Integrated Water Resources Management - Science topic
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Questions related to Integrated Water Resources Management
I feel that, in water resource management activities (specially flood management), most of the developed software tools are not widely or continuously used. The reason may be either the decision makers work independently from project to project or fully /partially automate the required processes unique to the project.
I would like to know your experiences as well as comments on the utilization of the software tools to assist flood management decisions.
I have to implement Green Ampt Infiltration equation for daily time step with regional scale over different Land use/Land cover conditions. The Green Ampt parameters are estimated using soil properties, how the equation could be improved for different LULC conditions and what could be the effect of varying spatial and temporal resolution in model performance.
The concept of IWRM was adapted in World Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992 in Rio and in Dublin Principles in 1992, almost 30 years ago, as an for efficient, equitable and sustainable development and management of the world's limited water resources and for coping with conflicting demands. Points for discussion and feedback from for water professionals and Water Management Professors are appreciated:
- Is the concept still valid and recommended for application at national, regional and local level?
- Are you aware of successful case studies for IWRM application at national, regional or local level that can approve by well-identified KPIs?
- What are the key lessons learned after 30 years of IWRM adaption?
Dear Researchers, Water Managers, Climate Experts, and Policymakers,
By understanding the ways in which ancient communities were successful at or failed in attaining sustainable water management, recent studies have attempted to provide important information for modern communities facing climate change impacts which are consequently resulting in water scarcity, security, safety, and sustainability issues. For example:
Conference Paper Study of Vandiyur Tank Cascade System in Madurai: Exploring ...
Can the perspective of re-implementing ancient and indigenous techniques of water management in contemporary conditions be considered as an imperative proposition to drafting modern water management policies? Your opinions, observations from your case studies, and evidence from your published work, if shared, will be gratefully appreciated.
I'm working on my PhD research about IWRM and governace. I would like to analyse the data available with a software, but I'm not really sure which one to use for case studies. Which one would you recommend? I've been reading about Atlas.ti, MAXQDA, dedoose and others.
It is often alleged that the roofing material may introduce some contaminants into the collected water after a prolonged use. Such communities using this facility may not have the resources to periodically change the roof and this can be a challenge.
There is no doubt that the access to surface freshwater is an ecosystem service. However, I feel that the many publications on ecosystem services and disservices with respect to the water supply (and water security as a whole) published those past 15 years have created fuzziness when it comes to qualify the 'origin' of this service.
Although mostly seen as a forest-related ecosystem service, the development of the concepts of hydrologic services and watershed services makes me wonder how those three connect together.
For instance, are all hydrologic services dependent on upstream forest health? If so, they logically are all forest services, even of the forest provides other ones, meaning that the diversity of hydrologic services (see Brauman et al. or Martin-Ortega et al.) is basically nested into the diversity of forest services.
However, when it comes to managing forested areas for the provision of surface freshwater, it is likely that options will be scrutinized at the watershed level (i.e., source water protection). Therefore, even if the watershed scale might be used for the management of other services, it means that forest services are nested into watershed services, right? Or are watershed services only relevant for water-related questions?
This classification is really important to establish because it will guide the management of forest disturbances that can impact water and therefore the mitigation of post-disturbance water risks. Forest disturbances create disservices because they can negatively impact the quality, the quantity, and the timing of the supply, but are those disturbances and their consequences forest disservices, hydrologic disservices, or watershed disservices? It would depend on the classification retained.
What are your thoughts on this topic? Do you have references that would help me connect the dots?
The policy planners are emphasizing to increase the water use efficiency. However, I understand a minimum leaching fraction is essential even for canal water irrigation under arid climates. Arid regions are already facing shortage of good quality water, to meet this shortage poor quality irrigation waters are in use everywhere. I fear, unless magnitude of LR is not considered and met, there must be problems of soil salinity followed by sodicity that is even more difficult to reclaim and manage for crop production for food security.
I would like a more focus on urban areas and urban water use. I am interested to know experiences of drought management in different cities which are faced with drought for example.
The check dams used as torrent control works have some characteristics - in my opinion - which are neither quite those of retention dams (hydraulic structures) nor quite those of retaining walls. So, taking into account their behavior over their period of existence (50 to 100 years), a short period the check dam works as a hydraulic structure subject of hydrostatic/hydrodynamic pressures. Then, after the upstream sector is completely filled with sediments, it works as retaining wall, perodically submited to floods. I put this question because, verifying such a structure using Eurocode 7 I obtain larger dimensions than using the old global factors of safety. And a more than 100 years of experience shows that economically the last approach is better.
According with the experience and technical regulations in the European countries, are them subject of Eurocode 7 or of some special regulations?
Through my previous study, I found that there are four groups of stakeholders in IWRM such as;
1. Scientific modelers -Provide hydro, GIS, economic, etc models
2. Decision-makers and their assistants - Who governs the system, ppl who run the decision-making procedures/systems, outside organizations who influence the decisions
3.Recipients/general public - all the people who enjoy/suffer from the decisions
4.Tool/Software developers - The tech team who automate or develop procedures to make decisions
1.To whom should I give priority?
2. Whose idea is the first idea?
We know that there are lots of tools to manage the floods. Those tools may be software tools or procedures. But have we clearly identified all the components and stakeholders in the tools?.
Then I have developed a conceptual model which consists of not only stakeholders but also the hydrology model and GIS model.
I need to confirm the model or need your observation to modify it.
Hence express your ideas on
1. Do you agree with the components identified?
2. What are the additional components to be included in the model?
I am well aware that all infrastructure and water management planning functions are to some extent political in nature. Apologies for a very broad question, I am interested in other researchers opinions and experiences.
I am interested in (a) how damaging can 3/4 year election cycles be on water sector outcomes? (b) have any attempts been made anywhere to protect public water sector from political cycles? (c) sometimes I'm sure political champions are a great benefit to water sector outcomes, what are some good examples of this?
I welcome both links to research, and also personal opinion and experiences.
The very concept of "garbage" is a violation of the law of gravity. Only Elon Musk, owner of Space-X corporation can actually "throw garbage away" and not have it come back to earth, and even he can only put it into orbit, not send it to some distant star to be consumed by nuclear forces. What we eat that is not digested and put to use by our bodies is not "garbage", nor is it problematic "waste".
Sewage is a resource. Some people are making the analogy that water is more precious for our future than oil. I certainly agree with that. I also believe that sewage is and will continue to be more valuable than diamonds.
Sewage is full of urea, the same molecule used to synthesize fertilizers. Indeed before modern chemical companies started synthesizing urea based fertilizers, pig urine was a principal contributor toward re-nitrification of cropland soils. Manure spreaders that distributed whole the various animal droppings on fields to produce more fertile ground for the following year. They often didn't have enough in total to cover their entire farm every year so it was added every third, fourth or fifth year, which usually proved sufficient to sustain healthy growth rates. Chemical fertilizers, applied yearly, of course, were designed to maximize growth every year. Urine rich sewage water could be treated with UV and Ozone to eliminate disease vectors (as drinking water is) as it is pumped into trucks on the way to either farms or fertilizer factories.
The same applies to sewage sludge, full of proteins, starches (carbohydrates, which like cellulosic sugars can readily be converted to hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels). So, in effect, sewage systems, by way of analogy, are like a river of diamonds flowing directly into your "factory" as a "no cost" supply of feedstock as soon as the collection system is built.
Sewage collection could be a profit center rather than a cost center for a municipal government. The revenue derived justifies the capital expense of developing modern sewer systems in line with UN Millennium Development Goals, and their maintenance and operations and expansions as well. When sewage is a "for profit" enterprise (or at least operated as self-sustaining, without any additional tax burdens) it takes away the excuse to not follow through on MDG's for better sanitation (and not just coincidentally cleaner water resources as well) doesn't it?
Eventually, the remaining water is at least clean enough for "grey water" uses, but potentially could be "recycled" in a potable water system, too, since standard filtering, and UV & Ozone sanitation would render it safe, right?
Why are planning engineers not presenting robust sewage planning to politicians in this light? Even if the economic threshold of profitability is not present at the time of construction, inevitable urban growth will get them to that threshold, probably long before the 30 year public/municipal (in US, tax free) bond comes due. Isn't it true that whether it is for Soweto, South Africa, or Bangor, Maine, the same long term planning and implementation of a revenue generating resource system could be applied to sewage systems around the world?
We observed a huge difference between simulated and observed outflows from a catchment during a hydrological modelling exercise in HEC-HMS. The catchment contains numerous ponds and smaller lakes (of varying areal extent), lacking operational data. How can we account for the effect of these storage structures in the hydrological modelling?
There has been an increasing support for floating solar panels over water bodies saying that it reduces the land footprint for such solar projects, decreases surface temperature of the water body thereby reducing the rate of evaporation and utilises a large dynamic area which is more effective way of capturing the solar radiation.
I am trying to find out and understand the negative side of such floating solar panel projects (if there are any).
I am looking for a source that provides water main breaks throughout the US, preferably in real time. I know almost every water utility and wholesaler will share this information if it will cause damage or water outages. But I am in search of sources or a "centralized" source to know of a water main break in real time.
Although the contamination of wells with petroleum waste in Jaffna in Northern Sri Lanka had been reported by many people, their claims are being challenged by many, especially local politicians, citing the lack of research evidence in this issue.
How can we remove Oil From drinking water?
I would like to request that if anybody have Budyko Frame work in excel (Macro), or MATLAB code or any other userfriendly tool for water balance study induced by climate change. Please share.
Any idea how to use Budyko Framework also appriciated.
Working on the sustainability of the water basins, I focused more on the current approach of Integrated Water Resource Management.
There are two main challenges in the real projects:
1: The definition of "integration" in large scale of water structure is unclear and complex
2: The implementation of the concept in the real project seems difficult
The main question is what criteria should be in priority toward implementing integrated water basin management??
As i know IWRM is a new concept that has identified economic value of water. However IWRM focuses of equity rather than equality. The concern is " was there any equity during fragmented approach? If yes what and how "
Generally, to maintain ecological status, five factors are considered for a river ecosystem:
1. flowing water that is mostly unidirectional
2. a state of continuous physical change
3. many different (and changing) microhabitats
4. variability in the flow rates of water
5. plants and animals that have adapted to live within water flow conditions.
During water distribution of trans border water resources, only water is considered irrespective of water ecology. If we want to consider river ecology, especially for maintaining fish population, and want to estimate minimum water flow, what procedure may be adopted to identify minimum required flow?
I am teaching undergraduate 3rd and 4th year students the course "sustainable management of water resources"
I really appreciate if anyone can help me with teaching materials or text books for this subject.
Lets stay sustainable and ensure our tomorrow,
Dear respected colleagues,
My heart is very saddened to hear the rampant incidences of floods reported in various parts of the world. My condolences to families that have lost dear loved ones and relatives as well as highly esteemed country men. My country Ghana has not been spared of the anger of the floods either.
Personally, I get annoyed at the unruly anthropogenic activities that disrupt the pathways of water bodies such as the construction of houses in the frontiers of rivers and other water bodies. I am incensed at companies that discharge their harmful industrial eflluents into the water bodies and irresponsible citizens who direct their domestic wastes into rivers. What kind of societies are we building that are so cruel to our environments?
We reap what we sow. The situation of floods taking lives and properties break my heart. Please, what can we do about this? What proper structures can we put in force to avert this situation?
In my city Kumasi, there is going to be a massive demolition exercise of houses and firms situated at wrong locations causing the floods, starting today.
Kindly share your valued views on how we can handcuff flooding to save the world. Kind regards
When looking at the effects of climate change on modeled streamflow, is the amplitude of the seasonal cycle (maximum month - minimum month, from an annual climatology) a useful metric? I can imagine this would matter for ecosystems who rely on streamflow velocities falling within a certain range, or for reservoir operations in general, but I'm struggling to find articles discussing it. Does anyone know of a good source addressing the importance of seasonal amplitude? Or is this not an important consideration?
Barind area of Bangladesh is a water crisis area. The problems acute day by day. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) project has been undertaken. We are working as follow the guideline of GWP and trying to get solution implementing appropriate context specific model.
"Boro rice" is most water consuming rice. We are motivating farmer to shift that crops with less water consuming crops e.g: maize, wheat, tomato etc. Farmers also adopted it.
Beside the many intervention we also installed water efficient technology like AWD, drip irrigation etc.
We calculated that, replacing boro cultivation in 1 hectare of land with wheat, tomato, and fruits saves annually 1.6 million cubic metre of equivalent to 100’000 people’s annual domestic water need.
Interventions in agriculture have a much higher effect compared to the interventions above at HH level or the MAR system where there we talk about thousands of m3, while the agriculture related interventions we talk about millions of m3.
A question is that, Is MAR needed for establishing true IWRM? How are the impact? Though a little contribution, why we invest a big budget to MAR compared to cost benefit analysis of agricultural intervention?
Some single or multi-jet water meters (like this one: https://www.heatingandprocess.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Elster-M170-Water-Meter-Product-Data-Sheet.pdf) having an inbuild Magnet Protection against tampering with magnets. My questión is: How effective is this protection or is it necessary to take additional measures to avoid (magnet-) tampering? Especially: How it depends on strength and distance of the magnet from the meter?
There are different international law, doctrines for Trans Boundary Water Resources, such as:
1. Absolute territorial sovereignty theory
2. Absolute territorial integrity theory
3. Theory of limited territorial sovereignty.
4. Water Rights Based on Previous Use or Prior Appropriation
5. Riparian water rights
Although water covers more than two-thirds of the earth's surface, but 97% is in oceans and 2℅ locked in ice-cap and not available to human beings for consumption. Only 1℅ is termed as fresh water (surface & ground water). Therefore, water as a limited resource that is in great demand. The manner in which this demand is satisfied varies according to the jurisdiction in which a water supply is located. In case of trans-water resources, the upstream country has got upper hand to manipulate the river flow. This manipulation can be interpreted under various approaches and doctrines. Each approach has its weaknesses, and jurisdictions will continue experimenting with established legal doctrines to better accommodate the supply and demand of water rights.
Various treaties concluded to decide on the water. Question arose, either there is any such doctrines exists that protecting the ecology?
I want to know whether there is a delay between infiltration of surface water and precipitation to aquifers (groundwater). If so, please suggest how much time is needed ?
Groundwater = Precipitation * k,
is there k ( fraction of precipitation/surface water) goes to be groundwater ?
I would like to ask that between Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) and Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) which is good model in permafrost hydrology prespectve. I have to choose anyone between these two models. I am confused and not yet finally decided.
Expert opinion is highly appriciated and valuable.
Thanks in anticipation.
Both of groundwater modeling system(GMS) and surface water modeling system(SMS) are well known.
Is it possible link them to evaluate flow exchange and pollution transport in river-aquifer interactions?
Which two software do you recommend for this purpose?
Thank you for even the slightest mention about this.
As we know that construction of unit hydrograph for a guged locations helps in discharge estimation, especially peak discharge.
I am interested to construct the unit hydrograph of a particular gauging site for which I have multiple rainfall runoff events. In order to construct unit hydrograph what are the criteria for selection of events and how to construct UH from these events. What is it's acceptability, mean how can we validate the constructed UH?
I request you to list some major factors or phenomenal difference between Stream bed erosion and soil erosion.
River flow causes soil erosion. The finer soil particle eroded as suspended particles and the eroded coarser particles settles down after some time and again the cycle of erosion and deposition continues. In this process water and soil two major things. in such a situation how does water availability in the river related to the sand mining related.
How do you manage to introduce real aspects in your modelling?
I mean, MCDM does not exactly mean filling data in a model and running it. Real aspects of the problem must forcefully be considered. Perhaps the best way is illustrate this by some examples.
1-Precedence. Say that you have two projects A (build a government complex in an island in the middle of a city river), and B (Building a bridge connecting mainland with the island). How do you introduce the fact that to build the complex you first need to build the bridge? That is B > A.
2- A MCDM study calls for selecting either a tunnel, a bridge or cross the river using ferries. You only need one solution, that is, one project with ‘1’ score and the others with ‘0’ scores. How can you model this condition?
3- You are calling an international tender for supplying equipment for a hydro electric power plant. What provisions do you have in your model to allow joint ventures, which is two or more companies submitting together?
4- How do you consider in your modelling that if project C is selected, then project D can’t be selected?
5- How you tackle in your portfolio of projects the fact that there are already projects under different stages of construction, different completion dates, and you want to incorporate new projects? Of course you must indicate the model that projects underway must be finished; how do you model this?
6- In the last case you have a fixed annual budget to spend, however, each project has different annual percentages of completion and that annual budget can’t be surpassed
7 How do you manage to select projects in a portfolio when funds are not enough to execute them all? Say you need 32,457,617 Euros and only have 28,745,892 Euros.
8- - You are building a pulp mill in the north shore of a river, as well as developing crops agriculture, building two dams for water storage for irrigation purposes. You know that villages and towns downstream are arguing that they will receive contamination of from the plant, and more salinization as well as less water. How do you manage to satisfy all parts involved?
9- A multinational operate in farming, that is, different crops, cattle rising, fruit farms and juice concentrate plants in several countries. How do they manage to select which crop to cultivate in each country, how many hectares of each one, where to build the fruit farms and considering that to build the concentrate plants they need first to have fruit available nearby? How do you tackle this multiple scenarios problem?
10- A City Hall wants to execute a five year plan for the city infrastructure including sewage and LED street lighting, social undertakings such as developing community centers for youngster to get kids off the streets and building recreational parks, and similar projects for other areas. The whole plan has a healthy budget that will be handed over from the central government on an annual basis. How do you model your initial decision matrix for making the corresponding selection and be sure that each area receives the amounts of money it needs?
11- A DM delivers a ranking of projects for a City Hall ten years plan. Projects G-A-M-N-B-C-Z-Y are chosen and in this order of importance. The DM submits this plan to the Mayor and he asks ‘Where is project X that I promised to be built during my campaign for office? The DM explains that project X was originally considered but was not selected by the model. The Mayor says ‘I don’t really care what the mathematical model days, I want project X incorporated into the plan’, believe me that this happens and very often. How do you manage to get this project X in the final solution?
12- You have a budget for city infrastructure with money coming from Federal, Regional and Urban sources, each one for different purposes. The plan calls for renovating new bridges, demolishing old ones or building new ones. How do you manage to model this?
13- How do you consider correlation between criteria? Assume that you have determined that under certain conditions criterion ‘Snowfall intensity’ is highly correlated with ‘Speed’. How do you model that?
14- In an oil refinery, you have production, storage and distribution. How do you manage a model in order never run out of storage and never leave clients without oil products? It is relatively easy using linked algebraic equations. However, how do you introduce those equations in your model?
15- Once a MCDM is solved, the DM informs stakeholders which is the solution. How is the DM answer when one stakeholder asks how market share, demand and competition affect the selected alternative when the three of them vary simultaneously, with different positive and negative rates and independently?
16- How do you model a problem with say 245 alternatives and 891 criteria and with many of them related?
17- In an urban road project with three different alternatives, there is a survey amongst people affected by the projects. How do you introduce the statistical data in the initial matrix?
These are real problems and a MCDM method should be able to solve them.
If some practitioner ever found himself in any of these problems I believe that all RG community will be very grateful in knwing how it was solved and usinn which model
In the EU the "Proposed EU minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge" are under discussion and the scientific advice by SCHEER (Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks) on JRC related document was published last July 10, 2017 (please see attached document or link to EC web-page http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/updates)
In its advice SCHEER suggests to expand JRC respective tables by including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and antibiotic resistance (AR) indicator. What is your opinion, should "EU minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge" include CECs and AR?
Much is touted about the use of GPR for the detection of illegal water connections. But: Is there any independent evaluation, which also exposes the limitations and problems of the use of GPR for the detection of illegal water connections?
How it behaves on different types of soil?
How often the detections of illegal connections turned out to be wrong (other tipe of pipes or no pipe at all)?
Can the GPR detect bypass just below the legal connection?
Kindly consider energy prices and farms need for natural fertilizers.
In Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea, there are around 350-400 dugwells in 1 sq.km. There are burial grounds very close to these wells. People are mostly dependent on these wells for there day to day domestic purposes including drinking, as there is no alternate water sources in these tiny Islands. Hence I would like to know any systematic study has been done by anybody indicating the effect of graveyards on groundwater quality and also its impact on the human health.
In the frame of flood protection it becomes necessary to use land from third party land owners like farmers, for instance for water retention in polder areas. What kind of compensation schemes do exist on international scale for the land owner compensation for that kind of service ? Are these mainly monetary compensations, or are there also other types of incentives ? Thank you in advance !
What are the freely available hydraulic models that can be used to understand hydraulics in canal system of large scale irrigation (65000 hectares) scheme? The canal system has sediment problem and has decreased the capacity of canal in some portions. Which model is suitable?
Currently we are trying to locate clandestine (illegal) water connections by acoustic location of plastic pipes in Moquegua (Peru). Are there any known experiences of this kind ?
Urban greening (the provision of additional trees and green open space within a city) is widely acknowledged to provide benefits, such as increased mental and physical health, reduction of heat island effect, increasing house prices and protecting biodiversity.
The water sector (water utilities and catchment authorities) are generally expected to provide water supply, sewerage and drainage services to urban areas. In some cities it is now popular to provide wetlands and biofilters sometimes referred to as "green infrastructure", "sustainable urban drainage systems", or "water sensitive urban design".
However aside from these stormwater management systems, what else should water utilities be doing to support urban greening and cooling?
Do they have a role in coordination and implementation of tree planting? Should policies be put in place to increase irrigation during heat wave events? Do they have authority to influence new developments?
I am interested in everyone's thoughts and also any examples of water authorities becoming involved in greening and cooling, thank you.
Dear all, I am searching for publications regarding construction of pipelines on karst (focusing on gas pipelines). I would especially be grateful for publications presenting cases in Europe. Thank you for your help.
My project is about the public participation and environmental education in water area,so I would like to get some information about this case.
A Qanat is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking. The qanat technology is known to have been developed in ancient Iran. Nowadays lots of these qanats are out of service and may have been destroyed. So it's possible to flow subsurface water and wastewater through these qanats. In your opinion is it necessary to model and how can I model these qanats in the GMS, as effective factors in groundwater modelling approach?
Actually i'm modelling an aquifer using GMS 10.1 and I don't know how to model qanats which do not have discharge but they can drain wastewater easily from one point to another and affect water level.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation.
I'm looking for a strong African case of supporting catchment based management using a social learning approach? I'm also interested in cases that speak to scaling up social learning or any literature on scaling up social processes in IWRM. Thanks
Recently I read about the Unmeasured-Flow Reducer (UFR) produced by AY McDonald to reduce the under-registration of low flow rates in water meters. The problem is that the device is quite expensive, so it can not be used in a cost-efficent way in Developing Countries with low water prices.
So my question is: Are there any low-cost alternatives to the UFR?
By adopting good water management practices (by reducing the duty of water for cultivation) definitely you can achieve this. But the question is how to convince the agriculture users.
I have to use "GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation" called (GAGAN) for DEM generation in mountainous region, so how it can be done and How the results obtained from it can be validated.
How many minimum number of control points that needed for DEM generation?
People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Friends I have seen the Indian journey of 'integrated watershed management' programs since last 3 decades and entered in 4th decade. I would like to ask opinion of esteemed subject experts available here on below given school of thoughts....
1. A shed where 'water' must be top priority and most focused entity, is use to be true area qualified for being designated as watershed. with years after years operational guidlines, execution architecture, elements of activities and accordingly divisions and further divisions of allocated 'sphere' of budget as well as time, gets sliced to accommodate n number of activities reaching up to piggeries, poltry, dairy, social , animal, etc etc...In that course of journey,,the ' water' has moved out of center i.e. focus and watersheds have gained the shape of certain demonstration units of planning n development activities of various government non government organizations to harness political social and other demonstration values in a time framed way..keeping hydrological understanding and planning at a side away from center point.
2. vast amount of funds are poured in the name of integrated development of watersheds. I my self has been engauged in more than 20 such watersheds across different parts of country in last 32 years, but when visited them got this question in mind...they are still thirsty for water and hungary for nutrients, because once the project is withdrawn most of then revert back to same point on circumference of zero , where some years ago they started. again new projects new budgets new team new treatment n development...process go on....I do not find any pleasing & accurately accepted answer..though i have 1000 of answers inside me. ..thats why i put this question here...lets debate or exchange ..to understand it ..and give some tasty food for thought..i know my question is not so catchy,,but written and floated randomly...to hit some where and to get from some where..
Dr M L Gaur
Major challenge in subsurface drip for vegetable cultivation is emitter clogging by soil or roots. Any effective solution to this issue?? I am operating the system in sandy loam soil with one day irrigation interval. Emitters are placed 15 cm below soil surface.
Many studies related to ecology conservation and water footprint require precise assessment of environmental flows. Is there any method that can assess the environmental flow requirements based on the historic flow records or any other such inputs.
I am trying to create a framework to understand urban water services (drinking water, waste water and surface water) from an institutional point of view. I see that there is profound disagreement about what governance actually is. After some reading my conclusion is that governance is a process that brings actors to create/modify/reinforce institutions (the social structure: the rules of the game, formal and informal, i.e. rules, norms and cultural-cognitive elements), so this institutions shape the behavior of all stakeholders. Do you agree with this interpretation?.
How can "management of services" fit in this framework?. Is management also a process limited and enabled by the institutions created/modified/reinforced by governance?
I appreciate you comments
The sketch for my question can be reached via this link (you don't have to log in or sign in to dropbox, please click on the background in the opened window to see the sketch):
There is a water tank located at 224 m. It provides water to the network downstream. There are 2 PRVs located one (PRV1) at 164 m and the other (PRV2) at 123 m. A bifurcation at around 101 m conveys water to the eastern districts. The main pipe pursues to the southern main network.
The output head of PRV2 is around 154 m. Theoretically this head is adequate to feed the branched network section located around 129.5 m (see the right network branch). However, one of the technical staff of the water administrative claims that as PRV2 is located at 123 m, which is below 129.5 m, they face some practical problems during operation.
According to him, as there is a bifurcation at around 101 m, when the demand in the main pipe (the pipe going to the lower part of the paper/southern network) reduces to very low levels, air accumulates at PRV2 and stops valve's operation. According to him, this air should be evacuated in order to reoperate the valve.
To my knowledge, it is nonsense as there is always adequate head at the downstream of PRV2. I made a research and could not find any papers discussing such an operation problem.
As a note I should mention that these PRVs are not calibrated by the valve producers. I suppose the very same technical guy adjusts the output water heads of these valves.
Thanks in advance for your valuable comments.
I am working on a research project to quantify the economic and social costs of corruption in the water sector. To this end, I would greatly appreciate any inputs in terms of:
- Corruption risk areas (e.g. kickbacks during procurement) pertaining to the water sector. Experience suggests that risks from other utilities can be highly relevant.
- Corruption indicators for the water sector (or utilities in general). Here the criteria would be to identify indicators on which data can be relatively easily obtained.
- Any existing studies/ data sources that you might be aware of which can be valuable for the purposes of this project.
We have collected data from a river and we are trying to map the findings and calculate the level of pollution for the river. We collected and analysed water samples from fixed small interval (20km) for the river. Now we have data like BOD, COD, DO, water Colouration, heavy metals and some other physical properties.
Water a critical resource has to be conserved, preserved and recycled. The universal use would mean a kind of sensitivity that need to have an universal understanding. More than the development control don't you think a participatory approach would have a better outreach.
Chunnakam aquifer in Jaffna Sri Lanka is contaminated with nitrate for long period by high usage of agrochemicals. Last couple of years, due to a thermal power station the aquifer is contaminated with used oil by this power station.
Now some people in developed countries are trying to say there is no harmful oil contamination for human constitution in the ground water by testing with FROG 5000.
The following two protest is there among the academic society about the FROG 5000 field equipment
1. Nitrate contamination will give low BTEX levels
2. All the BTEX volatile contents of the Oils in Chunnakam water will evaporate away and will show ZERO results with much more tests by the Famous FROG 4000
I want guidance and advice from all of you
I am attaching one report published by National Water Supply and Drainage Board and a report of Institution of Engineers Northern Chapter on this issue.
These two reports will give you a very good insight of this problem