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I've recently published the following article in the Korea Times.
I am curious, how does your university deal with online technology during a pandemic? It would be nice to hear various opinions in this discussion.
Thanks in advance.
Virtual learning environments during pandemic
Nobody could predict the impact that COVID-19 would have on our world; it changed so much of our daily routines. The stigma of living in the new normal is haunting. As unhinged, to some extent, as it might seem, and maybe even unrealistic, the world doesn't stop revolving and functioning even as such a detrimental health crisis falls upon its shoulders. A lot of changes have had to take place within the ongoing duration of the COVID-19 virus outbreak. One of those changes made online learning a must, but it's quite a win-win situation. It's common knowledge that today's generation is greatly knowledgeable when it comes to technology due to living in a highly-digitized world. It's rational to utilize the wonders that technology brings into continuing the practices adopted and implemented by the education sector globally, but now through online learning programs. Its implementation makes sense and was rightful because of schools physically closing due to health restrictions. The world of academia is not the only one switching its methods in such precarious times, but it is a very major change nonetheless. Online education is primarily centered on internet-powered platforms, and not every teacher and student has equal access to such services. More so, a bigger concern faced by teachers has to do with teaching methods in the online learning set up. Virtual classes can be intimidating and seem to limit the ways that teachers can impart knowledge to students, forcing them to be creative in the teaching methods they use in order to promote a collaborative and interactive learning environment. Also, the online education set-up entails a higher average of screen-time which leads to health issues such as poor vision and posture. Similarly, excessive screen-time and long video-conference hours can lead to "Zoom fatigue." In simple terms, Zoom fatigue, or fatigue from any video platform, is the feeling of tiredness that a person encounters after a conference call. Related to this, online teaching can take a toll on the mental health of teachers. Like students, teachers can also feel burnt-out from the constant exposure and workload that happens through screens and technological systems. Stanford University has published an article identifying four factors that contribute to such fatigue. Namely, those are: 1) The overwhelming amount of screen time, 2) The uncomfortable ability to see one's self during conference calls, 3) Typical motion exaggeratedly decreasing due to video chats, and 4) Video calls increasing the difficulty of cognitive tasks. The first one, when explained, had to do with the stress and social anxiety that comes with the awareness of people staring at you during video chats. The second reason is likened to being constantly followed in a real-life scenario but, instead of actually being followed, people are constantly interacting with you through a screen for a lengthy period of time. Thirdly, it's typical that people stay in one place during a video call, and research is continuously coming up with evidence that cognitive performance is better when an individual performs motion. Lastly, in order to get a message clearly delivered during video calls, more effort is exerted because methods of interaction are limited to the screen and technology in use, unlike in face-to-face interactions. Virtual learning environments (VLE), such as Virbela and vAcademia, allow vast opportunities in educational collaborations through the means of virtual environments. Through such VLEs, we are given the chance to use advanced teaching methods by the means of voice-powered technology, presentation options, 3D recording, and academic environment simulations. Through the use of VLEs, teachers are able to promote inclusivity and accessibility for their students. VLEs are highly flexible. Also, little by little, the more students engage with them, the more they become attuned to and are at ease with online classes. Another way that educational organizations benefit from VLEs is through providing an environment that fosters students to have a wider view of the world. VLEs are highly marketable to students across the globe. The San Diego Times released an article in 2020 showing how the 3D technology of Virbela had a new user growth rate of 78 percent, with half of that coming from the international market. It has proven how 3D technology has paved the way for an upgrade of virtual gatherings, meetings, and events. At the same time, the platform allows a virtual space where students can interactively meet while still being remote; a virtual campus of sorts like that of Stanford University. This virtual campus offers a similar interface to RPGs such as Club Penguin and The Sims, with similar features allowing users to choose outfits, interact, and go to classes. Through buttons, users are given the options to let their avatar perform simple actions like nodding and waving, all made possible through Virbela. Davenport University also did the same thing, using Virbela to conduct their online classes through a virtual university, as featured in a Detroit Free Press article. In a 2017 study conducted by Alves et al., it was found that students who have access to virtual learning environments are equipped to achieve a good academic performance, and that the higher the accessibility rate is to virtual learning environments, the better their performance will be. Rushan Ziatdinov (ziatdinov.rushan@gmail.com) is a professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering at Keimyung University, Daegu.
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Dear Prof. Ziatdinov!
I represent LUT University, Finland. There is an ongoing research project at our institution via which LUT tries to establish a feedback - loop within the virtual space internationally:
CEPHEI - Industrial E-Learning:
The coordinator of this community is Prof. Leonid Chechurin, email: leonid.chechurin@lut.fi
In addition LUT University cooperates with companies such as M-Files Corporation to facilitate metadata - based information sharing:
Hope YOU see value in the information I provided hereby, and you will contact LUT University and its partners.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Online teaching platforms are equipped with different facilities to enable teachers and students to make the best use of the learning environment. These classes are more flexible and convenient. It MIGHT promote life-long learning and computer literacy as well. Additionally, you can save a lot of money by participating in online classes.
HOWEVER, it is not without problems. It can be difficult for the instructors to monitor students' behavior and check their contribution and progress. It may create a sense of isolation in my opinion. This image tell the story:
" In an online course, no one can hear you scream. And that causes discomfort for some online students. Studying alone with only the computer as your companion can be terrifying. There's no whispering in the back of the room, no wise remarks from the peanut gallery, no commanding presence at the front of the classroom pleading for everyone to listen. The online environment is a much different atmosphere that takes some getting used to." ~https://www.montgomerycollege.edu/
Please share the problems that you have faced as an instructor or a learner in online platforms.
THANKS Indeed
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Teachers being made responsible for more than they should
Most of the time, teachers don’t feel that the responsibility is equally shared between them, parents, and students. Unfortunately, they will have to bear a lot of responsibilities on their shoulders.
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Does anyone have, or know where I might get a comparison of the threaded discussion features among popular learning management systems? By "features" I am thinking about threading, adaptive release, email from thread, push notifications for posts, etc.
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Moodle for learning journals & discussion forums, both used as graded assignments, Prof. Barbara Miller Hall.
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What online whiteboard do you use? Does it have limitations for the max. number of users? Please tell the advantages and disadvantages.
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Dear all, please note the following list of free software.
You are welcome to share the hyperlink with your colleagues.
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Can anyone answer or explain the following questions:
  • How many universities in the United States offer an educational/instructional technology program?
  • How many universities in the United States offer a learning sciences program?
  • Why are there rare undergraduate ed-tech programs or learning sciences programs in the United States? Why are most of them graduate level?
  • What are some considerations when a university is going to offer an ed-tech program or a learning sciences program?
Are there any papers or books discussing these questions?
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Hello, To answer part of your question: I am in a Learning Technologies program. The University of North Texas is one of the few universities in the USA to use the label "Learning Technologies." Almost all of the other universities call it "Educational Technology." I am enrolled under the College of Information. Yet I have seen other universities offer similar courses through the College of Education or in the Psychology department. Some universities dwell on neuroscience. However, the courses I have taken spend more time investigating instructional design models. I hope this helps. Happy New Year!
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These common ID Models are ADDIE, Dick and Carey, Kemp Design, so on.
(ID: Instructional Design)
I would appreciate if you could share your opinion with me.
Thank you!
Hulya
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Designing a model might take decades of research and theory building. But what I have seen over the years is more like using "eclectic" models. This kind of model can include pieces from various ID models with or without a particular focus on an ID model. For example, UbD is a curriculum/instructional design model. It's not a pure design. It is based on Tyler's and other scholars' (mostly from Chicago) work. But it also has a theoretical framework. For IDs in the field who design courses, having an eclectic model would work. Designing a new one from scratch might need time and effort as well as consideration of "do we need another ID model."
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Dear fellow academicians, firstly I wish the health & safety of you and your relatives during this pandemic; and present my kindest regards from Turkey. I am working on a research project that is orientated towards the pre-service training of science teachers through the utilization of low-end VR (Virtual reality) materials. Although bearing a humble background regarding this topic, I am also aware that there is still much to go before sufficiently rationalizing it and inferring any potential conclusions as a result of such an intervention.
Therefore, I am asking for your thoughts, backing, and counter-arguments against the use of VR in the training of pre-service science teachers. As a tentative outline, I am proposing the basic elements as follows;
The central educational gap that will be addressed: I plan to address the artificiality of the science instruction in the classrooms, which have been torn apart from the actual context that modern science is concerned with. My preliminary target in this manner is the facilitation of the instructional practices of pre-service science teachers.
Underlying theoretical perspective: I plan to adhere to the Contextual learning theory as my central perspective of research. In the research on VR-assisted science education, the most prominent tendency is the lack of theory, particularly in manipulative interventions. Apart from that, the Experiential learning theory appears as the dominant choice in the relevant literature, which primarily is in-line with high-end VR materials. However, I am keen to believe that the nature of contextual learning is compatible more with low-end VR materials, which I plan to utilize for this intervention.
What is the nature of the intervention that you plan to develop?: During the micro-teaching practices of pre-service science teachers, I plan to require them to use their mobile phones as VR headsets with the phone shell that I will provide. The reflections of this intervention will be evaluated with the focus group interviews and the quantitative queries regarding the technology acceptances of the participants as well as the peer reviews between the participants and the initial feedbacks of mine for them
Who is the target group of the intervention?: The target group of the intervention thought to consists of the pre-service science teachers from a state university that enrolled in the "Instructional Technologies" course.
What kind of setting will you use?: I plan to train and encourage the participants to use low-end VR during their micro-teaching practices during the approximately 12-week semester, first three weeks allocated for the necessary training. The required hardware power is abundant as the participants will use their devices, as the VR interface framework named Google Cardboard is compatible with most of the consumer devices. The head-mounted displays that I will provide are low-cost tools that just contain two biconvex optic lenses and an area that the smartphones from different sizes can be embedded. This even can be DIY' ed using regular cardboards, as the name suggests.
What kind of learning outcomes do you plan to target?: Technology acceptance of pre-service teachers, primarily through the mixed-method evaluations, in order to ensure the triangulation(s) of data, method, inferences resulting from these.
What I am requesting from you resembles a pre-peer-review for such a construction. For example, I would be flattered if you would propose alternative learning theories to take as the basis of such an intervention, sharing your ideas, the suitable VR-based materials, resources and tools to use in the process and may even propose an adequate educational design research framework for me to adhere to.
Let such a conversation to flourish, which would not only guide me during this process but also serve as a convalescent topic of discussion for relevant emerging research! As this encouragement implies, I intend to keep this discussion alive until being incapable of doing so :-) Let us brainstorm together and assemble as the "Avengers" of the science education literature!
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Dear all, firstly I would like to thank you for your valuable contributions to this discussion. Dear Abdelkader Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed , my special gratidues for sharing such a comprehensive resource! It will definitely aid me in the presenting a background for VR-assisted instruction in my future work. However, the document you shared may arise some copyright issues from the publicators for you. With my sincere apologies, may I suggest you to just provide a reference for this splendid contribution rather than the URL?
Dear Raad Shaker Alnayli , I am happy that this discussion gained your interest and praise. Thank you for your contribution!
Dear Saif N.A. Almaamari , thank you for your meaningful suggestion! In fact, I am particularly interested in the reflectivity-laden methods in my research as well, an example from my preliminary inquiries:
I have just added this paper to my "To-be-read" list. Let me know if there are related research in the future investigating the practices of PSTs please!
One last time, I sincerely thank you for your valuable contributions!
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Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. In this sense, Connectivism proposes to see knowledge's structure as a network and learning as a process of pattern recognition. AlDahdouh, A. A.; Osório, A. J. & Caires, S (2015). "Understanding knowledge network, learning and connectivism" (PDF). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.
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I agree with Alaa Aldahdouh
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Can any one help me with an analysis grid of school books including indicators on the development of logical reasoning in mathematics, experimental sciences ?
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Hi Ingrid, Thank you a lot it is very useful . Ines.
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It is perceived that most people are unable to complete their programs on MOOCS. Some due to the fact that the courses tend to be passive and student do not get clear clarifications when they encounter problems. Also it is said that the courses are limited to theory and not practicals.
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Hello
MOOC used to have a social goal, by this moment are courses and students must pay
So in my opinion there are not MOOC as MOOC anymore
BR
Ingrid
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The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) stated in its student standards text that it published last year that these standards are appropriate for all ages. For a study I plan to use these standarts, it is important to answer this question.
Thank you for your interest.
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I agree that there is no reason that you could not based on the "for all ages" clause.  Additionally, the standards specifically advertise use in colleges and to inform graduate level work on their website (see link).  Nonetheless, I would recommend finding another author who already used the standards in this way if this is for graduate work. Although you may be innovated in techniques when doing your own research, dissertation type research is typically designed based on exemplars of best practice and measures with demonstrated reliability and validity.
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I am planning to conduct a research entitled "How Teachers in Middle Schools Design Technology Integration Activities". The purpose of the study is to explore factors influencing middle schools’ teachers design technology integration activities and how they design the activities as well as to explore the challenges that teachers faced while designing the materials for technology integration activities. The researchers will focus on one-to-one technology environment in middle schools. The study will focus on the teacher as a designer of technology activities. I am confused about  the framework. Should it be from Human-Computer interaction or from instructional technology field?
Any thoughts
Thank you
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You can look at the revised Technology Integration Model (TIP) by Roblyer that combines both the TPACK and TIP models for meeting the needs of teachers as designers. I hope you find it useful.
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More than half of world's population does not have reliable access to the Internet. At the same time, educational resources are more multimedia-based than ever (bandwidth) and often hosted on centralised cloud-based platforms requiring a good Internet connection.
Inability to use online education in underconnected regions is particularly prominent in the case of MOOCs, where some researchers argue it may lead to even further global digital divide.
Are you aware of research or cases of making online educational materials/courses (e.g. MOOCs) available in underconnected areas?
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Most of the MOOC application replied on the stable internet access, it was designed to retrieve, interact and digest in that way. I wonder if we consider the infrastructure limitation, this may closer to the traditional e-learning research with a medium that people can bring home and launch standalone.
This idea sounds a little bit old fashion, but it may provide an insight to re-invent the MOOC for internet limited region, or even more, a more localize style MOOC, when I read this news: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/23/cuba-offline-internet-weekly-packet-external-hard-drives
This is the most vitality news to see how people interact with the information technology, in their own way. Sorry, not provide too many useful research resources, hope this helps to gain you some new ideas. :)
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Looking for guidelines to write a research project on instructional courseware
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Pop in to look at my education papers posted on my  Researchgate profile. I have moved them to the top 5 position so that you can see them 
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It seems to me that a natural online community may include multiple
platforms, with people interacting across Facebook, LINE, Instagram, Tumblr, email, blogs, etc.  
But rules for classroom use of social media for Mobile Assisted Language Learning is usually limited to one platform only
Should our MALL instructional design allow students to complete learning tasks via multiple overlapping platforms in order to replicate a natural, organic collaboration?
This real-world characteristic of online interaction may provide confounding variables for researchers gathering control group-experimental group quantitative data for statistical analysis. It is, however, a reality that may occur when MALL technologies are fully integrated into the curriculum because people who know each other are likely to friend or follow each other on multiple social media services, whether teachers like it or not..
What do you think?
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Dear Michael,
In today's 21st century learning field, technology has made quite an impact on the landscape of classroom teaching and learning undoubtedly. Social media especially has been the interest of the day in the social ecosystem of students and thus, the teaching and learning process has to take this into consideration as a platform to innovate today's classroom pedagogy. I had carried out several studies related to integrating MALL/technology  in the teaching of English as a foreign language. Believe me, it did make a difference in students' learning outcomes as they were much more engaged in their learning. However, challenges are inevitable but it can be kept at bay with the close monitoring and interventions of the educators concerned. MALL/technology can be perceived as a supplementary tool to enrich the teaching and learning process in a classroom.
Regards
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I am looking for recommendations for a book for "Technology in the Classroom" course. If you teach a similar course, i would like to know if you use a book or other materials from the Internet. I am open for suggestions. 
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Here are two sources I have used and found very instructive:
  • Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, Roblyer and Doering, Pearson
  • Computer Education for Teachers, Vicki Sharp, Wiley.
Debra
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What resources of technology can serve the real purpose to improve teaching of non technical subjects such as English? 
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Syed:
I had to do a feature address at a principal's conference on your topic, so I hope the attached would be helpful to you.
Best regards,
Debra
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Teachers face difficulty with EFL students (inferior level). How can we make classes proactive and motivate students to learn in a best way. which activities are suitable for classes nearly 50 -53 learners?
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You can design collaborative activities that requires the entire group to participate such as debating. The attached describes how to do the latter in an online environment that tend to have large classes.
Best regards,
Debra
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I am looking a pepper about  Instructional Design and online class 
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Hi Ahmad,
Instructional design is a vast field. It might help to constrain your search, such as by content domain, age groups, setting, media, and so on. 
You might also peep at my website: http://edrl.berkeley.edu/
Salam, Shalom,
- Dor
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Everyone agrees, students and teachers, the programming is demanding for students, but the market demands on education, emphasize the need for educating larger number of IT professionals. There are also studies that indicate that learning programming in interesting way (for example, through some graphical tools like Alice, Scratch ...) could help students in developing abstract thinking, without considering their active interests and professional future commitment.
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Coming at this from an education perspective rather than a computer science perspective - I think the question is, what is it that we want children to know at various ages? Coding languages come and go - some more traditional than others, some more drag and drop oriented. Is it the language we want them to develop? Or is it the habits of mind that we want to instill in the them? Computational Literacy has, in the past, been confused with coding. If we want students to have computational literacy, coding does not need to be a central focus. Focusing on coding rather than computational literacies and problem solving may also be one of the issues creating an off ramp for students on the STEM pipeline for CS oriented careers.  Rather than teaching coding and expecting habits of mind to arise out of learning to code, perhaps we should focus on habits of mind, thinking and problem-solving then allow the need to code to naturally arise from the students seeking to solve issues they have thought deeply about where coding is the solution, not the entry.
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I would like to incorporate researcher opinion into my comparison of validated instruments to measure motivation of students in higher education.
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A questionnaire only measures perceptions.
It cannot measure motivation for the self-perceptions of individuals may not match reality.
Motivation is a multi-variate concept - therefore, any attempt to measure it by a scale will end up making a highly inaccurate measurement.
I have written all this up in the literature in relation to attitudes.
More fundamentally, why do we want to measure motivation?   That on its now tells us little.  Far more important to explore what are the key factors that help motivation to become more positive.  However, motivation is dependent on attitudes.  Much better to look at attitudes (also multi-variate) and explore the underpinning factors that encourage positive attitudes in relation to, say, learning.  That ha s been done in relation to physics and published over a decade ago.  If that set of findings was followed up, we could move the entire area forward.
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+Welcome.
Having as a guide the 'Berlin Model' ('Berliner Modell' in German) [1] & the 'ADDIE Model' [2] of the instructional process please share your opinion or experience or interesting references on any of the following questions.
Which factors of the instructional process, being 2 conditional & 4 decisional according to the 'Berlin Model', & which of its design phases, being 5 according to the 'ADDIE Model', have been mostly impacted by technology?
How has technology impacted each of these factors & design phases?
You may consult [3] (SAMR model), [4, § Introduction], [5, § Features of Online Learning Environment], [6] (Trialogical learning model), [7] (TPACK model), [8] (R2D2 model).
Which model could be more suitable than the 'Berlin Model', as regards the correlated factors, & the 'ADDIE Model', as regards the design phases, of the instructional process?
Thank you.
[ Featured references:
]
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As someone who works with course development teams for flexible blended and online learning every day, this is a question that comes up in every course development process.  While I agree with the other responders that technology has come to the fore in some decision making, in my own work there is an intentional push back against that...but there is clearly a tension between my work and the work of other support staff in our institution.  I'd prefer to run an ADDIE like process to establish a pedagogical approach and then talk about operationalizing it once the pedagogical commitments are in place...Some of my colleagues are more 'pragmatic'...consulting with staff for them means asking 'What are you trying to do?', then recommending a bit of technology to help them achieve that end.  While I'm not suggesting that approach will necessarily 'fail', its my opinion that the institution gets better value from an approach which puts a bit more attention into 'design' and requires some attention the various parts of ADDIE so that we can align what we know about the students and the course with a design that accommodates developments that Russell has highlighted above re cognitive science, learning sciences etc...AND also accommodates an up-to-date notion of good practice in the development and implementation phases...rather than just focusing on 'implementation' with an instrumental application of 'Tool X'
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While suggestions of preferred authoring tools are welcome, I am most interested in how to design role-plays in which the learner is one of the role-play participants. Thank you.
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Thanks for the suggestion, Bathelemy. What do you think Kineo offers in its LMS that is  particularly appropriate for role-plays?
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We have made available a few tools that is currently available for you to try out. This may be of interest to folks involved in VR, VR applications research, instructional technology. At the very least, I think our approach may be of interest.
And while trying the tools, why not capture what you make and send us a screen shot, or video, we have organized a competition to reward entries based on public votes. More information at link below
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Sure, its an interesting idea, but the link is broken
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It is a blind presumption that more technology is better – yet in a recent course, I found I could present much better by abandoning slides and working through examples on the board.
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I think it is easy to be seduced by the apparent 'ease' of using technology but in practice it is not so simple. Most contemporary unis/uni students expect some form of technology to be used in presenting the course but you need to carefully consider what technology would be the most effective in promoting student engagement and enhancing learning; using technology does not necessarily equate to good teaching/pedagogy. Tara Brabazon makes some excellent points about using technology in teaching in 'The university of google' and other writings.
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Much investment has been made in the Irish primary and post primary educational system in IT but the question has to be asked has this resulted in an educational pay off?
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Pluses and minuses! Access to information is a boon and a threat to learning. I am a technophile and use it constantly to enhance my personal research. My observations of students and teachers over the las 10 years in particular is that ready access to information positions students to misunderstand some components of quality leaning.
1. Reading. They perceive reading as superfiial scanning to find key words related to their interest, nd rarely read deeply to extract underlying concepts.
2. Writing. They perceive writing as reconstructing existing text, rather than using it to test the meaning in theirnown minds.
3. Evaluation. Students do not understand the value of information.
This not a complaint but an observation of most recently, my 16 year old chemistry students. I am trying to set in place a strategy to reverse this trend, that does not involve denying access to technology. A beginning point is a mantra 'its not what you learn but what you do with it that counts'. I stole it from a 15 year old sword fighting instructor.
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There is a lot happening in the context of designing and implementing systems in the corporate world that enable significant reduction or altogether elimination of the need to commute to the workplace. Will this ever become a reality for the faculty? Are MOOCS a first step towards this reality?
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I don't know that the word "reality" in context towards a future model is what I would use. I do think it would be certainly a consideration and just like with any other adoption model, there will be laggards. I'm not certain that MOOCs are a stepping stone to "commuting to workplace". MOOCs are different in that they are managed differently from a faculty perspective. So I'm not certain that "community to work => MOOCs" equation is quite right....Maybe "community to work => review of technology adoption and subsequent continuous use => increase technology literacy => need for more knowledge => MOOCs" maybe a better progression....:-)
That's my long 2 cents..:-)
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E-facilitators are supposed to command certain characteristics such as being able to adopt several learning methodologies to cater for different learners, being able to interact online with group of students or one to one, being able to type 60 and above words per minute or more (i.e. writing 20-40 pages a day), or sit on the PC for a long time.
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This question stimulates a better awareness of some taken for granted teaching conceptions and practices in digital learning environments. I would suggest that the discussion may start with a few questions about the educational purpose of tutor’s intervention in digital learning environments. Should he/she undertake his/her role just as a facilitator of the use of ICT in the learning process? If so, the underlying assumption would be that learners are supposed to learn by reading, writing essays, and answering tests and exam questions? What kind of content should be learned and for what purpose?
I would suggest adding a few ICT skills to Ian’s list on the basis of three concepts: teaching presence, learning mediator in digital environments, and learning as a process of construction of meaning which takes place through the guided participation in learning activities with others (see Rogoff, 1995; Rogoff, Matusov, & White, 1996).
By working as a learning mediator, the online tutor is able to select the ICT tools, according to the formative purposes, and to make different uses of the same tools. For example, the tutor may take pedagogic decisions on whether the test available in a Moodle platform will be used as a tool for formative self-assessment by learners, or as a tool for summative assessment. As a learning mediator, the online tutor is able to decide which tools and when should they be used according to learners’ characteristics. He/she is able to guide learners so that they learn how to use the tools for specific purposes.
Interacting with participants is rather beneficial in the sense that providing them with the opportunity to share their previous knowledge, providing regular feedback, as well as encouraging grounded reflection keep participants focused on the core content and allows them to meaningfully accomplish the online tasks.
However, if the online tutor has to deal with a massive number of participants the personal and regular feedback would not be possible. In this case, specific skills are necessary to go on providing regular feedback by adapting the techno-pedagogic design, making use of specific tools and adopting specific modalities of organising participation in online tasks.
Just a few references hat may be helpful:
Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2), 1-17. http://actxelearning.pbworks.com/f/10.1.1.95.9117.pdf
Coll, C. Bustos, A., Engel, A. de Gispert, I., & Rochera, M. J. (2013). Distributed Educational Influence and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Digital Education Review, 24, 23-42. (http://greav.ub.edu/der/index.php/der/article/view/252)
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MOOCs are a fairly recent addition to the educational technology scene, but many proponents see them as the St. George to higher education's dragon. But how much actual educational research has been performed to support this perception?
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@Sven: It is not always obvious why a Google is "not working". One has to creatively look for 'synonyms' (Authors can and do use any words they want!) Just today I suggested to someone else on RG to substitute "university staff" for "university employee".
Furthermore, phrases should be enclosed in quotes to prevent Google from assuming an implicit "OR".
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Even as more and more sophisticated platforms for leaning situations arise (smart phones, tablets, apps, streaming, cloud storage), have these platforms actually, concretely, provided for more efficient individual learning in the classroom than pencil and paper, backboard and chalk, standing and delivering? Or is just creating a market for ever--obsolescent junk.
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I would rather invert the question= it bothers me that the question is technology driven rather that education driven. Another way to phrase the question would be: after 1 1/2 centuries of public education what have proven to be the most effective demonstrated pedagogical approaches ? whether using technology or not ? Clearly there is a network of learning strategies and teaching strategies. What combinations work in given situations ? Given age groups ?