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Insect Diversity - Science topic

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as an educator in conservation, it is very important that i teach methods that are non destructive. such as counting insect visitation to flowers, for pollinator diversity and abundance studies. i have found only one reference (Frankie et al. 2005) suggesting an appropriate time to observe flowers. thanks in advance
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A typical pitfall trap can be used with a small amount of water as a preservative solution for dung beetles. So it will make their wings wet and less likely to escape from the trap. Then, after the identification, they can return to the same locality Enoka Kudavidanage . In addition, some camera traps were developed with specific focal lengths to capture the image of small insets. That would be a perfect nondestructive method to measure pollinator diversity and abundance. Akihiro Nakamura Mark Jun M. Alcantara
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I recent completed a study looking at insect diversity in a metal polluted landscape using pit traps. I am interested in specifically focusing on predatory insects and want to adjust my methods to collect primarily spiders and beetles. Does anyone have any suggestions that might allow me to collect large amounts of predators?
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Hello Paul; Every collecting method has its own biases.
1. Large diameter pitfall traps (more than 3 inches diameter) catch many spiders, solpugids, and other cursorial ground predators but are unlikely to catch dragonflies.
2. Beating sheets are effective in sampling foliage-gleaning insects...if you have quick hands.
3. Aerial nets would get odonata but the collecting effort is intense.
4. Aquatic predators...odonate nymphs, etc...require other kinds of nets or traps.
So, the suite of predatory functional groups you are interested in will dictate your choice of methods. What groups do you have in mind? Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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A friend is sending me 15 Blattidae sp. "African Bullet" roaches so that I can formally ID them and publish the species description in a scientific paper. The roaches originate from a domestic colony- founding members were collected from a log at the base of Mt. Kilimanjaro. This species has been commonly misidentified as Bantua robusta.
This is my first time writing a species description paper. Does anyone have links to existing papers that would make good examples/templates for my paper? Or advice that I could use when going about this project?
I have the details about exactly how I will perform my dissections more or less straightened out. What I am less familiar with is the process of writing the paper, and exactly what information is usually included in these papers.
Unfortunately I am in a situation where I do not have the strength to leave my house due to an infection with a serious case of late-stage Lyme disease + co-infections. I figured this might be an important factor to mention.
I am hoping to write this paper as a sort of "screw you" to my disease, and so I can continue to make progress even while I cannot attend college. Any help that anyone could offer would be incredibly valuable, and I thank you in advance!
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The mycological side of things:
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We aim to capture nocturnal flying insects (which can be potential prey for bats) and, therefore, we are going to use UV light traps.
We will sample three different habitats in Colombia: preserved savannas, riparian forest, and rice crops. Our idea is to sample the open area (savanna, rice fields) at the same time as the forest, and we are contemplating installing two light traps in each one of these habitats, with a separation of c. 100 m.
Is it appropriate to use two traps per habitat to get a good idea of insect diversity?
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Hello Fabio; Do you know the attractive radius of your lights? You need to be sure that the lights sample only the intended area. How heterogeneous the savannah and riparian forests are? If they are heterogeneous, you'll need more lights that adequately sample that heterogeneity. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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How can we explain and conclude the calculated value of Hill number for the insects diversity?
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The important question is external expertise,
Thank you.
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I want to see insect diversity in both forest habiat and agroecosystem.
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Hello Abinash; Gorthi has suggested several effective methods. Those, and all other methods, are selective in what they catch and so G. is correct that more sampling methods will sample more taxa. I'd add that hand collecting samples even more groups. Turning stones, logs and litter reveal some. Beating the vegetation with a tough net gets others. Chopping in dead wood reveals many wood boring species. Samplng litter with Burlese funnels or Winkler bags get even more.
You will quickly discover that you MUST focus on only part of the diversity of insects or you will bury yourself in unidentifiable specimens. In you intend to identify specimens to species, finding experts in the identification of many groups will be a challenge.
Be certain that your specimens are prepared in the standard way for each taxon. (Most good entomology textbooks provide general advice.) Experts will be reluctant to help if your specimens don't conform to the usual practice of that specialty. Be sure to contact any expert before you send anything. Be restrained in how many specimens you send...experts labs are full of boxes of specimens waiting to be identified for one project or another. Good luck with your project! Jim Des Lauriers
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the objectives of insect sampling in forest is to determine the abundance, diversity and habitat association of insect in forest ecosystem
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The idea is t capture all seasons and flow conditions to capture all the conditions and stages of all potential insects for the region. It will also be important to consider the spatial scale (micro- and macro-habitat diversity) and sampling effort, as these are also as important as covering all the seasons.
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A lot of studies, reviewers or scientists consider that fine investigations account a high number of data collection site (>15) sufficiently spaced at human scale to represent actual insect diversity. But what is the actual spatial scale of insect communtiy structure ? This should be more challenged in current studies. Maybe observationnal sites with 200 m will harbor different insect communities ? I started this point of debate cause I know that it will be some divergent opinions according to the selected insect taxonomic group and also the researcher feeling.
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The distribution of insects in their habitat, a complex model. We have to consider many factors: food, thermo and hydro preferendum. Positive or negative phototaxis, etc. Some widespread Palaearctic and Holocctic species, when creating accurate maps, it turns out will have a local character of distribution over the area. The study of such refugia is a promising task, but it is impossible to cover all insects in one study. For some species, I have come across articles in the Insects journals. I think this topic deserves further development.
Regards, Sergey
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We found a Long-eared Owl breeding in a rock face in eastern Switzerland. I never heard about such a nest site from Central Europe. But there are observations of such a behaviour from Kazakhstan (Karyakin et al. 2007), Mallorca (König, pers. comm.) and Canary islands (Scott 1997). Does anybody know further cases of Long-eared Owls breeding in rock faces?
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Thank you everyone again for your answers. Meanwhile (a bit late!) our publications appeared in Ornithologischer Beobachter 117 (4): 358-352: First cliff-breeding of Long-eared Owl in Switzerland (in German with English Abstract)
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For insect diversity comparisons, I plan to capture, count and identify all insects found/trapped. I haven't started with the counts yet, but are currently exploring the possibilities. I have read much about all different techniques to measure, compare, extrapolate, rarefy etc to analyse the data - which is great! The only problem is that I'll try to identify all individuals to species level, but probably won't be able to (therefore assigned it as precise as possible, for example to genus). As far as I know, all the methods (like Shannon entropy, Chao, Simpsons, Richness etc) are based on the fact that all the individuals are based on the same taxonomic level, right? Am I obligated to "downgrade" all my identification data to the lowest taxa available (for example pool all species to their associated genus level)? Or is it also possible to analyse diversity with OTU's of different levels? Thanks in advance!
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Hi Peter,
Yes, whatever you are analyzing should all be at the same taxonomic level. Otherwise comparisons make no sense. You have two options if you can only identify a particular group of specimens to genus. 1. You can either view all the specimens in that particular genus as the same species, which means you would lose a lot of diversity information if there are multiple species within that group. 2. You can separate the individuals in that genus into subgroups based on their morphology. It's not uncommon with insects to have some specimens only identified to morphospecies because of the difficulty of identifying certain groups. You don't have to know the names, you just need to know they're different from others in that genus. We study native bee diversity and species in a couple genera are difficult to identify. So some of the species in that genus will be specifically identified to species and others only identified as, for example, Lasioglossum sp. 1, Lasioglossum sp. 2, etc.
And of course you could also identify all at the level of genera, or family, etc. Wouldn't have to be at the species level, but regardless of the taxonomic level decided on, all specimens being analyzed should be assessed at that common level of taxonomy.
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We are conducting a study on mangrove insect diversity. We want to know the specific kind of bait depending on the diet of the insect. If they are carnivorous, or if they are attracted to sugar solutions, what can we use for bait? Thank you!
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Hello Trisha; The project you propose is VAST! And to make it more complicated there are many different methods to collect insects that are pretty selective in which groups any particular method targets. Here is a little list of examples that might work in the habitat you are interested in.
1. Pan trap. A low pan with water about 1 cm deep. A drop of dish soap will increase the effectiveness. Pans of different colors attract different groups.
2. As Mr. Duarte suggests, fish is attractive to flies and some beetles.
3. Peanut butter, bits of canned meat, or cookie crumbs smeared on the bark of trees will attract many ants.
4. Fermenting sugar is attractive to a large array of insects.
5. Feces in a little cup placed in the bottom of a larger cup attracts several groups of beetles. Not all feces are equally attractive! It depends on what the collector has eaten recently!
6. At night a bright light sitting on a white sheet will be amazingly attractive.
The list goes on. There are various books on collecting methods. Here is one example. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19941104344
Happy collecting! I envy the diversity you will encounter, Jim Des Lauriers
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Despite of its economic importance little seems to be known about the development of the frequency of Hylotrupes bajulus (European House borer, house longhorn beetle, old house borer). In the fantastic study of Lindhe et al. (2010) evidence for a dramatic decline of the beetle in the last 100 years in Sweden was presented. A questionnaire returned by 104 experts allows the estimation of a similar decline in Germany (to be published 2016 or 2017). Does anybody know of data or estimates for other countries? Even a simple statement of your personal estimation of the development of Hylotrupes in your own country would be helpful. Thank you
Lindhe, A.; Jeppsson, T.; Ehnström, B. (2010): Longhorn beetles in Sweden - changes in distribution and abundance over the last two hundred years. Entomologisk Tidskrift 2010 Vol. 131 No. 4 pp. 241-508. ISSN 0013-886X .
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Here in C. Greece, although I search every summer quite a lot for saproxylic beetles in big, old coniferous forests (Mt. Ossa, Pindos Mts., Olympos Mt.,..) with many dead trees, I have encountered only very few specimens of Hylotrupes bajulus over the years (all females) there. Always, only single specimens encountered, and never found it to be common. It worths to mention that, in buildings, I only found it once in my life recently (1 female specimen) in the suburbs of Larisa city.
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A recent analysis made on Cerambycids sold by a local seller as collected in "Saraburi" during the late 80s years revealed that they are all Malayan or even Bornean species.
Moreover, the collection dates correspond to a season where no insect can be found on flowers in southern Thailand.
The "impossibility" to find such species in Saraburi is confirmed by the fact that Chrysomelidae collected in Saraburi in the 50s years  (Kimoto & Gressitt, 1979; 1981) does not include Bornean species, but only Indo-Chinese ones.
This problem concerns many species recorded as new for Thailand and even new species, whose original locality is "Saraburi".
The same problem can also concern all other group of insects subject to commercial trade, with patent biogeographic and/or taxonomic dramatic consequences..
Do you have further informations?
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Sabine Steinke is the wife of Hilmar Lehmann. They lived in Saraburi/Nakhon Rachasima area back in the late 1980s and early 1990s. They were dealing in insects, and I should say that their data should be treated with some suspicion.
As for Chiang Mai, which is where I have lived for more than 30 years, sometimes well-meaning Japanese collectors have given local catchers specimens from elsewhere as a gift, and of course they just take them to the dealers in town but don't tell them how they obtained them, so the dealers assume they caught them in the forest. I know of another instance where a researcher bought specimens from a dealer in Chiang Mai back in 1966 and recently these became type specimens of a non-existant new subspecies from northwestern Thailand. Unfortunately the dealer must have obtained these from eastern Thailand and not told the buyer, who assumed they came from Chiang Mai, but that species does not occur in NW Thailand at all.
One time a dealer called me asking why one of their collectors from Wiang Papao brought a specimen of Graphium phidias (an Annamese Mts species) in for sale. After some checking I found out that a Lao collector visited from Sam Neua, where the species can be found, and brought one with him as a gift. Of course this species does not occur anywhere near Thailand, it is only found on the mountains bordering Laos and Vietnam.
I am sure this can happen in many parts of the world, and caution should be exercised with data of all specimens. In fact even data of old museum specimens may be suspect, as sometimes it was falsified to protect the origin of valuable commercial material, as well as the issue mentioned above for the origin of very old material.
A more recent problem occurred with a recently deceased Chinese insect dealer who lived in Vientiane and used to sell specimens with false data in order to either sell more of them or sell them at an increased profit. I may be alluding to the same person as Michael Geiser above. This rogue dealer was well known for selling many different types of insects with false data, and unfortunately in future museum researchers will not be able to distinguish such specimens from those with reliable data. An Australian dealer once sent me some specimens of 2 species supposedly collected in Laos that he was suspicious about which came from this Chinese dealer. From the phenotype they clearly came from Sichuan. Those species do not actually occur in Laos at all, but the Chinese dealer was selling them for 5 times the price of the same specimens at source.
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I am looking for a source of Carnation tortrix moth (eggs or larvae) to start a culture of my own.
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Thanks Marcin! No longer required, but I will be in touch again if needed in the future.
Kind regards,
Jamie
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ID of this insect
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Hi Mehmet, since it is from E Anatolia, then it is P. koniae.
P. vulpes, proposed in various answers, is similar, but
- normally much less hairy (although quite hairy populations are known on Balkans)
- normally ochre to orange (unually reddish specimens may anyway occur)
- in Turkey, only known to occur in W Anatolia
P. monticola is also similar, but never so red and never so hairy and limited to Taurus rougly between Adalia and Mersin.
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Does anyone has any relevant references for native bees in Mauritius or Mascarene Islands?
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Une nouvelle publi récemment mise en ligne :
TECHER, M.A., CLEMENCET, J., SIMIAND, C., TURPIN, P., GARNERY, L., REYNAUD, B. & DELATTE, H. 2017. Genetic diversity and differentiation among insular honey bee populations in the southwest Indian Ocean likely reflect old geographical isolation and modern introductions. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0189234. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0189234
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I am trying to find a taxonomic key or paper highlighting the key distinguishing characteristics of the predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii and Neoseiulus californicus.  I would ideally like to be able to distinguish them while looking at a sample of both mites.  Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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Dear RG Colleagues,
Can someone help me to identify this ladybug (Coccinellidae)?
Thank you
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Dear Joe, thnk you for your picture, awesome. Is that one of your pictures thank you
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In my research activities on Phillip Island off Norfolk, South Pacific, I have recorded an example of cross-fostering with a species of Pterodroma incubating and rearing an Ardenna (Puffinus) species.  This nest was followed (several visits then surveillance camera) from incubation until the near-fledged chick left the nest area following abandonment of breeding pair. I am seeking examples of other burrowing species doing the same.  If unpublished material of similar extent, I and my co-authors are happy to work towards a joint note in an ornithological publication.
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We have seen this on Marion Island (Prince Edward Islands), where chicks (Pterodroma species) were attended by two other burrowing petrel species. However, the birds only attended the chicks for several hours up to several days and not up to fledging.
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I collected many sample of scolytid which intercepted from the imported tropical Africa log, but I cannot identify some of them besides of Xyleborus sp. Some samples belong to the Hylesinini tribe is most difficult to identify. 
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it is resemble to Nycteribia spp.
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 Dear Dr, Pradeep Kumar, 
I sent papers about ectoparasites of bats in Inidia. In the theses papers keys are provided. I hope the paper will be useful for you. For any question you can write me.
Best regards
Gustavo 
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It looks like Anopheles Arabiensis. But smaller and has white colour fungus like growths in the body (abdomen). They are bigger than the local mosquitoes. The habitat is a paddy field in a dry zone of Sri Lanka. But found them in the rainy season. 
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Dear Kapila,
The identification of the specimen is quite difficult due to the quality of the pictures. Did you sampled it in coastal zones?
I suggest you to use the MosKeyTool which is a new free key used for mosquitoe identification
I attach you a file about how to install it
Best regards
Carlos
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I need information about Chinavia musiva (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), like biology, hosts and importance for  crops. Thanks
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As more and more amateur ornithology projects are including population genetics, or, institutions rely on amateur bird ringers/ornithologists to collect samples, I though it might be useful to have specimen storage clarified. 
So, given what is available to those of us who don't have access to a lab supplies, how is it best to store biological specimens collected in the field and what makes a good preservative? 
There are stories of vodka and orange juice being used where ethanol isn't available... 
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Ethanol is used in soft tissue preservation, i.e. lizards, snakes, fish, organs. It is not used for the preservation of feathers. 
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Dear all,
This moth was pictured some days ago resting on the lowest branches of an old spruce in a mountain area in northern part of Norway. The camouflage on its back was absolutely perfect compared to the lichen growing on the stem and branches.  Does anyone have a suggestion for a name?
 Regards,
Jostein Lorås
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I cannot say it for absolutely sure from this photo, but I think this is
Epinotia crenana (HÜBNER, [1817]); Tortricidae, Olethreutinae
Best,
Rudolf Ritt
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I found bark beetle, probably Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood, 1836 (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), but I can't find any identification key to confirm it.
If anyone has it I will be grateful for sharing.
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Thank you for answers! I hope I'll find everything what I need.
Best regards,
R. Witkowski
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Recent news is worrying.  Caterpillars of the wax moth Galleria mellonella digest artificial plastics (Bombelli et al 2017) and it has been suggested that they might be produced en masse to help consume the vast amounts of waste plastic that have accumulated worldwide.  One can imagine that releasing large numbers of the caterpillars could pose a serious problem for honeybee colonies. 
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Hello Anthony:
Do you mean  releaising large numbers of the wax moth caterpillars to eat plastics ? I think you did not understand the significant finding of Bombelli et al. 2017. Is the Polyethylene polymer that is chemically degraded by contact with the worm homogenate. The fast rate of biodegradation reported in the paper of Bombelli et al. 2017 have potential for significant biotechnological applications. This means that the chemical components of the wax moth caterpillars can be used to decompose artifical plastics as Andrew pointed out, not the caterpillar on its own, so this biotechnological application does not pose risk to bee hives.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Does anybody has experience with measuring the wing length of large living beetles? Of course without damaging them so they can be released and followed up? 
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After you anesthetized the beetles through cold shock (using fridge at 4 degrees) or CO2 gas, put the specimen under a digital microscope along with PC (USB microscope), make the image focus and then take the pic. Now then you can measure by using the image.
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I am currently planning a study on identifying the prey of a recently discovered Hydraena species in the Philippines using DNA-based methods. I have been looking for references on the diet of water beetles in general and on more specific taxa that Hydraena is a part, to no avail. Most studies I have found were descriptions of the morphology and habitat of water beetles. What could be the possible diet of a Hydraena species located in Southeast Asia?
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Thank you for all your answers! I have actually found a reference from J.M. Glime's Bryophyte Ecology book that summarizes studies performed on many aquatic insects. Species such as Hydraena gracilis, H. minutissima and H. pygmaea have been observed to be correlated with moss substrates in Northern Spain. Other species such as H. rufipes, H. nigrita and H. pulchella have also been correlated with moss substares across Europe. I think that the species that I'm working, H. ateneo, was found in ponds with moss. I will double check but I suspect that H. ateneo feeds on moss as well.
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Stephanopachys species are illusive with only few recent records known from Latvia. In order to clarify distribution pattern of these protected beetles, an innovative and highly efficient attracting / collecting methodology to be used.
I am looking for publications or raw data on attractant pheromones for Stephanopachys species. Any help or experience from the international scientific community is greatly appreciated. 
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Hello Dmitry:
I revised the Pherobase Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals and there is nothing for Stephanopachys spp. This is the link of Pherobase if you want to check out. However there are some chemical compunds selective for Bostrichidae in general, that you can try  for Stephanopachys.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Purposes:
1. Take the picture of an insect from the ARP system;
2. Compare this picture with those in a image database;
3. Provide relevant results if the image is similar to some insect images; 
4. Collect GPS data while confirm some interesting insect groups; 
5. Automatic raise the question on the taxonomy informations if the previous image was possibly wrongly identified.
6. Share the image with taxonomy if the author would like to do it for other public media.
I wrote a blog in Chinese asking the same question below - 
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In this paper there  is a review with some examples for insects, plants and animals using images in field guides and identification keys: review and recommendations with App systems.
MEDL iPhone apps: TreeID, FishID. MEDL Mobile, Inc.; 2010. MEDL Mobile Ihttp://www.medlmobile.com/apps/iphone?app_q=id. 26 February 2011
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Hello researchers,
I have attached some photos of a single fly. Please tell me the species of this fly. I shall be highly obliged.
Best regards
Dr. Sidana
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As hypothesis, I agree, it could be a drosophilid. But the quality of the photos is insufficient, in my opinion, for a sure identification even at family level. Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Dear Prof.
I NEED ASSISTANCE ON THE VARIOUS LAND SPECULATION THEORIES AND INDICES
I am a research student at the UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, NIGERIA. I am currently carrying a research on land speculation and control in Nigeria but got stalked as i could not lay my hands on any likely theories on land speculation and measuring indices. I hereby seek your assistance on any available theories as well as articles that could be of help.
Thank you greatly,
Esther Thontteh
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I guess you can read about speculation motive of holding money, then speculation as an investment strategy in economics too
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Need to confirm identification of the larvae in the soil (eastern china agricultural landscape). Adult trap data suggest a mix of two species (H. parallela and A. corpulenta) but need to confirm on laval populations. Cannot find any good key on the larvae.
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Dear Maarten van Helden
You may contact the researcher on the same project, they will help you and send the working identification key Pls. find the attached files
Hoping this will be helpful
Regards
Prof. Houda Kawas
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An image from Java (Serang: Bulakan: Rawa lake National Park, 120-340m asl. 13.III.2011. author: Guido Bohne) found in Flickr shows a 'squid pygmy grasshopper' (Phaesticus mellerborgi, family Tetrigidae) standing on a leaf and having parasitoid hymenopteran (family Eulophidae, ID provided by @Doug Yanega) on its discus of the pronotum. 
First of all, I would like to know if anybody is has any information on identity of this tiny wasp (grasshopper is 10-14 mm in length without antennae). If not, I would lke to know if experts think that the tiny wasp is P. mellerborgi specific parasitoid?
Secondly, I would like to get any information on parasitoids of Tetrigidae, published and observed.
Some further information: Phaesticus mellerborgi is species living in peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Java (on Borneo there is P. insularis). Species incuded in this genus have nymphs that are squid-like in appearance, with coloration. The species live in wet habitats , on the ground, eating detritus algae and mosses.
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For Indonesian Tetrigidae, please contact Josef Tumbrinck, number 1 specialist on this region
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I am not sure whether this larva belongs to genus Fissimentum or Nilodosis based on its mid-cleft mentum. 
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Dear Viktor, thank you for answering my question. No, I found it at highland stream (400-500 m asl). The 3rd segment antenna is not annulated so it's definitely not Diamesinae. This specimen has been cleared using KOH and has been mounted too. The mandible has long apical tooth and 3 clumped inner teeth and broad seta subdentalis. What really caught my attention was the vmp has a circular shape without striae. 
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Venturia species (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Venturia is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a Bolivian NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits for discovering a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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Hi ,
Have a look for the keys identification linked below for this family may help you to get ID?
Good luck 
Ali 
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What is the name of this green insect. I noticed on its carapace the presence of another small insect? it is visible in the three photos. Is this insect dangerous to people?
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Chrysomelidae Cassidinae, genus Cassida. The small arthropod (probably a phoretic mite) is on the pronotum (that is not a "carapace"). The genus Cassida comprises many species often very similar, all are phytophagous; some of them damage herbaceous crops. Other genera of beetles with expanded and translucent edges to the elytra and the pronotum: Cossyphus (Tenebrionidae), Soronia, Lobiopa ecc. (Nitidulidae, rather small beetles, in which the pronotal edge does not cover the head), and others... Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Hello everyone,
I'm searching for someone who can get some material of adults Microdon myrmicae and/or Microdon mutabilis of diverse localities in Europe (dryed or into alcohol) for my personal research project. Other species of Microdon are also interesting for this project. I have many difficulties to find these species on the field.
Thanks in advance !
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@Cyrille Dussaix: excuse moi pour ce temps de réponse incommode. Pas de soucis pour le mail, je t'en envoie un ! Merci et bonne soirée à toi. Bonne année 2017 !
@Konrad Dettner: yes I'm searching for adult specimens, which are not yet identifiable between M. myrmicae and M. mutabilis. Thanks anyway ! Best wishes and happy new year !
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I need the images of male genitals or morphological characters of Aphrophora exoleta for identification
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This chapter: Horváth G. 1901 - Hémiptères du voyage de M. Martinez Escalera dans l'Asie-Mineure. Természetrajzi Füzetek. Budapest 24: 469-485
Has the description of the species Aphrophora exoleta on the page 481 
You can download it here
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My student have completed one paper on Myiopardalis pardalina in Chinese. We decided to publish it in Chinese journal.
Where can we find photos on this pest(adult, larval, egg, and so on) and damage in fields
 In China, we have not found this pest.
I like to publish it with you if you like
Lu
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Some help me identify this insect?
Best regards
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Dear colleague,
if you need help from another specialists, please be correct and don't waste our time. 
First of all, you have not provided any locality information on your specimens. There are more than 86 000 (!!!) species of the Curculionidae across the globe. Don't expect there is any "superhero" familiar with all of them. Please provide locality data for your specimens.
Second, identification of insects usually requires high resolution and good magnification microscopes, dissection of genitalia etc. Your photographs are so basic - perhaps it will be possible for the specialist to identify genus (subfamily for sure), but certainly not the species.
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This stick-insect is from the place near Matucana in Peru, this is middle of western slope of Andes (with aride climate), altitude about 2400 m. a.s.l. These insects keep themselves on ground, can be found under stones.
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As I could learn from some web sites, Acanthoxyla is a New Zealand genus, all 8 species of which have no males. But this is a Peruvian species, whose male genitals are figured here.
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Looking for a solid answer. Most sources refer to the body length, but it would be helpful if we knew wingspan in flight.
Thanks!
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I measured the wing length of 5 ACP adults in millimeters: 2.17, 2.07, 2.17, 2.00, 2.07. The average is 2.09 millimeters. The wingspan will be 4.18 mm plus the width of the thorax. I am not sure how maximum windspan equates to in-flight wingspan.
Accuracy of the measures is about 0.05 mm. This should be good enough for a rough estimate, but is not sufficient for publication. The males tend to be smaller than the females, and grey/brown individuals are smaller than blue/green individuals. This will be reflected in wingspan measurements. The above measures were a mix (males and females and different color morphs).
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I would be interested in some insects hatching time ranges, particularly Plutellidae, Tenthredinidae and Gelechiidae, although any kind of species-specific information may help.
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Hello Dear
The specific incubation period for a egg hatching is the result of multiple factors, including:
kind of species
noculation environment condition
infectious agent on egg
Have or not have Diapose
Best regards
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By using Shanon-Wiener Diversity Index, how do we explain insect diversity based on the calculated value? Is it the higher the value, that means the arthropod community in the plot is diverse?
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For biological data, values of Shannon’s diversity index range generally from 1.5 (low species richness and evenness) to 3.5 (high species evenness and richness).
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Hello,
I am looking for a good ID key for nymphs of North American Pentatomidae. I found great keys for adults and even eggs, but nothing really satisfying regarding nymphal instars. Could you suggest good papers and/or websites or attach any related key to your answer?
I really appreciate any help you can provide!
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See
Herbert et al.  Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States and
Paiero et al. 2013- Stink bugs of Ontario (Can Journ Arthropod Identif),
both free on the Internet.
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I am collecting bumblebees in the Brazilian savanna. I collected 37 individuals which seem to belong to two species.
I would like to kow who can help with the identification of these bumblebees.     
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Dear Taylan,
Thanks for your message.
It is really helpfull.
Regards,
José Zanuncio
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Insect classification of A. D. Imms / Gullan and Cranston or any other? Some classify insects into 29 orders, some into 30 orders some 33 orders, some excludes protura, diplura and collembola.
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I am not formally a teacher now, but have done some teaching as well in school as in university or in the frames of e.g. DEST, so must have developed some opinion. My suggestion is: present to students in detail this classification which in your opinion best reflects the systematic relationships (this you can best explain and justify), but emphatically, repeatedly accentuate that no classification is a Holy Scripture, that there are many variants differing in basic philosophy (e.g. cladistic and synthetic) or criteria (e.g. morphology vs. molecules), that systematics is a living and evolving branch of science and so its results are being constantly improved and modified, &c.!
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Maby who knew what is species insects? It has built its "house" in insulated with polyurethane foam. Near the forest. The "house" is probably the birch leave.
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Thanks :)
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Hi all!
can anyone identify this worm? it looks like a ribbon worm. during collection the worm got cut into 2 halves. Collected from trawl gears. 
Best regards
Deepak
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It is a nemertean.
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Does anyone know of research labs in USA conducting research on bemisia tabaci (Whitefly)?
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Identification
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Libellulidae. Antennae diferents in Gomphidae.
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This specimen was caught along with plant Chamaecytisus heuffelii in Serbia, relative altitude 1200m asl.
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Subfamily: Pleciinae
Genus: Penthetria
8 Palaearctic species
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is there any key for determination of Lycaenidae?
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According to Ackery et al. (1995, ‘Carcasson’s African Butterflies’), Duedorix (Virachola) livia (Klug) extends across the semi-desert areas of northern Africa from Senegal to parts of northern Tanzania and Egypt, Somalia, Yemen, Oman and Saudi Arabia. More recently it has been reported from Tunisia, Greece and other Mediterranean countries, parts of Jordan and even Ukraine. In India pomegranates are affected by a related species, Deudorix (Virachola) isocrates (the Anar butterfly), as well as Duedorix (Duedorix) epijarbas.
A classic work based on the genitalia of Lycaenidae is that of Henri Stempffer, 1967, The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) (Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, Supplement 10: frontispiece, 3–322 pp.). This work is to genus only, but includes an important discussion of the status of Virachola in relation to the older name Deudorix. Following this most but not all authors now treat Virachola as a subgenus of Deudorix.
So far as I am aware the most recent paper addressing the taxonomy of the species livia (Pomengranate Playboy) is by Michel Libert:
Libert, M. 2005. Une nouvelle sous-espèce de Deudorix (Virachola) livia d'Oman (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 110(3): 297–298.
A relatively recent paper on control may be of interest:
Kahramanoglu, I. & Usanmaz, S. 2013. Management strategies of fruit damaging pests of pomegranates: Planococcus citri, Ceratitis capitata and Deudorix (Virachola) livia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(49): 6563–6568. doi: 10.5897/AJAR2013.7928
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Is it possible for Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis species to mate; if it is possible can introgression occur between Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis species ?
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I think it is not(=?) possible that mating takes plase between twi different species, however what i understand mating is the physical relationship between two living organism, this kind of physical relation is possible there are many examples like lion+tiger= tigone (atleast 2 live tigons are present in Jaipur lion rescue centre), after the physical relationship whether they are able to prosuce a fertilie gamets? if this is possible than mating takes place otherwise its ok.....see in our old epics like ramayan-mahabharat there is a documentations of MANVAR which is a crossing between human and other species
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I am collaborating with Masahiko Tanahashi on a comparative study of their mycangium xylose-fermenting yeasts. Presently, we need specimens across their range; except for the UK and Switzerland. Specimens from Spain are top priority; this is to solve the riddle of the origin of the famous Pichia stipitis yeast CBS 6054. For more see: The mystery of the lesser stag beetle Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) mycangium yeasts. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, 72 (510): 146-152. 
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I collected a living female.
Monday I send a packet as you indicated me in previous replies.
Best regards,
Francesco
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Hello,
Recently I have been interested in Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch, 1858). It is an invasive species from North America, which for the first time was found in Europe in 1933 (France). I found some publications, but information about biology and ecology of this species are modest and inadequate.
In libraries I have an access I found only these publications:
1. Evans, H. F., & Oszako, T. (Eds.). (2007). Alien invasive species and international trade. Forest Research Institute.
2. Haack, R. A., & Petrice, T. R. (2009). Bark-and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(3), 1075-1084
3. Kirkendall, L. R., & Faccoli, M. (2010). Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae) alien to Europe. ZooKeys, (56), 227
4. Valkama, H., Martikainen, P., & Räty, M. (1998). First record of North American ambrosia beetle Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch)(Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in Finland-a new potential forest pest?.
5. Schneider, I. (1985). Gnathotrichus materiarius Fitch (Col., Scolytidae) in Pheromonfallen vonIps cembrae (Heer)(Col., Scolytidae), ein neuer Fundort für NW-Deutschland. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 58(3), 50-51.
6. Flechtmann, C. A. H., & Berisford, C. W. (2003). Identification of sulcatol, a potential pheromone of the ambrosia beetle Gnathotrichus materiarius (Col., Scolytidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 127(4), 189-194
7. Hirschheydt, J. V. (1992). Der amerikanische Nutzholzborkenkäfer Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch) hat die Schweiz erreicht. Mitt. Schweizerisch. Entomol. Gesellschaft, 65, 33-37.
If someone has an access to any other publications about this bark beetle, I will be grateful if you let me know
Thanking you in advance for any help.
Best regards,
Radosław Witkowski
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 Hi Vinncent, Worked on this beetle in Michigan. I have attached a power point describe what has been seen. No one has done a complete life history of this eastern North America species. Like Western species G. retusus and G sulcatus which have studied in more detail. Best of luck. Have hard copies of literature cited. Send address to rroeper@yahoo.com
                         Dick Roeper
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I have an estimate of 1.5 million cicadas per acre (3.7 million per ha) by Dybas and Davis (1962, Ecology 43:432-444). This is the most commonly cited density estimate for cicadas in the popular media.
I have estimates ranging from 6.9 million per ha to 60 million per ha for monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. Citations are Calvert, W.H. 2004. Two methods estimating overwintering monarch population size in Mexico. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation (ed. by Oberhauser, K.S., & Solensky, M.J.), pp. 121–127. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
and 
Brower, L.P., Kust, D.R., Rendón Salinas, E., García-Serrano, E., Kust, K.R., Miller, J., Fernandez del Rey, C., & Pape, K. 2004. Catastrophic winter storm mortality of monarch butterflies in Mexico during January 2002. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation (ed. by Oberhauser, K.S., & Solensky, M.J.), pp. 151–166. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.
I have roughly 600,000 grasshoppers per ha, which appears to be outbreak levels reported by Kemp and Davis (1993: Oecologia 96:1-8).
I found that Australian plague locusts can reach 2 million per ha, though I don't have a good source for it. Zha et al. (2008: Photogr Eng & RS 74:619-624) indicated Oriental migratory locusts could reach 60 million per ha density.
Unfortunately, I'm having a difficult time finding published estimates of density for insect species; I simply do not know the literature well enough. Can anyone point me to credible sources describing the densities of a wide array of insect species? Are there reviews in the entomological literature on this topic?
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Then, How about Hymenopterans? We have an unpublished data of honey bees ranging 40,000 / 10 meter square. Is it the correct estimate if converted to population per hectare or so? Pl. see a part of the tree with many number of honey combs with bees.... More than 20 such combs are found during summer season in a single tree in Southern Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. 
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Can I use the abdomen to differentiate B. dorsalis from B. kandiensis and B. invadens syn dorsalis? Can someone provide me with some clear images of these fruit flies?
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According to Drew et. al. 2005, Bactrocera invadens is similar to Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), from Southeast Asia, and Bactrocera kandiensis (Drew and Hancock), from Sri Lanka, in possessing a very narrow costal band and anal streak, scutum black, parallel-sided lateral postsutural vittae and abdominal tergites III–V with a dark ‘T’ pattern and narrow dark lateral markings on all three terga. It differs from both species in having the scutum base colour dark orange-brown with a dark fuscous to black lanceolate pattern (in most specimens), from B. dorsalis in having a longer aedeagus and narrow lateral postsutural vittae, and from B. kandiensis in having femora entirely fulvous.
See more details in the original description of B. invadens attached.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Is this a Tephritidae species? Lot of specimens emerged from
inflorescence of Scorzonera sp. collected in Serbia.
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I have found this paper. Thank you anyway Jan!
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Can anyone identify this insect? Please see attachment.
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Hi Suhas:
You must provide the locality and host plant of this larva of butterfly. I guess this butterfly larva is from Kolhapur, India. According to the taxonomic characters seen in the photograph this larva belongs to Acraea andromacha (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Acraeinae)  known as the glass wing butterfly. This photograph is identical to the one posted in the attached link. Carlos,  the genus Dione is found only in the Neotropical region, is not present in India.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Dear Colleagues,
From this National Nature Park I got several perfect photos of aposematic and camouflage signs of insects and some of them are identified due to help of specialists over RG site. So, due to yours kind help I moved with my manual-book in Biotsenology enough good.
Shown mantis photo was made in top afternoon when no any shadows, so possibly one of 30 photos is useful...
Andrey
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Hi Andrey:
Your very nice photograph belongs to Gonypeta brigittae, the thai bark mantis.
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The research seeks to assess insect diversity and behaviour with respect to residence time in the forest
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Thank you for all your responses. So much appreciated, will consider your input and come up with a proper method based on your advice.
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I'm looking on references specifically on the Carabidae in Korea.
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There are also some papers on subfamily Cicindelinae (sometimes known as separate family Cicindelidae) from Korea. If you are interested in details, please contact with my via email.
Best greetings,
Radomir
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This question is with regards to noctiud moths.
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Hi Masood:
Noctuid moths does not have tibial spurs in the foreleg. This is an identifying feature for Noctuid moths. The number of tibial spurs i.e. 0-2-4 {foreleg-midleg-hindleg} and epiphysis present in forelegs. Please check the following key to the subamilies of Noctuid moths.  http://www.currentbiotica.com/Insect/Volume19-3/IE-V19(3)-13.pdf
Best wishes,
Luis Miguel Constantino
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Can we make it by own? please suggest
I have to check the butterfly diversity in a particular area. So I have to use bait traps for the collection of butterflies. I have a little bit idea of this trap. Can anybody suggest me to how to use this? Could it be possible to make it own? please suggest. Thank you.
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the basic design presented is still pretty much the standard.  I continued to use these until just a few years ago, until I found a very light weight commercial trap on the market.  http://bugdorm.megaview.com.tw/pop-up-butterfly-bait-trap-cone-type-pack-of-one-p-144.html
I now use these exclusively - The only thing I've modified is that I replaced the hanger with a monofilament line to discourage ants (see the rational in the paper mentioned above).  And I enlarged the opening in the funnel to about 6" - because I use them in the tropics and many butterflies simply will not fit through the small opening provided in the commercial design.
John
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This Orthetrum in some cases resembles O. brunneum, but styles of some parts are different and the facts are confusing for correct identification. Which species of Orthetrum is this?
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In my opinion for an identification it could be also useful to know where (geographic area) this specimen was collected,
Rinaldo Nicoli