Science topic

Integrated Water Resources Management - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Integrated Water Resources Management, and find Integrated Water Resources Management experts.
Questions related to Integrated Water Resources Management
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
1 answer
please help me!
Relevant answer
Answer
Linear regression will be the most reliable method, if you have another meteorological site nearby, with proper data. Find a meteorological site, then build linear function between two sites, if R exceeds 0.7, you may generate data for your site.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
I have to implement Green Ampt Infiltration equation for daily time step with regional scale over different Land use/Land cover conditions. The Green Ampt parameters are estimated using soil properties, how the equation could be improved for different LULC conditions and what could be the effect of varying spatial and temporal resolution in model performance.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
8 answers
The concept of IWRM was adapted in World Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992 in Rio and in Dublin Principles in 1992, almost 30 years ago, as an for efficient, equitable and sustainable development and management of the world's limited water resources and for coping with conflicting demands. Points for discussion and feedback from for water professionals and Water Management Professors are appreciated:
- Is the concept still valid and recommended for application at national, regional and local level?
- Are you aware of successful case studies for IWRM application at national, regional or local level that can approve by well-identified KPIs?
- What are the key lessons learned after 30 years of IWRM adaption?
Relevant answer
Answer
An integrated water resources perspective ensures that social, economic, environmental and technical dimensions are taken into account in the management and development of water resources
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
19 answers
Dear Researchers, Water Managers, Climate Experts, and Policymakers,
By understanding the ways in which ancient communities were successful at or failed in attaining sustainable water management, recent studies have attempted to provide important information for modern communities facing climate change impacts which are consequently resulting in water scarcity, security, safety, and sustainability issues. For example:
Can the perspective of re-implementing ancient and indigenous techniques of water management in contemporary conditions be considered as an imperative proposition to drafting modern water management policies? Your opinions, observations from your case studies, and evidence from your published work, if shared, will be gratefully appreciated.
Yours Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Relevant answer
Depende del contexto y las condiciones para su aplicación.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
13 answers
I'm working on my PhD research about IWRM and governace. I would like to analyse the data available with a software, but I'm not really sure which one to use for case studies. Which one would you recommend? I've been reading about Atlas.ti, MAXQDA, dedoose and others.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would like to suggest the WEAP model. Maybe it would help.
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
Water decontamination
Relevant answer
Answer
As far as my understanding of the system is concerned, I feel forceful execution of policies for management of catchment waste and effluents and mass awareness campaigns is the only solution to clean up #Sacred Ganga and other water bodies. The sources of almost all the rivers are still pristine and clean. If downstream is managed, we will see Ganga and other rivers reverberating again with purity within a short period of time.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
7 answers
It is often alleged that the roofing material may introduce some contaminants into the collected water after a prolonged use. Such communities using this facility may not have the resources to periodically change the roof and this can be a challenge.
Relevant answer
Answer
organic roofs or those that accumulate organic matter over time have lower water quality
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
18 answers
I would like a more focus on urban areas and urban water use. I am interested to know experiences of drought management in different cities which are faced with drought for example.
Relevant answer
Answer
Krishnan Umachandran I agree with him. Very good answer.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
The check dams used as torrent control works have some characteristics - in my opinion - which are neither quite those of retention dams (hydraulic structures) nor quite those of retaining walls. So, taking into account their behavior over their period of existence (50 to 100 years), a short period the check dam works as a hydraulic structure subject of hydrostatic/hydrodynamic pressures. Then, after the upstream sector is completely filled with sediments, it works as retaining wall, perodically submited to floods. I put this question because, verifying such a structure using Eurocode 7 I obtain larger dimensions than using the old global factors of safety. And a more than 100 years of experience shows that economically the last approach is better. 
According with the experience and technical regulations in the European countries, are them subject of Eurocode 7 or of some special regulations? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Check dams reduce erosion of the area around the highway. They can be designed also using EC 2 ON CONCRETE STRUCTURES.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
How can measure the uncertainty in water supply scenarios?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you good Question
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
56 answers
Dear All,
Through my previous study, I found that there are four groups of stakeholders in IWRM such as;
1. Scientific modelers -Provide hydro, GIS, economic, etc models
2. Decision-makers and their assistants - Who governs the system, ppl who run the decision-making procedures/systems, outside organizations who influence the decisions
3.Recipients/general public - all the people who enjoy/suffer from the decisions
4.Tool/Software developers - The tech team who automate or develop procedures to make decisions
So
1.To whom should I give priority?
2. Whose idea is the first idea?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. R M M Pradeep very interesting analysis regarding who are the most important stakeholders. Here we talk about integrated water management.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
21 answers
We know that there are lots of tools to manage the floods. Those tools may be software tools or procedures. But have we clearly identified all the components and stakeholders in the tools?.
Then I have developed a conceptual model which consists of not only stakeholders but also the hydrology model and GIS model.
I need to confirm the model or need your observation to modify it.
Hence express your ideas on
1. Do you agree with the components identified?
2. What are the additional components to be included in the model?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
@Rmm Pradeep
I am working as a consultant for WRD, Assam. The department receives the model outcomes (prepared by NESAC) during flood time and takes action based on it. The department was a part of the decision makers during formulation of the model and one of the end users too.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
I am well aware that all infrastructure and water management planning functions are to some extent political in nature. Apologies for a very broad question, I am interested in other researchers opinions and experiences.
I am interested in (a) how damaging can 3/4 year election cycles be on water sector outcomes? (b) have any attempts been made anywhere to protect public water sector from political cycles? (c) sometimes I'm sure political champions are a great benefit to water sector outcomes, what are some good examples of this?
I welcome both links to research, and also personal opinion and experiences.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hallo from Peru - you are describing actually the very same situation we are facing here. Almost all Utilities are municipal. Some 10 years ago the 6 members of the supervisory boards where apointed directly by the municipalities. Since then there where 2 steps forward, that didnt solve the problem at all, but helped:
(1) The supervisory board are now composed by 5 members: 2 from municipal governments, 1 from regional governments, 1 from the professional asociations and 1 by the civic society. That made it somewhat more difficult to change all the professional staff by unexperienced friends of the mayors. (2) The second step was, that for many positions in the utilities are now a minimum of experience and academic degrees are requiered.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
8 answers
The very concept of "garbage" is a violation of the law of gravity. Only Elon Musk, owner of Space-X corporation can actually "throw garbage away" and not have it come back to earth, and even he can only put it into orbit, not send it to some distant star to be consumed by nuclear forces. What we eat that is not digested and put to use by our bodies is not "garbage", nor is it problematic "waste".
Sewage is a resource. Some people are making the analogy that water is more precious for our future than oil. I certainly agree with that. I also believe that sewage is and will continue to be more valuable than diamonds.
Sewage is full of urea, the same molecule used to synthesize fertilizers. Indeed before modern chemical companies started synthesizing urea based fertilizers, pig urine was a principal contributor toward re-nitrification of cropland soils. Manure spreaders that distributed whole the various animal droppings on fields to produce more fertile ground for the following year. They often didn't have enough in total to cover their entire farm every year so it was added every third, fourth or fifth year, which usually proved sufficient to sustain healthy growth rates. Chemical fertilizers, applied yearly, of course, were designed to maximize growth every year. Urine rich sewage water could be treated with UV and Ozone to eliminate disease vectors (as drinking water is) as it is pumped into trucks on the way to either farms or fertilizer factories.
The same applies to sewage sludge, full of proteins, starches (carbohydrates, which like cellulosic sugars can readily be converted to hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels). So, in effect, sewage systems, by way of analogy, are like a river of diamonds flowing directly into your "factory" as a "no cost" supply of feedstock as soon as the collection system is built.
Sewage collection could be a profit center rather than a cost center for a municipal government. The revenue derived justifies the capital expense of developing modern sewer systems in line with UN Millennium Development Goals, and their maintenance and operations and expansions as well. When sewage is a "for profit" enterprise (or at least operated as self-sustaining, without any additional tax burdens) it takes away the excuse to not follow through on MDG's for better sanitation (and not just coincidentally cleaner water resources as well) doesn't it?
Eventually, the remaining water is at least clean enough for "grey water" uses, but potentially could be "recycled" in a potable water system, too, since standard filtering, and UV & Ozone sanitation would render it safe, right?
Why are planning engineers not presenting robust sewage planning to politicians in this light? Even if the economic threshold of profitability is not present at the time of construction, inevitable urban growth will get them to that threshold, probably long before the 30 year public/municipal (in US, tax free) bond comes due. Isn't it true that whether it is for Soweto, South Africa, or Bangor, Maine, the same long term planning and implementation of a revenue generating resource system could be applied to sewage systems around the world?
Relevant answer
Answer
Following as sewage itself is not resource it has to be given proper treatment and convert it to be resource.. So long as appropriate treatment is not imparted sewage is liability.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
11 answers
We observed a huge difference between simulated and observed outflows from a catchment during a hydrological modelling exercise in HEC-HMS. The catchment contains numerous ponds and smaller lakes (of varying areal extent), lacking operational data. How can we account for the effect of these storage structures in the hydrological modelling?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not totally familiar with HEC-HMS. I believe that it runs by reaches, with a stage, storage, outflow for each reach, is that correct? If so, then you need to make each reservoir along the river to to have its own stage storage outflow information. This is challenging modeling, so it will take some time to fully describe each of the reservoirs.
If you are modeling the upland runoff to HEC-HMS using the Curve Number methodology, there is a way in the method to account for the effect of reservoir storage in the sub basins. Let me know if you need some suggestions on how to do that.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
9 answers
Thanks for your answers fellows.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Mr. Gunathilake for providing such an informative papers. Yes in many watershed development programmes across India IWRM is practiced. In some of them evaluation studies are also carried out. My only doubt is the sustainability of these coordinated activities. There is lack of interest and coordination between different agencies, and also in some cases there is overlapping of activities/interest between agencies.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
26 answers
There has been an increasing support for floating solar panels over water bodies saying that it reduces the land footprint for such solar projects, decreases surface temperature of the water body thereby reducing the rate of evaporation and utilises a large dynamic area which is more effective way of capturing the solar radiation.
I am trying to find out and understand the negative side of such floating solar panel projects (if there are any).
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Ankit,
The impacts of floating solar panels on water bodies can be analyzed depending on the type of body...If the water body is artificial (a dam or channel) then some positive (environmental) aspects might arise as the ones you describe.
Some negative environmental impacts can appear when the floating solar panels are installed on natural water bodies such as lakes or rivers. Perhaps the most import impact has to do with the food chain of these ecosystems. Since the solar energy is limited by the panels, the bottom of the chain (producers such as algae) would not be enough to support the next levels (insects, fish, etc.) affecting/changing the whole ecosystem. Other negative impacts (socio-economic) could also affect tourism, fishing, and navigation.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
1 answer
I am looking for a source that provides water main breaks throughout the US, preferably in real time. I know almost every water utility and wholesaler will share this information if it will cause damage or water outages. But I am in search of sources or a "centralized" source to know of a water main break in real time.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
15 answers
There is no doubt that the access to surface freshwater is an ecosystem service. However, I feel that the many publications on ecosystem services and disservices with respect to the water supply (and water security as a whole) published those past 15 years have created fuzziness when it comes to qualify the 'origin' of this service.
Although mostly seen as a forest-related ecosystem service, the development of the concepts of hydrologic services and watershed services makes me wonder how those three connect together.
For instance, are all hydrologic services dependent on upstream forest health? If so, they logically are all forest services, even of the forest provides other ones, meaning that the diversity of hydrologic services (see Brauman et al. or Martin-Ortega et al.) is basically nested into the diversity of forest services.
However, when it comes to managing forested areas for the provision of surface freshwater, it is likely that options will be scrutinized at the watershed level (i.e., source water protection). Therefore, even if the watershed scale might be used for the management of other services, it means that forest services are nested into watershed services, right? Or are watershed services only relevant for water-related questions?
This classification is really important to establish because it will guide the management of forest disturbances that can impact water and therefore the mitigation of post-disturbance water risks. Forest disturbances create disservices because they can negatively impact the quality, the quantity, and the timing of the supply, but are those disturbances and their consequences forest disservices, hydrologic disservices, or watershed disservices? It would depend on the classification retained.
What are your thoughts on this topic? Do you have references that would help me connect the dots?
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
In my opinion, if your are studying on a watershed scale, it should be the watershed services since there is a certain border for watersheds, enabling us to measure the service of surface water supply. Also, watershed services can be varied depending on vegetation cover (forests, grassland, etc.) and/or climate, but with a known area (border), a watershed -with or without forest- can be studied better in respect to its provided services.
Good luck..
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
15 answers
thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Fahad ,
According to my understanding ;
IWRM is c a correlated development of water , land and vegetation and other resources without compromising the vital ecosystem.
It is general term .
governed by The four Dublin principle
1. Sustainability principle
2.Equity principle
3.Participatory principle
4.Economic principle
Watershed management is a means of managing certain watershed using structural and nonstructural measures .
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
26 answers
Although the contamination of wells with petroleum waste in Jaffna in Northern Sri Lanka had been reported by many people, their claims are being challenged by many, especially local politicians, citing the lack of research evidence in this issue.
How can we remove Oil From drinking water? 
Relevant answer
Answer
filter through beds of Diatamaceous earth and chitosan flakes
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Dear Researchers,
I would like to request that if anybody have Budyko Frame work in excel (Macro), or MATLAB code or any other userfriendly tool for water balance study induced by climate change. Please share.
OR
Any idea how to use Budyko Framework also appriciated.
Regards
Naveed.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dr Maryam Hafezparast , I have been using WEAP Model sice last 5 years and also delivered many lectures on it also workshops.
Pleas let me know, how I ca use WEAP for this purpose. Can you please further elaborate me so that I can follow your suggestions.
I did not how to use ANNs but over WEAP I have well command upto expert level.
Regards
Naveed.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
10 answers
Working on the sustainability of the water basins, I focused more on the current approach of Integrated Water Resource Management.
There are two main challenges in the real projects:
1: The definition of "integration" in large scale of water structure is unclear and complex
2: The implementation of the concept in the real project seems difficult
The main question is what criteria should be in priority toward implementing integrated water basin management??
Relevant answer
Answer
Here some sources that you are asking about...
The first one: "The paper has been divided into two main parts. The first part puts forward a strong case for applying IWRM globally and defines the IWRM concept and process. The second part provides additional advice and guidance on how IWRM could be implemented in different phases"
The second paper: it has focused in highlighting the lack of addressing the IWRM definitions and concepts, which focus on and influence thinking about sustainability, do not provide us with much indication of how this proposed co-ordination, balancing and integration is to be achieved in practice.
1- Agarwal, Anil, Marian S. delos Angeles, Ramesh Bhatia, Ivan Chéret, Sonia Davila-Poblete, Malin Falkenmark, F. Gonzalez Villarreal et al. Integrated water resources management. Global water partnership, 2000.
2- Stålnacke, Per, and Geoffrey D. Gooch. "Integrated water resources management." Irrigation and Drainage Systems 24, no. 3-4 (2010): 155-159.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
As i know IWRM is a new concept that has identified economic value of water. However IWRM focuses of equity rather than equality. The concern is " was there any equity during fragmented approach? If yes what and how "
Relevant answer
Answer
There was no equity maintained in the fragmented approach. There was no priority fixed. If you consider the irrigation scenario, the tail end farmers were not getting enough water, as most of the water released from the reservoirs was utilised by the upland farmers.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
6 answers
Generally, to maintain ecological status, five factors are considered for a river ecosystem:
1. flowing water that is mostly unidirectional
2. a state of continuous physical change
3. many different (and changing) microhabitats
4. variability in the flow rates of water
5. plants and animals that have adapted to live within water flow conditions.
During water distribution of trans border water resources, only water is considered irrespective of water ecology. If we want to consider river ecology, especially for maintaining fish population, and want to estimate minimum water flow, what procedure may be adopted to identify minimum required flow?
Relevant answer
Answer
There have been various instream flow methodologies developed. A lot depends on the natural range of variation and species present. Some use a minimum value of 7Q10 (the weekly average low that occurs at 10 year frequency). For channel maintenance, there should be at least a bankfull event every year or two to prevent vegetation encroachment, move sediment to maintain channel dimension. I would suggest that one size or cookbook approach is not going to fit all circumstances. Perennial side tributaries along rivers can be localized habitat refuges of cool water and elevated oxygen for mobile species as they enter warm and low oxygen rivers. Fishery and aquatic biologists are apt to have information on the needs of species present. There may be other water use needs to consider, such as swimming, scenic, water available for emergencies as fire control, community and industrial needs, waste treatment and water discharge standards, etc. Some ecosystems also provide important habitats for water birds and animal species.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
7 answers
Dear fellows
I am teaching undergraduate 3rd and 4th year students the course "sustainable management of water resources"
I really appreciate if anyone can help me with teaching materials or text books for this subject.
Lets stay sustainable and ensure our tomorrow,
Relevant answer
Answer
The following are just a few materials I found, yet not necessarily the best material available:
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
72 answers
Dear respected colleagues,
My heart is very saddened to hear the rampant incidences of floods reported in various parts of the world. My condolences to families that have lost dear loved ones and relatives as well as highly esteemed country men. My country Ghana has not been spared of the anger of the floods either.
Personally, I get annoyed at the unruly anthropogenic activities that disrupt the pathways of water bodies such as the construction of houses in the frontiers of rivers and other water bodies. I am incensed at companies that discharge their harmful industrial eflluents into the water bodies and irresponsible citizens who direct their domestic wastes into rivers. What kind of societies are we building that are so cruel to our environments?
We reap what we sow. The situation of floods taking lives and properties break my heart. Please, what can we do about this? What proper structures can we put in force to avert this situation?
In my city Kumasi, there is going to be a massive demolition exercise of houses and firms situated at wrong locations causing the floods, starting today.
Kindly share your valued views on how we can handcuff flooding to save the world. Kind regards
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Colleagues,
That is an interesting issue and I enjoyed reading the contributions. To widen the horizon of the discussion, I would like to add some other geoscientific points of view that have been only partly considered yet. (In the following I will not consider flash floods, being another issue.)
My home country, Hungary, being the second most flood-endangered country in Europe (after The Netherlands) is mostly composed of floodplains. As Bruno already mentioned above, wetlands are important part of such hydrological and sedimentary settings, but it was not discussed in details why.
The Pannonian Basin is currently a puzzle of differential uplift/subsidence. This applies to the floodplains, too. In natural conditions, if there is a differential subsidence (i.e. some parts of the basic subside somewhat more rapidly, because of tectonic/geodynamic reasons) the regular (decadal/centennial) large floods deliver and distribute sediment to the whole floodplain, filling the more rapidly subsiding part with somewhat more sediments, so the large floods equilibrate the surface in long term. You will observe this phenomenon in the sedimentary record, creating various sedimentation rates in the basin.
Now, if we build levees to protect our built-up structures or even croplands against floods, what happens in a century or more (we observe that in the Tisza Plain) is that the sediments will not be distributed in the whole basin, just within the levees. In consequence
  1. the area within the levees will be actually higher than the other (protected) side of the levees, increasing the water level anyhow;
  2. the differential subsidence will not be compensated by the distribution of sediments, this way the areas characterised by slower subsidence will decrease the slope of the dewatering rivers, building up an obstacle (actually a big and wide natural dam) considerably increasing the flood levels in these areas.
The important message that we have learned from this (and here I mention my colleague, Gábor Timár (also at RG) who had a lion's share in explaining this phenomenon) that you cannot build higher and higher levees in long term to protect yourself from the increasing flood levels. You have to let more space for the rivers to meander, to deposit their sediments, this will slow down this complex geoscientific process. For that creating wetlands it is a good idea, not only because of the ecological reasons, but also for slowing down the unequilibrated sediment distribution blocked by the levees.
Thank you for your attention, kind regards, Balázs
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
11 answers
When looking at the effects of climate change on modeled streamflow, is the amplitude of the seasonal cycle (maximum month - minimum month, from an annual climatology) a useful metric? I can imagine this would matter for ecosystems who rely on streamflow velocities falling within a certain range, or for reservoir operations in general, but I'm struggling to find articles discussing it. Does anyone know of a good source addressing the importance of seasonal amplitude? Or is this not an important consideration?
Thank you!
Meg
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Megan,
the importance of the seasonal amplitude of streamflow is enormous from an ecological standpoint in many systems, e.g. in non-perennial rivers and streams (NPRS) (see e.g. Skoulikidis et al. 2017 and references therein). This was even one of the main points determining the evolution of the concepts of ecologically sustainable flows from a minimum vital flow to environmental or ecological flows since the 1990s.
Related to this is the ecological relevance of the spatial and SEASONAL extent of Water-Level Fluctuations (WLF) in lakes and reservoirs (e.g. Leira & Cantonati 2008, attached) and of level drawdowns in rivers.
Another example is the large relevance of seasonal variability of discharge in special habitats such as springs that are often biodiversity hotspots in spite of typically small size (see e.g. Cantonati et al. 2012 attached).
Best wishes.
Marco
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
Barind area ​of Bangladesh ​is a water ​crisis area. ​The problems ​acute day by ​day. Integrated ​Water Resource ​Management (​IWRM) project ​has been ​undertaken. We ​are working as ​follow the ​guideline of ​GWP and trying ​to get solution ​implementing ​appropriate ​context ​specific model. ​
"Boro rice" ​is most water ​consuming rice. ​We are ​motivating ​farmer to shift ​that crops with ​less water ​consuming ​crops  e.g:​ maize, wheat, ​tomato etc. ​Farmers also ​adopted it.
Beside the ​many intervention ​we also ​installed water ​efficient ​technology like ​AWD, drip ​irrigation etc. ​
We calculated ​that, replacing ​boro cultivation ​in 1 hectare of ​land with wheat,​ tomato, and ​fruits saves ​annually 1.6 ​million cubic ​metre of ​equivalent to ​100’000 ​people’s ​annual domestic ​water need. ​
Interventions ​in agriculture ​have a much ​higher effect ​compared to the ​interventions ​above at HH ​level or the ​MAR system ​where there we ​talk about ​thousands of m3,​ while the ​agriculture ​related ​interventions ​we talk about ​millions of m3. ​
A question is ​that, Is MAR ​needed for ​establishing ​true IWRM? How ​are the impact? ​Though a little ​contribution, ​why we  ​invest a big ​budget to MAR ​compared to ​cost benefit ​analysis of ​agricultural ​intervention? ​
Relevant answer
Answer
IWRM is the way, and we need to have some patience. The shift will be gradual & the benefits will show up over time.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
Some single or multi-jet water meters (like this one: https://www.heatingandprocess.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Elster-M170-Water-Meter-Product-Data-Sheet.pdf) having an inbuild Magnet Protection against tampering with magnets. My questión is: How effective is this protection or is it necessary to take additional measures to avoid (magnet-) tampering?  Especially: How it depends on strength and distance of the magnet from the meter?
Relevant answer
Answer
We just tested magnet protection on test belts in Peru and found them very effective against big neodym magnets - only some little submetering in the minimum flow.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
There are different international law, doctrines for Trans Boundary Water Resources, such as:
1. Absolute territorial sovereignty theory
2. Absolute territorial integrity theory
3. Theory of limited territorial sovereignty.
4. Water Rights Based on Previous Use or Prior Appropriation
5. Riparian water rights
Although water covers more than two-thirds of the earth's surface, but 97% is in oceans and 2℅ locked in ice-cap and not available to human beings for consumption. Only 1℅ is termed as fresh water (surface & ground water). Therefore, water as a limited resource that is in great demand. The manner in which this demand is satisfied varies according to the jurisdiction in which a water supply is located. In case of trans-water resources, the upstream country has got upper hand to manipulate the river flow. This manipulation can be interpreted under various approaches and doctrines. Each approach has its weaknesses, and jurisdictions will continue experimenting with established legal doctrines to better accommodate the supply and demand of water rights.
Various treaties concluded to decide on the water. Question arose, either there is any such doctrines exists that protecting the ecology?
Relevant answer
Answer
All laws/ doctrines were developed by the powerful to satisfy their own greed. UN discredited itself with the 1992 Dublin Statement, declaring water as a commodity. EU water directive follows the same lines. USA has 'John Wayne' law or 'cowboy economics' as Vandana Shiva put it. The 2008 constitution of Ecuador recognized the right of nature and the ecosystems to exist and flourish, just like any living being. It gave water the status of a patrimony, which needs to be preserved for posterity, and that its provision should not be a marketable service. The Bolivian government also passed laws in 2010 and 2012 treating ‘mother earth’ as a subject of public interest. That's the spirit, "that water is the mother of all of us who nurtures us and that it is time we start nurturing her", that should be the basis of any conversation on sharing and caring of any river. NOBODY OWNS WATER, WE ALL ARE USERS. The discussions should involve all users and develop CONSENSUS on how to care for mother-water. I invite you to browse some write-ups in our project on 'water nurturing':
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
Dear Researchers,
I would like to ask that between Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) and Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) which is good model in permafrost hydrology prespectve. I have to choose anyone between these two models. I am confused and not yet finally decided.
Expert opinion is highly appriciated and valuable.
Thanks in anticipation.
Regards
Naveed.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Marcos,
First of all thanks for your detailed comment.
I have contacted with the developers of CRHM and they have provided me required information which was very helpful for me to select the most appropriate model for my research scope. As long as concern about my research work, i will mainly focus on the runoff generations under changing climate from the permafrost zones due to dynamics of the Active Layer Thickness (ALT). The CRHM is better to use in the cold environments have mainly covered with snow and CRHM is applicable to the tundra or other like this environments found in Arctic, Canada and Alaska's regions.
WaSiM model simulate the dynamics of the active layer thickness more better as compared to CRHM and also gave three dimentional variations in the soil temperatures.
Therefore after review some articles and some other literature, I finally selected WaSiM. I can use CRHM if I found that I have enough time to simulate using it as well. By comparing both the model's results, I will conclude the application efficiency as well as I will be able to write some good articles.
Thanks a lot for you precios time and detailed comment.
Regards
Naveed.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
9 answers
Hi everybody,
Both of groundwater modeling system(GMS) and surface water modeling system(SMS) are well known.
Is it possible link them to evaluate flow exchange and pollution transport in river-aquifer interactions?
Which two software do you recommend for this purpose?
Thank you for even the slightest mention about this.
Azade
Relevant answer
Answer
You can link them using "FREEWAT" open source platform based on QGIS. There are many detailed tutorials ! It's free and only you must to register for downloading!
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
18 answers
Dear Experts,
As we know that construction of unit hydrograph for a guged locations helps in discharge estimation, especially peak discharge.
I am interested to construct the unit hydrograph of a particular gauging site for which I have multiple rainfall runoff events. In order to construct unit hydrograph what are the criteria for selection of events and how to construct UH from these events. What is it's acceptability, mean how can we validate the constructed UH?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gebiaw - Good links on the topic. Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Dear respondents,
I request you to list some major factors or phenomenal difference between Stream bed erosion and soil erosion. 
Relevant answer
Answer
It seems to me that the question is not correct. It should be more specific. In my turn, I would ask: What is the environment? What are the conditions?
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
18 answers
River flow causes soil erosion. The finer soil particle eroded as suspended particles and the eroded coarser particles settles down after some time and again the cycle of erosion and deposition continues. In this process water and soil two major things. in such a situation how does water availability in the river related to the sand mining related.
Relevant answer
Answer
Sand mining lowers the riverbed in the water storage love, thereby, effecting physical and biological environments of the river system..
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
10 answers
How do you manage to introduce real aspects in your modelling?
I mean, MCDM does not exactly mean filling data in a model and running it. Real aspects of the problem must forcefully be considered. Perhaps the best way is illustrate this by some examples.
1-Precedence. Say that you have two projects A (build a government complex in an island in the middle of a city river), and B (Building a bridge connecting mainland with the island). How do you introduce the fact that to build the complex you first need to build the bridge? That is B > A.
2- A MCDM study calls for selecting either a tunnel, a bridge or cross the river using ferries. You only need one solution, that is, one project with ‘1’ score and the others with ‘0’ scores. How can you model this condition?
3- You are calling an international tender for supplying equipment for a hydro electric power plant. What provisions do you have in your model to allow joint ventures, which is two or more companies submitting together?
4- How do you consider in your modelling that if project C is selected, then project D can’t be selected?
5- How you tackle in your portfolio of projects the fact that there are already projects under different stages of construction, different completion dates, and you want to incorporate new projects? Of course you must indicate the model that projects underway must be finished; how do you model this?
6- In the last case you have a fixed annual budget to spend, however, each project has different annual percentages of completion and that annual budget can’t be surpassed
7 How do you manage to select projects in a portfolio when funds are not enough to execute them all? Say you need 32,457,617 Euros and only have 28,745,892 Euros.
8- - You are building a pulp mill in the north shore of a river, as well as developing crops agriculture, building two dams for water storage  for irrigation purposes. You know that villages and towns downstream are arguing that they will receive contamination of from the plant, and more salinization as well as less water. How do you manage to satisfy all parts involved?
9- A multinational operate in farming, that is, different crops, cattle rising, fruit farms and juice concentrate plants in several countries. How do they manage to select which crop to cultivate in each country, how many hectares of each one, where to build the fruit farms and considering that to build the concentrate plants they need first to have fruit available nearby? How do you tackle this multiple scenarios problem?
10- A City Hall wants to execute a five year plan for the city infrastructure including sewage and LED street lighting, social undertakings such as developing community centers for youngster to get kids off the streets and building recreational parks, and similar projects for other areas. The whole plan has a healthy budget that will be handed over from the central government on an annual basis. How do you model your initial decision matrix for making the corresponding selection and be sure that each area receives the amounts of money it needs?
11- A DM delivers a ranking of projects for a City Hall ten years plan. Projects G-A-M-N-B-C-Z-Y are chosen and in this order of importance. The DM submits this plan to the Mayor and he asks ‘Where is project X that I promised to be built during my campaign for office? The DM explains that project X was originally considered but was not selected by the model. The Mayor says ‘I don’t really care what the mathematical model days, I want project X incorporated into the plan’, believe me that this happens and very often. How do you manage to get this project X in the final solution?
12- You have a budget for city infrastructure with money coming from Federal, Regional and Urban sources, each one for different purposes. The plan calls for renovating new bridges, demolishing old ones or building new ones. How do you manage to model this?
13- How do you consider correlation between criteria? Assume that you have determined that under certain conditions criterion ‘Snowfall intensity’ is highly correlated with ‘Speed’. How do you model that?
14- In an oil refinery, you have production, storage and distribution. How do you manage a model in order never run out of storage and never leave clients without oil products? It is relatively easy using linked algebraic equations. However, how do you introduce those equations in your model?
15- Once a MCDM is solved, the DM informs stakeholders which is the solution. How is the DM answer when one stakeholder asks how market share, demand and competition affect the selected alternative when the three of them vary simultaneously, with different positive and negative rates and independently?
16- How do you model a problem with say 245 alternatives and 891 criteria and with many of them related?
17- In an urban road project with three different alternatives, there is a survey amongst people affected by the projects. How do you introduce the statistical data in the initial matrix?
These are real problems and a MCDM method should be able to solve them.
 If some practitioner ever found himself in any of these problems I believe that all RG community will be very grateful in knwing how it was solved and usinn which model
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Kevin for your explanation,  which of course has a lot of sense.
Of course, you use an algebraic model with some unknown factors and you calibrate them using the true values, however  in MCDM yout have neither an algebric model nor true values
Similarly, I used to perform calibration of a Gravity Model for determining flow between cities using real road data
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
In the EU the "Proposed EU minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge" are under discussion and the scientific advice by SCHEER (Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks) on JRC related document was published last July 10, 2017 (please see attached document or link to EC web-page http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/updates)
In its advice SCHEER suggests to expand JRC respective tables by including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and antibiotic resistance (AR) indicator. What is your opinion, should "EU minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge" include CECs and AR? 
Relevant answer
Regarding typical chemical fate and transport: 1) degradation half-lives in soil are typically higher compared to other compartments and some of the CECs would partition favorably to soil, rendering it a significant source of delayed "future" contamination. 2) Persistent and mobile chemicals are known to pose a threat to water quality (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b03338) in general. 3) It is known that many of the CECs are persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals that biomagnify along the food web. Reducing human exposure to CECs is also passing through reducing food-borne contamination which has been identified as a significant exposure pathway (https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP168/). Contaminated water used for agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge can clearly be a source of food-borne contamination for several chemicals.
Finally, most of the identified planetary boundaries (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/1259855 and http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v461/n7263/full/461472a.html) are controlled by chemical agents (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es402501c and http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es501893m). This means that among the CECs there might be chemicals that cause, amplify or accelerate i) an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process and/or ii) a disruptive effect that is not discovered until it is a problem of planetary scale.
In this context, antibiotic resistant bacteria developed as a result of chemical exposure is a case of chemical-induced effect that initially may have a local or regional impact but could become a problem of planetary scale (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es501893m).
In short, the EU minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge should include CECs and AR indicators.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
Much is touted about the use of GPR for the detection of illegal water connections. But: Is there any independent evaluation, which also exposes the limitations and problems of the use of GPR for the detection of illegal water connections?
For example:
How it behaves on different types of soil?
How often the detections of illegal connections turned out to be wrong (other tipe of pipes or no pipe at all)?
Can the GPR detect bypass just below the legal connection?
Relevant answer
Answer
Every GPR system contains one or multiple antennas. These antennas transmit and receive radio frequency waves. 
GPR has the same basic principles as a metal detector. A metal detector sends energy into the earth in up to 17 frequencies. When that energy meets a metallic object, it is translated into a recognizable tone. The GPR sends out millions of frequencies that return to the antenna and translate material composition definition in the subsurface. Radar is sensitive to changes in material composition. 
Radar GPR Systems are designed to display differences in material composition. They can be used to locate any object that has a different composition than it's surrounding materials. For example, water, a PVC pipe will have a different composition than the surrounding soil. Voids and excavations that have been filled in will also have different compositions than the surrounding soil.
The depth of your findings will be determined by three factors:
Soil type
Antenna frequency
Size of Target
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
7 answers
Kindly consider energy prices and farms need for natural fertilizers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Mahad,
No, it does not sound wild. In fact, I have seen plants in Europe doing exactly this combination. It is the most effective way to recycle food waste. Unfortunately, I have no information on economic aspects of the process. The installations I have seen are huge facilities and attend large regions to split the costs. Presently I am working on opportunity costs of landfills in order to create data for the argumentation. The idea is to compare the long term cost of landfills to that of alternatives such as anaerobic digestion and composting. It is new ground for research. I hope to have an answer by next year.
Manfred
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Answer may be from the Hydrological point of view
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
In Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea, there are around 350-400 dugwells in 1 sq.km. There are burial grounds very close to these wells. People are mostly dependent on these wells for there day to day domestic purposes including drinking, as there is no alternate water sources in these tiny Islands. Hence I would like to know any systematic study has been done by anybody indicating the effect of graveyards on groundwater quality and also its impact on the human health. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Dr. Moulla for your response and valuable information.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
In the frame of flood protection it becomes necessary to use land from third party land owners like farmers, for instance for water retention in polder areas. What kind of compensation schemes do exist on international scale for the land owner compensation for that kind of service ? Are these mainly monetary compensations, or are there also other types of incentives ? Thank you in advance !
Relevant answer
Answer
In most of the Reservoirs in India, land is acquired to a Full Reservoir Level + 3 metres elevation to take care of the free-board. The farmers are compensated & Government acquires the land. However, since the water retention in this land is for limited periods, the lands are leased out for cultivation during the rest of the year.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
9 answers
What are the freely available hydraulic models that can be used to understand hydraulics in canal system of large scale irrigation (65000 hectares) scheme? The canal system has sediment problem and has decreased the capacity of canal in some portions. Which model is suitable?
Relevant answer
Answer
May be you can try HEC-RAS.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
7 answers
Sustainable aquaculture techniques
Relevant answer
Answer
Dipankar:
You may find this link useful:
Best
Syed
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Currently we are trying to locate clandestine (illegal) water connections by acoustic location of plastic pipes in Moquegua (Peru). Are there any known experiences of this kind ?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
7 answers
Urban greening (the provision of additional trees and green open space within a city) is widely acknowledged to provide benefits, such as increased mental and physical health, reduction of heat island effect, increasing house prices and protecting biodiversity.
The water sector (water utilities and catchment authorities) are generally expected to provide water supply, sewerage and drainage services to urban areas. In some cities it is now popular to provide wetlands and biofilters sometimes referred to as "green infrastructure", "sustainable urban drainage systems", or "water sensitive urban design".
However aside from these stormwater management systems, what else should water utilities be doing to support urban greening and cooling? 
Do they have a role in coordination and implementation of tree planting? Should policies be put in place to increase irrigation during heat wave events? Do they have authority to influence new developments?
I am interested in everyone's thoughts and also any examples of water authorities becoming involved in greening and cooling, thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Casey,
while the urban forest plan for Melbourne is great in terms of species and targeting areas to mitigate UHI effect - the horticultural landscape informing how to accomodate stormawater management to best support these trees particularly roadside is lacking; intermittent guttering is an improvement though
I would like to see more innovative modifications to microtopography and strategic species specific plantings  - particularly aggregate plantings of species mixes.
would be interested in further discussion
pjaspencer@alumni.unimelb,edu.au
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
9 answers
Assume the discharge  Q= 1000 (l /sec.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear All,
Yes. Off course many country has been set up their own sanitary sewage effluent standard which is more or less close to each other. I think major significant polluting parameters or indicators are DO, BOD, COD, NO2 , NO3 and other parameters depending on the types and nature of waste water, sources, level of treatment, river water to be used for drinking and other purposes, treatment technology used etc.
Regards,
Er., Dr. Chet
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
Dear all, I am searching for publications regarding construction of pipelines on karst (focusing on gas pipelines). I would especially be grateful for publications presenting cases in Europe. Thank you for your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
I will look around the house when I have time.  I think when Doug died I inherited a bound copy.  I probably won't get to search it out till next week or week after.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
My project is about the public participation and environmental education in water area,so I would like to get some information about this case.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Lin,
On the link below, you can find some pedagogical cases that are developed for environmental education purposes. You might find something related to water.
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
how are you? If you know WEAP model: to analyze urban water supply option (management option)
1) what is the governing equation for this model?
2) what data it feed to analyze the scenarios
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
Any recommended papers for the barriers of Ambient Assisted Living.
Regards
Majid
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
A Qanat is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking. The qanat technology is known to have been developed in ancient Iran. Nowadays lots of these qanats are out of service and may have been destroyed. So it's possible to flow subsurface water and wastewater through these qanats. In your opinion is it necessary to model and how can I model these qanats in the GMS, as effective factors in groundwater modelling approach?
Actually i'm modelling an aquifer using GMS 10.1 and I don't know how to model qanats which do not have discharge but they can drain wastewater easily from one point to another and affect water level. 
Thank you in advance for your cooperation. 
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Firoz,
here is another source with the proceedings of the International Conference on Water Resources of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions of Africa, which took place in 2004:
Also, check out the extensive UNDP material about IWRM, you will find a lot of material on arid regions in there as these tend to be the crucial catchments:
All the best,
Michael
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
I'm looking for a strong African case of supporting catchment based management using a social learning approach? I'm also interested in cases that speak to scaling up social learning or any literature on scaling up social processes in IWRM. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Jane, Don't know how much it would help you, but pl have a look at this paper. Best,
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
Recently I read about the Unmeasured-Flow Reducer (UFR) produced by AY McDonald to reduce the under-registration of low flow rates in water meters. The problem is that the device is quite expensive, so it can not be used in a cost-efficent way in Developing Countries with low water prices.
So my question is: Are there any low-cost alternatives to the UFR?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ok. A.R.I. (Israel) sells it for US$ 14 per UFR (FOB), so it can be used in a cost-efficent way in Developing Countries at least for comercial and industrial consumers.
Thank you very much William !
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
9 answers
By adopting good water management practices (by reducing the duty of water for cultivation) definitely you can achieve this. But the question is how to convince the agriculture users.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
water management
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
Dear Experts
I have to use "GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation" called (GAGAN) for DEM generation in mountainous region, so how it can be done and How the results obtained from it can be validated. 
How many minimum number of control points that needed for DEM generation?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello dear
Maybe this useful for you.
with respect
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
8 answers
People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sir.
Конечно, это правильная мера. В проекте на бурение  после цементации затрубного пространства верхней колоны труб целесообразно предусмотреть проверку герметичности.
Угрозу второму водоносному горизонту представляют скважины, которые бурятся стихийно населением с использованием примитивных средств, когда не предусматривается изоляция верхнего горизонта (одна труба). С этим можно бороться только широким распространением информации о зря потраченных средствах на такие скважины. 
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
Friends I have seen the Indian journey of 'integrated watershed management' programs since last 3 decades and entered in 4th decade. I would like to ask opinion of esteemed subject experts available here on below given school of thoughts....
1. A shed where 'water' must be top priority and most focused entity, is use to be true area qualified for being designated as watershed. with years after years operational guidlines, execution architecture, elements of activities and accordingly divisions and further divisions of allocated 'sphere' of budget as well as time, gets sliced to accommodate n number of activities reaching up to piggeries, poltry, dairy, social , animal, etc etc...In that course of journey,,the ' water' has moved out of center i.e. focus and watersheds have gained the shape of certain demonstration units of planning n development activities of various government non government organizations to harness political social and other demonstration values in a time framed way..keeping hydrological understanding and planning at a side away from center point.  
2. vast amount of funds are poured in the name of integrated development of watersheds. I my self has been engauged in more than 20 such watersheds across different parts of country in last 32 years, but when visited them got this question in mind...they are still thirsty for water and hungary for nutrients,  because once the project is withdrawn most of then revert back to same point on circumference of  zero , where some years ago they started. again new projects new budgets new team new treatment n development...process go on....I do not find any pleasing & accurately accepted answer..though i have 1000 of answers inside me.     ..thats why i put this question here...lets debate or exchange ..to understand it ..and give some tasty food for thought..i know my question is not so catchy,,but written and floated randomly...to hit some where and to get from some where..
thanks
Dr M L Gaur
Relevant answer
Answer
once again i am gratified by reading sound impactful words from william as well as from Timothy.....yes I fully agree with both....
very nice direction and narration is given to my question. One must believe it is a big issue and discussion on it ,  is need of hour... Thanks to both of you sir/s..
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
Major challenge in subsurface drip for vegetable cultivation is emitter clogging by soil or roots. Any effective solution to this issue?? I am operating the system in sandy loam soil with one day irrigation interval. Emitters are placed 15 cm below soil surface.
Relevant answer
Answer
The clogging of subsurface emitters can be avoided by keeping the system pressure correctly and regular flushing of the end caps. The acid treatment is also advised before and after rainy season. Maintenance of the drip system physically, chemically and biologically is essential to avoid clogging.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
6 answers
Many studies related to ecology conservation and water footprint require precise assessment of environmental flows. Is there any method that can assess the environmental flow requirements based on the historic flow records or any other such inputs.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are numerous methods some of which are detailed in Chapter 3 ofthis Handbook see: http://www.samsamwater.com/library/handbook_catchment_water.pdf
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
27 answers
regarding  Water Resources
Relevant answer
Answer
Garret Hardin, when he coined the phrase 'Tragedy of the Commons', proposed two ways to avoid the tragedy: (1) assign ownership of the resource system (e.g., aquifer) to the state (as state or government property); or (2) divide the resource system into parcels (e.g., as volumetric extraction entitlements) as assign them to individuals (as private or individual property). The latter has been favoured by many economists due to its consistency with a market-based approach to resource management. Elinor Ostrom, in her famous 1990 book 'Governing the Commons', challenged Hardin's analysis and suggested that a third option was also possible: allocating ownership of the resource system to a defined group of 'commoners' (i.e., as common property). Identification of this possibility led to widespread (indiscriminate) international investment in community-based approaches to natural resource management. Lin Ostrom emphasised that all three approaches (government-based, market-based and community-based) should be looked at carefully for each particular situation, with the best solution often involving a 'polycentric' blend of the three approaches, where each approach covers for the wekenesses of the others. I tried to summarise these ideas as simply as possible in my 2005 book 'Economics for Collaborative Environmental Management: Renegotiating the Commons'.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
4 answers
Hi,
I am trying to create a framework to understand urban water services (drinking water, waste water and surface water) from an institutional point of view. I see that there is profound disagreement about what governance actually is. After some reading my conclusion is that governance is a process that brings actors to create/modify/reinforce institutions (the social structure: the rules of the game, formal and informal, i.e. rules, norms and cultural-cognitive elements), so this institutions shape the behavior of all stakeholders. Do you agree with this interpretation?.
How can "management of services" fit in this framework?. Is management also a process limited and enabled by the institutions created/modified/reinforced by governance?
I appreciate you comments
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Manuel,
I suggest you the following interesting paper.
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
3 answers
The sketch for my question can be reached via this link (you don't have to log in or sign in to dropbox, please click on the background in the opened window to see the sketch):
There is a water tank located at 224 m. It provides water to the network downstream. There are 2 PRVs located one (PRV1) at 164 m and the other (PRV2) at 123 m. A bifurcation at around 101 m conveys water to the eastern districts. The main pipe pursues to the southern main network.
The output head of PRV2 is around 154 m. Theoretically this head is adequate to feed the branched network section located around 129.5 m (see the right network branch). However, one of the technical staff of the water administrative claims that as PRV2 is located at 123 m, which is below 129.5 m, they face some practical problems during operation.
According to him, as there is a bifurcation at around 101 m, when the demand in the main pipe (the pipe going to the lower part of the paper/southern network) reduces to very low levels, air accumulates at PRV2 and stops valve's operation. According to him, this air should be evacuated in order to reoperate the valve.
To my knowledge, it is nonsense as there is always adequate head at the downstream of PRV2. I made a research and could not find any papers discussing such an operation problem.
As a note I should mention that these PRVs are not calibrated by the valve producers. I suppose the very same technical guy adjusts the output water heads of these valves.
Thanks in advance for your valuable comments.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • The important part about domestic water works is to always anticipate for unaccounted-for water losses.  These almost always occur.  These losses occur through leaks in the pipes. Domestic water systems are low pressure systems. Flow variation at low pressure due to ever changing domestic demand will suck air through the leakage points (like a small venturi). In your case the leak is any where from level of PRV2 to the bifurcation.  The air is not neccesarily entering your system during low demand but rather has a better chance to collect at the PRV when water is no moving.  It bubbles up to the PRV when there is less turbulence.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
6 answers
I am working on a research project to quantify the economic and social costs of corruption in the water sector. To this end, I would greatly appreciate any inputs in terms of:
  1. Corruption risk areas (e.g. kickbacks during procurement) pertaining to the water sector. Experience suggests that risks from other utilities can be highly relevant. 
  2. Corruption indicators for the water sector (or utilities in general). Here the criteria would be to identify indicators on which data can be relatively easily obtained. 
  3. Any existing studies/ data sources that you might be aware of which can be valuable for the purposes of this project. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Finding info about corruption in a large geographic scale is extremely difficult, because you need to be familiar with each and every project to pick out what is rotten. Thieves work with devil's wisdom, you know. I suggest first you pick certain projects in your own country, where you can count on insider information to help you. My 40 years in this field tells me where to look: when a project is fully funded by a loan, contractor from the loaning country tends to inflate the prices; supervising consultant is from the same country as the contractor, collusion is very likely; when projects are rushed, lack of proper designs cause huge cost overruns, benefitting the contractor; Underground works tend to have quantities highly inflated, since it is difficult to check later; kickbacks could vary from 10-30% but you can only speculate.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
We have collected data from a river and we are trying to map the findings and calculate the level of pollution for the river. We collected and analysed water samples from fixed small interval (20km) for the river. Now we have data like BOD, COD, DO, water Colouration, heavy metals and some other physical properties.
Relevant answer
Answer
GIS is a great way to spatially plot water quality sample locations and perhaps include data trends.  For each location, you can have various tables of data or water quality attributes.  The location of the sites visually will help make sense of what you have worked so hard to obtain.  There are quite a few thing to understand, so some sense can be made of water quality grab samples.  If you dont have any streamflow or water level data, or stream gauging stations perhaps days since significant rain may help.  Many water quality items are not only related to pollutants, but also streamflow as well as channel substrate, management practices (e.g., BMPs), etc.  On your GIS, also good if you have land use, point sources of pollution, and topography (DEM).  Some pollutants may be adsorbed to sediments.  Of course you will want to report your findings, but dont feel bad if there are not some remaining questions, or even an indication more directed data collections are needed.  Collaboration with hydrologist may help review, refine or redirect the analysis.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
5 answers
Water a critical resource has to be conserved, preserved and recycled. The universal use would mean a kind of sensitivity that need to have an universal understanding. More than the development control don't you think a participatory approach would have a better outreach.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, Participation and sensitization of masses is important. Talking about water conservation on large scale and having our people wasting water casually is not going to help and answer the problem. I guess awareness level is to be increased among masses, may be by regulatory bodies or govt. authorities or by practitioners. The participatory approach should start at micro level, say from a small house. People made sensitive to save water and reuse and recycle easily. then gradually at apartment level, where the quantity of water wasted is larger. the focus should be , in increasing awareness and among the young generation because they catch things faster. The masses need to be educated about the approach and simple practice, using which they can conserve water, in their daily practices.
Things need to be made more simple for them....I guess.
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
10 answers
Chunnakam aquifer in Jaffna Sri Lanka is contaminated with nitrate for long period by high usage of agrochemicals. Last couple of years, due to a thermal power station the aquifer is contaminated with used oil by this power station.
Now some people in developed countries are trying to say there is no harmful oil contamination for human constitution in the ground water by testing with FROG 5000.
The following two protest is there among the academic society about the FROG 5000 field equipment
1. Nitrate contamination will give low BTEX levels
2. All the BTEX volatile contents of the Oils in Chunnakam water will evaporate away and will show ZERO results with much more tests by the Famous FROG 4000 
I want guidance and advice from all of you 
I am attaching one report published by National Water Supply and Drainage Board and a report of Institution of Engineers Northern Chapter on this issue.
These two reports will give you a very good insight of this problem
Relevant answer
Thanks for sharing very good conducive comments and documents
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
14 answers
Coud I employed RUSLE Model to Estimate soil erosion in monthly scale?
Best Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
yes RUSLE, have capability for monthly soil loss but your all factor r not monthly changeable except R (rainfall) and C (for Vegitation).
And for monthly C you can estimate C from NDVI (monthly), which give u more changes (Monthly based) than the LULC (yearly changes) based,
also u can use this link
  • asked a question related to Integrated Water Resources Management
Question
2 answers
I am doing research on usage of low grade energy losses such as Cooling water / tower. I need data on evaporation losses from cooling tower in different industry such as Aluminum, Steel, Fertlizer, Chemicals etc.. Data required Evaporation Loss in m3/hr, Specific water consumption m3/ton or ltr of product, plant capacity. or else sankey diagrams for the water management.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Bhavesh A few year sago I produced a Handbook on Catchment Water Demand see https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269408673_Handbook_for_the_Assessment_of_Catchment_Water_Demand_and_Use Appendix A of this has a number of look up tables for different industries including metal processing .  This may be of use to you.  best regards Darren