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Instructional Design - Science topic

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CALLA is cognitive approach which introduced by Anna Uhl Chamot, PhD and Jill Robins, PhD. I need good references from you about it.
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Cognitive Sense Analysis then Emphasis outlook Concern Subject Matters...
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I am conducting an exploratory mixed methods Ph.D-level investigation that focuses on situating management in online learning and concerns two phases.The concluded qualitative phase (QUAL) yielded a testable framework for the quantitative phase (quan). I need to test the factors that explain learning success when learners study partially or fully in an online environment. The link below gives access to the measurement instrument with items requiring scale responses. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe2xERY-IX6Cx8aOs5hJw82Xe4f0eoeNYLycS9IQy13Gy8mFA/viewform?usp=sf_link  
Given the insular nature educational institutions, I need the help of research practitioners to reach persons who have studied fully or partly online or are doing so. All persons around the world aged 13 and above who have completed all or part of their academic- or professional units, courses, or programs online, and those who are self-taught using online repositories, are eligible to participate in this study. Respondents' identities will be kept secret and their responses will not be divulged to third parties. Only the aggregated data from the entire study shall be analyzed to answer the research questions.
Thank you for your willingness to support this cause.
Warmest regards,
Victor Avasi Ph.D. Candidate Instructional Design and Open Learning Euclid University, Gambia
avection"at"gmail.com
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I've recently published the following article in the Korea Times.
I am curious, how does your university deal with online technology during a pandemic? It would be nice to hear various opinions in this discussion.
Thanks in advance.
Virtual learning environments during pandemic
Nobody could predict the impact that COVID-19 would have on our world; it changed so much of our daily routines. The stigma of living in the new normal is haunting. As unhinged, to some extent, as it might seem, and maybe even unrealistic, the world doesn't stop revolving and functioning even as such a detrimental health crisis falls upon its shoulders. A lot of changes have had to take place within the ongoing duration of the COVID-19 virus outbreak. One of those changes made online learning a must, but it's quite a win-win situation. It's common knowledge that today's generation is greatly knowledgeable when it comes to technology due to living in a highly-digitized world. It's rational to utilize the wonders that technology brings into continuing the practices adopted and implemented by the education sector globally, but now through online learning programs. Its implementation makes sense and was rightful because of schools physically closing due to health restrictions. The world of academia is not the only one switching its methods in such precarious times, but it is a very major change nonetheless. Online education is primarily centered on internet-powered platforms, and not every teacher and student has equal access to such services. More so, a bigger concern faced by teachers has to do with teaching methods in the online learning set up. Virtual classes can be intimidating and seem to limit the ways that teachers can impart knowledge to students, forcing them to be creative in the teaching methods they use in order to promote a collaborative and interactive learning environment. Also, the online education set-up entails a higher average of screen-time which leads to health issues such as poor vision and posture. Similarly, excessive screen-time and long video-conference hours can lead to "Zoom fatigue." In simple terms, Zoom fatigue, or fatigue from any video platform, is the feeling of tiredness that a person encounters after a conference call. Related to this, online teaching can take a toll on the mental health of teachers. Like students, teachers can also feel burnt-out from the constant exposure and workload that happens through screens and technological systems. Stanford University has published an article identifying four factors that contribute to such fatigue. Namely, those are: 1) The overwhelming amount of screen time, 2) The uncomfortable ability to see one's self during conference calls, 3) Typical motion exaggeratedly decreasing due to video chats, and 4) Video calls increasing the difficulty of cognitive tasks. The first one, when explained, had to do with the stress and social anxiety that comes with the awareness of people staring at you during video chats. The second reason is likened to being constantly followed in a real-life scenario but, instead of actually being followed, people are constantly interacting with you through a screen for a lengthy period of time. Thirdly, it's typical that people stay in one place during a video call, and research is continuously coming up with evidence that cognitive performance is better when an individual performs motion. Lastly, in order to get a message clearly delivered during video calls, more effort is exerted because methods of interaction are limited to the screen and technology in use, unlike in face-to-face interactions. Virtual learning environments (VLE), such as Virbela and vAcademia, allow vast opportunities in educational collaborations through the means of virtual environments. Through such VLEs, we are given the chance to use advanced teaching methods by the means of voice-powered technology, presentation options, 3D recording, and academic environment simulations. Through the use of VLEs, teachers are able to promote inclusivity and accessibility for their students. VLEs are highly flexible. Also, little by little, the more students engage with them, the more they become attuned to and are at ease with online classes. Another way that educational organizations benefit from VLEs is through providing an environment that fosters students to have a wider view of the world. VLEs are highly marketable to students across the globe. The San Diego Times released an article in 2020 showing how the 3D technology of Virbela had a new user growth rate of 78 percent, with half of that coming from the international market. It has proven how 3D technology has paved the way for an upgrade of virtual gatherings, meetings, and events. At the same time, the platform allows a virtual space where students can interactively meet while still being remote; a virtual campus of sorts like that of Stanford University. This virtual campus offers a similar interface to RPGs such as Club Penguin and The Sims, with similar features allowing users to choose outfits, interact, and go to classes. Through buttons, users are given the options to let their avatar perform simple actions like nodding and waving, all made possible through Virbela. Davenport University also did the same thing, using Virbela to conduct their online classes through a virtual university, as featured in a Detroit Free Press article. In a 2017 study conducted by Alves et al., it was found that students who have access to virtual learning environments are equipped to achieve a good academic performance, and that the higher the accessibility rate is to virtual learning environments, the better their performance will be. Rushan Ziatdinov (ziatdinov.rushan@gmail.com) is a professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering at Keimyung University, Daegu.
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Dear Prof. Ziatdinov!
I represent LUT University, Finland. There is an ongoing research project at our institution via which LUT tries to establish a feedback - loop within the virtual space internationally:
CEPHEI - Industrial E-Learning:
The coordinator of this community is Prof. Leonid Chechurin, email: leonid.chechurin@lut.fi
In addition LUT University cooperates with companies such as M-Files Corporation to facilitate metadata - based information sharing:
Hope YOU see value in the information I provided hereby, and you will contact LUT University and its partners.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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I am looking for a piece of research regarding the situation, when the cognitive load, and fatigue, increases due to the wrong way of presenting information - duplicating it (e.g. reading aloud the text on the PowerPoint presentation) instead of using dual-coding method.
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Hi Stefan,
This may not directly relate to your question but I found this interesting. I am not sure if you have seen this paper or not.
Leahy, W., & Sweller, J. (2019). Cognitive Load Theory, Resource Depletion and the Delayed Testing Effect. Educational psychology review, 31(2), 457-478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09476-2
Regards,
James
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Although there are different models of instructional design, for face-to-face or e-learning modalities, and research has been carried out to evaluate the results of the design in terms of learning or student satisfaction, it is necessary to know the domain that a teacher of higher education on the different aspects that constitute the instructional design.
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Dear Dr. Pacheco!
You spotted a relevant topic. I did go out to search for YOU articles I see you might benefit from:
1) de Jong, T., Gillet, D., Rodríguez-Triana, M.J. et al. Understanding teacher design practices for digital inquiry–based science learning: the case of Go-Lab. Education Tech Research Dev (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09904-z Open access:
2) Anne Lohr et al. (2021). On powerpointers, clickerers, and digital pros: Investigating the initiation of digital learning activities by teachers in higher education, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 119, June 2021, 106715 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Dear fellow researchers,
while drafting an article about the importance and interlay of previous knowledge and learning with (multiple) external representations (combinations of text + pictures or diagrams etc.) Stumbled numerous times over cases of Expertise-Reversal-Effects, that seem not be explainable in the conventional terms of the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) so far.
So, I would like to share these findings with you and to invite you to think about alternative explanations.
What is the Expertise-Reversal-Effect (ERE)?
The core idea behind the CLT is, that the better one's previous knowledge is organized (as chunks), the lesser one's working memory is loaded when solving problems or learning new contents. This holds true for most of the experimental observations. However, in some cases, high previous knowledge (HPK) leads to lesser performance outcomes than of participants with low previous knowledge (LPK). This effect is called the Expertise-Reversal-Effect (ERE): HPK learner profit less or even not from a specific treatment than their LKP counterparts.
How is the ERE explained in terms of the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT)?
For explaining this contradiction, CLT also proposes an executive moment of previous knowledge, that guides search & find processes. Those cognitive procedures could conflict with the instructional format as well as previous knowledge can conflict with the presented contents. So, as Slava Kalyuga states, "if external guidance is provided to learners who have sufficient knowledge base for dealing with the same units of information, learners would have to relate and reconcile the related components of available long-term memory base and externally provided guidance. Such integration processes may impose an additional working memory load and reduce resources available for learning new knowledge."
The fact that previous knowledge may induce additional cognitive load would explain lesser (absolute) learning outcomes of HPK learners with a specific treatment in comparison to their HPK counterparts without treatment. It would also explain lesser learning gains compared to their LPK counterparts with treatment (in case ceiling effects can be excluded).
However, it is difficult to follow this explanation for the case that HPK learners with treatment show lesser (absolute) learning outcomes than their LPK counterparts as this implies (by the interpretation of the CLT) that the instructional treatment must have had an enormous effect on cognitive load, overcompensating any advantages of previous knowledge.
Which evidences and limitations of the explanation given by the CLT have been observed?
There are convincing examples that undoubtedly trigger a cognitive conflict between the mental models of the participants and the presented information like in Schnotz & Bannert:
However, these experiments heavily (and intentionally) manipulated previous or presented knowledge to yield their effects. Most treatments we are much less pervasive and therefore their effects in terms of interference between previous knowledge and presented content (including treatment) should be milder. Furthermore, the ability to ignore treatments like signaling by color coding is not taken into account by CLT, it is however been demonstrated by eye tracking studies of Richter and Scheiter:
In this study, recall performance of HPK and LPK learners with that simple treatment equals, while for participants without treatment differ significantly as expected (cf. Fig. 3). The same for the comprehension measures in Richter, Wehrle & Scheiter (cf. Fig. 3):
Even more intriguing are findings by Kragten, Admiraal & Rijlarsdam, who report on an analysis of difficulties without any treatment of diagrams that low cognitive demanding diagrams (i.e. diagrams with low complexity) are even slightly better been understood by LPK than HPK learners. (Diagrams with high complexity instead show the expected characteristics.) Moreover, diagrams with unfamiliar conventions AND that poses high cognitive demands are being significantly better understood than those of eighter complex or with unfamiliar conventions (cf. Fig. 2):
These are some of the ERE findings that are particularly surprising and, in my humble opinion, cannot been explained in plausible way within the framework of CLT.
Is a Dual Processing hypothesis a sufficient candidate for explaining these findings?
Reading the book “Thinking fast and slow” by Daniel Kahnemann, I came across the hypothesis (to my knowledge originated by Stanovich and West) that there are two cognitive processes been postulated that govern problem solving and decision making in economics. According to that theory most cognitive processes in daily live (and learning) are done on an automated base relying on previously acquired cognitive schemata (system 1). These processes require minimal mental effort but are prone to errors. However, if system 1-processes do not lead to a sufficient solution or intentionally attention is shifted to the given problem, system 2 kicks in and starts deeper elaboration processes. So, perceiving hard to solve problems or being forced to shift focused attention to a given problem should significantly decrease error rate. Also see:
This theory has been recently applied to several fields, however to my knowledge not to learning and teaching so far and especially not to multimedia instructional design and external representations.
So my Questions for Discussion:
  • In your opinion, is there a need for an alternative explanation of the Expertise-Reversal-Effect? (And why do you think so?)
  • In your opinion, is the Dual Processing Theories a good candidate to explain the given data or are there even better ways to do so?
  • In your opinion, how to predict an ERE before the experiment based on CLT or any other theory?
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What is the best free software to draw different experimental schematic diagrams and crystal structures manually??
For example,
(1) I want to draw different crystal structures like cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal etc. manually, and
(2) I want to draw a schematic diagram of a whole experiment, for example, the schematic diagram of the preparation of thin-film Perovskite Solar Cells or else.
Thanks for your precious time and suggestion in advance.
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For schematics you can try EDRAW. This may be helpful to you...
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This large international conference will be held online this year due to COVID. I am submitting a paper to the Technology Enhanced Language Learning track (8). It is about a topic I have never seen in scholarly literature & I am proud of my idea. We'll see if the reviewers like it.
The 21th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies Online
July 12-15, 2021
Conference Time: GMT (https://time.is/GMT)
SUBMISSIONS
We invite submission of papers reporting original academic or industrial research in the area of Advanced Learning Technologies and Technology-enhanced Learning according to the following tracks:
  • Doctoral Consortium
  • Track 1. Technologies for Open Learning and Education (i-OPENLearn)
  • Track 2. Adaptive and Personalised Technology-Enhanced Learning (APTeL)
  • Track 3. Wireless, Mobile, Pervasive and Ubiquitous Technologies for Learning (WMUTE)
  • Track 4. Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL)
  • Track 5. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
  • Track 6. Big Data in Education and Learning Analytics (BDELA)
  • Track 7. Technology-Enhanced Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education (TeSTEM)
  • Track 8. Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL)
  • Track 9. Technology-Enhanced Learning of Disciplinary Practices (TELeaD)
  • Track 10. Technology-supported education for people with disabilities (TeDISABLE)
  • Track 11. Artificial Intelligence and Smart Learning Environments (AISLE)
  • Track 12. Augmented Reality and Virtual Worlds in Education and Training (ARVWET)
  • Track 13. Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology-enhanced Learning (MA-TEL)
All papers will be double-blindly peer-reviewed. Author guidelines and formating templates can be accessed at ICALT Author guidelines webpage. Complete papers are required to be reviewed. The expected types of submissions include:
  • Full paper: 5 pages
  • Short paper: 3 pages
  • Discussion paper: 2 pages
  • Doctoral Consortium paper (posters): 3 pages
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Yes, it important to know the quality of online conference, and Congratulations for you, has published at good quality of conference.
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What online whiteboard do you use? Does it have limitations for the max. number of users? Please tell the advantages and disadvantages.
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Dear all, please note the following list of free software.
You are welcome to share the hyperlink with your colleagues.
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There have been many classical fatigue life assessment methods, but most of them have their own limitations. For example, the method of material fatigue life assessment is often not suitable for complex engineering components. If we want to accurately predict the fatigue life of engineering structure, which aspects should we start from? Welcome to leave a message.
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Fatigue analysis refers to one of three methodologies: local strain or strain life, commonly referred to as the crack initiation method, which is concerned only with crack initiation (E-N, or sigma nominal); stress life, commonly referred to as total life (S-N, or nominal stress); and crack growth or damage tolerance analysis, which is concerned with the number of cycles until fracture.
The method for calculating fatigue life is sometimes called the Five Box Trick, including material, loading, and geometry inputs, and analysis and results. The three main inputs for fatigue life analyses are processed using various life estimation tools depending on whether the analysis is for crack initiation, total life, or crack growth.
Best regards,
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Number theory is among cryptography foundations, but sometimes it is hard for students to understand the theory, mostly due the lack of previous skills and knowledge of that mathematical theory by students.
Have you dealt with that problem? Have you faced other problems while teaching number theory? How to overcome them?
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This is a good question! I was trying to figure that out a couple years ago.
The best approach I found was Coursera's course from USC San Diego - Intro to Discrete Math for CS Specialization with the 4th course being Number Theory and Crypto. The first two courses give enough grounding for those students that don't have enough of the correct mathematical background for Number Theory. I think they need something pretty accessible to not be overwhelmed. People often have such a love of crypto that they slog through with just a really basic and algorithm specific understanding of number theory - which really won't help them in the long run if they are going to do cryptanalysis etc. Dan Boneh's refresher on Probability is really short and helpful as well.
Please post here if you find a good solution.
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I am working on a project that includes the creation of two technologies for learning languages. I decided that adapting a new instructional design model from scratch will help implement these technologies: the model will be followed to develop the instruction needed for learning languages.
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You should not select the technology first. You should use an "Educational Engineering" process to first identify your outcome goals for the class, and their measurements of success...and then the kinds of learning activities that can allow students to achieve those goals. Only after that should you select the technology by which those learning activities can be performed. See this book chapter:
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These common ID Models are ADDIE, Dick and Carey, Kemp Design, so on.
(ID: Instructional Design)
I would appreciate if you could share your opinion with me.
Thank you!
Hulya
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Designing a model might take decades of research and theory building. But what I have seen over the years is more like using "eclectic" models. This kind of model can include pieces from various ID models with or without a particular focus on an ID model. For example, UbD is a curriculum/instructional design model. It's not a pure design. It is based on Tyler's and other scholars' (mostly from Chicago) work. But it also has a theoretical framework. For IDs in the field who design courses, having an eclectic model would work. Designing a new one from scratch might need time and effort as well as consideration of "do we need another ID model."
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When our institution had to switch rapidly to remote instruction, professors who had not taught remotely before wondered what the best blend of synchronous and asynchronous activities would be. Our office of Instructional Design developed an instrument to assist them; Professors completed a relatively short questionnaire asking questions regarding their course, and themselves. These questions led to a recommended model for online instruction, and a recommendation of a second model which is also likely a good fit. The recommendations are not intended to be binding in any way.
We were unable to locate a similar extant instrument, and are seeking critique or resources that would help us refine the instrument.
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Hello all,
I used a framework (incorporated from instructional design theory and instructional design model) to design and develop LMOOC for attitudinal learning.
My question about the appropriate ways to measure the effectiveness of the design and develop of LMOOC. In other words, how effective is this framework in designing LMOOC for attitudinal learning?
Thank you in advance!
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Murat Artsın Thank you for sharing this article.
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Here's an article about a research project saying that students learn more when taught using active learning strategies:
What do you think?
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I use problem solving method in my teaching. It contains scientific method,critical thinking,taking decision,examining and reflective thinking. Brainstorm technique will give students to say the possible solution for the problems for the given case.Project based learning is favorite among students.Panel discussion and model teaching and peer coaching and drama technique are effective active learning student centered methods we can use for any subjects. As lecturers we have to facilitate them to involve in self learning and participatory group learning.
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What is the best Instructional Design Model (IDM) to follow when designing an AR learning app for language acquisition for non speakers age (23-30)?
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Hi Eshrak,
This is an interesting question and as any interesting question, there is no straightforward answer to it. The ID models that may fit (partially) are many and may range from the "canonical" instructional systems design ADDIE model (needs analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) to include rapid prototyping (AKA, rapid application development) and D3(data-driven development). The latter full advantage of data and machine learning. In 2017 van Merriënboer and Kirschner published a book on instructional design of training programs for complex learning which including courses, curricula, or environments(e.g. AI). This is the full citation: Van Merriënboer, J. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2017). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design. Routledge.
You may also find relevant the following summary of the empirical literature on the elements of effective design of computer-based interventions:
Mayer, R.E. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American psychologist, 63(8), p.760.
Kim, Y., & Baylor, A. L. (2016). Research-based design of pedagogical agent roles: A review, progress, and recommendations. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(1), 160-169.
Please let me know if you have more questions.
Best,
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Dear RG Colleagues,
As a teacher, I want to know what are the consequences (The general academic policies on cheating) for a student caught in flagrancy cheating on exams (in your institution or university).
Thank you
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Thank you all of you for your consideration and answers
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It is perceived that most people are unable to complete their programs on MOOCS. Some due to the fact that the courses tend to be passive and student do not get clear clarifications when they encounter problems. Also it is said that the courses are limited to theory and not practicals.
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MOOC used to have a social goal, by this moment are courses and students must pay
So in my opinion there are not MOOC as MOOC anymore
BR
Ingrid
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"An instructional design model provides guidelines to organize appropriate pedagogical scenarios to achieve instructional goals. Instructional design can be defined as the practice of creating instructional experiences to help facilitate learning most effectively. Driscoll & Carliner (2005) states that “design is more than a process; that process, and resulting product, represent a framework of thinking” (p. 9). "
The ID model used in my research is to design and plan for introducing computational thinking concepts to children in primary school.
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Hi Nur, Yes definitely, since each teaching and learning model is based on theoretical frameworks, design theories, philosophical assumptions, hence you can use any appealing framework for your dissertation. Afterall previous theorists have also used past researches and models of their times to further add innovation from their own perspective to create new design. Hope I have answered your question.
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The last years we are working with serveral data sets that contain emotion measurements on different levels (self-report, facial action coding, eye tracking, physiological data like heart rate and skin conductance, lexical and sentiment analysis of texts).
We do not naively believe that the components of emotions match all the time or over longer or shorter time spans. But stil we search for correspondences between different emotional components.
Our aim is to measure and to integrate emotions in technology based learning designs.
Are there new ideas how to bring different components of emotions together?
What's about micro emotions, peak values, long or short term patterns; how can they help to identify correspondences?
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One reason that polygraph information is not admissible is the ability of a certain percentage of people to control physiological responses.
In classes, traditional "theatrical methods" are used to gain attention (recordings of accidents, first person accounts) to emphasize important points. Evoking emotions apparently increases training retention up to a point. However, the only measurement we obtain is student feedback. Self-report does vary widely.
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From a design perspective, when you are creating an item, which may have many artifacts in Blackboard, the analytics sees all of the artifacts as one. So if you select a content holder called week 1, which has articles, web links and videos, Blackboard analytics does not count the individual clicks to each link, article and video, it registers all as one click.
I think this not only affect design but statistically, it definitely decreases the number of accesses within the course.
Any solutions or suggestions?
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The study we published about Blackboard courses and the software we developed looks at course features, what faculty chose to utilize. We do not measure how skilled they were or how well they used the features. This qualitative assessment is difficult in academic environments. Does a discussion forum with many replies make it a well-used tool? Or did the students ask a lot of questions because the topic was poorly constructed?
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I am starting an investigation looking at the feasbility of a set of authoring tools that would allow more experienced performers to develop job aids to be used by less experienced performers. I am looking for pointers that would allow me to bootstrap my literature review.
Instructional design has a number of "prescriptions" that suggest useful strategies to apply to promote learner of various outcome types (i.e., if you are trying to teach someone to use a procedure, apply this instuctional sequence). Are there similar prescriptions for job aids and/or cognitive aids? I'd appreciate any pointers to appropriate guidelines that you can provide!
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Following
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Dear every all,
When teachers can interesting form Instruction design? Especially Biological teachers.
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When answering the question: When teachers can interesting form Instruction design?
I believe that in that order, the importance of access to the mastery of teaching methods must not be overlooked, since the use of one or the other type of them will influence the external group behavior. In this way, those of a productive nature, as their name indicates, must assign a greater demand for elaboration to schoolchildren during their continued application, than those of a reproductive or intermediate group type.
(Danilov, M. A. - Didactics of the middle school / Skatkin ... [et al]. 1981)
There are more arguments in:
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I want to build instruction design, could you pleas help me to building instruction design for teaching Biology?
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I with dr. Jackie
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Instructional Design VS Learning Experience Design(LXD)
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There are three different terms.
1. Instructional design
2. Educational or Learning Design
3. Learning Experience Design
Instructional design is historically the oldest and is closely related to the professional profile of instructional designers. This has its origins in the development of learning resources (initially these were school books) and exceeded towards interactive multi-media design. Many books on instructional design therefore focus on the development of resource intensive courses.
Educational or Learning Design emphasises on the learning process as arrangements of learning activities. This is closer related to curriculum development and assessment than to learning resources. The concept of learning design indicates that didactics are not merely theories that teachers bring to practice through learning material and their intellectual presence, that that educational processes form a distinct design space.
Learning Experience Design is a trade term by shapers.eu. It combines the concepts of educational and instructional design. It tries to integrate some (but not all) concepts of educational design with the economics of education into the design rationales. It tries to provide a tool that follows the principles of the Business Model canvas.
Therefore, the core difference is between designing learning resources (ID) and designing activities and processes (LD).
From this viewpoint I consider LXD an intermediate concept that falls between ID and LD that is topped with organisational and economical factors of educational processes.
I find two aspects that relate to LXD over LD important to consider.
1. LD differentiates between planning and execution time, while the common practice indicates that this separation is artificial or at least just a special case.
2. LD largely single modal and new concepts introduced by smart devices, IoT, and other multi modal tools and solutions show its boundaries, as the existing LD concepts hardly operationalise contextual dynamics as (temporal, spatial, relational, environmental) design elements.
Both aspects are touched by LXD concepts I read recently but none does operationalise them (compared to Seamless Learning or Dillenbourg's Orchestration Graphs, for example).
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E-portfolios can facilitate teaching and learning processes. At the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences (Ghent University), we noticed that our students often have difficulties reflecting about their learning in a meaningful way. When faced with more complex tasks, such as a Master thesis or internship, students also lack the ability to use their developed competences in an integrated manner. An e-portfolio can help students gain insight in their learning process in a more holistic way.
Through an action research design, we used the platform ‘Pebblepad’ as the medium to re-design the ‘Educational Design’ course. The teacher provided support (scaffolds) and formative feedback to guide the group assignment. Students also started an individual reflection portfolio in which they could use their creativity to work out given reflection assignments. 
Now we are looking for similar (free) options. Feel free to share your experiences/research with e-portfolios.
Thank you!
Jo
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Sounds like great work! You can have the students upgrade the e-portfolio to a professional one just on "Educational Design" but for the job market, linking it to their career goals. In that way, they would have artifacts from other their entire program.
Best regards,
Debra
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Dear respected colleagues,
Kindly share your great views and references. I would be very grateful. Thanks in advance. Best regards
Dickson
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Students with learning problems must attend individually, to analyze the characteristics of each case to give personalized attention to each student. For this reason the role of the teacher is very important to achieve the expected results in learning.
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The entire world is witnessing the technological revolutions every day. The Learning Analytics (LA) is a growing area in the field of the Data Analytics . The technology plays a vital role in today's Higher Educational Campuses. The various tools and technologies are used in the field of data collection, data analytics, developing the predictive model etc... It is very much necessary for every higher education sector to think upon the improving the infrastructure in the field of IT and Data Analytics to win the global race. How Learning Analytics can be applied for education design ?
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  1. Helps to predict learners’ performance One of the most significant benefits of analytics is that they can provide insight into not only how a learner is performing today, but also about his/her future performance throughout the duration of the eLearning course. For example, online facilitators may foresee if a particular learner is likely not to pass the eLearning course, or if the learner is likely to pass the eLearning course if additional support is provided (such as further readings or tutoring sessions). Therefore, analytics can help to determine if learners may benefit from supplementary eLearning materials and/or peer/instructor aid throughout the eLearning course.  This leads to higher grades and a more meaningful and complete eLearning experience.
  2. Provides learners with a personalized eLearning experience Through learning analytics, eLearning professionals and online instructors gain the ability to custom tailor eLearning experiences for each and every individual learner. If the data shows that a learner is taking a great deal of time to finish a particular eLearning module, then appropriate measures can be taken to offer learner more customized educational tools and eLearning course resources. For example, learners can be provided with links to sites that may help them to effectively comprehend the topic, or videos that allow them to learn through a more auditory/visual approach. No two learners are alike, and learning analytics gives eLearning professionals the power to ensure that no two eLearning experiences are alike either.
  3. Increased learners’ retention rates Given that more learners have the opportunity to enhance their performance thanks to learning analytics data and intervention; fewer learners will drop out or fail the eLearning course. If a learner isn't faring well throughout the eLearning course, then he/she is less likely to be motivated to remain enrolled. As a result, a learner will simply stop participating, which means that institutions and/or organizations may see a steep decrease dropout rate and/or profits and learners simply won't benefit from the informative eLearning courses that are being provided.
  4. Helps to improve future eLearning courses Not only can learning analytics help current learners, but can also help future learners as well. For instance, if the data shows that a vast majority of learners are finding one particular aspect of the eLearning course too challenging, then the developers can change the difficulty level of that specific eLearning module. This will lead to more powerful and impactful eLearning environments tomorrow, thanks to the data that has been collected today.
  5. Boost in cost efficiency If you can gain an in depth understanding of how the eLearning courses and their respective resources are being utilized, and how learners are actually acquiring information, and which aspects of the deliverable are successful (and which are falling short, for that matter), then you have the power to achieve higher quality eLearning at a lower cost. For example, if you determine, through analytics, that a particular section of the eLearning course simply isn't helping learners to achieve their learning goals, then you can devote your resources to either improving it or focus on another area that may be a more worthwhile investment.
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I need to construct a 3D wooden bicycle trailer for Kids. The weight of bicycle trailers must also be light!
I don't know where I should start? I thought I'd start from chasis, but what criteria should I use to construct a chassis,Children's weights? no more?
The task says that the 90% of material must consist of wood.
Thank you
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Copy the principles of a car chassis to suit your needs.
Try to have a low centre of mass and a wide wheel track to help stability.
Use strategic, short struts to add torsional stiffness instead of using much larger sizes of wood.
Using some type of suspension component will allow much lower stresses on the frame but may be practically impossible.
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There are people who would like to see the kind of high school-to- industry and business integration of apprenticeship programs.
Are any of our RG community working to bring apprenticeships to the US that are as coordinated with industry and business as those are in Germany?
How can this be achieved in the US?
What obstacles are there to creating such apprenticeships?
Do you have research in this area to share?
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Having served as an educator in the United States and in Europe, I would suggest that we might consider clearly defining the term apprenticeship within the context of the US. For example, there is a legal difference between and Apprenticeship (with a capital A), which pertains to a formal agreement with trade and business organizations (and is protected within US labor law), and informal apprenticeship, and an internship when it comes to High School aged students in the US. If there might be a bit more information I might be able to more appropriately respond as this is an area where I have experience. Thank you for your consideration.
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More than accessibility, more than Universal Design for Learning, how do you integrate social justice into your approach as an instructional designer or curriculum developer?
I'm thinking about integration into your approach to all content design, not just content related social justice.
For example, do you provoke your content experts ("SMEs") or wait for them to bring up social justice ideas? Do you even think about the relationship of social justice to your role as an instructional designer or curriculum developer?
Thank you for your thoughts!
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In building on Kareem's suggestion, one learning activity that works really well that can be included in the instructional design for developing critical thinking skills is the asynchronous debate. I have used it successfully in my teaching and my work was chosen from among hundreds of submissions worldwide to be included in award winning author's current text - Teaching Naked Techniques. I have included links to resources that elaborate more on these debates that I hope will be helpful for you.
Best regards,
Debra
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We are planning to conduct a training for elementary science teachers on making improvised instructional materials to improve the quality of science teaching. Most of the science teachers in our city are non-science majors which prompted us to organize a training-workshop. What are improvised science instructional materials you can suggest that we can do?
Here is an example of what we want to do. An improvised microscope
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Angelo, I salute your goal to assist your upcoming workshop participants in your country by engaging in STEM with improvised materials. As a former Peace Corps Volunteer teacher in Swaziland, Africa (1981-1984) I developed a preference (driven initially by need but later by preference) for using locally available (and economical) materials, also. One improvised material I have used in my STEM PD workshops that I lead is a used plastic bottle (with its screw top) such as a small Gatorade bottle that is not a smooth cylinder (important to clean and sanitize the bottle before use). I challenge my participants, working in teams of 4 to figure out a way to fill the provided bottle half way (by volume) with water using only the bottle. I also provide them a pitcher of water to use in this challange and a stirring rod (which could be made of any material available). Each team of participants is provided these materials along with piece of colored tape (could be simply masking tape) to place on the outside of the bottle (bottom of tape aligned with top of water) that indicates the level of the water they have decided is exactly at the halfway fill mark in the bottle. Participants struggle to decided where that level, is since almost all recognize due to the bottle shape it would not be at what they see is the halfway height point. Some guess where the halfway point may be using an "eyeball strategy", while others come come to see that the bottle has a plastic seam line along its vertical shape which can be used to find the halfway by volume level of the water by turning the bottle sideways and by trial and error filling the bottle with water from a pitcher until the water level aligns with the seam. Participants place their team's water bottle with top secured and tape on the outside of the bottle side by side for comparison. Invariably, the bottles have differing places they have placed their tape. We debrief on their methods of coming to a "solution"to the challenge, with the the goal of deciding which strategy may be most fruitful in solving the challenge most accurately. We discuss the notion of "elegance" in strategy selection which for science is oftentimes associated with the notion of choosing the simplistic strategy which is shown to arrive at correct solution to a problem. The participants then usually select the seam strategy as fulfilling that criterion in this case. I then wonder if there may be a way to check to see if the seam strategy really has lead them to the same answer since there always seems to be some slight variation in the bottle levels of water even when the seam strategy is used. I suggest if they considered using the concept of set theory to consider a solution to the challenge. That is, if by volume the level of the water they have suggested fills the bottle by half, the other half (currently holding air) must be an equal volume in the bottle, since one half by one half equals a whole in set theory. Therefore, they can check whatever water level they may have thought represents half of the bottle's volume, by simply turning the bottle over vertically (make sure the cap is on tightly so no water may come out) and seeing if the resulting water level is exactly at the same point on the tape they placed earlier on the outside of the bottle to show the level of the bottle filled halfway by volume by water. This type of strategy using an application of set theory most engages their attention and their appreciation as being most elegant in this case, due to its ease in use and accuracy. As a STEM activity, we then take time in identifying what learners could learn about the "S"--gravity's impact on water in a closed container on Earth and methodology analysis of solution, "T" the technology used to produce the water bottle, "E" the design process to solve the problem, and "M" the use of a concept from mathematics to solve the problem. And, what about the bottle stirrer they ask? Why were they provided that? My response--when solving authentic challenges no one engaged in STEM knows upfront what equipment may be of value to solve the problem. The stirrer is provided not to imply it is of essential value in this instance to solve the problem (which most assume it must be, since it was provided to them in this challenge as they learned by school science always is the case if equipment is provided in a so-called school STEM inquiry experience in such as in a laboratory exercise. Lesson to notice is that in real life problems in STEM do not come all set up with directions on what may be needed (equipment, for example) to solve them. In fact, available equipment (in this instance, the stirrer) may indeed actually distract them as it may have done for some in this activity (even though when it was provided it was NOT stated it must be used to solve the challenge).
If you (or others who read this response to your question) should use my STEM activity with improvised materials that I developed (could be others have also come up with the same or a similar idea for the same improvised materials although I have never seen such activities or was influenced by any to come up with this idea) , I hope you may find success with it as I have with it over the years. If you do use it, please share your experience using it with your participants as shaped by your needs as a STEM teacher educator and your participants needs and interests. I always grow as an educator when we share our teaching stories, successes and challenges (as I think of them, as opportunities to continue learning my craft!).
All the Best, Randy
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Standards-based education has received much attention in many education systems. Please what is your reflection on standards-based textbooks? what are some practical ideas for developing quality standard-based textbooks, particularly social studies textbooks? What are the differences between standards-based textbooks and traditional textbooks?
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Dear Sofia,
Very useful article. Thanks a lot.
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While I am aware of many ways in which websites and online services can fail, or appear uncomfortable to use, I am looking for specific manifestations of unpleasant design in the digital domain. My definition of unpleasant design is that which promotes social control through discomfort, pain, and persuasion. It raises the value of a product or its surroundings by preventing specific use scenarios such as sleeping on a park bench or loitering in a shopping mall. Unpleasant Design is not about the failure to make beautiful products but about successfully excluding certain social groups and restricting certain uses of objects.
Taking these into account, can there be such a thing as digital unpleasant design? Does anyone have an experience that would be relevant to share in this context? Which websites and online services come to mind when thinking of unpleasant design? Any feedback or suggestion is welcome!
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Such works are not always bad or unpleasant aesthetically, but reflect moments of unpleasantness in efficacy (i.e., the web site doesn't load properly, etc.) in juxtaposition with design that may be unpleasant for all kinds of reasons.
Also, cf. the uncanny valley in human simulation design.
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I am planning to conduct a research entitled "How Teachers in Middle Schools Design Technology Integration Activities". The purpose of the study is to explore factors influencing middle schools’ teachers design technology integration activities and how they design the activities as well as to explore the challenges that teachers faced while designing the materials for technology integration activities. The researchers will focus on one-to-one technology environment in middle schools. The study will focus on the teacher as a designer of technology activities. I am confused about  the framework. Should it be from Human-Computer interaction or from instructional technology field?
Any thoughts
Thank you
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You can look at the revised Technology Integration Model (TIP) by Roblyer that combines both the TPACK and TIP models for meeting the needs of teachers as designers. I hope you find it useful.
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Moore and Kearsley (2012) state that "Most designers believe that courses should be organized into short, self-contained segments, with frequent summaries and overviews."  Are there best practices for determining this measure of time?  I suppose using ADDIE, one would eventually arrive at the right mix of content and time.  Considering the big data available today, I was just wondering if metrics had been gathered to this end.
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 Michael:
I'm including studies on "Quality Matters" metrics that may be helpful in arriving at some standard benchmarks for what you want:
Best regards,
Debra
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Looking for guidelines to write a research project on instructional courseware
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Pop in to look at my education papers posted on my  Researchgate profile. I have moved them to the top 5 position so that you can see them 
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I teach with another faculty member in an "Introduction to Interprofessional Health Care" class with over 200 students from 10 different professional programs.
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Picture Prompt, Think Break, Choral Response etc., can bring in an influencing personality of a teacher in action.
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Hi RG community,
While working on a project to support technological uptake in Higher Education I discovered that there is a lot of information on:
1- The difficulties to adopt technology-enhanced learning in Higher education;
2- The strategies for Faculty development as a general problem (connected to the several academics' tasks, from research to pedagogical practices).
My question could be placed at the crossroad between the above mentioned issues. The thing is: which are the specific strategies of faculty development that would enforce quality eLearning adoption?
I know there must be plenty of literature, but your opinion and concrete cases would be of great help!
Thanks!
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Hi
The best method I've found is to create the training course online.  This puts the instructors in the role of student and gives them a very different perspective about what they will be doing.  Spread the class over five or so weeks and have them create their course during this time if that is part of their assignment.  If not they can have plenty of time to review the course that they will use.
Monitor the new instructors for two semesters to determine if they are applying the instructional strategies that are policy at the institution.  Coach them through this time so that any former undesirable behavior from a traditional classroom is not carried over.
I was a master trainer where this process was used and it created a good environment for the students, instructors, and elearning administration.
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I recently piloted an assignment in my teaching class that required students to present their message in an infographic. I am looking for a systematic/standardized strategy for assessment.
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Marty Nystrand noted that the best predictor for a dialogic spell was a student question. Gordon Wells reminds us that the question that most needs answering is one students want to answer. (Apologies for my poor paraphrasing). I want to look at student questioning and am interested in identifying classroom based studies that included a look at student questions/questioning patterns...  I welcome your responses...thanks
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This seems like an interesting and increasingly important subject area.  Is anyone interested in writing a review article critically examining the research published to date, identifying any gaps and also the potential areas for future research?  
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I am sure that everyone would agree that the students' experiences are different in the classroom compared to online learning.  These experiences, of course, depend greatly on the pedagogy and instructional design.....
But can we generalize that one is better than the other?  If so, what can we do to improve the one that is not as good?
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In my experience, covering two decades, including helping to create the first virtual high school in the US, there's a strong bond created in the online learning environment.  We consistently hear both students and teachers tell us they know their counterparts better in their online course than in any of their F2F courses.  It's all in the design.  Some designs both in F2F and online don't contribute to creating a personal connection, while others do.  There's not a singular model.
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If anyone could please provide me a list of substantial differences between the two as they are mostly overlapped. Also is there any substantial difference between instructional and learning design?
Thank you.
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When I began a project a few years ago which required the "renewal" of curriculum across a whole institution I and my colleagues on this project found it difficult finding a useful definition of "curriculum" that suited the environment in which we were working. So we agreed on the following:
Curriculum is the documented purpose and aims of the program of study, the learning intentions (intended learning outcomes, aka student learning outcomes or course/program learning outcomes), the knowledge, skills and capabilities that will deliberately be developed, the ideal or preferred structure of the program of study (topics, courses, units, subjects, etc), the essential resources recommended to support learning, and broad statements on the range of topics, teaching modes and assessments that would support the desired learning, and the evaluation of progress and performance against the intended learning outcomes.
I prefer to use the term learning design, rather than instructional design as it shifts the emphasis away from the teacher towards the student/learner. But in either case it is the process of designing the resources and activities learners will engage with, with the intent of developing their knowledge, skills and capabilities. This includes, for me, the design of assessment tools, tasks and practices as these not only help to measure and evaluate progress towards and performance against the intended learning outcomes, but they are also part of the learning process.
Having said that, I have also come across some people that differentiate between instructional design and learning design - the former is used to indicate the documentation (e.g. training manuals, textbooks, activity booklets, online resources) and the latter is used to indicate the teacher's plans for using those resources. I prefer to capture all of this in the term learning design as I think this separation is not helpful - the one is not useful without the other.
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I am looking a pepper about  Instructional Design and online class 
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Hi Ahmad,
Instructional design is a vast field. It might help to constrain your search, such as by content domain, age groups, setting, media, and so on. 
You might also peep at my website: http://edrl.berkeley.edu/
Salam, Shalom,
- Dor
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I'm planning to look into Augmented Reality in Higher Education, can I have some "experimented" examples from you experts? I know there are a lot of free and paid stuff online, but it would be nice to know from experience. And by the way, I would like to experiment something in the HE level and not a school level. Aurasma is a good tool, anything better than Aurasma in terms of interactivity?
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Hi!
I see that this discussion is a lot about tools, but as a former philosophy teacher, now researching ICT integration / blended learning, I feel I want to make a couple of comments:
1) Is "augmented reality" and "virtual reality" the same thing as both appear in answers on the question about "augmented"? Augmented should add to and enhance normal experience of reality, as for example binoculars to viewing (analogue example), while a word like "virtual" talks about another reality where an individual is suddenly inserted and/or runs a proxy. 
2) Shouldn´t we tidy up in our conceptualisation of new technology, so we get rid of "digital dualism", the idea that ICT in som way constitute a new world, opposed to our concentional social-physical world, and that we now traverse between them by login and logout procedures? Are we not soon living in an environment that is integrated, with no distinction between online and offline? I highly recommend to read some papers by  Luciano Floridi and reflect over his "infosphere" philosophy and ethics.
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In webcontent mining, how to deal with semistructured data in E-Learning? any algoritthms?
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Would simple Boolean scripts or guides to create scripts work as a simple solution?  We have used this successfully in large legal databases as finding tools for semi-structured text.
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So my school of education reviewer is concerned about the dean's choosing the participants. Now, in a Delphi, defining expert is important. many people allow the participants to decide for themselves but for extra care, I'm going through the deans. The criteria for them to decide who to recommend are all of the following:
·         educators with at least 5 years of teaching experience and have been actively teaching with direct contact with learners in the past 6 months (Pilcher, 2015),
·         educators who teach an oral communication course (oral communication, public speaking, business and professional communication, small group discussion, speech communication, or other communication classes that have a learning objective of increasing oral communication competency) with more than 30 people (Russ, 2009),
·         educators who, according to their dean (or department chair), have demonstrated the use of effective teaching methods in the large section lecture format (Nworie, 2011; Pilcher, 2015) and
·         educators who are willing to contribute to the Delphi exercise and can contribute the time necessary to complete the study (Ziglio, 1997, p. 14).
·  educators with effective communication skills. 
So, in my humble opinion, this is very clear criteria. However, the reviewer is concerned with a confounding element of the research in the choosing.  He suggested a rubric. I can't figure out what it will do except restate the above and offer (fits the criteria, does not fit the criteria).
Can you think of another option?
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delphi is mostly used by managers to obtain the appearance of consensus for decisions that have already been taken
so mostly a huge waste of time 
in scientific setting it simply confirms the established bias, but does not reveal new information - consensus is notoriously poor method for obtaining scientific truth
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My reviewer has said "Your study has a percentage goal for participation (participant response rate). An important consideration for this study is the non-response bias survey (an error analysis) that should be conducted at the end of any three-round Delphi Study. This should include an investigation of the non-response error by conducting some type of contingency table analysis (e.g., Fischer’s Exact Test). Essentially, this should hopefully show no statistical difference between the responders and non-responders in your research. This is an important component of any doctoral level Delphi study."
I'm not sure how to address this. This study is qualitative (according to the requirements of my institution). Any thoughts?
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 I will suggest that you carry out a qualitative research on the topic using the expert communicators as your respondents. Use in-dept interview as your data gathering method. From the responses you will obtain, you can deduce what the majority opinion is.
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I'm looking for studies interpreting answers of open response tasks from large-scale or classroom assessment for instructional purposes or for the development of distractors for next generation closed-format assessments.
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I see good answers to your question above, in this thread, but for what it is worth I use open-ended responses to study students' creativity. There is a very reliable technology for this. It provides scores for ideational fluency, originality, and flexibility. There are also now computer programs that take the text and give the same scores, plus others (e.g., semantic richness, "idea density").  Very interesting and consistent with cognitive and creativity theory. Let me know if I can help. I will attach one short paper but there are many others. Mark
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i got a task which is to design a chairless chair or known as the invisible chair which help workers to comfort their leg after standing up for too long. but i have a problem regarding limited of budget which i plan on replace the hydraulic system with mechanical system using hinge and bolt . but im worried it might not work. do anyone have any suggestion about this?
if you are clueless on what is a chairless chair , here i attached the link about the information
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yeah, is very easy its built, You can. Without hidrahulic
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This is an invitation to participate in the next special issue of EDUCAR titled “Emerging technology for formative assessment in pre-professional practice”
End date: 26 February 2016
Pre-professional practices have assumed a relevant role at curricula, with a great concern about continuous evaluation, linked to improvement processes of development of competences. This monograph aims to inquire about opportunities of Information and Communication Technology to evaluate learning, for learning and from authentic learning of professional practice. During last years new emerging technologies have been consolidating. They are technologies oriented to evaluation of learning process (digital portfolios, blogs and audio-visual or virtual resources) and of collaborative work (multimedia annotations and digital rubrics).
Contents could include themes as:
New opportunities for learning at pre-professional practice:
Adaptive learning
Gamification
Learning analytics
Peeragogy
Evaluation of processes with ICT
e-portfolio
blogs
audiovisual and virtual supports
Evaluation of collaborative work
Multimedia annotations
e-rubrics
Mobile apps
BYOD
Cordially,
Antonio Bartolomé (UB)
Manuela Raposo (Uvigo)
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Thank you for the invitation.
I'm interested to contribute because I'm applying Evaluation of processes with 
e-portfolio and collaborative work to evaluate Pre-professional practices.
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I'm looking for a [free] instrument that can replace the Learning and Student Student Inventory (LASSI). Does anyone have an evaluation tool or know of one that can be used to see the success of a course or intervention?
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Hi, Camille!
I think the best evaluation tool is the one that you build, which perfectly fits in the process that you are studying. Of course, there are many tech tools that may help us in this way.
Let me suggest you the use of "Moodle Platform". It's a free digital learning environment that you can use with your students. Moodle's use is quite intuitive, since it looks like an ordinary website. With this platform you can build learning objects, surveys, tests, etc. in an easy way.
I've written a paper where I show how to diagnose the level of the literacy of undergraduate students: "Observação do letramento no ensino superior". It's in portuguese and you can find it in my papers here in RG.
You may use Moodle to implement the idea proposed above by Ann Kerlin.
Cheers!
Tarcisio.
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In negative scoring, for example, after the the total score for the student's submission is tallied, penalities are then applied by deducting marks for language mechanics. Does this method benefit the student or should these penalities be included in the rubric in tallying the students total score instead of after? Your comments would be greatly appreciated.
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Greetings from Finland.
I found it really interesting reading the replies and especially to see how different educators from different countries see their role as an educator. I was often reminded of the work of the work of John Biggs regarding levels of teachers and how teachers view their role and professional identity. It seems that many of those responding seem to view their role in alignment with level 1 in Biggs hierarchy (Biggs 1999, Chapter 4) with a focus that their role is to measure what the student is –
"A teacher's responsibility is to know the content well and to expound it clearly. Thereafter, it's up to the students. When students don't learn… it is due to something the students are lacking"
I find this really very interesting as this has never been my own professional identity in almost 30 years as a teacher. I see us as being there to help them learn. Formative assessment with feedback, critique and details of why and how something could be improved can help students move forward. I really do not see how negative marks fit into that framework.
My comment here is not meant to be critical of those who have responded above, we each work in different context and have (clearly) very different ideas about our role as educators and even differences about what it means to ‘learn’.
One part of my argument against negative marks is that we need the next generation to be much better than us, not the same. We have done a fine job of screwing the world up in so many different ways. The last thing we need is to replicate another generation like ourselves! We need to have students who are prepared to take risks, think creatively and critically, who challenge and question everything. So if we have grading schemes that penalize those who do not conform to the solution we expect to see, in other words, that penalize failure, then we just get more of the same. Humans learn through failing, students need to know how to fail and education should be the place where it is safe to fail as part of the learning process. But of course, that is just my opinion.
I have linked to the first of 3 short videos that pretty well sum the ideas of Biggs.  I quite like these and hope they might add to the debate.
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My question focuses on evaluating classroom teaching performance and what the best tools are for doing so.
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My response is based on my 10 years of teaching at the high school level and 32 years at the university level.  First of all, we must ask ourselves, what is good teaching and how do we know when good teaching is taking place?  Good teaching is directing the teaching learning process so that changes of a relatively permanent nature are brought about in the learners as a result of the instruction.
With this concept, I have discovered that the best way to measure the effective of  teaching is to base it on how well instructors are able to advance the academically challenged students to higher academic performance. In other words, we should not judge the effective of our teaching based on how well the smart students perform – they would perform well even without instructors help.  
Writing the test questions, in addition, instructors should make sure they write good test questions that measure concepts or rather than specifics. Questions should be set at the time of developing the course syllabus/course outline and the questions should be based on the learning objectives. Remember, a test is a series of tasks designed to measure attributes that we presumed to be characteristics of the learners. To effectively measure such attributes, instructors should endeavor to have a minimum of 40-50 multiple choice questions for each test. This way, a test will be more reliable and valid and we are likely to observe greater academic performance by the students we teach
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I do not wish to be presumptuous, as I do not teach students actively, I teach teachers how to teach! I do have a certification as a teacher trainer, and I use some out-of-the-box methodology to help teachers and schools (and school systems) to cope with (very) unruly/risky behavior students in K-12. As you all know, or should, if you do not have the individuals’ attention from the first moment you open your mouth, you cannot communicate, thus you cannot teach. Moreover, the real goal of a teacher should be to “intrinsically motivate” each student, thus they will begin to “teach themselves through natural curiosity” and the organic in-born need to please.
The first issue with Mr. Faizes question is that a good percentage of any class will be full of “introverted” students; not active participators verbally. Learn to recognize them the first day, and adjust questions to them that encourage participation. Give your students the Myers-Briggs personality test (or similar instrument), and tell them that if the class (as a team) seriously applies themselves to assure the best results, a reward will follow. Stress that there are no wrong answers or time limit, and to be completely truthful to receive the most accurate results. The reward system is usually something like getting out of class 5 minutes early (last class of the day) or bring in fruit and give everyone some; be creative! (Seriously, tie the class reward system to team participation from the start and they will begin to self-monitor and ‘punish’ non-participation and bad behaviors (verbally only) each other as a team unit.)
If anyone is interested in other ideas, please read the response to Mr. Faize’s post I submitted.
Edward J. Files, AAS, AGS, BSM, MBA (SAPM, CTT, CGPW)
Doctorial Student, Education, Org Development
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My student teacher is writing a thesis on "Introverted learners in the English language classroom." Making trainees study the problems in questiion can widen their horizons as well as help them understand themselves a little better.
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I am currently developing the course shell for an Internship course that has an organisational work process report as an assignment. I need to post up some research resources that students can use in completing this assignment. I'll appreciate any research resources you can share.
Many thanks,
Debra
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Both models, as far as I know, work on the trinity of learning outcomes, assessment evidence, and learning activities. 
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Dear Abdunasir,
As far as I am aware of Backward design is the method we use when we set our intended learning outcomes (ILOs) that we want the students to achieve before we choose instructional methods or learning activities (LA) and assessment methods (AM). On the other hand constructive alignment is the method to verify that ILOs, LAs and AMs are aligned the way the were supposed to be. A very good reading about these concepts is this: http://www.ntu.edu.vn/Portals/96/Tu%20lieu%20tham%20khao/Phuong%20phap%20giang%20day/teaching%20for%20quality%20learning-j.biggs.pdf
Hope it helps.
Christos Vaitsis
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I have developed a real-time observation metric that produces a proportional breakdown of class activity in a number of domains. Can any suggest an approach/method for the the metric to be validated (i.e. interrater agreement of multiple observers, multiple sites, etc)?
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A presentation of the pilot study was presented at the 21st Century forum at Harvard. The video of the presentation can be seen at
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How to prove a desian solution based on 4C/ID model is effecitve? Is there any framwork, tips or questionnaire for the learners to evaluate the 4C/ID design result from their teachers or trainer? 
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Zhou:
Proving the quality of instructional design is very important as it can determine whether the learning outcomes would be effectively achieved. Here's a link to studies relating the your topic in ResearchGate:
All the best with your research!
Debra
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This is an area I have studied and wish to continue pursuing.
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It depends as to what you mean by implement. Are you referring to integrating the objectivist and constructivist epistemologies into instructional-design processes? If so, I would encourage you to check-out Reiser and Dempsey's 2011 Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed). Specifically check-out chapters 4-6, as they discuss the orientations between the two and the differences. I have attached a PowerPoint/PDF that might give you some context as to the differences between both, which is extrapolated from the chapters. Hope this helps.
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Whats the difference between "Instructional Design" and "Learning Design"?
Definitions are hard to find. Two examples:
  • "The term instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. An instructional designer is somewhat like an engineer." (Smith, Patricia L., and Tillman J. Ragan. Instructional design. New York, NY: Wiley, 1999.) vs.
  • A learning design “documents and describes a learning activity in such a way that other teachers can understand it and use it in their own context. Typically a learning design includes descriptions of learning tasks, resources and supports provided by the teacher”(Donald, Blake, Girault, Datt, & Ramsay, 2009).
At first I though the perspective is the main difference as instructional design focuses on teachers and their plan. On the other side learning design focuses on tasks/learning oportunities for students. But no definiton backed this differentiation. Some definitions also indicate that learning design is for online courses.
Also the term "design" made me think whether learning design and instructional design are either about concrete plans of a lesson or sequence for teaching or about re-usable patterns which could be re-used and adapted for concrete lessons or sequences. The latter would focus on experts to create these designs whereas the former would focus on teachers as users. So, who are the planners/designers?
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If you're  a visual learner and can imagine a Venn diagram, Instructional Design is a circle with a Learning Design circle fully enclosed within it.  One of the classic ways of thinking about the slate of responsibilities of an Instructional Designer is to think of the ADDIE model of instructional design (which is the classic - but not the only - model discussed in the literature).  ADDIE represents analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.  While each of these would be entities of our imaginary Venn diagram, the literature contains a LOT of discussion of how they are related.  Thus there are opportunities for research and publication. YAY!
Fully professional instructional designers should have expertise in all of these areas.  Learning Design, as defined in your question, can fit into either design or development in the ADDIE model, so In our little diagram it would be an entity residing in an intersection between the design and development entities.   Learning Design is considered a design activity because documentation of lesson plans (the example in your question) is by definition a  planning activity.  Fully professionally trained classroom teachers and workplace trainers have planning expertise and may have varying levels of experience in other aspects of instructional design. Learning design may be considered a development activity also, especially if you regard the production of documentation as one of the necessary components for implementation. In your example, the phrase "so other teachers can understand it" offers a clue that it would be a necessary tool for teaching.  Experienced technical writers typically have such development expertise.  You would not necessarily need to have teaching expertise to be able to carefully document what a teacher does.
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This tool will be used for pre and post test in a nursing technology grant.
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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Do you know about research that uses dance or music to enhance learning of programming?
At youtube I got to know what Erik Stern and Karl Schaffer do within math (see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws2y-cGoWqQ). I found it fascinating as they pinpoint the importance of the instructional design.
In programming education I like dance-programming where students act as a programmer and a robot that has to execute the instruction given. The interplay between man and machine depends on the quality of the distinctiveness of the instruction
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yea! google scholar is great. I was looking for different experiences about instruction from this community of people at researchgate
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I have divide my data set in to train data set, valida data set and test data set but during training process valida data does not work (I means my network is over trained and over fitting, it is 100 % match with train data set and result is not closely match with tested data set. I have divided my data set is as following.
p=sample_d(1:24,:);%%%<INPUT node >
t=sample_d(25,:);%%%%<TARGET Node>
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%Data Scalling%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% [pn,psp]=mapminmax(p,0,1);
% [tn,pst]=mapminmax(t,0,1);
[pn,psp]=mapstd(p);
[tn,pst]=mapstd(t);
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%DATA DIVISION<TOTAL DATA SET 40 AND DIVIDE AS 30 TRAIN 5 TEST 5 VALIDATE >%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
TEST=5;
VAL=5;
iitst=[size(p,2)-TEST+1:size(p,2)];
iival=[size(p,2)-TEST-VAL+1:size(p,2)-TEST];
iitr=[1:size(p,2)-TEST-VAL];
val.p=pn(:,iival);
val.T=tn(:,iival);
test.p=pn(:,iitst);
test.T=tn(:,iitst);
ptr=pn(:,iitr);
ttr=tn(:,iitr);
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%NETWORK CREATE %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
net=newff(minmax(p),[HN1,HN2,1],{'logsig','logsig','purelin'},'trainlm');
%%%%Stopping Criteria%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
net.trainParam.min_grad=.001;
net.performFcn = 'sse';
net.trainParam.max_fail=1;
net.trainParam.epochs =ep;
net.trainParam.goal =go;
net.trainParam.lr=lr;
net1=train(net,ptr,ttr);
a1=sim(net1,ptr);
a1_final=mapstd('reverse',a1,pst);
a1_final
a = sim(net1,test.p);
a_final=mapstd('reverse',a,pst);
a_final
view(net)
%%%%% I HAVE PROBLEM OF OVER TRAINING ................ FOR TRAINING DATA R=1 BUT VALIDATION DATA SET OF MY NETWORK DOES NOT WORK >%%%%% WHAT IMPROVEMENT IS TO BE DONE TO AVOID EARLY STOPPING AND TO WORK VALIDATION DATA SET TO ABOVE CODING)%%%%
Sincerely yours
Lila
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WHAT IMPROVEMENT IS TO BE DONE TO AVOID EARLY STOPPING AND TO WORK VALIDATION DATA SET TO ABOVE CODING
Few suggestions: With Feature Selection, you may improve the performance of your learning system. In fact, 24 inputs with 30 instances may be considered you have curse of dimensionality. It is, therefore, better to make a reduced feature vector via, for example, PCA and take the first few PCs, e.g., PC1, PC2, ..., Other approaches such as n-fold cross validation, LOO, etc, may be used, too. 
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Recommended Instructional Minutes.
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Hi James,
I have attached a document outlining recommended times for different subjects in Queensland Government Schools. Although we now implement a National Curriculum you can see that there is still about 20% discretionary time allocation for more local initiatives. Hope this helps, Kevin.
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The skills of designing LOs include both instructional design skills and technological skills such as content development skills
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The skills of designing Learning Objects are discussed in the following article entitled:"Designing Training Plans and Learning Objectives" by Jack Shaw. The topics include the following items:
  1. Preparation for Designing Your Training Plan
  2. Design Your Learning Objectives
  3. Analyze Your Learning Objectives for Relevance, Alignment, Sequence and Testability
  4. Designing Training Rooms (Classrooms)
  5. Additional Information About Designing Training
  6. Various Ideas for Ways to Learn (including distance and online learning)
See the whole study at the link:
I hope that this helps.
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Instruction designs integrating simulation and problem-based learning to improve nursing student critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and psychomotor skills.
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I think the following article has a good answer for this question:
Aqel A., Ahmad M. (2014). High Fidelity Simulator effects on CPR Knowledge and Skills Acquisition and Retention. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 11(6), 394-400. DOI:10.1111/wvn.12063
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I would like to incorporate researcher opinion into my comparison of validated instruments to measure motivation of students in higher education.
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A questionnaire only measures perceptions.
It cannot measure motivation for the self-perceptions of individuals may not match reality.
Motivation is a multi-variate concept - therefore, any attempt to measure it by a scale will end up making a highly inaccurate measurement.
I have written all this up in the literature in relation to attitudes.
More fundamentally, why do we want to measure motivation?   That on its now tells us little.  Far more important to explore what are the key factors that help motivation to become more positive.  However, motivation is dependent on attitudes.  Much better to look at attitudes (also multi-variate) and explore the underpinning factors that encourage positive attitudes in relation to, say, learning.  That ha s been done in relation to physics and published over a decade ago.  If that set of findings was followed up, we could move the entire area forward.
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Want to know the best method to carry out research on scientific reasoning
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Thanks a lot Eugene Okorie
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Actually we have some literature findings and samples... But all are in medical education field. Perhaps there might be more in other disciplines.
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I actually have a wonderful overlay model for blended learning.  It is based on the Motivations-Attributes-Skills-Motivation Quality Validation Model (Stevens, 2003).  If I am clear on what you are seeking, this could be tailored to meet your needs.  If I can be off assistance, my email is drstevens@wsc.cc.
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I'm writing a report on the most interesting trends in e-learning corporate training.
I identified these following topics:
- Gamification and serious games;
- Adaptive learning;
- Adaptive testing;
- Mobile web learning vs. learning app
- Storytelling
Do you agree with this list or have any suggestions?
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There is a very large number of definitions for Learning Objects, but they have 5 common elements: 1) Learning objective, 2) Contents, 3) Learning activities, 4) Assessment, 5) Metadata. So in this context, the first 4 elements can be design in any way, including many approaches. Even some reseracher could consider serious games as learning objects. So, are the other trends learning objects, not neccesarly.
And yes, it is feasible developing educational resources taking into account three aspects:
  1. Cognitive processes
  2. Learning styles
  3. Instructional techniques
But this task is highly complex. Fourtunately, there is a researche, Antonio Silva Sprock, who has developed a methodology an a tool for achieving what you are looking for, the next link shows his work. I recommend you to read these two papers:
  1. Development Model of Learning Objects Based in the Instructional Techniques Recommendation
  2. Sistema Recomendador de Técnicas Instruccionales, Basado en Procesos Cognitivos y Estilos de Aprendizaje, GeLOTS
The second one is exactly what you need.