD=16), who were diagnosed with a chronic psychiatric disturbance.  Diagnoses included Major Depression (47%), Schizophrenia (23%), and other (30%-Bipolar Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, Personality Disorder, alcohol Dependence, and Schizoaffective Disorder).  Thirty percent of the group had a psychotic disorder, 66% had a mood disorder, 1% had an anxiety disorder and 3% had a disorder of another type.  Percentages for the lowest reported rating on the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) from the DSM-IV were 25% for 25-40, 35% for 45-55, and 40% for 60-80.  The group consisted of 55% females and 45% males, and 58% Whites, 29% African Americans, 10% Hispanics, and 3% other racial/ethnic origins.  Education-level percentages of the group as measured by years of schooling, were 11% for 9 years or less, 14% for 10-11 years, 64% for 12-15 years, 9% for 16 years or more, and 2% for unknown.  Marital-status percentages of the group were 40%, single, 22% married, 26% divorced, and 12% widowed.  In general, the sensitivity of the ILS cut scores is greater for identifying the adults who had the lowest GAF scores.  Managing Money and Social Adjustment are the most sensitive subscales across all three levels of GAF (page 82 through 83 ILS manual).
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