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Instrumentation - Science topic

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Candidate number one is a circular array of 12 triangular N40 neodymium magnet segments with three North Poles parallel to the axis and three self poles parallel to the axis configured as a halbach array with nearly no field adjacent a drive motor providing one quarter horsepower at up to 20,000 RPM. The estimated field strength is one Tesla. The estimated rotational speed is 250 RPM. The outer diameter of the magnet array is 4 in. The inner diameter of the magnet array is 2 in.
Candidate 2 is a commercial microwave induction cooktop with an input power rating of 1000 w or about 1 1/3 horsepower using a pancake coil operating at an estimated ultrasonic frequency of 25,000 Hertz with an estimated coil input power of 750 watts. The diameter of the coil is 9 in the inner diameter of the coil absent winding is 3 in. The magnetic field strength is unknown.
This is an active development and the candidate one main array remains unconstructed. Candidate one maybe marketed if an assembly process suitable for mass production is developed during research.
To compare candidate one with candidate too a ring cut from an aluminum beverage can makes a convenient one turn induction coil of extraordinarily lightweight which should provide a sensitive measurement of each candidates repulsion capacity.
The research has applicability to the design of magnetic hoverboards or magnetic pallets which would ride over aluminum sheet walkways to provide stable transport of delicate instrumentation or unstable materials such as explosives and volatile solvents.
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@WalerianMajewski this is the array we used in our phy298 experiments in 2013 refined for high-speed rotation
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Hi there! I am trying to quantify total inorganic phosphate from plant samples using a spectroscopy based techniques. I am facing issue with the standards. I have not tested the samples yet. For the first 3-4 standards, the coloration and absorption curves are linear but for standards with higher concentration the color is drastically reduced and curves drops rapidly. I independently repeated it thrice but got the same pattern. Do you have any suggestions to help troubleshoot this issue? Or, what protocol do you use? We are not interested in getting high resolution quantification data for phosphate amount in the samples, so we are looking for protocols which doesn't require sophisticated instrumentation. I have attached the protocol being followed in the attachment below.
Thank you!
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You are likely reaching the limits of detection on your measurement instrument with your standards. Many instruments that are specifically intended for OD measurement will give you an error when you exceed a certain OD (typically 2.00), but general purpose spectrophotometers don't.
To overcome this problem when you are running samples with an OD higher than 2.00, you'll need to dilute the samples and then calculate the original OD from the dilution factor.
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I am measuring the tensile strength of thin (<1cm) dumbbell-shaped nanofiber membranes.
I have developed a custom tensile testing setup which primarily consists of:
1. A movable stage.
2. A load cell of appropriate force rating is attached to the moving stage.
3. A DC power supply to excite the load cell.
4. A digital multimeter connected to the DC power supply to measure the output voltages from the load cell.
5. A DSLR camera to record photos of the nanofiber membrane at regular intervals during the tensile testing to measure strain.
I am using a camera to record photos of the nanofiber membrane to calculate strain using a GUI based MATLAB program that tracks the edge of the moving end. I am using an optical method to measure strain because I cannot attach an extensometer to the nanofiber membranes as they are fragile and it won't be feasible.
The target of my experiments is to obtain voltage outputs from the digital multimeter every 1 sec and photos from the DSLR camera also every 1 sec with the measurements from the digital multimeter and the DSLR camera being in perfect sync.
I am currently triggering the digital multimeter using an Excel script provided by the manufacturer of the digital multimeter and I am using an intervalometer to trigger the DSLR camera. The problem is I am triggering both instruments manually and therefore the measured voltage and recorded photos are not in sync.
Can anyone please give me suggestions on how to sync both hardware which are from different manufacturers?
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No, sadly I haven't been able to solve my issue yet. The model of my DMM is: ADCMT 7461A (https://www.adcmt.com/en/products/dmm/7451)
The 7461A model has a USB interface and a GPIB interface only.
Yes, the commands for the 7461A DMM are in its reference manual and they are stated as:
Select from SCPI, ADC, and R6552
SCPI: SCPI Command (GPIB only)
ADC: Command used in ADC CORPORATION (GPIB/USB only)
R6552: Command used in ADC CORPORATION's R6552 (only 7451A,
GPIB only)
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I am aware of most major threats to internal and external validity in group and quasi experimental research design such as maturation, history, testing, instrumentation, pretest-treatment interaction, statistic regression, mortality attrition, multiple test interactions, selection bias and the like but I am asking if there are other major threats and mitigation mechanism. List of threats and mitigation strategy....
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Please keep in mind that the threats you listed from Campbell and Stanley are only categories of threats. You can identify specific threats for your study within each of those categories.
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I want to ask a question, about the loading protocol, which is very important, mostly in literature, 2 types of instrumental assemblie were used, 1) first one is to apply the axial load on the top of column and lateral load as well on column almost at distance 300cm from the lower pin of column.
2) second one is, to apply lateral load on beam,
So my question is which one instrumentation will be best and is the placement of strain gauges will be changed in both cases or will remain same.
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Ahsin Mehmood The flexural strength of concrete beams under the third point loading test employs a beam testing machine that allows the load to be applied normally to the loaded surface of the beam. The specimen is tested on its side in relation to the molded position. The bearing supports are centered on the beam.
WF 150x75x5x7 can also be utilized for the ring beam. There are several techniques for strengthening existing building structures in preparation for building extension. Steel jacketing is a conventional approach for strengthening RC structures. The project mentioned in this paper employs the same strategy and has been demonstrated to be successful.
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I have been researching guided wave radar level instrumentation and I've run into an issue where vendors limit the solid rod and coaxial probes to 4 to 6 meters while wire rope probes can be used in lengths up to 75 meters. Based on my understanding of the technology involved (high-frequency material surface conduction) I would think that a coaxial probe would conduct the signal as well as or better than a wire rope. I have asked vendor representatives and the answers I received have been unsatisfying at best or technically inaccurate at worst. Can anyone give me a good, technical reason for this limitation?
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The limited length of the rod and coxial GWM probes versus that of the rope type probe is a mechanical limitation not an electrical limitatiom. The rod and coxial GWM probes are only supported at one end of the probe (the proximal end), whereas the rope probe is mechanically supported at both ends (proximal and distal ends). Take a look at the figures on p. 7 of the document at the following URL: http://www.manoraz.com/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/n2gb_ngm.pdf . In the case of the rope probe, there is a collet at the distal (far) end of the rope that allows it to be attached to the bottom of the tank. This two-point mechanical support prevents any lateral dispalcement of the probe due to the contents of the tank. Any significant lateral displacement can affect the accuracy of the GWM. This is especially true in the case of the non-coxial probes due to their wider range of influence, but it also a factor in the coxial probe due to bending and buckling.
Regards,
Thomas Cuff
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Looking for help on Instrumentation including 2D NMR.
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Sorry, I can not help you
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I'm looking for any recent papers/articles about student instrumentalism and assessment. Particularly instrumentalism in respect of formative assessment.
Any links to articles or suggestions please. Many thanks in advance
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Thank you
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Today, sensors are usually interpreted as devices which convert different sorts of quantities (e.g. pressure, light intensity, temperature, acceleration, humidity, etc.), into an electrical quantity (e.g. current, voltage, charge, resistance, capacitance, etc.), which make them useful to detect the states or changes of events of the real world in order to convey the information to the relevant electronic circuits (which perform the signal processing and computation tasks required for control, decision taking, data storage, etc.).
If we think in a simple way, we can assume that actuators work the opposite direction to avail an "action" interface between the signal processing circuits and the real world.
If the signal processing and computation becomes based on "light" signals instead of electrical signals, we may need to replace today's sensors and actuators with some others (and probably the sensor and actuator definitions will also be modified).
  • Let's assume a case that we need to convert pressure to light: One can prefer the simplest (hybrid) approach, which is to use a pressure sensor and then an electrical-to-optical transducer (.e.g. an LED) for obtaining the required new type of sensor. However, instead of this indirect conversion, if a more efficient or faster direct pressure-to-light converter (new type of pressure sensor) is available, it might be more favorable. In near future, we may need to use such direct transducer devices for low-noise and/or high-speed realizations.
(The example may not be a proper one but I just needed to provide a scenario. If you can provide better examples, you are welcome)
Most probably there are research studies ongoing in these fields, but I am not familiar with them. I would like to know about your thoughts and/or your information about this issue.
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After seeing your and other respectable researchers' answers, I am glad I asked this question.
I am really delighted to hear from you the history of an ever-lasting discussion about sensor and actuator definitions. I have always found it annoying that the sensor definition has usually been preferred as a "too specific" definition to serve only for an interface of an electrical/electronic system and an "other" system/medium with different form of signal(s).
Besides, that diiscussion, I can start another one:
There are many commercial integrated devices which are called "sensor"s, although in fact they are not basic sensors but are more complicated small systems which may also include electronic amplifier(s), filter(s), analog-digital-converter, indicators etc. For sure, these are very convenient devices for electronic design, but I think it is not correct to call them "sensor". Such a device employs a basic sensor but besides it provides other supporting electronic stages to aid the electronic designer. I don't know if there is a specific name for such devices.
Thank you again for your additional explanations.
Best regards...
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I am writing a manuscript. The References, Instrumentation, Reagents and method, author and acknowledgement section etc are very much similar to some of the published articles and hence iThenticate shows plagiarism. I am confused should I exclude the portion during plagiarism checking. Is there any guideline in ACS, RSC, Elsevier on this matter?
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When you apply ithenticate software to your manuscript, you should exclude the references only. There is no such guidelines in this reputed journal. You can go through this link and have some ideas about the minimization of plagiarism
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I am trying to work on how variable characteristics can help to determine variable structure and pattern. I am half way into the work though.
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The 1-PL (Rasch) and 2-PL (Birnbaum) models of Item Response Theory (IRT) both imply that the items are unidimensional (i.e., that they measure a single underlying latent variable). Model misfit would indicate that there is a violation of the unidimensionality implication for either one of these models.
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Currently, I am working on a Rail-Structure-Interaction live research project using wireless sensors, which need to be compared with numerical analysis.
I am trying to find the amount of force transfer from rail to the sleeper, sleeper to deck and deck to Elastomeric bearing and then to the pier.
Any Idea or reference for Instrumentation will be of great help.
Thanks in advance.
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Wireless sensors have certain limitations in structural engineering. If I need to do the test, I prefer Surface Mounter Electrical Resistance Strain Gagues, which can work for metal (rail) and other surfaces. Easy to install and take measurement. Reliability will be better, if the gauges are connected to suitable electrical network, for continuous monitoring. This is quite economical and robust. Radar based systems may be expensive.
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When I am trying to implement a pressure sensor through instrumentation amplifier and then giving it's output to Arduino, I am getting garbage value due to noise, so how to eliminate it.
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1. Make sure you are using a differential amplifier for your IA with differential inputs and outputs.
2. Have the inputs filtered to match your desired signal bandwidth.
3. The the bandwidth of your differential IA to fit your requirements.
4. If your IA has differential outputs, set the differential and common mode filter cutoffs to match your ADC sampling rate requirements.
5. In software, use software averaging to further improve your SNR. Remember that if you average N-time, you improve the SNR by SQRT(N) times.
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Nanotechnology (NT) is one of the advanced material science with which the development in materials and improvement in electronics. NT has made it possible to miniaturizing the things to fit in your pockets. There are several other products besides electronics and instrumentation etc.
For example, different colour coats which are dust proof, water proof. Now my Idea of asking this question is can we miniaturize AWS into a coin size? Can we make a material which can always make available the soil moisture to the crop plants? A material which we spray on the canopy or whole plant shielded from the pest and diseases? Will the soil become nutrient sufficient and providing the plants to sustain its life cycle without any problem? many more like that in my mind.
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@ Abburi, I understand your concern. We have seen that if you applied recommended doses of nanonutrients to the crops there was no adverse effect. Only concern is with time some of the particles may accumulate in the vacuole but mostly while travelling through the cell sap they are gradually absorbing as nutrients or becoming into mega particles. They may also helping to trigger different beneficial enzyme release by the plants as well as changing uni-genes to enhance carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. So, with the recommended doses of application the nanofertilizers are very safe.
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My SR785 Dynamic Signal Analyzer keeps rebooting after showing a "WaitFlag Error" in between measurements. I have been unable to find any mention of this error in the service/user manuals available on the SRS website (thinksrs.com). Any leads as to how to approach/troubleshoot this problem would be appreciated. Thanks!
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Serial polling is associated with computer-interface aspect of the instrument. The interface connectors are put on the back-side of the instrument (RS-232 or IEEE-488). If the error occurs when the instrument computer-interface is active, then it can be due to error in the interface program in the computer.
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Dear all,
Can you please tell me the ways to measure differential pressures across utility sides of the heat exchangers.
Unlike process side, the utility side pressure drops may not be measured. What can be done in such cases ? Are there indirect ways to measure it?
Thank you.
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There are many gages all over the place on most refinery units. Many send signals to the control room and many others must be read in the field. Each gage will have a small bias/error they are rarely identical. So if you want an accurate indication of the pressure drop from field gages you do a survey of the pressure at all points of interest with the same gage to eliminate the error between different gages
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Hi, I'm a graduated Ph.D. trying to land a system engineer/instrumentation engineer position at an X-ray vendor company such as Rigaku and I have some questions about this:
1. How to standardize a measurement using either XRD or XRF so I know when the x-ray flux is wrong and I need to align it?
2. I did work as a XRD manager in my Ph.D. group so I gain some instrumentation knowledge here and there. However I wonder if there are any open source courses/literature/books for systematic education on theory, system configurations, source, detectors, etc.
Thanks for any help or advice in advance!
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Dear Dr. Zhimin Qi ,
regarding your first question, I suggest you to have a look at a similar previous question in RG at:
then I suggest you to have a look at the following documents:
- THIN FILM CHARACTERISATION BY ADVANCED X-RAY DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUES
V School o nX-rayDiffraction from Polycrystalline Materials By INFN (1996)
-MITOPENCOURSEWARE
- Powder Diffraction & Rietveld Refinement School by Durham University (2018)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Hi all,
When purchasing an expensive chemical in a very small quantity (lower than I can accurately weigh with my instrumentation), I normally dissolve the whole package in a known quantity of water (measured by a pipette).
How reliable/accurate is the reported package size* for assessing the actual concentration that I got (assuming this package size is not included in the material's COA)?
Does it depend of the "Grade" or intended application of the chemical? (e.g., "analytical standard", "for molecular biology" etc).
*Package size normally reported by the manufacturer as "10mg", 25mg" etc. without decimal points or anything.
vs. a lower grade material:
Than you!
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I think you can ask directly the vendor. Most of lab analytical have sensitivity up to 0.1 mg, so if you weight the new pack and empty one you can get how many mg was there.
Regards
GB
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I have a turbine flowmeter giving a frequency output (-5 : 5 V) with a wave shape as in the figure attached. This signal is fed to a Digital-to-analog converter to give a 4-20 mA signal to feed to my DAQ.
Now, I need to set the range for the converter (to know which frequency gives which current), to do this I should use a function generator, and I won't be able to produce the same shape as the output from the flow meter, so the question is:
Is the output signal (4-20 mA) dependent on the shape of the input wave or just the frequency?
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Dear Ibrahim,
Please, the data sheet of the flowmeter and the DAC should be provided. Before you talk about the frequency output (-5:5v), what is your input parameter? But, if you have really considered the above parameter, the answer is No.
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The two plots in the attached figures illustrate spectra for copper-polyethylenimine (Cu-PEI) and copper-polyacrylic acid (Cu-PA2) complexes. In the spectrum for Cu+1.7 ppm PEI (first plot) there seems to be a characteristic peak at 263nm. Two studies suggest a characteristic peak at 275nm. Is there a reason for this deviation? The studies also mention a characteristic peak from 550nm-750nm in the visible region. In the second plot, I think there is a peak at 246 nm for spectra generated for Cu+B and Cu+11.8 ppm PA2. B is a solution that is expected to contain PA2. However, in both plots there seem to be no absorbance in the visible region. Is this due to low Cu/PEI/PA2 concentration?
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At certain concentration range, absorbance of sample solutions obey Beer-Lambert law. That is to say that the higher the concentration the higher the absorbance within this "window". However, as the sample solution becomes so concentrated, the certainty with predicting the absorbance decreases and and becomes more random. So, the answer to your question depends on the concentration range you are working with. If the concentration range is that which obeys Beer-Lambert law then, absorbance increases with concentration. But outside this range you can't say for sure how absorbance will behave with concentration change.
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I am more concerned about the design of the bath tank and the instrumentation involved in temperature maintenance including chiller, temperature controller, coil and/or heat ex changer . . .
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Dear Ahmar,
I think the best cooling is the direct one, So you can use peltier cooler.
You do not need to circulate water for cooling. This will simplify your apparatus.
You can build your vessel from insulting materials as double glass wall.
Best wishes
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I want to know about what is instrumentation system and how to develop a smart instrumentation system for small scale hydropower system to increase the efficiency of hydropower.
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Dear Mr. Ahmed,
The instrumentation system is all the instruments used to meter and supervise the operation of all the parts of a physical system and the operation of the system it self.
So, in order to determine the instruments required to measure and supervise the performance of the system one has to build a physical system for the model.
Then choose points in the system to attach the required instruments.
Your system is a water driven turbine and an electric generator.
So, you need to measure and supervise both system components.
You can find in the web the instruments associated with each machine.
The smart metering and supervision system is that system that can predict the occurrence of the malfunction of the system and alarm it to the operator.
May be the most advanced supervision and measurement systems that is composed of sensors and calibrators connected to a data acquisition system DAQs. attached to a computer as a pc or a laptop.
Best wishes
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We have a keithley 2400 SMU in our lab but we can not control it through windows 10 64 bit. Labtracer 2.9 does not support win7 and over.Tektronix releases a software called kickstarter, however, it doesn't support REV C30 series. We want to control it and make special measurements. 
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I have developed a software called SweepMe! that can be downloaded here https://sweep-me.net/
It works with Window 7 or higher.
The standard installation comes with the driver for the Keithley 2400. Also other instruments are supported.
Many standard measurements such as taking IV characteristics or logging voltages/currents over time are easily possible.
Maybe it helps you to do your measurements.
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I have recently learned the concept of override control in the p&id diagram. I have also learned some typical examples but whenever i come across a new complicated override control I find it difficult to interpret and identify the two selected and de selected controlls.
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We are using Over ride control in Mill control. The Mill speed is controlled by the Standard PID Controller and this is over rided by the Carrier speed. Selection was given to opt both the possible ways of running the mill. This is working very effective.
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To continue the research specially laboratory based contribution, role of Instrumentation, Laboratory availability along with fund is very much crucial factors. Depending on each country economical conditions and Interest in research sectors , the Scientists and Researcher are obliged to maintained the compact work in where they are not satisfied on his/her own Research and its progress comparing with some developed as well as quality research addicted country. I think, these above mentioned factors highly affect the quality of research along with the researcher's interest. What do you think about your work environment and availability?
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Dear fellow ,
But regarding funding CSIR , UGC ,or Any foreign funding agencies may be useful for Post-Doc research .
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Are there any good general e-mail discussion lists for instrumentation people?
There are of course lists for HPLC, or spectroscopy, and several for mass spectrometry but are there any lists that cover multiple types of instruments where subscribers are faculty who teach instrumental analysis, or are in charge of instrumentation, or people like myself who are instrumentation support staff?
Does anyone have any sense of whether such a discussion list would even be of interest given how diverse the "instrumentation" field is?
Thank you
Kevin
To paraphrase that great Canadian philosopher, Red Green...An instrument guy makes his own luck, and frequently his own bandages.
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Hello Kevin,
For LC specifically, I highly recommend this educational site https://www.chromacademy.com. Used to be free subscription with a university email for several years, not sure how they operate now. Thermo has a very informative website called Planet Orbitrap with tons of useful tips and resources, and, I believe, there is a forum with free registration. Thermo also offers free webinars on best practices for LC and MS, as they sell both.
In general, I find that connecting with the instrument vendor technical support is very helpful for gaining insightful information on troubleshooting. Some vendors now offer free webex support for diagnosing the issues remotely, even if you do not have a service plan with them. Perhaps, contacting your area sales rep and asking for technical resources would be a good start. If your position qualifies you for attending scientific conferences, talking to instrument vendors on the exhibition floor can be useful. It is unlikely service technicians will be there but instrument developers are very likely to be around, and may give top of the line advice.
My personal experience with commercial HPLC and MS training courses is ambivalent. They seem most useful when expanding expertise from one instrument model to another of similar kind, as you already have the background, understand what is this about, and just want the scoop on new features and related maintenance (maybe!); repairs typically not really covered. For some vendors, manuals are so well written, they can beat any course. Finally, hanging around service technician during instrument installation or repairing of your equipment and asking relevant questions may give very practical insights. Hope it helps!
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I am looking for a best hardware solution to measure very low current values (pA -uA) without using any standard measuring devices. Now I came to know that with an instrumentation amplifier and a current sensing resistor I can measure low current ranges, but still I am not sure how successfull it would be. Is there any other analog circuits availabe to make this possible. Your suggetions would be much appreciated, thanks in advance.
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Using CRO...
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ِِAlthough there are a lot of materials about gcc compiler that describe its internal structure, however RTL is not well documented.
Since gcc 4.5, we can write a gcc-plugin to extand gcc in order to perform additional works, e.g., analyzing, instrumentation, ... etc.
However, most of free plugins deal with GIMPLE representation (because it is easy). What about dealing with RTL? all the guys who presented some works about gcc plugin, have only focused on GIMPLE (they said, OK, we will not talk about RTL due to scope considerations, or because it is very complicated)!.
Sometimes, we need to add compiler passes at RTL code as a back-end. To perform that, we need to understand RTL. Unfortunately, gcc RTL is not well documented.
So in order to perform works at RTL level, for example, implementing a gcc plugin as a back-end to inject some instructions into RTL code, What should we do? Reading .h .c .cc gcc files? I think gcc internal manual is not enough to perform such plugin.
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I've create a GCC plugin that does exactly what you want to do and even more, since I also add instructions at the beginning and the middle of basic blocks in RTL. This plugin executes after the RTL pass free_cfg, since that pass indicates the CFG of the program will not change anymore, making it the ideal point to work on basic blocks.
I agree with you that the documentation regarding RTL and how to build a plugin that deals with RTL is inadequate. I managed to develop my plugin through
  • Reading the GCC internal documentation, mainly the chapters about RTL and the CFG
  • Reading / Analyzing the plugin header files, such as rtl.h, basic-block.h, rtl.def, etc.
  • Reading / Analyzing the GCC code itself, using the github depository.
  • Trial and error: using lots of printf statements to find out what specific functions do; printing out the RTL to text documents and analyze how specific instructions must be build; trying out code and see its effect on the RTL.
One of the problems while building a (RTL) plugin, is that the error messages you get do not help you while compiling code with the built plugin. If you're lucky, the error message is "unrecognizable insn ..." and you can start figuring out what is wrong. In 90% of the cases however, the error message is just "Segmentation Fault" and that's it....
I think, having a look at our code my help you figure some things out. At this point however, I cannot yet share it with you as our legal department is still figuring out which license to apply to the code. (and I still have to thoroughly document the code ;) )
I hope this helps you a little. Feel free to contact me through email or private message for further information.
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We are gonna built an experimental setup about the flow of supercritical CO2 under constant heat flux in stainless steel circular microtube (0.5 mm diameter and 300 mm length). It will be placed lots of T-type thermocouple along the tube to measure the wall and hence the bulk temperature. I would like to take your advice about the correct inserting types of thermocouples on the tube to take the better results. Regards,
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You could use a pure copper pipe and spot weld to it small constantan (0.1mm diameter) single wires so making a series of T thermocouples. Be sure they are not electrically shorted on the cold side.
The copper tube will also ensure a temperature very close to the pipe internal one.
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In today's era of orthopaedics, PSI helps in performing the replacement surgery more accurately with reproducible results. The literature supports the usage of PSI with numerous benefits.
Market has numerous options of PSI - few being MRI based, while others CT based. What is your take on this technology and which one do you prefer, if any?
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There are two main goals from the imaging. The first is to calculate the optimal alignment for the replacement and the second is to produce cutting blocks which are accurate and easy to use intra-operatively. CT is better for quick analysis of bone contours and therefore alignment whilst MRI can give images which facilitate the production of better jigs - as they can incorporate cartilage and soft tissue. You could argue that as both are non weight-bearing, neither can actually measure physiological alignment. S&N Visionaire is likely one of the most popular and uses combined MRI and full leg X-Ray to design cutting blocks specific to that patient.
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In the era of AI, to connect machine to machine and use of internet, for superior operations and performance, what role instrumentation and control engineers will play? Do they will be more needed people?
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We can say yes if the instrumentation and control engineer did additional courses like machine learning and IoT.
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I am currently trying to figure out how i can use an Anasys Instruments NanoIR2 instrument to characterize my chitosan polymeric nanoparticles. Is this a possible instrumentation to use, or should i use something else? If i do use it, what is the best method of preparation of the nanoparticles to get optimum results on the instrument? Protocals and papers are welcome. Thank you!
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The lack of instrumentations and techniques.. would make it difficult for researchers from developing countries to carried out researches in the best way! What types of other problems may face researchers in such country?
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There are limited resources to support research projects because sources of funding are so scarce.Time to devote to research is difficult to find because people who teach at the university level in developing countries are rarely full time professors and usually have several jobs.Universities in many developing countries lack the structure of ethical review committees. Even if a researcher wants to verify ethical treatment of human subjects there is no mechanism in place to do so.
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I am working on the validation of a new LC-MS/MS assay for the determination of two steroids in serum and as a part of the validation of the method I am doing a patient correlation between our lab and some collaborators. Both labs use have the same LOQ, AMR we use the same transitions, similar gradient elution profiles and mobile phases. The difference between the two labs are the sample preparation steps and the LCMS instrumentation. Correlation of the results from analysis of cetrified reference standards is great (r2>0.9 and slope 1.1 for both compounds). When it comes to patient correlation, I detect two times higher concentration than our collaborator for one of the two compounds. Ion ratio remains steady and no peaks are found in the blanks. I re-injected the samples with longer gradient but the results remained the same. I double checked the calculations and everything is ok, no multipliers hidden anywhere. Why both labs get the same results for the reference standards and different results for real individual specimens?
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Theano D Karakosta, have you evaluated the interferences? seems like a matrix depended/endogenous interference. If you are looking at OH-Progesterone, you may want to look into OH-corticosterone, and isobars.
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i want to know how voltage scanning and frequency scanning in mass spectrometry instrumentation affect the results
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thank you @ Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani
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I am having very good experience of growing SLG graphene with very high quality. First time, I have observed very weird RAMAN spectra from my SLG graphene consisting a series of peak starting from 1210, 1250, 1305, 1348, 1390, 1430, 1450, 1525, 1590, and 1700. Does anyone observed such kind of things. Is it really from graphene or can be instrumentation problem or from atmosphere. Even 2D band is lower then G-Band. This happen first time otherwise it always two or three times in magnitude from all of my samples.
I am using 632nm red laser for excitation.
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I think there is a problem with your sample as the spectra shows weird peaks corresponding to the absorption modes which are not expected to be present in Graphene. Also as you claim it to be a SGL, 2D peak should be very distinct and visible at least which is not. So in my opinion there is a serious flaw in ur sample.
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I've used several methods to design a constant current source. Emitter bias circuit with transistor, Howland current source, opamp negative feedback with transformer coupling etc. Among them, a configuration using AD620 instrumentation IC (mentioned in its datasheet) gives the maximum constant output with a larger load range, almost upto 10 k.
Any comment on your experience regarding constant current source design?
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Consider using AD8221 or AD8429. These are the next generation upgrade.
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The accuracy of hardware performance counters measurements is discussed widely in the literature. Using hardware performance counters, we can measure many types of micro-architecture events, such as cache hits and misses, load and store, and retired instructions. However, These measurements are still in question, how much are they accurate? As illustrated in many papers, with different device, results can vary. Some of these events, like store instructions, are deterministic events, i.e. the measurement results of store events do not change with re-execution of the program and capture the performance counter values. Retired instruction is not. Meaning that, if we measure a part of code, like a loop statement, we may get a different counter value from run to another one.
"When deterministic counters do become available, they will be welcomed not only by those working on deterministic replay and simulator validators, but also by all users of performance counters."
By the way, can we use deterministic events like store events in tandem with retired instruction to introduce a deterministic user-defined event?
Any help will be appreciated
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I have checked the accuracy of Hardware performance counter on Intel x86 architecture core i7 and dual core with both Linux Ubuntu 32 and 64 operating system. All events (except stored event, i.e. store instruction) are not deterministic, i.e. their values change each measurement session. I did not test events related to caches or pipeline stages because such events are not reliable and change from run-to-run. In addition, clock cycle event cannot be measured accurately. So, what do you mean ' the timing is important'? How can we gain a benefit from timing measurement?
we can use hardware performance counter for sampling, an overflow will happen when the counter value reaches to a predefined value. By the way, this method is not suitable for our case, because none of the the events is deterministic!!
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Dear colleagues
Geotechnical Engineering Technologies (GET) is a track of the 1st International Conference on Civil Engineering Technologies (CiviTek 2019), which is intended to represent a major forum for researchers, academicians, professionals, and students from all over the world to meet in the beautiful and culturally rich city of Irbid in Jordan to present their latest research results, and to exchange new ideas and practical experiences in the most up-to-date areas of this exciting field.
This event is organized by Faculty of Engineering - Jordan University of Science and Technology- http://www.just.edu.jo/facultiesanddepartments/facultyofengineering/Pages/Default.aspx.
As part of the 1st International Congress on Engineering Technologies (EngiTek 2019 http://mosharaka.net/?Area=Conferences&Page=CongSite&Cong=40), CiviTek 2019 will be held in Irbid, Jordan in the period 27 April - 1 May 2019. You may view more details at the conference website here:
Coming to Jordan represents a unique opportunity to witness the embrace of history and future. As small in area as it is, Jordan has a rich history spanning thousands of years, a history that a tourist can only admire. Places like Petra and the Dead Sea are only examples of the many one-of-a-kind places to visit in Jordan. On top of all that, Jordan, as a peaceful country in a turbulent area, enjoys extreme levels of safety and security. Jordanian people are internationally known for generosity, hospitality and cultural awareness and tolerance.
The type of articles that will be considered for publication include case studies, reviews, as well as theoretical and empirical research. Only papers with top technical quality will be accepted; a fact that is assured by a world-class technical program committee (TPC) and a thorough and rigorous peer review process. All submitted manuscripts are peer reviewed, and acceptance/rejection decisions about a manuscript are based mainly on the importance, originality, clarity, and contribution of the submission to knowledge in the conference scope.
Papers to be published at CiviTek 2019 will be indexed by Google Scholar. The conference is also being considered for indexing by both Scopus and Compendex. Authors of best-reviewed papers will be given the opportunity to publish extended versions of their papers in special issues of top-ranked journals.
GET welcomes (only full) paper submissions in the following topics, separated by semicolons (additional topic suggestions and/or topic modifications are welcome):
Bridge Approach Embankment; Chemical/Mechanical Stabilization for Pavement and Geotechnical Applications; Design and Quality Control of Earth Structures and Subgrades; Dynamic Behavior of Soils and Foundations; Earth Retaining Walls and Slope Stability; Engineering Issues in Ground Subsidence; Foundation Failure and Repair; Geophysical Testing in Civil and Geological Engineering; Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Retaining Structure; Ground Improvement; In-situ Test Methods for Site Characterization; Innovative and Sustainable Geomaterials and Geosystems; Natural Hazard and Disaster Monitoring; Non-Destructive Characterization of Geomaterials; Physical, Numerical, Constitutive Modeling of Soil Behavior; Seismically Induced Hazards and Mitigation; Soil Laboratory Testing; Soil and Rock Instrumentation; Soil and Rock Instrumentation Behavior and Modeling; Unsaturated Soil, Seepage, and Environmental Geotechnics.
Best Regards.
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Best wishes for success.
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Its principle, Instrumentation, Application related theories to know about the instrument.
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Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis
Third Edition
Authors: Goldstein, J., Newbury, D.E., Joy, D.C., Lyman, C.E., Echlin, P., Lifshin, E., Sawyer, L., Michael, J.R.
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Need to learn any relevant rotating heat pipe/ heat transfer application in Automotive and sensors used for same.
what are the other rotating parts parameters using Non contact measurement /other methods using different Sensors.
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Thanks Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi sir for the reply
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What are the main instruments used for measurement of different parameters, such as displacements, strains, etc, during the Structural Integrity Test (SIT) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (IRLT) of Containment Building?
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Dear Mourad,
Thanks a lot for the relevant documents. These were really very helpful.
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I'm working with a small unbalanced panel dataset (N=24, T=30, Obs.=590). My goal is a typical one... to test hypothesized relationships between Xs and Y. When using a FE or RE framework, I've noticed that my errors are serially correlated. As a result, I'm thinking about making my model dynamic by adding a lag of the dependent variable as a regressor. I'm aware that doing so creates an endogeneity issue, leading to biased estimates. From what I've read, this bias diminishes as T increases. 
Q1) Is T=30 large enough to ignore the endogeneity bias issue? Or do I need to address it via instrumentation? 
Q2) More generally when are T and N considered "large/small"?
Q3) Can/should time fixed effects be used in a dynamic model?
Q4) How can I decide whether a single lag of the dependent variable enough? My dataset may be too small to support multiple lags but I'd still like to know. 
Perhaps a dynamic model isn't the way to go. Alternatively, I could use first differencing or a time polynomial to alleviate nonstationarity issues. 
Q5) How do I know which combination of these modeling techniques is most appropriate (dynamic methods, first-differencing, detrending, inclusion/exclusion of year dummies)?
Q6) At least one message board I found suggested that stationarity isn't a major concern when using panel data. I can't imagine how this could be true, as I think nonstationarity would lead to spurious results. Am I correct or am I missing something?
I've been reading message boards, online lecture notes, and academic papers for days but can't find practical answers to these questions. 
If you can address ANY of these questions, I would greatly appreciate it. When doing so, please bear in mind that I'm looking for practical approaches and don't have the ability to understand highly technical/theoretical papers. Thank you!
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Dear Douglas,
I suggest you to see links in topic.
-Nonstationary Panels
-NONSTATIONARY PANEL DATA ANALYSIS - CiteSeerX
-Estimation and inference with non-stationary panel time-series data.
-Nonstationary Panel Data | SpringerLink
-NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF PANEL DATA SETS 1
Best regards
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I am modeling a dam with instrumentation. I've already fitted the settlements with mohr coulomb model.
There are several levels in which we have piezometers in and when I fit the lowest layer to the model, higher elevations' Pore Pressure tend to become higher and when I fit them, the lower layers show less pore Pressure than they should.
How can I fit all of the elevations or at least most of them?
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thank you so much for the answer.
I've controlled other elements as Stoyan Andreev kindly mentioned and I am sure that this has something to do with the material properties or maybe Water Bulk.
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FTIR spectra were generated for 0.1 M H2SO4 and 0.1 M H2SO4 which had a soaked polymeric membrane. At first, I thought the spectrum of the latter was a mirror image of the former, but that's not the case. Looking at the spectra at 860, 1010 and 1160 cm-1, supports this observation.
The absorption bands from 1310-1910 cm-1 and 3500-4000 cm-1 were caused by H2O molecules present in the branched polymer (30% PEI in H2O). The issue here is, the doublet at 2360 cm-1, which supposedly represents absorption by CO2 seems to be oriented at different directions for the two samples. What could be the possible phenomenon behind this effect?
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Simple: The CO2 content of the air is different. If the CO2 content decreases after the background measurement, the corresponding peaks are negative in the absorbance spectrum otherwise if the content increases you get the usual positive peaks.
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I carried out an experiment aimed at confirming the presence of aspirin and to quantify the abundance of asprin using standard addition. And using HPLC instrumentation.
From the result, the chromatogram shows increase in the peak height as the concentration increases due to spiking and I thought this was a good result.
However the peak areas are not increasing, the increase then decrease, there is no steady increase .
Please what would be the reason. And how will this affect the error when peak area verse concentration graph is plotted.
Thank you
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Your sample will probably be drawn up via a syringe into the sample loop. If the syringe is not reproducible you have a problem with the reproducibility of your analysis. Do you have the possibility (in the software) to set up a multiple of the sample loop? If yes, then your fluctuations may decrease or disappear completely (e.g. with a 5 µL loop you draw up 20 µL, i.e. the sample loop is overfilled by a factor of 4. The excess (in this case 15 µL) ends up in the waste).
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I'm looking for instrumentation devices used in Metal & Mining industries, especially measurement and analyzers. It would also be helpful to understand the process for steel making. If name of (or specific) instruments not possible, just tel me where to read or check the proper process flow of steel making, I can do rest of the work.
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Hello my friend,
Metal and Mining Industries use many different instruments. Temperature, pressure sensors in blast furnace, level probe, open/close sensors and valves... And it's only in the beginning!
The page below may introduce you some interesting points:
I hope to help you.
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I am interested in modern concepts/instrumentation/principles employed in the landslide early warning system
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I'm trying to understand how John Dewey pragmatism (instrumentalism) influenced symbolic interactionism and its connection with Goffman Labelling Theory. Could anyone help? Thank you!
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Thank you professor Hein. Your answer was very enlightening. I will rethink the philosophical approach.
Best Regards
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I saw a design in which people use a 0.2uV square wave input for AD8228 whose offset voltage is 50uV.
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Yes, it is possible. 2 approaches
  1. As already mentioned: apply some offset compensation technique(s).
  2. As the offset is DC and your signal is AC, you could make the DC amplification low and AC amplification high (in effect some high-pass) to prevent saturation fom the offset. Any distortions could be mitigated by some low-pass in the signal path following (if necessary).
Regards
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Hi 
we have a batch reactor for CO2 capturing. A pressure sensor is into the reactor and monitor shows this pressure, also a pressure gauge is before the reactor inlet valve. when the inlet valve is open, the pressure that monitor shows is same with pressure gauge. In this manner when the reactor is evacuated, the monitor shows 0 for pressure. So the monitor shows realistic numbers for pressure. But when there is not any adsorbent in reactor and we fill the reactor with CO2 and then we close the inlet valve, the monitor shows a fast pressure drop at the beginning that it will diminish over time.
why monitor shows a pressure drop when no adsorbent is in the reactor (We checked the reactor and its connections, all of them are sealed).
thanks
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Could it be your reactor conditions are sufficient for CO2 to liquify?
An additional temperatue gradient might explain the slowing of pressure drop after the initial fast drop.
Another explanation could be some overpressure leak (or relief valve) that might explain such pressure curves as well. In terms of sealing and control, confining vacuum is quite different from confinig higher pressures.
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We need to measure gas pressure in a reactor where temperature may reach up 1000°C maximum.
However providers surveyed just offer instrumentation that reach up 350°C.
Where or who can help us?
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Hi Oscar,
In addition to what Dreher has stated above, you can consider some mechanical arrangement to transfer the heat/pressure information outside the 1000oC environment to a lower temperature level and use the existing high temperature rated pressure sensor such as that you have already explored for 350oC.
What I mean to say that it may be a sensor direct but some combination of electromechanical or even electro-optic arrangement would be a best solution to your requirement.
Best Luck!
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Does anyone have experience/recommendations as to which commercially available DIC systems are well suited for biomechanics studies at reasonable cost?   We would be interested in strain measurements of cadaver soft/hard tissue and instrumentation.
Thanks
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I have used the trilion system for many different projects.  In my opinion all systems that are good are not very cheap.  This one is right in the average price buy you will be satisfied with all that you can measure and record
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Commercially available 3D printed medical devices include:
Instrumentation (e.g., guides to assist with proper surgical placement of a device),
Implants (e.g., cranial plates or hip joints), and
External prostheses (e.g., hands).
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Dear Mr.Parth_Shah many thanks for your ansewr and your kind 
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Dear researchers, we need experimental results and data for Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for electrons in human tissue.including data, instrumentation, and methods to compare our theoretical results. Best regards.
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good question>> so i like to know the answer
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how can i increase relative sensivity in c4d detection for electrophoresis?
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Is this for capillary electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis? What analytes are you trying to measure? Which instrument, CE and C4D, do you have?
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I have obtained impedance spectrum for single cell in experiment.
How to extract parameter in equivalent circuit based on this impedance spectrum?
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Prof. S. EL-Rabaie is right that are your options. I want just to expand a little more. In Matlab, you can call the function fminsearch(f,x0) with your specific objective function and a initial guess. with your data it will find the best fit for your data and return a vector of parameters X. There is a third option but is more complex and suffer from horizon limitations. You can use neural networks of GP to learn a model over your data.
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If the basic ingredient of the universe is energy (ie even matter is basically energy E=Mc^2) and as em waves such as presently used. in modern communication, contains information , the idea of some em wave from space, which can create life without pre- conditions, as we know them now, seems feasible. It is interesting to speculate on this from different points of view.
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dearest narasim
hopefully this information could help
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Hi everyone!
I’ve worked and designed on the conventional tunnels such as NATM. But, in this time I’m beginning about excavation with TBM and I want know about the instrument in these tunnel. Is there any references about it? What are the difference between conventional method such as convergence meter, extensometer, and etc with the instrumentation which use in the mechanized tunnels?
Thanks in advance for sharing your experience!
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Look at this doc it may be helpful for your topic. Good luck.
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So far I have found MIDSS.org and Incamresearch.ca as the only helpful resources. If you know of any others, please let me know. 
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Alan and Antonia, 
Thank you very much for your help! I will check out those resources and hopefully find something useful. 
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Hi, Folk!
I would like to measure sample in low-temperature (several 10 Kelvins) using THz TDS. Could anybody suggest a commercially available thermostat for that? A smaller one is better, as there is not large space (30 cm) between two antennas.
Thanks a lot!
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Thanks for your kind information, Mahmut!
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In Xcalibur instrument configuration tab there are no any LC instrumentation presets.
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Dear Dr Ferrero, I'm sorry for disturbing you. The system automatically sends enquiries depending on main tags of a question.
As for my problem (if someone will look for the answer) – Thermo had kindly granted to us the driver we needed.
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[Thermal break system of a windows and door.] Means i want to know what is the temperature on the outer surface and inner surface of the glass. That can help me to know efficiency of the window.
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Indeed, the black tape is a compromise to allow for IR-optical measurements. Direct radiation on the patch would significantly alter the temperature to be measured. Sometimes you have to make some tradeoff. Not that bad if you are aware of it.
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Does anyone know how to open the back cover of Tektronix TDS 3032 B oscilloscope for repairing? it looks like some push fit lock.
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A rather late response but maybe these pictures can help someone else: http://mcu.cz/news.php?extend.1245.15
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is it to put directly the sensor on the wall or to make a groove in which the sensor in introduced by using silicon grease ?
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The IR imaging would be the better solution. The kind of sensor to be used depend on your requirement of resolution and accuracy. choice also depend on the kind of application whether it is indoor of outdoor. For outdoor wall, IR may be the choice but may provide little variation if you are keenly interested in small changes. In such case I would recommend the semiconductor or thermistor type to be used at different places as already suggested by others and an average may be preferred. But care must be taken to keep the wall temp and sensor at the same temperature. sometimes sensor (metallic one) may heat up due to external radiation which depend on its heat capacity and may indicate higher value even if the wall may remain at lower.
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I am trying to design the best patient monitoring system based embedded system.
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Its hard to advise without further information, but for general Micro-controller applications Atmels AVR-8 series of controllers is great (eg. ATMEGA168) . (I would recommend using an old version of AVR studio as the latest ones are somewhat over complicated).
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I need the calibrate the platform and I do not have the right calibration data. The company do not have the platform in their archives.
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Hi Marcelo,
Thank you for your answer. I checked these possibilities.The company (sales and technical dept.) don't have the calibration data. We own the new model of the force plate, but it has not the same data. We checked it with the same weight and the differnce is 200 Newton.
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Like there is chu and harrington limit on the size of electrically small antennas, I would like to know whether any such limit exists in absorbers? If not, then how would we define some absorber as electrically small absorbers?
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Look for IEEE papers on the Rozanov limit
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Is there a tool for code instrumentation for software testing can transform the source code into version can give feedback through testing running?
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Hello Omar,
your question is not clear as what you want to achieve. However, if you are interested in software version control, your development platform should have such facility. A long time back my software team was using something called as "Clear-Case". May be you can explore more.
Best luck!
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I want to purchase "wind turbine emulator for laboratory purpose", Please suggest some manufacturing companies for wind turbine emulator.
I know only two companies "Ecosense and Festo Didactic", please suggest some other.... 
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You may consider the product of Lucas Nuelle company. I'm not sure about your specific requirements for the wind turbine itself, but my experience with their wind power plant was impressive. You may emulate the wind data input in the related software and measure the effectiveness of the control system.
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I have spoken with Biometrics and they say the DataLINK may be connected direct to third party instrumentation via the R2000i or R2000iBNC analogue and digital output cable. Having look on their website at both of these, they need to be connect to a 3rd party AD board or data acquisition system or the BNC one is fitted with 8 BNC connectors for connection to a range of propriatary AD boards. Which of these cables is best and what AD Board do I need so sync with DataLINK EMG with Qualysis? 
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Hi Ashley, is the EMG wireless? If I remember correctly Qualysis has a trigger to start option, cant you feed this as a pulse into the emg system on a channel, thus having a time marker which will allow synchronization?
Regards
Steve
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Due to rapid changing technologies, a scale developed today may not be sufficient in sound judgement in 2years from now, how do we design scales that can last for at least 5 years before a review will be necessary?
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For sure, one should adapt rather than adopt a foreign scale. Culture, the times we are living in, and attitudes, in general, change. One should do a pre-test before applying a scale that is new for a particular population.
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Burner controller for industry boilers (thermal oil or water boilers).
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The easiest way is used solidwork software, then you can shows it in multimedia
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I am not that familiar with electromagnetic fields so I want to gain some knowledge regarding this and want to work on my FYP.
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Please see Prof Eric Laithwaite's   work . Here is a nice website showing an actual demo
by Prof Laithwaite himself !
Cheers
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Can anyone provide me the MATLAB code for finding the gain parameters of the PID controller?
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OK definitelty at present i am working on optimisation methods and i go through works of prof.''karo los' and can u suggest me how can i get his works
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The conventional method for depth measurement is using weight, thread, and float, and few more. But they are all contact types and only applicable for predictable depths. Is there any new idea for any depth measurement of water underground?
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SONAR is the non contact solution which works on ultrasonic principle. Point signal vertically down word, Sonar measures return signal from bottom and analyses the depth
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What is the best software for PV monitoring and control systems?
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Hi
PVSYST and SolarPro, Please search in google