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Should I use the term "questionnaire" or "instrument" in a paper? Is there a clear and practical difference?
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In my opinion it depends on the context. A questionnaire is an instrument that collects information by means of a series of closed or open questions. The notion of an instrument is more general than that of a questionnaire, and encompasses individual and group interviews, systematic or participant observation, tests, scales, checklists, sorting, experiments, etc. Regarding your question, I think the more specific term should be used.
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I have found 5 point Likert scale items for my mediator and 3 of my IVs, while I am unable to find 5-point Likert scale items for my DV and one IV. Can I change the scale from 7-point to 5-point if I am unable to find the same scale for my DV and one of my IVs?
Is there any particular technique to convert the scale from 7-point to 5-point? Does it require any rationale/logic?
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Mosharop Hossian Thank you for your response, I will look into it in detail.
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Dear fellow researchers, I am Edita. I am currently conducting a longitudinal international research and collaborating with other researchers about forgiveness.The goal of this research is to better describe distinctive presentations of forgiveness in various cultures, contributing to greater understanding of what it means to forgive. Part of the research involves these instruments: "Cultural Motives for Transgression Resolution" (39 items) and "Intergroup Forgiveness" (was created by Noor, Brown, & Prentice, 2008). My questions are do you know the reference and how do you score and interpret the "Cultural Motives for Transgression Resolution" scale? In addition, how do you score and interpret the Intergroup Forgiveness scale (e.g. any total score)?
Please kindly share it with me if you know about it! Thank you in advance!
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Edita Kristofora I am not sure if you are asking about one of these references:
Noor, M., Brown, J. R., & Prentice, G. (in press). Prospects for intergroup reconciliation: social psychological predictors of intergroup forgiveness and reparation in Northern Ireland and Chile. In A. Nadler, T. Malloy & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), Social Psychology of Inter-group Reconciliation: From violent conflict to peaceful co-existence- going beyond victimization, guilt and distrust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Noor, M., Brown, J. R., Gonzalez, R., Manzi, J. & Lewis, C. (2007). On positive psychological outcomes; what helps groups with a history of conflict to forgive and reconcile with each other? (Manuscript submitted for publication).
Please check the toolbox prepared by Dr. Masi: http://theforgivenesstoolbox.com/
Other, possibly more familiar scales of intergroup forgiveness that I have seen are the ones that were adapted from interpersonal forgiveness( i.e., Takaku, Weiner & Ohbuchi’s, 2001), and community forgiveness (i.e., McCullough et al., 1998).
Best wishes,
Gulnaz
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Good evening community. My name is Adrián de Jesús Vargas, and I am currently developing my master's degree in administration, with emphasis on research in the topic "Determination of soft skills that favor the employability of managers in the tourism sector, from the perception of graduates, teachers and entrepreneurs from the tourism sector ", apart from the instrument developed by Dr. Crawford and her team for research carried out in 2011, on" Comparative Analysis of Soft Skills: What is Important for New Graduates? Comparative Analysis of Soft Skills: What is Important for New Graduates? Perceptions of Employers, Alum, Faculty and Students ", where they evaluate 7 clusters of soft skills relevant to employability. They know some other tool that identifies what soft skills a manager requires to improve their employability. Cordially, Adrián de Jesús Vargas adriandejvargas@gmail.com +57 3182702215
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Gracias Juan, por compartir. Juan A. Marin-Garcia
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I'm currently working on mixed method research about instrument development. My plan is to use exploratory sequential design but I don't think it's correct since my instrument development will be based on other instrument that already exist. I will start from qualitative data collection to construct an instrument and then continue with quantitative data analysis. Are there any suggestion on this?
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The following publications may further help:
  • Collins, K. M. and O'Cathain, A. (2009) Introduction: Ten points about mixed methods research to be considered by the novice researcher, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3, 1, pp. 2-7.
  • Collins, K. M. T., Onwuegbuzie, A. J. and Jiao, Q. G. (2007) A mixed methods investigation of mixed methods sampling designs in social and health science research, Journal of mixed methods research, 1, 3, pp. 267-294.
  • Creswell, J. W. and Plano Clark, V. L. (2011) Choosing a Mixed Method Design, in Creswell, J.W. and Plano Clark, V.L. (eds.) Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. California: SAGE Publications, Inc., pp. 53-106.
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Dear all,
Can you please tell me the ways to measure differential pressures across utility sides of the heat exchangers.
Unlike process side, the utility side pressure drops may not be measured. What can be done in such cases ? Are there indirect ways to measure it?
Thank you.
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There are many gages all over the place on most refinery units. Many send signals to the control room and many others must be read in the field. Each gage will have a small bias/error they are rarely identical. So if you want an accurate indication of the pressure drop from field gages you do a survey of the pressure at all points of interest with the same gage to eliminate the error between different gages
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While measuring a variable of abstract nature like personality trait, is it necessary to request permission to use measurement instruments developed by some other authors. Though we properly acknowledge and cite the source from which we took the measuring instrument and properly mention that we adapted the measuring instrument from prior research done by Author(Year) etc.
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I agree with the previous respondent, once the instrument is published and in the 'public domain', and assuming no 'intellectual property' is claimed (as e.g a patent) then you are at liberty to use it, especially if you cite the origin of the instrument.
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The quantum phenomenon as an aspect of objective reality was a more or less accidental discovery by the turn of the 20th century that no one (philosopher, scientist or thinker) could even anticipate in their wildest imagination. But within its short life span, the quantum phenomena have revolutionized modern natural science and technology. The major part of modern life is dependent on the various aspect of this phenomenon. As a scientific tool it provides the most accurate results ever achieved by man; about the smallest and the largest objects of Nature and Life.
But ironically, if we go by the following quotes from the people who were instrumental in developing and working with this phenomenon; it remains as unfathomable and enigmatic aspect of objective reality as ever before! Why this disconnect? Is it possible to do anything about it?
1. “If it is correct, it signifies the end of physics as a science”. Albert Einstein
2. "If someone says that he can think about quantum physics without becoming dizzy, that shows only that he has not understood anything whatever about it." Niels Bohr
3. “I do not like it, and I am sorry I ever had anything to do with it”. Erwin Schrödinger
4. “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics”. Richard Feynman
5. “If you are not completely confused by quantum mechanics, you do not understand it”. John Wheeler
6. “Quantum mechanics makes absolutely no sense”. Roger Penrose
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I simply would like to point out that quantum mechanics do not "make sense" to us humans because they do not accommodate our everyday macroscopic experience. They absolutely make sense from the mathematical point of view, its just really hard to develop any kind of intuition. From a Kantian perspective, the experience of quantum mechanics maybe could be considered devoid of space. On the other hand, assuming that the physical laws that govern the universe should be something we are even remotely familiar with is, in my honest opinion, quite naïve.
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The Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II) by McLain ( 2009 ) is most recent instrument developed as per my search. Any ideas how I can get this scale to carry out my masters dissertation.
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Can someone refer me scales on perceived ambiguity?
Thanks
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Instrument development
Cronbach alpha values
reliability test
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in the Philppne landscape and based on research practice, the acceptable margin is atleast high reliability for cronbach- altho the desired one is very high. Look into the scales so u can see the descriptive equivalent
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Can anyone please suggest a valid instrument (developed scale) to measure cultural heritage knowledge level.
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Hi Dr. Britton Niles,
Definitely I will share the findings.
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Hello all,
This is a slightly strange one.
I need to convince a community of practice (field biologists) that they need to validate their tools and methods before they use them to generate results that are used as the basis for important management decisions.
While QC and validation have penetrated to the benches in biochemistry and microbiology labs, they are completely foreign to field biologists, for reasons that I will not burden you with here.
What I need is a basic introduction to QC and validation that is not specific to the hard sciences (physics and chemistry), and that sets out the fundamental reasons why knowing that a tool and a method work properly are essential steps in doing good science and generating results that can be relied on.
I have googled all the combinations of validation, QC, fit for purpose, etc etc that I can think of, and everything I find is too specific to particular applications - I need something that sets out the basic need for validation in general. Peer reviewed or a standard textbook is preferred, but anything clearly written will be a help.
Thanks.
Peter
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There are no appropriate texts! ICH validation guidelines apply to pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. With small molecules it has been relatively easy to validate a method but stem cells will be very hard. Is a recovery of 50% for a fluorescent antigen technique appropriate?
The 'validation biologist' will have to demonstrate that the method is consistent and reliable. This will mean setting the appropriate and relevant acceptance criteria or specifications.
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I am using Lawshe's Content Validation Ratio to get mutual agreement for Content Validity. Only four items are under critical value. Can I still include it in my pilot test after do some refinement? If yes, can u please help me with the citation?
Or i have to drop it? normally the references that I read suggest that.
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Hello Nur Farhana Ramli,
Lawshe's (1975) content validity ratio is one of many possible ways of quantifying the extent to which subject matter experts concur that individual items merit inclusion in a scale. Be aware that the "critical" values he furnished have come been criticized for several technical reasons (see references 2 and 3, below).
As instrument developer, you may impose whatever threshold you wish for asserting that items are either: (a) acceptable as is, and should be incorporated; (b) potentially acceptable, though possibly with modification; or (c) not acceptable for the scale. Statistical significance is not necessarily the best guideline for such thresholds because the actual threshold will vary based on the sample size (see Table 1 of Lashe's article, in which values from .29-.99 are given as thresholds, depending on how many SMEs are used). Do understand that there may not be any such thing as a criterion with which everybody agrees!
Good luck with your work!
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575. doi:
10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
Wilson, F. R., Pan, W., & Schumsky, D. A. (2012). Recalculation of the critical values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 45, 197-210. doi: 10.1177/0748175612440286
Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30, 459-467. doi:10.1002/nur.20199
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If anyone could help me to guide about the process of instrument development would be much appreciated.
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Assessment tools are there; I shall be sharing you few of them.
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  • Application of Rasch analysis and IRT models are becoming increasingly popular for developing and validating a patient reported outcome measure. Rasch analysis is a confirmatory model where the data has to meet the Rasch model requirement to form a valid measurement scale. Whereas, IRT models are exploratory models aiming to describe the variance in the data. Researchers seem to be divided on the preference of one over another. What is your opinion about this dilemma, in development of patient reported outcome measures?
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Rasch requires the data to fit the model in order to generate invariant, interval-level measures (sic.) of items and persons. It is prescriptive. IRT models attempt to great a model that will fit the data. They are descriptive. While IRT users, see Rasch as a particular IRT model, most Rasch proponents see it as distinctly different from other IRT models. The key differences are philosophical. Wiki provides a suitable introduction:
You might recall Fan's infamous comparison paper. I can add a critique of that if you wish.
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I am using SERVQUAL instrument developed my Zeithaml to assess service quality. The original and many subsequent papers have found 5 factors emerging of the scale, popularly called as- reliability, responsivness, assurance, empathy and tangibility.
When I apply this scale to my industry and geography, I am getting on 3 factors.
Does this mean that i need to collect data all over again, on those 3 factors alone?
or
can I move ahead with same data set, ignoring those items which were not a part of any of the 3 factors i obtained.
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Hello Rashmi,
Sample to sample differences can and do occur when people apply exploratory factor analysis to measures. If your sample is sufficiently large and representative of the target population of interest, then it is possible that, for your population, the functional structure of the measure is indeed distinct from that described by the developers.
You might try conducting a confirmatory factor analysis of the previously identified five-factor solution. If the fit indices are acceptable, then even though your own factoring suggests an alternative model works better with your data set, the five-factor model is still functional. If the fit is demonstrably poor, on the other hand, then it may be the case that your population is different in some salient way (from that/those used in prior research).
Good luck with your work.
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I am chairing a work group for the the NONPF that is task with creating a simulation evaluation instrument. A quick PubMed search did not reveal and existing instrument though their are some articles on the topic.
I would love to know if anyone has one that currently exist for any health profession. Obviously, instrument development is time consuming and I wouldn't want to recreate what already exist.
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Dear Roberta,
I did a research search and found the following article. Hope these help. James.
REFERENCES:
Rott, R.K. (1973). Evaluation of Medical Nurse Practitioner Program: Participant Instrument No. 1. ERIC. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED118589.pdf
Warren et al (2016). A systematic review of the effectiveness of simulation-based education on satisfaction and learning outcomes in nurse practitioner programs. Nurse Education Today. 46, 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.08.023
Loomis, J. (2016). Expanding the Use of Simulation in Nurse Practitioner Education: A New Model for Teaching Physical Assessment. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners. e151-e157. http://www.npjournal.org/article/S1555-4155(15)01107-1/pdf
Adamson et al (2013). An Updated Review of Published Simulation Evaluation Instruments. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 9, e393-e400.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Suzie_Kardong-Edgren/publication/271893402_An_Updated_Review_of_Published_Simulation_Evaluation_Instruments/links/572f5d4708aee022975b690b/An-Updated-Review-of-Published-Simulation-Evaluation-Instruments.pdf
Cant, R.P. & Cooper, S.J. (2009). Simulation-based learning in nurse education: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 66(1), 3–15.
Radhakrishnan et al (2007). Measuring Clinical Practice Parameters with Human Patient Simulation: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 4(1), 1-11. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kavita_Radhakrishnan/publication/51384554_Measuring_Clinical_Practice_Parameters_with_Human_Patient_Simulation_A_Pilot_Study/links/574cff6a08ae061b3301eacb.pdf
Clinical simulation evaluation tool
Nursing critical thinking, mannequin based scenario tool http://www.midss.org/content/clinical-simulation-evaluation-tool-cset
National League of Nursing. Description of Available Instruments.
Rivers, L.K. (2016). Use of the Creighton Tool During a Home Visit Simulation Experience. Nursing Education Perspectives: September/October 2016 - Volume 37 - Issue 5 - p 283–284. doi: 10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000041
Gantt, L.T. (2010). Using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with associate degree and baccalaureate nursing students. Nurs Educ Perspect. 31(2):101-5.
INACSL. Repository of Instruments.
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I am planning to conduct an instrument development research, may I ask for any reference materials and/or published articles? 
What are the prime considerations that I must observe?
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Knut Samset's book, Early Projet Appraisal, published by Palgrave Macmillan may also be useful for your proposed study. 
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I recently concluded a Modified Delphi Study in which I developed a research instrument. The instrument had a high consensus rate as expert participants reached agreement on the issues explored. I however want to use the instrument to further explore stakeholder's perspectives regarding an issue and I would like to know if it is necessary to pilot test the instrument or rather pretest it? I am stuck between making the decision to either pilot test or pretest. My perspective is that I may not have to pilot test since the instrument was developed from a Delphi study with a high consensus rate, but then again does a high consensus establish reliability. Or do I simply pretest it to establish readability and understand-ability from my sample? Please I need your perspectives with corresponding justifications to support it. Thank you
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There is a difference between high consensus about the topics to be studied versus similar agreement on the wording of the questions that you will use to study those topics. If your experts did not evaluate the actual questions that you will use, then I would indeed recommend some kind of pilot or pretesting.
Open option would be to do "cognitive interviews" with a relatively small number of people.
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Factorial analysis steps
Factorial analysis methodologies
Necessary tools to use
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Suppose I want to develop one instrument. In the item creation stage I have found that for a particular construct "x", there is hardly any existing item. For another construct "y", I have found 20 items from existing instruments. Is there any norm for creating a minimum number of new items (where no existing item has been found) or select minimum number of items from existing instruments to cover all dimensions of a particular construct?
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Thank you Dr. Mweshi. I request you to add references related to generating items through semi structured interview and focus group discussion.
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I am a PhD researcher and have utilised an exploratory sequential instrument development design.  I conducted semi-structured interviews and have consequently developed a survey from the findings.  The survey is descriptive and cross-sectional and is simply a follow-up quantitative phase to the main qualitative phase of the research.
Due to the issues with potential response rates (challenging to engage the study population), I envisage piloting to be difficult as I am asking additional questions to merely completing the survey.  Is it appropriate for me to go back to the original interview participants and pilot test the survey with them in addition to identifying new pilot testers? Or methodologically would that not be approved of, given their participation in the original interviews and their existing awareness of the topic area?
Any guidance would be appreciated,
Thanks
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If it is practical, I would recommend working with a new pilot sample. In addition to the previous participants now being more familiar with your topic, they are also the source of your current measures. if you want to be sure that your instrument works more broadly, you new to try it on a new sample.
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It has been noted that clinicians in Africa are forced to use instrument measures that were developed and validated either for American and European children which are quite limited. It is therefore imperative that African Researchers put efforts together to develop culturally sensitive measures.
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Thanks Joel. I agree with you entirely. There is a lot that African Researchers can do to bridge the gap that has existed for quite some time now. It is quite imperative that African researchers share ideas and promote collaborative research among African Universities. Given your background and what you do, can you share what you are doing in terms of innovation of African tools/instruments/questionnaires for children with disabilities for measuring the impact of interventions given
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I am developing an instrument - A. I have calibrated it against a reference instrument B which is believed to be very accurate. Now, I again tested 13 fresh samples in both the instruments and found out the percentage errors. Does it make sense to report a Bland Altman plot analysis to measure the agreement between the two instruments ? Technically one instrument - A is calibrated based on the reference and accurate instrument - B.
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Well Kaushik,
I do agree with what Dreher is saying.
1) What you are comparing at present is the "SAMPLES" using both instrument A (Standard Reference Calibrated) and Instrument B (as developed by you)
2) As stated by Dreher, I too agree to introduce the "REFERENCE SAMPLE" to be tested using both the instruments A and B
3) But, going a step ahead, what I would suggest is to make or test your "SAMPLES" (those 13 samples) and this "REFERENCE SAMPLE" to a third party well-calibrated instrument such as Calibration Laboratory to validate the results.
4) Kindly keep in mind that no matter what algorithm or method you use to estimate the error, you sample results remain the same.
I hope you find it useful.
Best wishes!
-Prasanna Waichal
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I am a 2nd year PhD student and am undertaking a mixed methods research project (specifically instrument development design).  I'm interested in developing a quantitative survey instrument from findings obtained through qualitative interviews. However I'm struggling to find other researchers or robust papers which are able to provide a detailed step-by-step account of the approach utilised. I have completed 22 semi-structured interviews and have started the data analysis process.
Any advice would be appreciated.
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I have attached two papers that are good examples of this process.
In general, I would echo your sense that there is too little literature that covers this issue in any detail. I can find studies that describe the qualitative data collection, at one end of the process, and other studies that conduct cognitive interviews and factor analyses on the candidate items, at the other end of the process. What is missing is solid descriptions of how the qualitative data were converted into potential scales and items to operationalize those scales.
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I know this is practically impossible due to the noise which accumulates to a huge number due to double integration. But still, many research have been conducted to minimize it. like the GPS reference method and others. Some YouTube videos shows that they have done even absolute positioning using only IMU successfully.  
I need to measure the height of an dynamic object from the ground. the net error must be within a few centimeter. So, GPS referencing is not an option here. I need some other reference for correction and/or an efficient algorithm / method for "integration". Please help me with any suggestions or directions.
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Emiliano,
Are you indicating to the implementation of a band pass filter in the expected frequency band?
This will definitely help to reduce the error. but without a second reference this too would ultimately give a huge error. Actually what I am thinking about is a reference point in the motion itself which I would be tracking to "reset" the cumulative value of the distance.
Thanks a lot.
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I have always been taught to do this, but without any explanation of the reason. Does the instrument response really vary that much from day to day, given that you allow the lamp adequate time to stabilize? I suppose ideally you would calibrate every instrument frequently, but I don't, for example, find that I need to check the calibration of my microbalance every time I use it.
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Dear Rafael,
Light source aspects: The more traditional spectrophotometers use a Deuterium Lamp for the UV continuum, and a tungsten-halogen lamp for the VIS/NIR range. It is important to know that the intensity of a Deuterium lamp slightly varies per time that you start it up. This is an inherent property of such lamp types. Furthermore the quartz window ages (solarization). The near UVA and blue range of a Tungsten-Halogen lamp are very sensitive to tiny variations in lamp current. Both lamp types also age. With the appearance of continuum sources, stability and lifetime are quickly improving.
Calibration standard aspects: If one uses a certain dilution series for calibrations over a prolonged time, then the aging of those samples directly affects stability.
Spectrometer aspects: A double beam instrument (or a single beam that can subtract two consecutive measurements) offers improved stability.
Modern solid state detectors can be kept stable a lot easier (and age slower) than photo-multipliers.
Where do you TAKE your instrument? I saw that you are in the Agricultural discipline. Anyhow, in general, spectrometers with dual dispersion do much better than single grating instruments. But taking a dual slit mechanically scanning spectrophotometer into the field is quite impractical. Solid state duas dispersion spectrophotometers without moving parts, using e.g. an Echelle grating, are much more robust.
How is the "sending-in and uptake" path of your light? Lousy sample holder mechanics can be a big trouble. But also other aspects are important: In our Van 't Hoff Shared Innovation Program on Medical Photonics we do wideband (350 - 1830nm) contact spectrometry during surgery with very high accuracy. We designed our sterile fiber probes so that the mechanical surgical handling hardly affects the spectral transmission.
The best book I ever bought about this topic is:
Reliable Spectroradiometry
Henry J. Kostkowski
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number 97-91743
1997
ISBN 0-9657713-0-X
Note: Only 1000 of these were printed, I got mine from Henry, don't know how easy you can buy it nowadays. But it is a GREAT book.
NIST in the USA and PTB in Germany are good in these topics. Added some stuff from the time I co-operated with PTB from my lecture archive as PDF.
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I would like to read external magnetic fields (of both polarities ) which can reach upto 2 Tesla as fast as I can (at least 200reading per second).Any suggestion is appreciated . I am thinking of using Hall sensors but it seems most of them (on the market) are designed for very small magnetic fields .
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Thanks , I have already bought the measurement Kit from GMW . This is the best cheap solution to my need.
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Instrument development.
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
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I have the options of Cu and stainless steel. It will operate with 30kV, 10mA under vacuum. I will appreciate if you share any ideas about which material to go for...
Many thanks,
Oznur
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Both of them should be fine.
Copper feedthrough may be expensive compared to stainless steel. 
If you are just planning to apply some high KV (kilo volts) through the feedthrough then the one mentioned by you with copper would be just fine. It offers better thermal and electrical conductivity. This feed through is HT feed through. Here you are have a better insulation (probably ceramic, or maybe teflon), and the current carrying capacity is just 10 mA as you have mentioned. To be usede purely with High tension voltages.
Take care that you Dont use the above HT feedthrough for carrying high  currents through the feed through. You have a different kind of feed through for LT feed through to pass heavy currents (30 to 100 Amps.  The diamter of the central copper is conductor is much larger.
K. Sreenivas
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I have developed an instrument of business incubation centers and this paper has been published in September 2014. During my research, I have not found this kind of publication.
I would like to question if anyone ever seen another publication regarding the instrument development of business incubation centers. Your information would be much appreciated.   
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Hi,
Please go for an article, full text in this link:
regards
Dr. Avishag Gordon
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I am looking for a disease state, for the purpose of creating a seminar for my department's students. I need some specific parameters to make the concept work. The factors are: A- no current instrument for patient reported outcomes (HRQoL) exists but there is a need for one; B- the disease state has an active and effective patient support organization (PAH is a good example) and C- the organization has an established website with a meaningful, of patient visitors. Together, these usually mean a rare or "orphan" disease. The project will be to create the instrument for the use of the clinical and patient community, as an exercise for the students.
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ALS meets these criteria, but there are opportunity costs for the time and physical effort entailed in data collection. Patients and caregivers would rightly ask what's in it for them. High-burden diseases for which we lack even moderately efficacious therapy, unlike the two above, will all fall into this category, because things haven't gone far enough to warrant PROs as endpoints.  
I give this negative answer only to point out the huge gap between much QoL research and the real sufferer world, and encourage those of you doing QoL to earn impact at the point of care. 
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Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) is usually done in UHV (and sometimes in Air). Doing STM in UHV has many advantages but also imposes greater constraints. In some applications, possibly working in HV only could be more advantageous. So, I wonder exactly what one loses by performing STM in HV (apart from no having perfect surface cleanness). Would the current stability (and tip behaviour) be much worse? What drawbacks would high vacuum imply? Please indicate relevant literature on the subject.
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I thing the response is 2-fold. First is the technical issue due to possible discharge as mentioned above. Note that STM head has many piezo which function with high voltages and which may be damage by discharge. You can use them without problem in air and in UHV but you have to be careful in between. This is because the distance for discharge to happen is minimal at a pressure between 10^-2 mBar and 10^-4mBar. Have a look here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paschen%27s_law . Second is the kind of sample you want to study. STM is often use to study surface at atomic level. In order to do that you need the surface to stay clean. There the pressure will be related with the time the surface will stay clean. Look there: http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/surfaces/scc/scat4_2.htm
At 10^-10 mbar, you can work about 3 hours before the surface is cover by a monolayer of residual gas. At 10^-6, you have only 1 second to complete your image before 1 ML coverage !
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I develop a standardized survey questionnaire for the evaluation of a journal/magazine. A set of questions should measure the attitude (connotative meaning) of the journal/magazine from the perspective of readers. Prior, in some qualitative interviews I collected a number of relevant adjectives for the semantic differential. Nevertheless, the list of items is very long and I don't know on which criteria I should reduce the number of adjective pairs. My possibilities to pre-test are very restricted.
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Great reference Paul - now after reading it which helps me resolving some of my questions.
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There doesn't seem to be a comprehensive list anywhere online and I have yet to come up with search terms that don't put me behind the eight ball with too many other, irrelevant results. I'm looking through literature for affiliations now, but it's slow going.
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Fraunhofer institute specially IBMT and IZFP , and others
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If we have to find the speed of sound in any material measuring sound vibrations at different points in the sample, what kind of piezoelectric sensors which have high sensitivity would be useful?
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Experimentalists state that to generate and detect acoustic waves in the piezoelectromagnetics (PEM), also known as the magneto-electro-elastic materials, is more preferable with such non-contact method as the electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMATs). Also, such the two-phase materials possessing both the piezolelectric (PE),and piezomagnetic (PM) effects as well as the magnetoelectric effect can be used for smart materials. Anyway, PEMs can be used instead of PE and or PM. PEMs can give more possibilities for sensors, see my books for the non-dispersive waves' propagation in the PEMs and I have also just written one book on the thirty two new dispersive SH-waves' propagation in PEM plates. It is stated and well-known that SH-waves can possess a larger sensitivity.
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I need to take analog pulse (0-5 V) transition as hardware trigger and thereby call a third party software to acquire the pressure data simultaneously from DSA Scanivalve 3217. Is it possible to call and sample continuously by interfacing with a third party software?
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Or, you can use an electronic timer, that the first pulse from the shaft encoder trigger a periodic pulse, and you select the frequency of this pulses