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Innovation Policy - Science topic

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Dear Colleagues,
Economic policy in the European Union's Eastern and Southern neighborhood is embedded in the frameworks offered by EU's enlargement and neighborhood policies. Under these frameworks, regional development and policy play a significant role, as is evident in the current introduction of the smart specialization approach to regional innovation policy in the Western Balkans, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova, and Tunisia. Further approaches of regional development relevant to EU enlargement and neighborhood countries include the LEADER/CLLD approach, and building capacities in organizations such as regional development agencies according to experiences made in EU member states represents an important complement for the introduction of policy approaches. In this context, the special issue seeks contributions that deal with aspects of regional analysis, policy approaches, and institutional or organizational questions in EU enlargement or neighborhood countries and their regions. 
Dr. Maximilian Benner
Guest Editor
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i will like to contribute
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Namely, I did not manage to find any sound scientific paper on creating value within the software value chain. I use the conceptualisation of the generic software value chain proposed by Pussep, A. et al. (2011 and 2012), but I am still not completely sure which parts of VC are higher value-added vs. lower value-added elements. In other words, I still wonder if software programming (coding) is among lower value-added activities?
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Your question for software, could be the so-called "smiling curve" applied to the software value chain? , does not correspond with my field of specialization narrow for marketing management .
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A) As evolutionary-NeoSchumpeterians (or complexity-oriented) economists, we conceive the economy as a dynamic system in which scattered heterogeneous and boundedly-rational agents interact. Local and global interactions involving feedbacks and domain-specific connections involve producing, investing, consuming, distributing incomes, trading in general, learning, innovating, entry/exit, etc. And the ongoing development of the specifc dynamics we propose to explore a problem generate "EMERGENT PROPERTIES".
B) The methodologies we use range from verbal logical arguments (which of course can be genuinely complex) to complex ABMs, passing through non-linear highly stylized models, replicator dynamics and evolving complex networks with the afore-mentioned components.
C)The specific methodology used is not innocous. Thus, whereas verbal arguments involving real complexity are often almost inestricable, ABMs are a bit more enlightening (the less so the higher the scale), and, in my opinion, the subset of low-scale ABMs, enriched-replicator dynamics, networks and non-linear styled complex models are the best. They often even allow for closed-form quasi-exhaustive analysis.
D) The problem is how should we pass from the results we obtain in our theory, to the posing of policy recommendations to be implemented within a reality which we perceive as emerging from a complex system?
Notice that there are two sources of complexity (2 complex realms involved):
1)The inherent complexity of the real system under scrutiny.
2)The often black-boxed complexity of the theory we propose.
We know that even small differences between two evolving complex systems can make a huge difference in their outcomes. If we assume (as we should) that we can never access the "real complex mechanism underlying reality" (just we should aspire to approach it, at least in social sciences), we should be very prudent in our policy prescriptions.
E) The solution prescribed by those using simple models (mainstream economic models or simple statistical models) is not valid, since they begin by assuming that reality is SIMPLE (instead of complex), and they falsely avoid the problem. Why should social reality be simple in its functioning? The historical record of crisis and social distorsions, and the analogies with natural systems point out to a clear failure of the standard approach. Thus, if we accept complexity:
How do you address the issue of double complextity 1) and 2)?
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Surely this is an extremely interesting and important theme, but I have no enough time today to discuss the points in detail. The following are just my impressions I felt when reading Francisco Fatas-Villafranca and Isabel Almudi 's commnets:
(1) It may not very wise to consider at the same time policy advisers' misconducts and epistemological questions of complex systems and complexity. I understand that you have actual problems on this points, but I feels that epistemology must precede good policy recommendation question.
(2) Fransisco thinks of two realms. I wonder if this is a good framework when we examine complex systems and behaviors in a complex system. I have been thinking that we should better distinguish three "realms" (?) of complexity:
(a) complexity of an objective system (e.g. national or world economy)
(b) behavior of humans in a complex situation (.e.g. how we behave in a complex world.What does the complexity means for us, human beings? )
(c) theory or models of complex systems (e.g. economics and economic of complexity in particular)
(3) Simple rules or behaviors may engender complex processes.
See for example Ronald A. Heiner (1983) The Origin of Predictable Behavior. The American Economic Review 73(4): 560-595.
(4) My general impression vis-à-vis Santa Fe Institute is that they lack a good theory of human or animal behaviors. Fransisco and Isabel may be right when they claim that they are considering too simply the correspondence between real economy and their models. ABM or ABS must be used mainly to understand the working of complex systems, but we should refrain at least at the actual stage of our discipline from using them as means of predictions. Direct application of their simulations is extremely misleading when we do not understand the real process and characteristics of the real system. ABS is a necessary and hopeful mean of economics research but we should also keep in mind that it is still in a embryonic prematured stage.
See my paper: A Guided Tour of the Backside of Agent-Based Simulation.
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As you know, the CIS survey does not show the names of the companies that have participated in the study. However, do those companies have the same ID (or something similar) if they participate in the survey in different periods, hence allowing them to analyze in different time periods? In other words, if I ask for CIS 2008 and CIS 2010, can I collect data for the same company in the two different surveys?
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My answer comes probably too late (unless you still work on this?), but I suggest you talk to my colleague Prof. Fabrice Galia ... (you'll find him on R.G.), we work together on articles using CIS innovation data, i'm sure he can help! 
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It seems that innovative economies have healthy fundamental and applied research outputs. How does this impact innovation remains to be determined! What are your views?
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There is no direct connection, at least between innovation and fundamental science. This is confirmed by the history of many great fundamental discoveries. Take, for example, the fate of Galileo or Faraday. We can name more recent examples. "A genius must be hungry." This is the mean nature of mankind, which then uses his discoveries.
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I think that the interesting point about innovation is uncertainty. However, by studying its structure, its propagation.. one can raise some arguments about R&D policies. Disruptive Innovation is part of what they call, in Schumpeterian economics, creative destruction. That's why decision making is by far more important than models in Innovation. That's the reason why reaction is critical in Innovation policy. And, finally, at the very end, knowledge and understanding of history shapes our view of big picture which is catalytic in decision making. 
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Eu acrescentaria o aspecto da incerteza knightiana que circunda este tipo de inovação desruptiva, ou seja, uma incerteza que não pode ser calculada pelo cálculo de probabilidades, e, ao mesmo tempo, a observação de Simon sobre a importância do processo de observação empírica nos insights das grandes inovações desruptivas. Em outras palavras, o tipo de incerteza presente nas inovações desruptivas não está sujeita ao cálculo probabilístico, mas ao mesmo tempo dependem de conhecimento tácito profundo para serem geradas.
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Nowadays, higher education institutions are manadated to produce new knowledge and technologies to make their nation competent in their economy and an alrounded advancement. In so doing, research and innovation are key instrumnets to address the institutions own problems, the problems of the local community, and a nation at large. What does the literature say in this regard? And what are the instruments of data collection to examine the leadership and management of research and innovation at policy and practice levels in higher education?
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Dear Ivanova,
I thank you so much for your translation and explanation of the chart you attached before and the application of statistical models as contextual way of assessing HEIs.
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I currently work on the research project for the OECD, Observatory of Public Sector Innovation on systems approaches being applied to public policy/public services. We finished the initial framework for public managers and we seek comments, examples for the text. The draft version of the text is published on hackpad until November 20, 2016 for comments (see links below). We are especially interested in any empirical cases where systems thinking was used to transform public policies/services.
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Read my paper which I am attaching here. I also have a couple of other materials that might interest you.
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Hi everyone,
I would like to conduct a study which takes about 2 weeks to be completed. Prior the 2 weeks, Participants are introduced to the concept of ideation or  generation of ideas, then they are asked to come up with at least 10 ideas a day. These daily 10 ideas are supposed to be in one category (For example: 10 ideas about how I can be more productive today, 10 ideas about how to solve a certain problem and etc.) .
They complete tests of creativity, subjective well-being and some other tests before the completion of 2 weeks and after 2 weeks to see if coming up with 10 ideas a day makes any changes in the results of those tests. As research indicates, creativity correlates with subjective well-being *. But is it creativity to come up with 10 ideas a day?
I am asking to please reflect on my hypothesis, as I feel something is missing, or the hypothesis can not be studied.
I also would like to ask what psychological concepts do you think may correlate with creativity or idea machine?
Thank you
Sincerely,
Hossein
* Peyvastegar, M., & Dastjerdi, E. (2010). Relationship between creativity and subjective well-being. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4(3), 207-213.
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I see two different issues:
The first thing to do is to clarify Sylvia's critique to the terms and how they relate to one another. My take is that creativeness and ideas are linked via the appraisal of creativeness of that idea. The idea itself must be valued (that becomes another issue completely different. One which I have taken interest on).
The second is that one must be careful that one set of problems do not reinforce and bias the study. For example, given that I work on X and my work focuses on analizing productivity I reinforce my well being and the next day I may be able to tackle 10 ideas about how to solve a certain problem. The same can be said in reinforcing frustration or anxiety of coming only with 5 instead of 10 ideas. I would space the problems further apart to avoid biases. I would also narrow it down to a specific profile of individual.
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I need articles to support that 
thank you 
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More two articles to help you.
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Some studies claim, that the most succesful firms are established by teams/groups. Still, many believe in the myth of "lone hero-entrepreneur". Should we have education for team entrepreneurship and reasearch for that?
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Quantitatively speaking most new ventures are team-based. In terms of performance, there are mixed results. Generally team-based new ventures have better growth though... I believe that entrepreneurial teams should be a teaching subject (and I teach it) but not as a "must" or "should" do. Team entrepreneurship is not a panacea. I try to gather evidence for the best uses of entrepreneurial teams and, once that choice is made, for the hurdles to overcome and suggest solutions, methodologies. There are some interesting elements in Noam Wasserman's book "The Founder`s Dilemmas – Anticipating and Avoiding the Pitfalls That Can Sink a Startup" although I wouldn't be as categorical as the author in many instances. Also, I would recommend a forthcoming edited book I have worked on.
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I am working within at least two projects based on achiveing the requirements outlined in The Triple Helix concept. According to Stanford University (on their website) The Triple Helix concept relies "on three main ideas:
(1) a more prominent role for the University in innovation, on a par with Industry and Government in the Knowledge Society;
(2) a movement toward collaborative relationships among the three major institutional spheres, in which  innovation policy is increasingly  an outcome of interaction rather than a prescription from Government;
(3) in addition to fulfilling their traditional functions, each institutional sphere also “takes the role of the other” performing new roles as well as their traditional function. Institutions taking non-traditional roles are viewed as a major potential source of innovation in innovation."
 – https://hstar.stanford.edu/3helix_concept (accessed 13 april 2016)
This last idea, taking the role of the other, sounds very interesting and reflects much of my own situation. I am rather recently employed within industry having previously been active as a Ph.D student and research engineer in academia.
My question:
What is your experience of working with this concept and any recomendations you may have which is particularly related to studies of Information and Communications technology (ICT)?
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Thank you yet again Brian.
All the best,
Carlos
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Nations of the world vary in their technological capabilities as they do in other measures of development. these nations can be classified into multiple Technology clubs, such as highly advanced or innovative nations that still create most of the innovations in the global innovation network, then there are those who are good at acquisition and adaptation of innovations originated elsewhere, these nations innovation systems are developing fast. and then there are those who show no signs of active convergence towards becoming an innovation driven economy. The first and second types have innovation systems and thus innovation policies at varying degree of effectiveness. while the third type are passive learners being dragged behind the global innovation train only growing with whatever trickles down, from the global innovation and production system, or serendipitous creative repairs type adaptation.
Effectiveness of institutions and policies is necessary for existence and performance of innovation systems, which are in essence, intentional and created systems not occurring in normal capitalist market mechanisms. thus these technology clubs must also be divided along the policy lines. Whether innovation policy institutions exist and how effective they are, might be a determinant of technological capabilities development.
what would be the measures of effectiveness of innovation policies? Output measures as well as input and throughput measures. What is the bare minimum threshold of effective technology/innovation policy? What policy guidelines should be suitable for such passive learning economies to escape their technology lock-in state?
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Financial & non-financial incentives can be the key elements to drive national innovation.
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I am impressed that EU has recognized innovation as critical factor for sustaining quality of life in future. To my knowledge, each country is required to have a policy, infrastructure and investment in innovation. Then, the innovation scorecards were developed. Has anything changed in EU due to this innovation initiative?
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Mr Gupta,
The previous respondent has given you lots of information. If that is not enough, here is another: http://ec.europa.eu/research/index.cfm... actually this site is the root site.
The document MEMO-15-4928_EN.pdf obtainable at the EU site compares the different countries of the EU and it includes some data from the US, the BRICS countries, Australia and Canada to name a few.
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I'm looking for papers and books about the economics of science and technological parks, theoretically and empirically.
Theoretically, I want to understand the underlying logic and when science parks are a good or a bad choice.
Empirically, I'm looking for cost-benefit analysis: are they a good investment?
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I wish to thanks for the citations. I think that the reading of the mentioned paper could be so useful to better understand the real effects produced by a Science Parks 
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The White Paper on Transport (2011) has set as an objective to reach buy 2030 an essentially CO2 free urban freight distribution in major cities. What are in your opinion the most promising research alleys one should focus on to reach asuch an objective? Should we concentrate on technologY? Regulation? Stakeholder involvement? Innovative policy formulations? And who should we involve in the research? Why?
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Dear Edoardo
Good question. The issue is complex hence one does need to work on all factors.
I am working on this area since last two years and have exchanged ideas with various stakeholders on the feasibility of the proposed solutions. I started with a technology factor discussing how different stakeholders (including regulators) can work together to achieve the white paper goals of modal shift. For e.g. Internet based multimodal exchanges for consolidating road transport to rail to reduce CO2 emissions.
Please see an article I wrote on it. Does this answer your question? 
Best regards
Anuradha
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I am currently trying to estimate the relationship between Labour Productivity Growth and Innovation Policies. The Independent Variables are, 1. Level of Government expenditure on Tertiary Education in initial year, 2. Level of Government expenditure on Research and Development in initial year, 3. Distance to Frontier on Ease of Doing Business Index in initial year, and, 4. Initial year value for the country in Index of Government Effectiveness from World Governance Indicators. The Dependent Variable is Delta of Final and Initial Year Natural Log of Labour Productivity (that is effectively representing the growth in labour productivity between the initial and final year. I want to introduce resource dependence and see if it has an effect on the model. What is the best way to introduce the variable Natural Resource Rents Percent GDP. I am considering to introduce it by multiplying one minus the natural resource rents in initial year to the growth in labour productivity over the entire period. The idea is that this will exclude the natural resource rents portion of the total labour productivity. Another approach would be to do ln[(1 - %GDP.Nat.Res.Rent.Year.N)*Lab.Prod.Year.N] - ln[(1 - %GDP.Nat.Res.Rent.Year.0)*Lab.Prod.Year.0]. Which approach is better? I think the second approach is better. Is there any other approach that you would recomment? 
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Here is a thought that I learned from my mentor and would like to share about GDP, which is commonly defined as "...the monetary value of all goods and services produced within a nation's geographic borders over a specified period of time." My mentor further provides an example: If there is a nature disaster, such earthquake and hurricane, happened. The GDP rate will go up due to all the repair work that will be needed as my mentor anticipated. Would economists consider that there is a growth of GDP in that particular year? The country's labour productivity would depend on short term factors too, and innovation policy is considered as a longer stable term effect. Hence, you must first have good definitions prior to the introduction of the relationship between labour productivity growth and innovation policy. 
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A conglomerates means group of business firms, there maybe different business or there are established in the group by the policy or business objectives of the group. So these firms should have the same origin of philosophy of their group. When the conglomerates move to be an Innovative organization, what's required of their firms in the group? How does the board committee of the group drive and manage their firms to be innovative firms?
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I suggest you the article "new perspectives on the innovation strategies of multinational enterprises. Lessons for technology policy in Europe"
It contains an empirical study of 21 corporations in innovation strategy changes.
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looking for the relationship between the training as an input to foster innovation
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Dear Daniel Paulino Teixeira Lopes,
thank you very much for your answer and you comments
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See above
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Attached are 2 files: (1) IMF's macroeconomic data of all member countries, and (ii) World Economic Forum annual report on Global Competitive Report which contains information on national innovation listed by countries. With these data on hand, you should be able to construct a model and test it. Cheers.
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I look for partners for collaboration :-)
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I am in China and want to follow you to work ,you can guide  me to do some works about this field as possible as i can,including collecting literatures,writing reviews,developing heposesis,research design,testing tools such as mesuring scales,data collecting,statisticing,writting working paper and submiting,meanwhile i can use grounded theory to develping new theory about this field!
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I am looking for information about matching grant theory or evidence on the technology development phase. Precisely I am talking about when the applied research has been proved on the concept and needs a new financial stage for continuing to develop the technology.
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The journal 'Venture Capital' has quite some work on innovation financing, see e.g.:
Dahlstrand, Å.L. & Cetindamar, D., 2000. The dynamics of innovation financing in Sweden. Venture Capital, 2(3), pp.203–221.
Chang, C., Shipp, S. & Wang, A., 2002. The Advanced Technology Program: A public-private partnership for early stage technology development. Venture Capital, 4(4), pp.363–370.
 and also
O’Sullivan, M., 2006. Finance and Innovation. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson, eds. The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 240–265.
Nightingale, P. et al., 2009. From funding gaps to thin markets: UK Government support for early-stage venture capital. Available at: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/106659/Thin-Markets-v9.pdf?sequence=2
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There are a wide variety of scientific and/or technological parks. But although the flame one way or another, exist within science and technology. So there is a lack of definition in the terminology used?
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A university research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area where innovation is a key. It is a physical place that supports university-industry and government collaboration with the intent of creating high technology economic development and advancing knowledge. There are many approximate synonyms for "university research park", science park", technology park, technopolis and biopark.
The appropriate term typically depends on the type of affiliation the parks has with an institution of higher learning and research, and also perhaps the sort of science and research in which the park's entities engage.
These parks differ from typical high-technology business districts in that university research parks and science and tech parks are more organized, planned, and managed.
They differ from science centres in that they are a place where research is commercialized. Typically businesses and organizations in the parks focus on product advancement and innovation as opposed to industrial parks that focus on manufacturing and business parks that focus on administration.
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What are the main variables/indicators that affect the national innovation capacity of the nations, and what type of variable combination is suitable for having positive affect on national innovation capacity and economy?
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The ability of the education system to generate students with innovation skills is important.
I agree as well with Arturo on the importance of networking.
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Any developed standpoint of categorizing company’s innovation evolution process into external and internal paradigm?
Do you know any research looking at innovation from this two main perspective (internal and external) somehow try to distinguish the factors that encourage or hamper innovation? For example R&D expenditure as an internal factor encourage the innovation or maybe competitiveness may encourage innovation as an external factor.
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Hi Arash:
My co-authors and I are looking at the high-tech life cycle and both internal and external effects during the various stages of the life-cycle. Because high-tech is relatively faster and more turbulent in the market life-cycle, it’s perhaps easier to look at what is happening both internally and externally. Below are some links and publications that may help you. Dr. KopIyay and I also have two papers for the ISERC Conference in Montreal this June that I can post once we get the final papers completed.
Corporate Lifecycles: Modelling the dynamics of innovation and its support structure. http://timreview.ca/article/733
Force Field analysis and strategic management: a dynamic approach
Life Cycle Innovation and Patent Strategies
Koplyay, Tamás Michel. Douglas Lloyd, Lisa Sanchez, Jean-Paul Paquin: The influence of leadership, incentives, decision making and culture on innovation in hi-tech firms. International annual conference of the American Society for Engineering Management [ASEM], Virginia Beach, US. (2012).
Koplyay, Tamás Michel, Douglas Lloyd, Lisa Sanchez; Stakeholder issues along the lifecycle in global hi-tech firms. Proceedings of the industrial and systems engineering research conference [ISERC], Orlando, Florida. (2012).
oplyay, Tamás Michel; Lloyd, Doug; Powers, Jane; Sanchez, Lisa Dimensions of decision- making in evolving h-tech companies. 32nd American Society of Engineering Management Annual Conference, Lubbock , Texas, (2011).
Koplyay, Tamás Michel; Li, Li; Rochefort, Pauline, Hi-tech innovation strategies and the market lifecycle. 31st American Society of Engineering Management Annual Conference, Lafayette , Arkansas, (2010).
Have a look at the papers and if you're interested, let's keep in touch.
Regards,
Brian
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Can you point me to literature, results, examples, methodological contributions on analysing and evaluating cluster or network policies? I refer specifically to policies implemented at national, regional or industry level which try to link business enterprises, universities and research organisations, the public sector and intermediaries to support industry or technology development.
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Nobody has picked this up so far, but I'd like to share what I found myself, in case anyone is interested and comes across the post. Within the "Compendium of Evidence on the effectiveness of Innovation Policy" a number of interesting reviews have been written:
Cunningham, P., & Ramlogan, R. (2012). The Effects of Innovation Network Policies, Compendium of Evidence on the effectiveness of Innovation Policy. London and Manchester: NESTA and MIoIR.
Uyarra, E., & Ramlogan, R. (2012). The Effects of Cluster Policy on Innovation, Compendium of Evidence on the effectiveness of Innovation Policy. Manchester and London: NESTA.
Cunningham, P., & Gök, A. (2012). The Impact and Effectiveness of Policies to Support Collaboration for R&D and Innovation, Compendium of Evidence on the effectiveness of Innovation Policy. London: NESTA.
And my much appreciated former colleague Matthias Kiese from Bochum pointed me to the following:
Angeles Diez, Maria (2001): The Evaluation of Regional Innovation and Cluster Policies: Towards a Participatory Approach. In: European Planning Studies 9 (7), S. 907-924.
Aranguren, Mari Jose; Aragón, Cristina; Larrea, Miren; Iturrioz Landart, Cristina (2008): Does Cluster Policy Really Enhance Networking and Increase Competitiveness? In: Mari Jose Aranguren Querejeta, Cristina Iturrioz Landart und James R. Wilson (Hg.): Networks, Governance and Economic Development. Bridging Disciplinary Frontiers. Cheltenham: Elgar, S. 101-128.
Colgan, Charles S.; Baker, Colin (2003): A framework for assessing cluster development. In: Economic Development Quarterly 17 (4), S. 352-366.
Fromhold-Eisebith, Martina; Eisebith, Günter (2008): Looking Behind Facades: Evaluating Effects of (Automotive) Cluster Promotion. In: Regional Studies 42 (10), S. 1343-1356.
Ketels, Christian H.M. (2005): How to Evaluate Clusters. In: La Revue Parlementaire (881). http://www.larevueparlementaire.fr/pages/DS_juill05/DSpole_cketels.htm.
Schmiedeberg, Claudia (2010): Evaluation of Cluster Policy: A Methodological Overview. In: Evaluation 16 (4), S. 389-412.
Sölvell, Örjan; Williams, Mats (2013): Building the Cluster Commons. An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organizations in Sweden 2005 - 2012. Stockholm: Ivory Tower Publishers. http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/system/modules/com.gridnine.opencms.modules.eco/providers/getpdf.jsp?uid=7a70a31d-3f8a-41c9-b415-f88e464d116a.
Turner, Mark; Monnard, Alexandre; Leete, Laura (2013): The Evaluation of the U.S. Small Business Administration’s Regional Clusters Initiative. Year Two Report. Washington, D.C.; College Park, MD: U.S. Small Business Administration; Optimal Solutions Group, LLC.
Happy reading!!!!
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Hi Khalid:
You may also want to look into the work of Dr. Michael Fritsch at Friedrich Schiller University. Links to his page are:
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Apart from cross-national studies and methods based on Hofstede´s dimensiones, as in Vaasa & Kadi (2008) or Lanzjan (2011) since my intention is to focus on a strategic research material (Merton, 1957) using qualitative methods
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May I add: (i) a paper on Regional Innovation Cultures, by Trippl and Toedling (http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=3017&cf=29); and (ii) the notes on session 3 - Innovation Culture (http://www.proinno-europe.eu/sites/default/files/Workshop_Conclusion_42007______42007_____.pdf)