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Input-Output Analysis - Science topic

Sharing knowledge about: output, tax multipliers; backward, forward multipliers, etc.
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While Leontief's system makes the driving demand force (consumption) endogenous, Ghosh's system makes the driving supply force (value-added) endogenous (Guerra & Sancho, 2010). In a context wehere resource are increasingly scarce, can anyone explain me why would we consider Ghosh's system outdated (aside from the argument that traditional markets dead end work as per Leontief's system)?
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Dear Geoffrey,
Here are my two cents:
1. In both Leontief and Ghosh models the output vector is the endogenous variable, not final demand nor value-added.
2. In Leontief 's model, the exogenous variable is final demand and it is assumed that supply (labor, natural resources, etc.) constrains will not bind to any level of final demand. On the other hand, in Ghosh's model, the exogenous variable is value added (quantities or factor prices) and it is assumed that demand adjusts to any supply level.
3. The parameters differ as well in both models: in Leontief's model it is assumed that input requirements are proportional to output levels whereas in Ghosh's model it is assumed that sells of intermediate demand commodities are proportional to output levels.
With these elements, I think that more than ideology and independently of the other available models, it depends on the research question and what we think about the adequacy of the model to describe the economy: even though "resource[s] are increasingly scarce", are they binding constraints (given the research question) or more relevant than demand constraints? Which proportionality assumption makes more sense to the economy we are studying?
Best,
Daniel
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I know that R Software specifically Benchmarking package can be used to assess the MEA scores but I don't know how to capture the non-discretionary inputs when running a non-oriented analysis.
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Sincere enquiry: Isn't it that DEA a non-parametric method for analysing efficiency? Debora Addo 's questions seems to be looking for a software as opposed to a technique? Thank you -:
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I have a standard input-output model. I have calculated the technical co-efficient and Leontief inverse for it. The problem that I am facing is : How can i change the value of value added and still run the model. What will the new final demand be in this case? Let me give an example of what I am talking about.
A B Final Demand Output
A 40 70 40 150
B 30 20 50 100
VA 20 35
Lets say VA (Value Added) increased for B by 5. How would I calculate the new final demand to find the new output. What is new final demand in this case?
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Dear Saad,
You have to use the model: ( [I-A]^-1)*Y'=X'. I include an exercise in Excel to do this as an example. I explained each step, in this case I changed final demand to get the new out at the end of the spreadsheet. You need to change your value added data for your purpose.
Hope it helps.
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Hi, I wish to use a macroeconomic model to analyze the environmental and social-economic effects of biofuel quotas in two countries. For environmental assessment, I am considering the carbon footprint and biodiversity losses. And for the latter, I want to look into income inequality.
In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of using E3ME and environmentally extended input-output method to do this task? Or do you recommend other models for this task?
Thank you in advance.
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For answer see this link:
httpss://chaturvedimayank.wordpress.com/2017/02/21/stock-flow-consistent-models-for-ecological-economics/
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for the year 1975-76, some work is done... but how to get latest tables for input-output analysis in Pakistan?
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You can access IO Tables for Pakistan over the period of 2010-2017 from following link :
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is there sensor history output for energy ALLKE and ALLPD in abaqus 2020?
is there any one help me
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Yes, the total energy output quantities such as ALLCD, ALLIE, ALLKE, ALLKL, ALLPD, ALLSD, ALLMD are available in the ABAQUS/CAE 2020 program.
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Esteemed colleagues,
I crave your suggestions on the best analytical software for analyzing economic impact using input-output and multiplier analysis?
Which of these is most appropriate: Stata, EViews R, SPSS or SAS...or any other?
I welcome constructive suggestions.
Kind regards and stay safe 🙏
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I suggest Matlab (suitable for matrix algebra) or Python (see http://www.real.illinois.edu/pyio/ and https://pymrio.readthedocs.io/en/latest/)
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In many CMOS circuits i have seen Floating inputs implementation. how do we practically implement the same?
Beyond, how do floating input behave in a digital mechanism? A logic "low" or logic "high"?
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Aparna Sathya Murthy thanks, but what is its physical implication on circuit? whether it leads more to ground or more towards Vdd??
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Given the somewhat old techniques to obtain regional input ouput matrices by hybrid methods such as the popular RAS method or the implementation of location quotiens, in your opinion, what are the methods that offer a more accurate estimation of input output tables? What do you think are recent promising methods to undertake this task?
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I think there are two recent discussions, the one between Dr. Flegg and Thomo defending their FLQi against the criticisms received in an article by Lehtonen and Tykkyläinen, I think the FLQi is still the best choice between "up-down" techniques for regionalization . On the other hand is the proposal of Asuad and Sánchez who contemplate the use of spatial correlations (Moran'I) for the estimation of sub-regional matrices and go in a "bottom-up" process, however, I think this proposal has two disadvantages when calculating weighting coefficients; a) the statistic I will always depend on the distance matrix that has been considered between two geographical spaces (cetroid distance of a polygon, road distance, and if so, the infrastructure is underestimated) and b) when using the RAS method, keep the problem of underestimating regional imports and overestimating multipliers.
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Hello everyone,
As part of my bachelor thesis, I am currently reading the literature on performance measurement, since I would like to implement such a system in our start-up initiative. Can anyone recommend me a book/paper which shows the introduction of an Input-Process-Output-Outcome system or the Balance Scorecard at a real example in practice?
That would help me so much !! Thank you !
Kind regards,
Samuel
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Hello Samuel,
I came across following case study in International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. (also available on researchgate)
Ian Cobbold, Gavin Lawrie and Khalil Issa (2004), ‘Designing a strategic management system using the third-generation balanced scorecard - A case study’, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management Vol. 53 No. 7, 2004 pp 624-633
This may be useful.
Regards.
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Dear all,
Let me briefly go through the problem I am facing.
Currently, I have data ( of ground acceleration) obtained from the "seismic accelerograph instrument system" which was placed at the basement of the building and the plot is shown below. According to the plot, it is showing a random waveform up to a certain time and it starts decaying (damping occurs). However, it again gets another waveform (sinusoidal, as shown in the figure) after 300 sec. It looks very unusual to me. I suspect the sinusoidal part to be a building response. But I couldn't decide whether my assumption is valid or not.
So, my questions are:
  1. Is there anything (books/journals/published or unpublished thesis/lecture notes) that talks about the limitations of the time period which we are supposed to make while plotting the ground motion data?
  2. Is there any specific guidelines or any thumb-rule to determine whether the certain waveform is coming from the earthquake motion or is a building response? Normally, what I do is- I consider the random waveform as an "earthquake response" and a sinusoidal waveform as a "building response". Is it the correct way or is there another way we need to look at?
  3. My confusion arises when I saw a portion of "sinusoidal" wave before there is damping. In the figure, it is shown under the "orange" box. So, is it acceptable if I make a statement like- the presence of sinusoidal wave along with the random wave is due to the fact that the sensors recorded the both "earthquake and building response" at a time?
  4. If No, how can it be justified? If Yes, how do I correct this problem?
Thank you so much.
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There is free software which will do this, as well as adjustment and filtering, for you.
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Simple question (back to basics):
For a classical diff. amplifier (Q1 and Q2, finite dynamic resistance re in the common emitter leg): How do we calculate the input resistance at the base of Q1 ?
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Dear Lutz,
welcome,
Hope you are well!The input resistance of the differential transistor amplifier seen from the base of one transistor to the ground in the common mode can be expressed by
Ri = rbe + 2REE ( hfe +1), where rbe is the base to emitter small signal resistance, hfe is the small signal common emitter current gain of the transistor and REE is the common emitter resistance.
It is very large resistance.
The derivation is simple because of symmetry in the common mode one can split REE into two separate emitter resistances with every resistance equals 2REE. Then one has an input resistance looking from the base of each transistor as expressed previously.
If in the differential mode the input resistance from a base of the transistor to the ground is rbe and from base to base is 2rbe as the common emitter point will be at virtual ground.
Best wishes
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To determine the costs of feed in israeli milk production I am interested of the amount of roughage, TMR and byproducts that an average dairy cow consumes in Israel.
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Please have a look at the following link and PDF attachments.
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As I understand it, each row (equation) in an input-output table represents the total output of an industry Xi and the entries in that row represent the amounts of Xi’s output used by all industries (including Xi itself) as well as "final demand."  Final demand is typically disaggregated into consumption, investment, government, and exports.  I find this confusing because “investment” and parts of “government” pertain to the supply side of the economy, so why are those portions of Xi’s output not included in the industrial entries listed in the equation prior to final demand?
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Hi Brian,
The difference here is how the output gets used. For government, indeed parts of their output is used to produce other goods. Analysis on weather and soil is a services often produced by the government for the agriculture sector. This is often included as a "government" sector intermediate good in IO tables. However, much of government production is a "final good" in that it is not directly used in the production of another good. For example, a school is labor (teachers) and capital (buildings/land) combined with intermediate goods (various) to produce a final good - education. That education is a final good because is not used to produce any other goods during that time period.
Investment is considered a final good because it is not used for production until a new time period. For example, consider a tower being built in a city. The tower is built this year and then used next year. This year it is produced as a final good - it is not used in the production of anything else. Next year it is is added to the capital supply. It can now be used to produce more goods such as apartments (final good), or intermediate goods (such as office space). Hope this helps Kenneth
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When we only know about its current price in the market, life span & not knowing its original cost and salvage value.
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Dear Wasseem
Assuming a zero salvage value does not cause the asset to be overvalued. A zero salvage value (using straight-line depreciation method) does cause the annual depreciation to be the highest (assuming not reverting to market value based accounting midstream) and the asset value to be the lowest (i.e. potentially an undervalued asset). The instant you estimate the salvage value to be greater than zero than the annual depreciation expense declines and the asset value throughout the remaining life of the asset increases.
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If not, is there any example of strict feedback under-actuated system which can be shared here?
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Hi Afridi,
I think you are mixing up two different terminologies. The under-actuation is something related to dynamics limitation while 'strict feedback form' is something more mathematical. These two are not related in any sense because the same actuating input may appear in multiple states or in other way one input might be integrated in several chains like a tree.
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When working with IO (Input-output) model for sectoral CO2 calculation sometimes you have negative 'changes in inventory' sometimes big enough to make total final demand for that sector negative. which will obviously undermine the actual CO2 emissions for that sector. if due to this negative changes in inventory we calculate a sectors total emissions to be negative for a particular year what would be the best interpretation for such a negative result?
I mean how can I present this kind of result?
or we can ignore changes in inventory when working with IO tables?
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What is happening is that the CO2 is being sequestered. That is something we need in the real world to draw down CO2 from the atmosphere and reduce the greenhouse effect that is causing global warming,
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Dear members
I would like to ask anyone with a good knowledge on confounding variables and IBM SPSS Statistics (23.0 or above) for Windows, how, in a sample with lots of input and output variables, the output variable predictions (test results) by the input variables of interest may be adjusted for other input variables that may very well confound with the test result.
Consider the following situation:
You have 95 primary input variables (input variables of interest)
  • These 95 variables are all continuous variables.
You have 5 primary outcome variables (output variables of interest)
  • 2 are continuous
  • 2 are categorical with 2 categories
  • 1 is categorical with more than 2 categories
You have identified 17 additional input variables, of which each one may or may not influence (interfere with any of the) primary (both input and output) variables.
  • 4 are continuous
  • 9 are categorical with 2 categories
  • 4 are categorical with more than 2 categories
The research question is simple: determine the role the 95 primary input variables have in predicting the 5 primary outcome variables.
Potential problem: possible interference by any of the 17 "additional" input variables. Your ultimate goal is to get a test result that has been adjusted for the variables that have shown to significantly influence either input or output variables.
Let's set an example: you wish to assess the role (any of the) 95 variables (has) have in predicting one of the 2 continuous primary outcome variables. This may be done with Pearson's correlation coefficient, or with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The choice depends on the satisfaction of parametric testing prerequisites (most importantly: distribution of variable values statistically insignificantly differing from a Gaussian distribution; and homoscedasticity across the variable values).
You want to adjust the results of either Pearson or Spearman's test in SPSS for all of the 17 possibly confounding variables, that SPSS might identify as a significant confounder. How can this be achieved (easily) in SPSS?
Thank you very much in advance.
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OOps you added some problems. IVs are assumed to be measured without error. If they contain measurement error then you have an errors in variables model to consider. At this point, I would assume that there is no important measurement error and proceed as you suggest. I would then do the regressions with lasso to prevent multicollinearity and overfitting. After selection I would rerun the selected models in the usual programs to get the final prediction equations understanding that the prediction standard errors are at best approximate. I am not sure about running all of these models though. This seems like another multiple testing problem as in microarrays. These are usually treated by Bonferroni or Benjamin-Hochberg procdures. A beginning reference is at this link.
It seems that you have chosen a medically important but statistically difficult problem. If I can help you can always contact me through ResearchGate messages. Best wishes, David Booth
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Looking for those that are free to access. Thank you! :)
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To all those who commented and gave reference, thank you very much. :)
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I propose a "common sense" built around a domain ontology knowledge of the activity of emergence fueled by the same conditions of validity and situated facts used in the input model to qualify a priori and ex-post exchange. This would be two distinct symbolic representation models.
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Interesting models! I'm following
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hello everyone
I want to simulate some materials like methylammonium and some thing else in quantum espresso but i dont know that how can I find input data like ibrav , nat, atomic position,celldm for them . how can i find them?
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Then you should discuss with the Quantum ESPRESSO forum (http://www.quantum-espresso.org/forum/) or you may contact to the developers.
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When reporting from the Mplus output number of participants assigned to classes are we referring to?
1. FINAL CLASS COUNTS AND PROPORTIONS FOR THE LATENT CLASSES
BASED ON THE ESTIMATED MODEL
2. FINAL CLASS COUNTS AND PROPORTIONS FOR THE LATENT CLASSES
BASED ON ESTIMATED POSTERIOR PROBABILITIES
3. FINAL CLASS COUNTS AND PROPORTIONS FOR THE LATENT CLASSES
BASED ON THEIR MOST LIKELY LATENT CLASS MEMBERSHIP
Thank you for clarifying
Witold
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Hi Witold,
1. und 2. should be identical for a good fitting model, the second is based on an Bayesian approach (as far a I can see). 3. is an alternative method of assigning individuals to classes.
Here is some explanation that may be helpful for you:
Kind regards,
Karin
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I am looking for experience in using input-output matrix for analyzing supply chains from a bird's eye view. I plan to elaborate a regional input-output table from the national one and improve it by survey methods. Also, an extensive qualitative survey will be conducted to discover supply chains in details. Opinions, ideas, earlier experiences welcomed.
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In order to maximize the number and the quality of the answers that you will get from RG and that will contribute to your project, my recommendation is including more details about the specification of the input-output matrix you wish to design, such as
  • the purpose of the analysis, first and foremost
  • the industry in which this supply chain exists
  • what kind of flows (e.g., material/informational economic/environmental) and stocks you are interested to analyze (which ties with the first bullet point)
  • the target audience of the results you get from the use of this matrix
  • etc.
I hope you will find these points useful for inspiring a fruitful thinking process.
Good luck!
Best wishes
Ilaria
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We started a new project to analyze supply chain resilience in New Zealand. The plan is using bottom-up collected quantitative and qualitative data as an addition to the already established statistical database, and use these for developing the network and input-output models. We want to model the ripple of effect of different events and explore the potential impacts improving the bouncing back capabilities. Do you have any similar experience in any parts of the above? I would like to talk about your experience and understand what kind of difficulties we have to face off.
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 Hi Robert, 
Few years ago we tried to use input-output analysis as an approach to measure the economic impact of minning and compare in front of non-mining, communities in an arid zone in Mexico; following Rolfe and Ivanova (U. of Queensland) approach that they used in the Bowen Basin in Australia.
In our experience, we faced that the quality of the data available was far from desirable. Then we tried to built the input-output data... again the ammount and quality of data available make it a larger challenge than the project goals. Thus, we choose to mix some basic regional macroeconomic indicators, a survey and a stakeholders analysis, as an approach for measuring some economic and social impacts of minning in comparison with non-mining communities in the same region.  We exchanged the ellegance of the input-output analysis with a more detailed qualitative explanation of the econo-social perception about minning, in both kinds of communities. We published a book (in spanish) about that work last year..
 My suggestionn is to read Rolfe & ivanova's report about the Bowen Basin. Then compare the data available (quality, ammount, historic data, etc), checking the dissagregation level that they allow and, the ammount of assumptions and estimations that you were required to do to dissagregate those data available. If the data is far from that you require, be careful, could be a long nightmare.
Hoping that this cooment could be useful, 
Daniel
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Pakistan does not maintain input-output table. I find this source (http://worldmrio.com/country/), where the I/O tables of all countries are available. In addition, are these tables balanced? 
How would you rate the accuracy of individual country based input-output tables available at http://worldmrio.com/country/? Are they balanced?. Available from:
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Not very accurate but in the absence of their non-availability  by statistical organisation of your country, they may be used. 
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I'm trying to create a multiple regression that explains the final price of electric energy in Brasil. Any suggests about which could be the independent variables?
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Is a big ingeniery  problems I suggest that  you can serparate this problem in many short problems using differents types of ingeniering enterprises
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I am looking to use Data Envelope analysis to identify efficient/ frontier among several factors? anyone has steps of doing DEA?
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Dear Hamza
First you should determine you preferred DEA model. As you know, there are various types of DEA models with various applications and characteristics. There are fuzzy DEA models (FDEA), stochastic DEA models (SDEA) , ... . For now, you can use the conventional DEA models including CCR and BCC. i try to narrow down the steps as follows:
suppose you are going to rank 20 decision makin units (DMUs) which are projects by considering 3 factors, including, cost, income and time.
1. The first step is determining the input and output variables. input variables are smaller the better type (STB) such as cost and time while output variables are larger the better type (LTB) such income. so your conceptual model is composed of 2 input variables and one output variable.
2. now all you need is implementation of DEA model. MATLAB or GAMS are the best softwares for this purpose, although there are various independent sofwares in the market.
3. after determining the data, you can run the model and obtain the efficiency scores for projects and rank them accordingly.
there is one more thing to note. Conventional DEA models are two types, input oriented models and output oriented models. input oriented model tries to minimize the inputs while considering the outputs constant while output oriented models try to maximize the output while considering the inputs constant. so based on your research goal you have to determine which type to employ. i can send you MATLAB codes for BCC input and output oriented models along with CCR input and output oriented models for your convenience, all you need to do is determining your data in the code and run it.
Send an email to me so i can send the codes to you
i hope you find this useful
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Who has data on the wage bill of the sum of all sectors prior to 2008? They are no longer available from the statistical office. Thanks.
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If I apply a DC voltage on peltier element, will the source voltages changes or not?
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A well regulated source should not change its voltage one change in load. 
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I'm using the WIOD database to compute GHG emissions embodied in imports to Israel. While calulating the a-matrix (technical coefficients) I have to decide how to handle total ouputs with 0 value, e.g. sector P: households with employees, at most regions. That is in order to prevent NAN values, an to ensure Leontief Inverse can be computed.
Currently I assigned a relatively small values to those cells, i.e. 0.00000000001 Million USD, but I was wondering if it is indeed the correct way to handle it, or should I apply zeros to NAN values in the tecnical coefficient matrix?
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Dear Dor,
I have used many times WIOD database in my research. In order to derive A and L matrices if one row of total production vector x is equal to 0, I suggest to put a 1 in the corresponding element of the final demand vector. This way, the corresponding element in the total production vector will return 1, and the matrices A and L can be computed without affecting the values of the others economic sectors.
Moreover, for large multi-regional matrices such as the WIOT, I suggest to calculate matrix L using the Power Series approximation in a recursive way: L = (I-A)^(-1) = I + A + AA + AAA + ... . The stop criteria can be set as the equality between the total environmental impact (sum of the elements in the environmental intervention vector B) and the sum of the embodied environmental impact in final demand products (E = B*L), since the environmental impact is conserved.
I hope this may contribute in answering your question.
Regards,
Matteo Rocco
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Michio Morishima liked to talk that three representative economists of pre-WWII Japan were Takata Yasuma (高田保馬, Y. Takata), Shibata Kei (柴田敬, K. Shibata) and Sono Shozo (園正造, S. Sono; mathematician). I do not believe this is an impartial estimate, because three of them were professors of Kyoto Imperial University (now Kyoto University) where Morishima himself once studied as a student and worked as a teaching staff. Even though, Shibata was one of a few economists whose contribution in theoretical economics gathered some light during the Inter War Period. 
Shibata is most known by the fact that O. Lange (1934-35) cited his work (Shibata, 1933). P. Samuelson (1967) picked up this episode in commemoration of the centennial of the first volume of Marx's Capital. 
However, Shibata has much more varied faces. Hiroshi Ohta tells about Shibata's connection to Leontief's input-output tables. He may have many more "unknown" contributions to economics. Please post any information about him. Your re-appraisal of Shibata's works is included among this information. 
Lange, O. 1934−35 Marxian Economics and Modern Economic Theory, Review of Economic Studies 2: 189−201. 
Samuelson, Paul A. 1967 Marxian Economics as Economics. American Economic Review 57(2): 616-623. Short comments in p.621 and p.622.
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Dear Yoshinori and Lall,
 Yes, Shibata was a unique Scholar that was grown up in Kyoto under the influence of two big names, Hajime Kawakami (Marxist) and Yasuma Takata (Marx-critic). When I was affiliated with Kyoto University, I was entrusted by the daughter of Shibata (Junko Nagasaka) to select important books and materials from Shibata's private collections to preseve them in the University library. (It contains letters from Schumpeter, his reflection on war just after Japan's surrender, and obituaries in his funeral. But, from the eyes of a bibliographer, it is far from rich as economics library, since Shibata had to sell almost all of his Collection in the years of distress under the purge, )
   I dealt with Shibata's engagement in the wartime totalitarian reforms in "Economic Reform Plans in the Japanese Wartime Economy: The case of Shintaro Ryu and Kei Shibata", in Aiko Ikeo ed., Economic Development in Twentieth Century East Asia, Routledge, 1997. (pp.100-115)
   Such a historical description of Shibata's career culminated in Kuniaki Makino, Shibata Kei: Shihonshugi no chokoku wo mezashite (toward overcoming of capitalism), Kyoto: Mineruva Shobo, 2015. 234p. (in Japanese)
  Theoretical economists  maintained their interest in Shibata's attempt to criticize Marxian economics as well as the economics orthodoxy then.
  Takashi Negishi (1995) "Boehm-Bawerk and Shibata on Power or Market," Journal of Economics (Zeitschrift fuer Nationaloekonomie), 61(1), 281-299
.   Tadasu Matsuo (2010) "Average Period of Production in Circulating Input-Output Structure", Applied Mathematical Science 4(46), 2293-313.
   Dong-Min-Rieu (2009) "The Shibata-Okishio Connection: Labor Theory of Value and Rate of Profit", Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 31 (3) September 2009, pp. 325-339     
   In Japanese Atsushi Nishi published two articles under the influence of Matsuo (2010)  :
   Nishi, A. (2013) "On the Relation between the autoregressive pattern of input-output structure and the concept of average period of production: Shibata Kei's approch and Matsuo Tadasu's approach", Kikan Keizairiron 50(2), pp.89-76.
  Nishi, A. (2014) "On the Generalization of the Concept of Boem-Bawerk's Average Period of production to the Autoregressive Pattern of Input-Output Structure: Kei Shibata's Approach", Keizaigakushi Kenkyu 56(1), pp.48-70.  
   Bests!
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When we say "international" Input Outpu Table (IIOT), it comprises binational and multinational tables. I am more interested in multinational IOT.
I know that the IDE (now IDE-JETRO) published in 1976 a binational IIOT Japan-Korea 1970. IDE published in 1981 a multinational IIOT ASEAN Countries 1975. It published in 1992 the IIOT Asia 1985. Do these dates show the first publication and compilation years of International IOTs?
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Dear Bui Trihnh,
I uploaded a wrong version of my paper. Some of figures were broken. I have replaced it with the new PDF and renewed the link. I think now you can see figures in a good state. 
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Why do OECD's Input-Output Tables (IOT) and Trade in Value Added (TiVA, that is derived form the former) give similar but different values for Value-Added (variable 'VALU')?
Which one should I use to perform a multi-country comparison?
IOT serves better to my intents, since it gives data for more years (every year from 1995 to 2011). TiVA has data only for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011.
Thank you all very much for your help.
Kindly,
Marcelo Scalabrin Müller
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Thank you, Piero Esposito. I'm not sure neither, but I think that your answer is the best I saw until now.
Greetings from Brazil,
Marcelo
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I want to know the working mechanism of interrupt of 8085 at practical level? To do this, what is the practical setup for this?
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simple by using inta and intr and plz refer rafeeqzuman 80086/8088 book
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Some Articles assume 5% of the input signal’s pulse width as rise/fall time.
Is there a Specific Formula for that (especially for Cnfets)?
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You must know frequency (or pulse width, as you call it) limits your circuit will be operational. Circuits don't work well under signal frequency outside of their intended range.
Typically you'd want to test your circuit for multiple transition (rise and fall) times. If I were to pick one, I pick 50%. For three I'd pick 5%, 50%, 100% and so on to cover the entire frequency range.
This topic is covered in details at paripath.com and in the book amzn.to/1N66Hds.
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We are analysing the economic impact of local farmer's market in the Basque Country (Spain), adapting SEED methodology developed by Loyola University of New Orleans. Our region has updated the input-output data, but we would need to calculate the regional multiplier to estimate the impact of the markets over the regional economy.
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Thank you to both for your contributions. We already have I-O tables corresponding to 2012 year.  What we would like to calculate is the impact over different activities of the expenditure done in farmers' markets in an aggregated way. Creating subregions would force us to calculate specific coeficients for the subregions, which we do not consider necessary. In summary, we would like to know the impact over regional GDP of marginal euros expended by consumers in local farmers' markets. 
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I am looking for a practical system whose delay-free dynamics is BIBO stable. What about a real-world SARX system with small switching frequency?
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First of all, Dear Iman, you must understand that  the so called SISO / MIMO, linear / nonlinear, time invariant/time varying   systems are only mathematical models of real systems. While developing the models  system analyst  make several assumptions  which may or may not be justified. The simplest models are obviously SISO  LTIV systems  which are crude approximations. Many man-made engineering systems are reasonably well approximated  within the ranges of operation by SISO LTIV models.. But in reality there some inputs which are ignored ( disturbances or noise) if they have little effect on the performance or can be ignored. Similarly linearity is always true within ranges. Time variation may be too slow so that it can be ignored. Again time delay is also possible. So, while modelling a real system, we start with the realistic. simplest (LTIV) and progressively move LTV, NLTIV, NLTV etc if the results are not . Another factor is the uncertainty which may require stochastic analysis.  Moreover, there is no model that will suit all situations , so we have to choose the better one from several models. Modelling even now is more of an art than science coming to modelling of real systems. I hope  I have not confused you. It s a matter of finding the best cap that will fit into a real hed. Good luck in your modelling studies.
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When using availability in days as a single input and around 4 outputs (varying from 0 to 1), the efficient results seem odd. Although waiting for 1 or 2 days should be almost the same (in a large sample with up to 60 days of waiting time), DEA only selects DMUs that are immediatly available (i.e. 1 day) and disregard other DMUs that have higher values in outputs. Since assigning weights does not produce results (because the time values remain proportional), is there any sort of smoothing process that can better reflect our perception of time when using DEA?
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Thank you Jonas, I have updated the question for disambiguation purposes and I shall take a look on resampling techniques.
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I am trying to do an impact analysis using our own inter-regional input-output system for Austria. My first choice would be to do that in GAMS. a preexisting code for inter-regional I-O models would of course help a lot.
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Dear Oliver, we have developed a statistical model for measuring impact (MEMI) is giving us very good results. This is based on the combined use of multivariate techniques. you may wish to consult published by our magazine (Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science). For more details you can write to my personal email: rcobo@ica.co.cu
I take this contact to invite him to participate in meetings of biostatistics, econometrics and computing the V International Congress on Animal Production to be held in the Palace of Conventions in Havana, Cuba from 16 to 20 November this year. in this event some related multivariate statistics I see is your line of work papers will be presented. Please, if you are interested in this event, you can write to my email for sending all the necessary information. I hope that motivates and we can meet in Cuba. Best regards
Dr. C. Raul Cobo Wedge
Researcher, ICA
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I am trying to find some performance parameters of middleware, so I want to calculate overhead on top of my original data size by middleware.
e.g., Data size = 8 bytes, sending 1000 times, will be = 8000 bytes, what will be overhead by middleware.
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Hello Raj,
    The first question to ask yourself is if you want to evaluate the overhead analytically or empirically. If you want to do an analytical evaluation then just look at the specification for Java RMI and RPC over DDS -- BTW notice that RTI-DDS is a DDS implementation not the Standard, you may also consider some more widely used and Open Source alternatives as OpenSplice (http://www.prismtech.com/dds-community).
If you are looking to do an empirical analysis then you can somehow estimate the temporal overhead performing some basic tests for small sample. The space overhead can be estimated indirectly by looking at the throughout delivered to the application vs. the bandwidth used on the network. In that case recall to take into account he protocol headers for level 4 and level 3, e.g. UDP + IP or TCP + IP.
HTH.
A+
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I have to run 500 odd simulations and I am only interested in few of the outputs at certain critical location. I am changing input files to model these models but now I have to run every simulation and then generate outputs in form of .rpt for each simulation in ABAQUS's GUI.
I would also interested to know if there is a way to read multiple .inp file one by one by writing a script.  
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Hi,
as Chira already indicated you can do that quite straightforwardly. First, you should set up your initial model. All the commands you enter in the GUI are written into the *.rpy file. You can copy them in a *.py.In this*.py file you can introduce  variables and change the parameters you you want to study.
In a second step you can read the *.py file into Matlab, change the parameters and write the new, adjusted *.py file.
With Matlab you can then also call ABAQUS and run your parametric studies.
For the results you can do something similar. You save your report first via GUI and then you again set up a *.py file and let Matlab do the saving.
Hope that helps
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Let's use an example. We have a function y = f(x), in which x is the input (the probability) and y is the output (the entropy).  If we change y in y', can we find an x' such that f(x') = y'?
In other words, I know that when p changes, H changes; is it possible the opposite, such that if H changes, p changes?
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Considering the Gibbs-Shannon entropy S, we know that
dS=-∑(lnpi)dpi
We will consider i=1,2,...,n with n>2. Then there are n-1 independent variations dpi.
You cannot uniquely determine n-1>1 independent quantities dpi from a single quantity dS.
I am not sure if this is what you were asking?
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I want to attempt to use I-O in carrying out a sustainable assessment of a small township; how plausible is this?
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ISSUE: Sustainability of a township
HUMAN ECOLOGY & ECONOMICS: This question is more complex than what it appears to be. It is concerned as much with human ecology as with economics. Assume that the township is a close system (obviously a township is part of a state and the state is part of the country ... that country is part of the global economy, etc.). Let us start with the simplest model: a township. How do we model the township's sustainability?
INPUT-OUTPUT PROPOSED: Assume that input and output are the variables. Sustainability here would mean that input < output. If input > output, the township is running a deficit. Deficit spending is not sustainable. if output > input, it means that the township is running a surplus. What level should the surplus be in order to be qualified as sustainable?
SUSTAINABILITY: What does it mean? We seldom try to define it and take it for granted by assuming that it is understood. Let's not know such an assumption. The township must support itself in order to survive. Let's call this ability for self-support a carrying capacity (K). what is it that the township support? The township supports itself which consist of people--measured in number of population (P). This target object to be supported must have a starting point (P0) and an ending point where the measurement is taken (Pt). from the starting point to the ending point of the analysis, the population will not be static, it will change, i.e. new birth and deaths----even immigration and emigration. Let's call the rate of this change r. Pt is given by:
P(t) = (KP0ert ) / (K + P0(ert - 1))
The point of sustainability exists when the condition P(t) = K is satisfied. The point at which P(t) > k is called "sustained." The objective is to kin K. This value of K will come from the "output" that you proposed.
This model is taken from the idea of ecology study by Pierre-François Verhulst (1804–1849). Cheers.
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As we know that quality factor "Q" is defined as follows,
Q= (Average energy stored)/ (energy loss/ second)
How do you obtain this quality factor for any input circuit?
I have shown in the below links,  
1) First link shows the  Quality Factor "Q" equation obtained for the second link  diagram shown
2) Second link shows ,for this diagram, we need to obtain the quality factor for the input circuit
Can somebody give me an idea how to obtain the quality factor of our input circuit? Generally also, can you share how to obtain the quality factor of any circuit?
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The quality factor Q is defined for reactive elements to show how far they are unlossy especially when they are built in a resonance circuit. If the reactance of the reactive element is X and its equivalent series resistance is rs, then its Q= X/ rs.  If the equivalent Resistance is in parallel and =rp, then the Q= rp/ X.
In case of series resonance circuit which is composed of LCR in series, at resonance 
XC= XL and the circuit Q= XL/ R=XC/R with R is the sum of all the resistances in series XL is the total inductive reactance and XC is the total capacitive reactance at reonance.,i.e., w=wo.
Your input circuit is equivalent to a series resonance circuit with a total equivalent series Resistance R= Rs+ gm LS/ Ct, where the second term gm LS/Ct is the equivalent input resistance between the gate and ground. Ct is equivalent total capacitance in series with Lg. Simple circuit analysis will show that your capacitance Ct is  equal to Cgs. The total inductance will be = Lg+ Ls. So,according to the formula of Q,
Q= XC/R = 1/  [Rs+ gm LS/ Ct] wo Ct as XC= 1/wo Ct.
For the condition of matching Rs= gm LS/ Ct, then we get Q= 1/ 2 Rs Ct wo,
Ct =Cgs . The resonance frequency WO= sq root of 1/ [Lg+ Ls] Cgs. Then you can calculate it knowing the parameters.
This may shed some light on the answer of your question.
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How can I simulate a critical path with input pattern (how can I know the input pattern which simulate the critical path and)? 
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Dear Lan
Thank you!
I will try to learn the firmware.
Happy new year! 
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Is industry linkage (based-on input-output analysis) a suitable choice? Or are there other better methods?
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There was an special issue in Economic Systems Research this year addressing that topic. I leave the link below in case it it of any use.
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What are the basic books in input output analysis? What are the good books in input output analysis ? Is there any book which explains step by step of doing input output analysis? How can it be applied to public economics, in intergovernmental transfers?
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I find the book by Ronald E. Miller and Peter D. Blair "Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions," Prentice Hall, Inc 1985 very good in its coverage and examples. Its not time yet to forget the classical introduction by Robert Dorfman, Paul Samuelson, and Robert Solow, "Linear Programming and Economic Analysis," MacGraw Hill, 1968. Although William Baumol's  "Economic Theory and Operations Analysis," Prentice Hall 1961 is an old book, it is precious and basic for this topic as well.
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I have 3 inputs to train the ANFIS. According to the model which i have proposed, one input of the current process is the output of last process.ie; one input depends on the last output. I have collected the real time training data which consists of only 2 inputs. How can i provide the third input, which is not part on my training data?
Can anyone help me.
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thank u so much ...
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Does anybody know how to create an output map of PIV where the graph has a gradient color map instead of colors arrows?
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Hi Haider Al-Ani, it is Particle Image Velocimetry.
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I am using bwa for the mapping of single end reads to the reference genome using following commands.
bwa-0.7.5a/bwa index -a bwtsw ref.fna
bwa aln ref.fna reads.fq > in.sai
bwa samse ref.fna in.sai reads.fq > out.sam
samtools view -S out.sam -b -o out.bam
samtools sort out.bam out.sorted.bam
bam2fastq -o reads.fq --no-aligned out.sorted.bam
samtools mpileup -uf ref.fna out.sorted.bam | bcftools view -cg - | vcfutils.pl vcf2fq > final.fastq
seqret -osformat fasta final.fastq -out2 final.fa
My final output file look like this nnnnnnnnnnncgctagTGACATATATATctaaaaaaaagctTTGCC.
In my final output file (final.fa), I found that there are a lot of lowercase bases and the fa file is a mixture of small n, upper case bases and lowercase bases! What is the actual meaning of lowercase bases present in the file? Do they relate to the quality of information? Should they be discarded or translated to upper case? Note: My reference genome (ref.fna) file does not contain any lowercase bases.
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what you see is the consensus sequence ... low coverage bases or low mapping quality bases tend to be represented in the lower case and places where there was no coverage may have n's ... which version of samtools are you using?
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used approach in environmental, economic, and social sustainability assessment of products or systems.
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It depends on the sector you are studying...the approach I use for construction materials or buildings is product LCA
Have a look at my paper:
F. Asdrubali, C. Baldassarri, V.Fthenakis: “Life Cycle Analysis in the construction sector: guiding the optimization of conventional Italian buildings”, Energy and Buildings, 64 (2013), 73-89.
You can download it from Research gate
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This will assist me in grasping and applying the concept of input-output models and social accounting matrices.
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About data:
There is a 1991 SAM for Zimbabwe:
GTAP has SAMs for a few other South African countries: https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/
The EORA database also reports tables for Zimbabwe (but to be honest I think the data is unreliable):
About research questions:
To find inspiration maybe you can browse the literature on African economics (e.g., http://jae.oxfordjournals.org/). Possible questions: the effect of market distortions such as energy and food subsidies; the effect of climate change; the effect of international aid; etc... People like Sherman Robinson and Channing Arndt have interesting studies about Mozambique, South Africa and other African countries. Specifically about Zimbabwe a quick Google search returned:
I hope this helps.
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I am using and have modified a cross entropy balancing program code using GAMS for my social accounting matrix. In the program, if a cell has a value of zero, it should remain unchanged. However, I end up zeroing a cell value and generating another cell value where they are not really supposed to be. Could someone help me on this? I am willing to send the GAMS file. I got the file from http://www.gams.com/modlib/libhtml/cesam.htm and have modified its data set to fit to my research needs. I have also removed one row and one column from the original set file. Also, I have renamed some of my strings. The original program seems to work perfectly. I suspect that the altering the strings is the problem. However, I do not have enough knowledge in GAMS code programming to decipher and fix the problem.
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First, you should find the differences between the original example code and yours. Then, check your code step by step. Meanwhile, GAMS shows the lines which have mistakes.
If it does not work, let me know.
The best way is sending your code to the RG-groups in order to get the best result.
Regards,
Morteza
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I'm looking for parameters of water use in an applied general equilibrium model.
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Dear Martin, thanks for you advice. I know the article which has been derived from one of the PREM projects. At the same time, I was involved in three other PREM projects. Usually, CGE models make use of subst. elasticities (I've done it myself together with Reyer, one of your co-authors). The background of my question is my interest in the empirical analysis to derive substitution elasticities. Anyhow, I'll reread the article and thanks for your suggestion. Vincent