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if my research intends to use Malmi and Brown's management control package typology, should I use institutional theory or configurational theory to explain the underpinning theory of my work?
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I would recommend reading the following article:
- Min-Dong Paul Lee (2011) Configuration of External Influences: The Combined Effects of Institutions and Stakeholders on Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies, Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 102, pp.281–298.
DOI 10.1007/s10551-011-0814-0
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Cognitive pillar refer to those that determine the extent to which wider belief systems and cultural frames are imposed on or adopted by individual actors and organizations. And informal institutions also refer to cultural beliefs..
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Dear Dr. Saikia!
You raised a relevant topic to consider. I think you refer to the concept of rules:
1) Brady, M. Covid-19 and the power of rules. HPLS 43, 11 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40656-021-00368-9 Free access:
2) Bo Yan, Bin Chen, Long Wu, Xiaomin Zhang & Heng Zhu (2021) Culture, Institution, and COVID-19 First-Response Policy: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Thirty-One Countries, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 23:2, 219-233, DOI: 10.1080/13876988.2021.1878458 Free access:
Rules link together culture, cognitive signals with informal institutions.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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I am a PhD candidate in the field of Management. I am using the theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Institutional theory (IT) in my research on knowledge sharing.
I would like to get some advice on how to modify the constructs of these theories so that I can adapt and fit them to the context of my research.
Also, how do I choose the right variables to measure the different constructs under these theoretical lenses? In the literature, each author uses a different set of items to measure for instance attitude. Any useful help would be mostly appreciated.
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Yannick - I think your aim shouldn't be to modify an existing theory to fit into your research. For your PhD research you need a theoretical framework relevant to your area of study and its applicability to your area of research. Theories are helpful to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. A theoretical framework is important because it will allow you to conceptualize the study in a broader context (i.e., the field of knowledge) and connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. It will also address questions of why and how. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.
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In a research article related to green supply chain practices (GSCM) and their impact on environmental (EP) and financial performance (FP) of firms, I introduced contingent role of institutional pressures (IP), one of the reviewers raised a concern stating that the earlier part (GSCM-->EP-->FP) is (based on) practical framework and I'm proposing contingent effect of IP on the basis of theoretical framework (institutional theory). He/she asked me to explain 'why' I'm doing so. I'm wondering that how can I justify this because, besides a theoretical underpinnings, it seems that regulatory institutions also belong to 'practical (regulatory) framework. Seeking guidance.
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Server theories are to used in developing the proposed model namely, Theory of Planned Behavior, Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Institutional Theory.
Please educate me regarding the appropriateness of these theories for the above research.
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Hi, If you take respondents as CEO or top managers of the SMEs the personal factor of the decision maker influence the choice making in adoption of IFRS for SMEs. As per the question you posed that SEM to use. yes you can. I suggest that use exploratory study design.
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I am currently writing an essay discussing what we can learn from institutional theory in land-use planning research. I am most concerned with the sociological aspects of institutional theory, covering both planning processes its linkages to land-use planning outcomes. Do any of you have any considerations regarding the usefulness, or relevant articles using institutional theory to explore land-use planning?
Warmest regards,
Kristine Lien Skog
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I published several articles on institutional analysis of the evolution of land use planning. Most of them adopts the persepective of hold-up problem, a central issue in New Institutional Economics and incomplete contract literature. Please find attached one article on this topic in the West and another recent one on the evolution of urban planning in China.
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It strikes me as an interesting non-economic based entry point for understanding change. Any body cares to point me towards some readings?
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My chapter ‘The Role of Political and Policy Studies in Higher Education Policy Research’ in the book Theory and Method in Higher Education Research DOI:10.1108/S2056-375220150000001002 deals with institutionalism
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We are leaning towards microlevel analysis in institutional theory (practice-based). However, macrolevel analysis could not be neglect. Do you think big data and data mining could help improve the understanding on institutional change?
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Yes. It can be.
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Dear all,
In economic point of view, how to proceed if i'm interested to study the existing structure of an institutional system, to identify constraints, and improve efficiency? Any basic tools, methods in it?
Thanks in advance.
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You might need to apply Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework developed by Elinor Ostrom, a prominent scholar from Indiana University who was awarded Nobel Prize in economics in 2009. This framework will be very much useful to address complexity in institution-related issues.
The IAD Framewok was later expanded by Floriane Clement by adding more exogenous variables to incorporate political context and distribution of power amongst actors.
Kind regards
Salim
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I'm interested in acquiring an understanding of institutional theoey. DiMaggio and Powell's book (The new institutionalism in organisational analysis) was published in 1991 and I'd like to find more recent introductions/overview.
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Hi Linda. It's such a well-established, but internally divergent and multi-disciplinary, body of literature now that starting with the foundations is probably the best way to go. DiMaggio and Powell's 1983 'The Iron Cage Revisited' is seminal. Suchman's 1995 paper - Suchman, M. (1995) Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches, The Academy of Management ReviewVol. 20, No. 3 pp. 571-610 - provides a good overview of the divergences between sociological and strategic conceptions of new institutionalism. Patricia Thornton and colleagues' work on institutional logics is also significant. I haven't read their 2012 book, The Institutional Logics Perspective: A New Approach to Culture, Structure, and Process but I imagine it gives a good overview. Greenwood et al.'s Sage Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism gives a good overview featuring contributions from many of the key writers. Within this, Powell and Colyvas' chapter on the Micro-Foundations of Institutional Theory opens up a relatively new vein of thinking about how institutionalism manifests at the micro-level. Good luck - it's very interesting but wide terrain to navigate!
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I am finishing a paper about Knowledge management and I would like to describe Brazilian context in a systematic way. Looking for ideas.
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Knowledgement in Brazil
Please let me know if these references/sites are useful to you:
1. Knowledge Management and e-Government in Brazil
Knowledge Management and e-Government in Brazil Page 2 of 11 Introduction In a study much-cited in Brazil (OECD, 2003, p. 8), the Organization for Economic
2. Knowledge Management Analyst at Brazil - UNcareer
https://uncareer.net/vacancy/knowledge-management-analyst-114271
Knowledge management in UNDP is guided by a Knowledge Strategy that enables UNDP Brazil to share and leverage its knowledge and experience across government, private sector, civil society, UN agencies and other external partners.
4. The use of knowledge management practices by Brazilian
Regarding knowledge management, the review of knowledge management practices of Baskerville and Dulipovici (2006) was used, in addition to other articles which analyzed these practices and the relation of knowledge and firm performance (Audretsch & Keilbach, 2007; Bembenek & Piecuch, 2014; Bender & Fish, 2000; López-Nicolás & Meroño-Cerdán, 2011; Mills & Smith, 2011; Mosconi & Roy, …
5. Knowledge management consultants in Brazil - knoco.com
https://www.knoco.com/knoco-brazil.htm
Knoco Brazil Knoco in Brazil is headed by Fabio Batista, Brazilian citizen and resident in Brasília since 1977, and KM Manager at Summit Quality Systems Consultores Associados, a consultancy specialized in knowledge management, strategic planning and quality management.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Elizabeth Goodrick and Trish Reay (2011) wrote an interesting article where they investigated historical documents about the work of US pharmacists with the purpose of showing "how professional work can reflect multiple institutional logics" (p. 372). They used four logics as references: Professional, corporate, market, and state logics.
They measured the strength of each logic "by evaluating the extent to which the pharmacists’ practices as indicated in historical accounts were consistent with the practices implied by the ideal type of the logic." (p. 387). This means that the closeness of the actual work practices of the pharmacists in each historical era to the ideal type of each logic reflects the strength of each logic. To numerically evaluate this, they used a "standard scale of 1 to 5, where 1 indicates very low consistency (or similarity) and 5 indicates very high consistency (or similarity)" (p. 387).
Any other ideas on how to do this? Or are you aware of any other nice studies that have done this?
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Hey, Peter! If you find out how to measure their intensity or strength, please let me know! I'll keep on looking for it and following your question!
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I'm wondering if anyone is aware of (well developed) measurement instruments on constructs that are derived from institutional theory. E.g., institution & legitimacy.
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you need to read some papers/articles from Rick Feiock on institutional theory. he has many articles on it and he is quantitative guy used a lot of measures for it
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I am using critical discourse analysis and social relational institutional theory to interrogate a decison to sell parkland for housing sites under the guise of smart growth (i.e. more intensity).
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What answers are you looking for with your question? Please allow me to speculate! Are you cntending that "selling public parkland to private individuals" perpetuates violence by replacing public access with private exclusion - which could lead to violence? Or What? You need to clarify your premises that underlie your question!
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When applying the thoughts of institutional theory, I know one established measurement of isomorphic behavior in the banking industry is based on the similarity between firms' asset allocation. But what about other kinds of firms, it there any valid measurement in the literature? Cheers
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I am working on a thesis on institutional variations in mining in Latin America. Two processes that interest me are those of Diffusion and Interpretation to explain the mechanisms of variation. Could you help me with suggestions?
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The theory should be relevant to less developed countries in Africa especially in Tanzania environment where market forces are not much advanced and corporate governance is at infancy stage.
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Thanking you so much for your valuable contributions.Because i am doing a  PhD research, we agreed with my supervisors to use three theories in combination.The theories are Agency theory to show how effective internal audit function aid in reducing monitoring costs,Institutional theory to show how internal audit contribute to organizational behaviour change to positive side to conform to society requirements and other stakeholders requirements and lastly,Communication theory to show how internal audit function help organization in disclosure of pertinent information in financial statements to meet varied stakeholders needs. I appreciate for your valuable time you use to make the contributions  to me.
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I'm looking for an index to evaluate the legitimacy level of organizations which negotiate in stock exchange.
Does anyone knows any research in this sense?
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Organisational legitimacy is generally considered to be a dichotomous phenomenon; either you have it, or you don't. However there are a few studies that operationalise legitimacy on a scale. See these studies:
Ruef, M., & Scott, W. R. (1998). A multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy: Hospital survival in changing institutional environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(4), 877-904.
Deephouse, D. L. (1996). Does isomorphism legitimate? Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 1024-1039.
See also this study:
Vergne, J. P. (2011). Toward a New Measure of Organizational Legitimacy: Method, Validation, and Illustration. Organizational Research Methods, 14(3), 484-502.
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I am trying to understand how to fit governance into the framework of the new institutionalism. I suspect that governance is a process that connect actors with structures, helping actors to modify the structures while structures shape the behaviour of the actos. But it this is true, is governance just the same as "institutional work"?
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Dear Manuel,
Governance could indeed include various forms of institutional work, as actors through their actions and interactions create, maintain and disrupt institutional frameworks. Yet governance involves much more than institutional work, its also creates actors, their relations, their relations to institutional frameworks, organizations, subjects and objects it includes a whole range of discursive processes. Governance, understood as all those processes about collective-binding decision-making is thus a multi-dimensional process in which the evolution of institutional frameworks that are both a driver and an outcome of governance should be understood in relation to other elements and their interplay. 
In our book on Evolutionary Governance Theory we explore these elements and their interrelations into more detail. All chapter can be founds on researchgate.
Raoul
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I am currently writing an article and need to tackle the contineous debate on structure-agency
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 Dear Moheeb,
You may like to start your review with Anthony Gidden's The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration (1984). 
Best wishes,
Vrishali
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Fair Trade would suggest that if inequality and exploitation exist in the Fair Trade supply chain, it would be experienced by the most marginalized actors. 
I need to investigate "Fair Trade and the Living Wage in Sri Lanka: An investigation into the processes and practices of fairness"
For that I need to combine subject matter to a detailed theorisation of how this process of living wage might occur with the view of stakeholders. 
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Hi Chiranjeewa,
There is great work on the standardization of Fair Trade through standards by Juliane Reinecke at Warwick. There are numerous lenses from which to explore how fairness is constructed through standards... whether the processes are negotiation, framing, or other mechanisms.
Hope that this helps.
Wes
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I am a novice researcher doing research on the challenges and impacts of Enterprise Architecture and IT Governance implementations within the context of state-owned enterprise (SOEs).
I am contemplating on an exploratory multiple case studies approach, about 4 cases at least using the Technology Organization Environment framework.
The aim is to do an inductive study that will develop or build theories using the guidelines of Grounded Theory. I will use the EA and IT Gov frameworks  to shed light in the technology context, Institutional theory for the organizational context and Contingency Theory for the environmental context.
I would like some opinions on this from those who have done similar studies or anyone who understands these concepts.
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Triangulation is usually considered to be a form of mixed methods research. It involves using a qualitative and quantitative method as independent ways of addressing the same research question to find out if the answers converge (i.e., in the same way that the sides of a triangle converge at the tip). The primary reason for using this approach is to increase the validity of your results, because different methods arrive at the same conclusion.
This is very different from the inductive approach that you would use with Grounded Theory. For that approach, the book I would recommend is Charmaz's Constructing Grounded Theory (2nd edition).
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I have been utilising in-vivo codes on various established definitions in two fields of study in order to determine if theories derived from the code analysis can be grouped into the two fields of studies. What has emerged is 141 codes that have been grouped into 11 logical categories. 
These categories can be linked to some prominent theories such as System Theory and Institution Theory but others cannot. 
I need assistance with:
  1. Are there any principles in linking coding outputs to established theories?
  2. Are there any principles in handling code categories that do not logically link to established theories?
Thanks. 
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I think your general goal is quite coherent: first inductively coding your material as closely too the participants' own words as possible, and then comparing that coding system to a deductive framework based on existing theory.
As reasonable as this might be, I'm not aware of examples of anyone else following the same path. In terms of reporting your findings, you could create a table with 11 rows and 2 columns, where the cells that match existing theory have small amounts of text to explain the linkage, and then blank cells when your code categories do not match existing theory. The core of your Results section would then be to describe the innovative content that you have found.
As far as Ground Theory goes, you have certainly followed the recommendation of going from open (initial) coding into categorization. The strict use of in vivo codes is a bit unusual, but certainly understandable for your purposes. Beyond that, goal of comparing a set of categories (which is less than a theory) to preexisting theories is not a very good fit to GT. So I personally would say that you used GT methods in ways that would ultimately serve a different purpose.
Of course, you did not mention GT in your original post, and I'm not sure why you want to claim it. The problem being that many GT proponents have a tendency to argue over boundaries -- what is and is not acceptable as GT. Since your work is also compatible with Braun & Clarke's (2006) thematic analysis, I would recommend aligning yourself with that widely used approach to qualitative analysis.
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I'm working on a project on interlocking directorates and ownership networks and collusion. I would like to know business cases in which interlocking directorates or share ownership are used to collude. Also, please let me know about papers or any other document related to this subject.
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Dear Erica:
It seems interlocking directorates rarely facilitate collusive activities! In many cases, the ownership-control structure affects performance both directly and in interaction with social ties.  Please take a look at the following recent research study:
In this study,Buch-Hansen (2014) suggested that interlocking directorates are mechanisms that have the potential to facilitate collusion! Taking a European perspective, and focusing on four different time periods, the author investigated the extent to which companies that are directly and indirectly connected via interlocking directorships simultaneously or subsequently collude.
Utilizing network analysis software, Buch-Hansen provided a new method for identifying the two forms of business ties and possible overlaps between them.  analysis is based on an original dataset of European Community cartel cases and data on interlocking directorates developed by others. The author concludes that very few examples are found of colluding companies that were previously directly or indirectly connected via interlocking directorates!
  • Buch-Hansen, H. (2014). Interlocking directorates and collusion: An empirical analysis. International Sociology, 29(3), 249-267.
Hope this helps!
Nadeem
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I am currently doing research on the influence of institutional pressures on organisational behaviour. I am using Oliver's (1991, Strategic responses to institutional processes) model (see attachment part 1) with institutional antecedents to estimate the probable level of organisational resistance to institutional pressures in their environment. I will be asking respondent to score the 10 antecedents (low, moderate or high) in order to determine their probable response to these institutional pressures.
My aim is to create a composite variable out of the respondents scores on the antecedents in order to determine their level of expected resistance leading to a "resistance score" (score would be a 5 level scale with non-integer value, between level 1 (theoretical minimum, being low expected organisational resistance) and level 5 (theoretical maximum, being high expected organisational resistance).
In order to do this I calculated the probability of a response strategy's occurrence (see attachment part 2). For example, when "legitimacy" is low, the probable response would be 25% chance on "compromise", 25% chance on "avoid", 25% chance on "defy" and 25% chance on" manipulate". However, when "legitimacy" is high, the probable response would be 100% chance on "acquiesce".
Then I compensated for Oliver's model skewness (see attachment part 3) in order to equalise the probability of occurrence of the different response strategies . For example, the combined score of all the antecedents for the "acquiesce" score is 7,83333, whereas the combined score of all the antecedents for the "compromise" response is 4,58333. This means that Oliver's model is more likely to result in a "acquiesce" than a "compromise" response strategy. To compensate for that I divided all the scores in the "acquiesce" column by 7,8333, the scores in the "compromise" column by 4,58333, etc. This leads to an equal probability of all response strategies to occur.
Then, to calculate a respondents likely response strategy (i.e. level of resistance), I multiplied the probability for the scores of the institutional antecedents with the score of the column. For example, when a respondent would say "legitimacy" is high, then I would multiply 1 (for the "acquiesce" column) with 0,12765963 (the corresponding value for the "legitimacy" indicator). However, if a respondent would say "legitimacy" is low, then I would multiply 2 (for "compromise") x 0,05454549 adding (+) 3 (for "avoid") x 0,0461539 adding (+) 4 (for "defy") x 0,06122454 adding (+) 5 (for "manipulate")x 0,06122454. This would lead to the score for the institutional antecedent "legitimacy". I would repeat the process for all 10 institutional antecedents, adding them all up, leading to a total score.
However, this total score, and thereby my methodology, is incorrect, as it can become higher than my theoretical maximum score of 5 (level of resistance). I know I am doing something wrong, I just can't figure out what. Is there anyone who has some insights to share on the method I am using or the aim I'm trying to attain?
Furthermore, I would like to automate the process as I will be getting scores from a lot of respondents. Is there any way to create this composite variable with the help of (preferably) SPSS or Excel?
If there is anything not clear in my explanation, please feel free to ask.
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Perhaps the nonparametric single index model is useful for your problem. Search on google, and then you can find how to model your data. It is allowed to use data to decide a composite variable.
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There has recently been great interest in integrating emotions into institutional theory and social theory more generally, providing a counterweight to the growing emphasis on cool cognition over the past couple of decades. How can we do this? What are important kinds of questions? How can we study it methodologically?
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In our recent book 'Learning in Landscapes of practice: Boundaries identity and knowledgeability in practice based learning', myself, Etienne Wenger and colleagues give some thought to this question. Although we do not coin our arguments directly in terms of institutional logics, scholars of institutional theory will see immediate parallels with our consideration of the identity work and emotion work that goes on at the boundaries between practice communities and in the transformation of practices. Institutional logics are not just about what we do they are also about who we are and thus fundamentally about the very emotional business of identity regulation and identity work.
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I have developed a model that seek to highlight the linkages
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The affects of isomorphism on strategy implanting is not difficult to understand. Fist of all we must think when does isomorphism take place? Then, we must understand ecology approach for the organizations. Finally it will be clear for us to see the relation between strategies and strategy implanting alternatives.So we can say that, the causes which make the isomorfism occur effect the strategy implantation as a environmental factors do.
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I think competition is an under theorized concept. Would you have suggestion for good readings or suggestions for approaching competition on knowledge, legitimacy, or authority?
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This publication on Research Gate talks about the concept of 'report wars' around controversial issues, in which proponents and opponents of certain developments use expert knowledge to create legitimacy. Maybe not exactly what you are looking for, but maybe it can be a start. see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228465647_By-passing_barriers_in_sustainable_knowledge_production?ev=auth_pub