Insect Distribution

Insect Distribution

  • Luis Miguel Constantino added an answer:
    Does anyone know an accurate alternative to Tangle Trap (ex Tanglefoot company, currently unavailable until spring 2016) to study flying insects ?

    An alternative wihch can be dissolved easily in order (with citrus oil our other safety product) to study trapped insects in the lab. I'm looking for a product which can be brushed on plastic.Thanks.

    Luis Miguel Constantino

    Hi Julien:

    The comercial product Biotrampa liquido is very useful to trap flying insects.


    Luis Miguel

  • Henda Pretorius added an answer:
    Does Lasius niger distribution include any countries in Africa?

    Does Lasius niger distribution include any countries in Africa?

    Henda Pretorius

    Thank you Benoit and Rhian for the reply.

  • Kirk Lee Barnett added an answer:
    Does anybody know how to use perMANOVA analysis with samples that are potentially spatially-dependent?

    Dear all,

                 Im working in a field experiment with 20 traps (pitfall traps to collect ground atrhopods) in a treatment field and 20 traps in a reference field (so potentially spatially autocorrelated).

    I performed a nMDS (non param multidimensional scaling) plot to assess multivariate ordination of those samples and I plotted also 95% confidence ellipses to visualize effective discrimination between the treatment and the reference field. Then I would like to have a statistical measure of this discrimination so my idea was to perform a perMANOVA (adonis function in R software) to test dissimilarity between fields. So my question is: 

    -Can I use perMANOVA with such experimental design? If not, is there a way to deal with such autocorrelation? Suggestion on alternatives?

    Thanks a lot


    Kirk Lee Barnett

    I am not sure I completely understand your experimental design.

    You only have 1 treatment field and 1 control field? If this is the case I am not sure how you generated confidence intervals as you essentially only have one rep per treatment. If you counted each trap as an individual rep, you are committing pseudoreplication: see

    If, however, you have a response to the treatment that is numerically continuous AND you find through Moran's I and the variograms that your traps are not spatially correlated (which I doubt is the case), then MAYBE you could do some sort of regression and try to form a conclusion. I would still believe that any inference you make from the statistics however would be spurious and reviewers would point this out as well. I hope I have helped.

  • Matt Falcy added an answer:
    The Zippin Method: Calculating 1-q^k without graph?

    I've been using Zippin's method of calculating estimate of population size (calculating R based on k trappings and using the graph to find 1-q^k) I just was wondering how you can calculate 1-q^k without using the included graphs in his article. There must be a way of calculating it if he created the graph. I'm asking because I want to create a formula in Excel to calculate it automatically using R; but I don't know how.

    Matt Falcy

    Take a look at this paper:

  • Dmitry Telnov added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to determinate Mordellidae, Anobiidae, Bostrichidae, Oedemeridae Aderidae, Latridiidae species?

     I collected this specimes from olive trees and I want to know as species level.

    I can send my material.


    Dmitry Telnov

    There are no Aderidae specialists for your region at this time

  • Mohd Najib Ahmad added an answer:
    Does anyone has experience on developing an automated counter for insect census?

    To develop a program inside the device

    Mohd Najib Ahmad

    Hi Angela,

    Actually, I want to develop a device which can count the larvae crawling on the palmleaflet in the field. Just scan the leaf, and the device will display number of larvae on the leaflet spontaneously.


  • A. Panis added an answer:
    Is there a sensu stricto leaf-litter ant fauna in temperate forest?

    One of the reviewers of my new paper on forest ant communities in western Carpathians (Central Europe) stated, that there is not a litter ant fauna in the temperate zone forest. That was something I did not expect to hear, regarding a number of species that can be found in European forest leaf-litter layer including Stenamma debile, Temnothorax crassispinus, T. parvulus, Myrmecina graminicola, which I always considerd to be litter species. Then I started to realize, that they really dont have to be strict litter dwellers, and might simply belong to epi- or even hypogeic species. I would really appreciate to see some more opinions on this topic.   

    A. Panis

    In dry oak woods of Var (Quercus pubesccens associated with Quercus ilicis plus typical Mediterranean bushes but without Myrtus communis, and on the soil only the herb Brachypodium phoenicoides) of South-Eastern France, under the intermediate climate named hill  Mediterranean (altitudes 400-800 m), leaf litter is more or less thick. Into litter and under litter are at least 3 ant species (workers). Sometimes I  (, André Panis) discover nest of a very small yellowish to light brown ant species (with soldiers, workers, queen) at the interface between litter and soil.I have one book for identification of ants living in France. Unfortunately, I had not till to-day enough time for identification of these ant-species. Sincerely yours.

  • Maria Fremlin added an answer:
    Can anyone supply live specimens of female Dorcus parallelipipedus?

    I am collaborating with Masahiko Tanahashi on a comparative study of their mycangium xylose-fermenting yeasts. Presently, we need specimens across their range; except for the UK and Switzerland. Specimens from Spain are top priority; this is to solve the riddle of the origin of the famous Pichia stipitis yeast CBS 6054. For more see: The mystery of the lesser stag beetle Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) mycangium yeasts. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, 72 (510): 146-152. 

    Maria Fremlin

    Thanks Francesco and Alessandro for your interest.

    Well, here is what Masahiko recommends:

    ""Regarding the packaging, I usually put an insect in a small
    plastic container (like a Tupperware or some medicine container),
    pack tissue paper so tightly that insect cannot move, and add
    water to moisten the tissue paper. One or more air vent hole(s)
    should be needed, depending on the size and air-tightness of
    the container. It would be better to tape the lid of the container.
    The insects can survive at least two weeks at moderate temperature
    if only there is sufficient moisture. On this point, a little
    largish container, compared to the insect itself, may be better
    for a long journey from Europe to Japan. Never include a food
    material within a package because it will be fermented during
    transport and cause severe oxygen deficiency. If you have two or
    more D.parallelipipedus females that were collected at the same
    sampling site, putting multiple insects in a larger container is
    not a problem."

    I have sent him stag beetles from the UK. It is perfectly legal here; but the rules might be different across European countries. The journey takes about one week by air. Once I sent a female Dp inside as media card; very tight but she survived. An old CD box would be far superior accommodation, though. 

    In any case, I shall give updates if any beetles have been sent and which countries. Spain and France are top priority!


  • Simon Carpenter added an answer:
    What statistical analysis should I use for measuring dispersal of insect vectors using mark–release–recapture techniques?

    I intend to study the dispersal pattern of phlebotomine sand flies in a forested area in the cerrado (savanna) biome of Northeastern Brazil. Human dwellings and domestic animals are commonly found in the area. What is the best statistical test that should be applied in the analysis? The insects will be trapped, marked with fluorescent dust and then released at different collecting points. I will try to recapture the phlebotomine sand flies in the next ten days. I want to gather information about dispersal range, spatial memory, host fidelity, site fidelity and longevity. Can you help me?

    Simon Carpenter

    'Ecological Methods' by Southwood and Henderson (3rd Edition) is also a really good resource for the maths background on these studies. 

  • Miriama (Mima) Malcicka added an answer:
    Is anyone working with an evening primrose Oenothera biennis in the US?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am doing a PhD project studying the ecophysiology of some primitive insects and I am curious in comparison native and invasive species. I would like to look closer at insects community on invasive evening primroses (Oenothera biennis) in Europe and compare them with plants (Oenothera biennis) in the United States. This work will certainly yield an excellent publication and any assistance would be considered an official collaboration with me and would result in an authorship on future manuscripts.

    Thank you,


    Miriama (Mima) Malcicka

    Dear Warren, 

    Thank you very much. I've already contacted Marc Johnson (it seems promising) but I will also contact Krissa Skogen.

    Thanks again :)

    Best wishes,


  • Amélie Grégoire Taillefer added an answer:
    Does anyone have done field work in bogs (ombrotrophic peatlands) in the Wemindji region of James Bay, QC ?

    I am studying biodiversity of Diptera and I am looking for 5 bogs in this region

    Amélie Grégoire Taillefer

    thank you so much

  • Mark Inwood added an answer:
    Does anyone knows of some small size transmitters to track insect movements?

    in mm size range

    Mark Inwood

    Kew Gardens in the UK are using RFID on Bumblebees:

  • S. Khoirul Himmi added an answer:
    Is it possible that drywood termite use chemicals on fecal pellets for intra-colony communications?

    As individuals of drywood termite colony are distributed on different position inside nest-gallery, how do they "attract" nest-mate or inform their presence in certain chambers?

    S. Khoirul Himmi

    Hi Lucas,

    Thanks for your comment. It means a lot.

  • Muhammad Rafi added an answer:
    Can anyone help me identify this beetle? Is it Meloidae?

    It was collected on the Delta of the Parana river

    + 2 more attachments

    Muhammad Rafi

    This is Meloidae beetle

  • Seraina Lisa Cappelli added an answer:
    Any equipments to record insects automatically?

    We have been monitoring insect species and dynamics with different sampling traps including malaise traps, nest traps and yellow pan-traps. Are there any approaches/equipments to record insects automatically? We would like to try them, if available for insect diversity or agriculture studies.

    Thanks for your kind inputs.

    cd in Beijing

    Seraina Lisa Cappelli

    I used BUSHNELL HD max cameras with 25 mm lenses to monitor ant traffic on tree stems with an time interval trigger...  but the camera has also a movement trigger. The recordings were of quite good quality. I guess you cannot  use the photos/recordings to determine to the species level though.

  • Richard P. C. Johnson added an answer:
    Any experiences, comments or suggestions on insect monitoring?

    We are organising insect diversity monitoring networks in China. 

    I just drafted the talk to present on the 1st Biodiversity Monitoring Conference, China. All texts are in Chinese at the moment. 

    If you have any interests, comments or suggestions, please kindly contact me. Certainly, you are welcome to discuss on potential collaborations.

    cd in Beijing

    Richard P. C. Johnson

    Dear Professor Zhu,


    Johnson, C.G.(1969)  'The Migration of Insect by Flight' 763pp.Methuen, London.

    See also:

    Johnson C.G. & Johnson, R.P.C.

    Computer modelling of the migration of Simulium damnosum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae) across the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area of West Africa).

    Bulletin of Entomological Research (1994) 84, 343-353.

    Richard Johnson

  • Riaan F Rifkin added an answer:
    Is there any conclusive genetic or archaeological evidence for the geographic origin and subsequent distribution of Pulex irritans?

    The human flea, Pulex irritans, is a cosmopolitan flea species that has, in spite of the common name, a wide host spectrum. It is one of six species in the genus Pulex; the other five are all confined to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The species is thought to have originated in South America, where its original host may have been the guinea pig or peccary.

    Riaan F Rifkin

    Thank you very much Paulo! I have recently come across Ctenocephalides felis remains in African MSA contexts, hence my question about P. irritans which, evidently were in all probability not present in Southern Africa before about 2000 years ago when Bantu-speaking agro-pastoralists entered the region. I am still looking for details concerning the precise route of spread into Africa though.

  • Ana-Maria Ciobotaru added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest peer-reviewed articles(s) noting the spread of Osmia taurus in Eastern US - especially as it relates to its southerly migration?

    Since the unintentional Nearctic introduction of O. taurus to the Mid-Atlantic in the 1970's, the species has been spreading - colonizing & naturalizing as it goes. While mostly recorded spreading due-West & North-East along the coast from its original landfall to date, Georgia now marks the most southerly progression of the species. Both its adaptability to the environs of the Eastern US, as well as its remarkable population growth once present, should be of note for both researchers and farmers. 

    To track the progression of Osmia taurus into the Deep South, I would really appreciate any peer-reviewed literature which identified O. taurus outside its suspected original Mid-Atlantic port-of-call - most importantly South of the Mason-Dixon (anywhere from MD through WV, VA, KY, TN, SC, NC...).

    ** Also, any papers like those requested above - but pertaining to the presence of Osmia cornifrons & Anthidium manicatum - would likewise be very much appreciated!! **

    Ana-Maria Ciobotaru

    Recently I was also searching for papers about Osmia taurus But I  do not found. But I have some papers about  Osmia cornifrons & Anthidium manicatum.

    Osmia cornifrons

    1. Y.-L. Park; V. Kondo; J. White; T. West; B. McConnell; T. McCutcheon Nest-to-nest dispersal of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hym., Megachilidae)
    2. Shogo Matsumoto; Ayumi Abe; Tsutomu Maejima Foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an apple orchard
    3. David J. Biddinger, Neelendra K. Joshi, Edwin G. Rajotte, Noemi O. Halbrendt… An immunomarking method to determine the foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons and resulting fruit set in a cherry orchard
    4. McKinney, Matthew I.; Park, Yong-Lak Distribution of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) within Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nests: implications for population management
    5. Edward M. Barrows, George B. Chapman, James E. Zenel and Andrea S. Blake Ultrastructure of Dufour's Glands in Active and Inactive Horn-Faced Bees, Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
    6. C. A. Abel and R. L. Wilson The Use of Diverse Plant Species for Increasing Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Field Cages
    7. R. L. Wilson and C. A. Abel Storage Conditions for Maintaining Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for Use in Germplasm Pollination
    8. Ahn, Jeong Joon; Park, Yong-Lak; Jung, Chuleui Modeling spring emergence of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) females in Korea

    Anthidium manicatum

    1. Lucia Liu Severinghaus; Barbara Harris Kurtak; George C. Eickwort The reproductive behavior of Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and the significance of size for territorial males
    2. Ulrich G. Mueller; Bettina Wolf-Mueller A method for estimating the age of bees: Age-dependent wing wear and coloration in the Wool-Carder beeAnthidium manicatum (hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
    3. James P. Strange; Jonathan B. Koch; Victor H. Gonzalez; Lindsay Nemelka; Terry Griswold Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond
    4. Ansel Payne; Dustin A. Schildroth; Philip T. Starks Nest site selection in the European wool-carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, with methods for an emerging model species
    5. Peter Wirtz; Michael Szabados; Horst Pethig; John Plant An Extreme Case of Interspecific Territoriality: Male Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) Wound and Kill Intruders
    6. P. Wirtz; S. Kopka; G. Schmoll Phenology of two territorial solitary bees, Anthidium manicatum and A. florentinum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
    7. A. Müller, W. Topfl, F. Amiet Collection of extrafloral trichome secretions for nest wool impregnation in the solitary beeAnthidium manicatum
    8. Lucia Liu Severinghaus, Barbara Harris Kurtak and George C. Eickwort The Reproductive Behavior of Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and the Significance of Size for Territorial Males
    9. Jason Gibbs and Cory S. Sheffield Rapid Range Expansion of the Wool-Carder Bee, Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in North America
    10. J. Soper; J. Beggs Assessing the impact of an introduced bee,Anthidium manicatum, on pollinator communities in New Zealand
    11. T. J. Zavortink; S. S. Shanks Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in California

    Here are the papers:

  • Nikolaus Szucsich added an answer:
    Does anyone do research with insects on Castanea sativa?

    I would like to know some information about species diversity of insects on Castanea sativa  or C. crenata, C. dentata. It should be mainly beneficial species which eat or collect pollen during blooming period or rare species.

    I will be grateful for any information about this issue.

    Nikolaus Szucsich

    Hello Michal

    Most works deal with pests on Castanea (like "Insects Feeding on The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Bulgaria"), but there are some studies on pollinators

    you can look for: de Oliveira D, Gomes A, Ilharco FA, Manteigas AM, Pinto J, Ramalho J. 2001. Importance of insect pollinators for the production in the chestnut, Castanea sativa. Acta Horticulturae 561: 269–273



  • Zbyšek Šustek added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the identification keys for Palearctic Bruchinae. ?

    I need recent identification keys to identify the seed beetles in my collection from Turkey.

    Zbyšek Šustek

    There also exist a key for Bruchidae from Fauna of Armenian USSR by A. P. Karapezjyan published in 1985

    Фауна Армянской ССР, насекомые жеыскокрылые, Зерновки, Ереван, 170 с.

    It is from an adjacent territory to Turkey. A ggod key for species from Central Europe sensu lato was published in Fauna Hungariae.  It can be also useful.

  • Majid Sharifi-Tehrani added an answer:
    I wonder if any standards exist for presentation of geographical coordinates in scientific publications?
  • Balog Adalbert added an answer:
    Where do turnip aphids exist?


    I wonder if there is anybody who could help with distribution and identification of turnip aphids. What is the most popular ID key used to identify this species? Where have turnip aphids been reported? Especially across the US. What are the suitable conditions for this species?

    Thank you in advance.


    Balog Adalbert


    Ask also Dr. Mohsen Mehrparvar.

    He is a good aphid taxonomist.



  • Karim Musálem-Castillejos added an answer:
    Where is Megasoma mars distributed?

    We have collected male and female Megasoma mars in Paraguay, however, scarce information from the web suggests a different distribution range. I would appreciate any information regarding this species as well as sources of information to contrast. Both specimens were found dead in forest islets and with almost five years apart when found them. I also attached two pictures in case this might be a case of wrong identification.

    + 1 more attachment

    Karim Musálem-Castillejos

    I have contacted a researcher specialist about this issue, and has very kindly helped me. He has indeed corrected the identification to Megasoma janus janus, and has provided with a picture for M. mars to notice the differences (mostly in the horns). M. janus is indeed distributed in Southern Brazil and Paraguay. 

  • Anton Krištín added an answer:
    Does anyone have or know some recent data and literature on Madagascar Orthoptera?

    All data on altitudinal and latituidinal distribution would be welcome

    Anton Krištín

    thanks Gonzalo,

    yes, I am checking this nice link regularly

  • Vytautas Tamutis added an answer:
    Would someone know the descriptions of female genitalia of European Badister species?

    Badister males are well distinguished , but females, especially Baudia subgenus, are mystical. Is it not?

    Vytautas Tamutis

    Dear Borislav,

    many thanks for information and suggestions. I will ask.  Seemingly  this species not so frequent as I supposed. Is it rare in Bulgaria too?

  • Nyonka Vuchkova Velcheva added an answer:
    How do I determine if a moth specimen has never been found in the state or county before?

    I found adult moths, caterpillars, and pupa of the Lantana Stick Moth (Neogalea sunia) on a Lantana plant in Sacramento County, in California. Range information shows this as a first record of this species in California. Where can I go to find out if this is really the first recorded time this moth has been found in California, or at least in Sacramento County? If this is a first appearance for the state or county, how do I and should I report this pest? I have live caterpillar specimens, live cocoons, and a dead moth specimen.

    Nyonka Vuchkova Velcheva

    Found the gentalii of male on and check you moth. Threre are many papers about this species in Internet.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    How can I tell apart the sexes of syrphidae flies?
    I'm separating the sexes of syrphidae flies.
    András Bozsik

    Dear Shahnaz,

    Here you are fine identification keys for European Syrphidae, also the question of sexual differences are touched.  By the way, Mohamed and Andrew suggestions are right.

  • Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte added an answer:
    Does anyone know where can I get relative air humidity data for South America?

    I'm trying to model the distribution of a species of fly, so I used the Bioclim data from The problem is that relative humidity plays an important role in insects distribution and I can't find the data for it anywhere.

    Is there any place where I can download it?

    Thanks in advance

    Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte

    Thank you guys!

    I'll try those sites.


  • Asadollah Hosseini Chegeni added an answer:
    Can anyone identify this Cicadellid?

    This specimen is collected on mulerry, boxwood, raspberry, citrus and many other host plant.

    Asadollah Hosseini Chegeni

    Can anyone identify these two HYALOMMAS tick?

    + 1 more attachment

  • Steve W Wilson added an answer:
    Do you have any experiences on the spread and damage of Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae) in your country?
    Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America, have had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made small damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species (IAS) continually spreading in South and Central Europe causing considerable damage in grapevine, fruit trees and various ornamentals.

    In Hungary M. pruinosa causes damage - as in other European countries - in grapevine, fruit and other ornamental trees and shrubs. Unfortunately, it spreads in semi-natural and natural areas like hedges. I have observed nymphs, adults and vaxy filaments of M. pruinosa on the majority (70%) of the trees and shrubs in a hedge.

    Infested plants – among them some with American origin – were: Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, Clematis vitalba, Crataegus monogyna, Hedera helix, Juglans regia, Lycium barbarus, Malus domestica, Morus alba, Prunus domestica, Prunus padus, Prunus serotina, Prunus spinosa, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Rosa canina, Ulmus campestris but also Euphorbia cyparissias.

    The length of similar hedges can be several hundred km long, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infesting agricultural and ornamental cultures.

    Where and on which vegetation have you observed this IAS? How much important damage have you detected?
    Steve W Wilson

    Dear Dr. Bozsik:

    I just posted my paper on Metcalfa in South Korea.  The literature cited section includes numerous references on Metcalfa.  Please let me know if you have any questions; my email is

About Insect Distribution

Significant factors limiting the geographic distribution of individual species of insects relative to climate change

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