Science topic

Informed Consent - Science topic

Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
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Publications related to Informed Consent (10,000)
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Article
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Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent lung disease. It is assumed that severe patients will receive better treatment in specialised care centres but the prevalence of severe COPD in primary care is high. Integrated primary care services combine input from several sources and advice from pulmonologists to provide ge...
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There appears to be a conflict between global bioethical principles and the local understanding and application of these principles, but this conflict has misleadingly been characterized through the east-west dichotomy. This dichotomy portrays bioethical principles as western and as alien to non-western cultures. In this paper, I present reasons to...
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Endosex, in contrast to intersex, refers to innate physical sex characteristics judged to fall within the broad range of what is considered “usual for binary female or male bodies by the medical field,” or to persons with such characteristics [1] (p. 437). In this short contribution, we explain the origins and increasing use of this little-known te...
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Issues related to controlled human infection studies using Schistosoma mansoni (CHI-S) were explored to ensure the ethical and voluntary participation of potential CHI-S volunteers in an endemic setting in Uganda. We invited volunteers from a fishing community and a tertiary education community to guide the development of informed consent procedure...
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Background The contemporary frameworks for clinical research require informed consent for research participation that includes disclosure of material information, comprehension of disclosed information and voluntary consent to research participation. There is thus an urgent need to test, and an ethical imperative, to test, modify or refine medicati...
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Background and objectives Safety and effectiveness concerns may preclude physicians from recommending vaccination in mild/moderate inborn errors of immunity (IEI). This study describes attitudes and practices regarding vaccination among physicians who care for patients with mild/moderate B cell or mild/moderate combined immunodeficiencies (CID) and...
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Background MTOR inhibition is an effective treatment for many manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex. Because mTOR inhibition is a disease modifying therapy, lifelong use will most likely be necessary. This study addresses the long-term effects of mTOR inhibitors on lipid and glucose metabolism and aims to provide better insight in the incide...
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Estrogen may have opposing effects on health, namely increasing the risk of breast cancer and improving bone health by increasing bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to compare dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD between women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and matched controls without breast cancer. Women newly d...
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Background Patient registries provide long-term, real-world evidence that aids the understanding of the natural history and progression of disease, and the effects of treatment on large patient populations with rare diseases. The year 2021 marks the 20th anniversary of the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS), an international, multicenter, observational reg...
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Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an effective treatment in severe asthma. How to select patients who more likely benefit from BT is an unmet clinical need. Moreover, mechanisms of BT efficacy are still largely unknown. We sought to determine BT efficacy and to identify potential mechanisms of response. Methods: This retrospective cohor...
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Background Diabetes-related foot ulceration (DFU) has a substantial burden on both individuals and healthcare systems both globally and in Australia. There is a pressing need for updated guidelines on wound healing interventions to improve outcomes for people living with DFU. A national expert panel was convened to develop new Australian evidence-b...
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Background Given the urgent need for vaccines and treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Symptoms of Infection with Coronavirus-19 (SIC), a comprehensive, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure of signs and symptoms associated with COVID-19, was developed in full alignment with current US regulatory guidance to support evaluations...
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Organoids are 3D structures grown from pluripotent stem cells derived from human tissue and serve as in vitro miniature models of human organs. Organoids are expected to revolutionize biomedical research and clinical care. However, organoids are not seen as morally neutral. For instance, tissue donors may perceive enduring personal connections with...
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Due to improvements in medicine, the figures of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) are increasing. Diagnostics of DoC and prognostication of rehabilitation outcome is challenging but necessary to evaluate recovery potential and to decide on treatment options. Such decisions should be made by doctors and patients' surrogates based on med...
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Mental health practitioners provide therapeutic interventions to youth on a daily basis, yet sparse research exists to inform ethical decision-making. It is commonly understood that therapeutic work with youth is ethically complex especially when considering informed consent and confidentiality, both of which have practical limitations. This review...
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Background: Given increasing community-based and off-label use of ketamine for psychiatric indications, we examined current informed consent processes from a convenience sample of outpatient ketamine clinics to identify areas of congruence with current evidence and opportunities for growth. Methods: Using a rubric developed from existing practic...
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This paper discusses Jessica Flanigan’s book, Pharmaceutical Freedom. The paper advances two main claims. First, the paper argues that, despite what Flanigan claims, there is a coherent way to endorse the Doctrine of Informed Consent while resisting the view that there is a right to self-medicate. Second, the paper argues that Flanigan is committed...
Article
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Purpose This study investigates the feasibility of ultrafast fluid sensitive techniques for evaluation of pediatric spinal cord syrinx. Rapid imaging could obviate the need for sedation, which is often required for children undergoing lengthier standard spine imaging. Methods Children undergoing standard spine imaging for Chiari malformation, susp...
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Research-oriented universities are known for prolific research activity that is often supported by students in faculty-guided research. To maintain ethical standards, universities require on-going training of both faculty and students to ensure Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). However, previous research has indicated RCR-based training is ins...
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In Pharmaceutical Freedom Professor Flanigan argues we ought to grant people self-medication rights for the same reasons we respect people’s right to give (or refuse to give) informed consent to treatment. Despite being the most comprehensive argument in favour of self-medication written to date, Flanigan’s Pharmaceutical Freedom leaves a number of...
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Breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in females worldwide, about 10% being hereditary/familial and due to DNA variants in cancer-predisposing genes, such as the highly penetrant BRCA1/BRCA2 genes. However, their variants explain up to 25% of the suspected hereditary/familial cases. The availability of NGS methodologies has prompted research i...
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Background: An alternative to population-based genetic testing, automated cascade genetic testing facilitated by sharing of family health history, has been conceptualized as a more efficient and cost-effective approach to identify hereditary genetic conditions. However, existing software and applications programming interfaces (API) for the practic...
Article
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Background 300 million operations and procedures are performed annually across the world, all of which require a patient’s informed consent. No standardised measure of the consent process exists in current clinical practice. We aimed to define a core outcome set for informed consent for therapy. Methods The core outcome set was developed in accord...
Article
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Introduction Major surgery accounts for a substantial proportion of health service activity, due not only to the primary procedure, but the longer-term health implications of poor short-term outcome. Data from small studies or from outside the UK indicate that rates of complications and failure to rescue vary between hospitals, as does compliance w...
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Chlamydia trachomatis also known as the "Silent Epidemic" is a major threat to the reproductive health of women. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis based one demographic factors among women attending clinics in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State. Each participant completed a researcher-devised questionnaire...
Article
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IntroductionIn the context of giving risk information for obtaining informed consent, it is not easy to comply with the ethical principle of “primum nihil nocere.” Carelessness, ignorance of nocebo effects and a misunderstood striving for legal certainty can lead doctors to comprehensive and brutal risk information. It is known that talking about r...
Article
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Background Although mass vaccination has reduced the severity of COVID-19, mortality is still high among hospitalized patients. Being a sepsis-like disease, an anti-inflammatory drug as atorvastatin would reduce mortality and severity in COVID-19. Methods We designed a randomized clinical trial that recruited 220 COVID-19 patients admitted in the...
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The paper reports results of the very first survey-based study on the prevalence, frequency and nature of ethical or other non-medical difficulties faced by Polish physicians in their everyday clinical practice. The study involved 521 physicians of various medical specialties, practicing mainly in inpatient healthcare. The study showed that the maj...
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Introduction: Cardiogenic shock due to myocardial infarction or heart failure entails a reduction in end organ perfusion. Patients who cannot be stabilized with inotropes and who experience increasing circulatory failure are in need of an extracorporeal mechanical support system. Today, small, percutaneously implantable cardiac assist devices are...
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So regularly, Continues and untimely consuming Viruddhahar for long time there is formation of Garavisha results in Aganimandya leading to dosh dusti especially Pitta Dosha and dhatu dusti leading to dhatushaithilya resulting Bal, Varna and Ojakashya and subsequently manifests as Pandu showing symptoms as Daurbalya, Annadavit, Shram, Bhram, Aruchi,...
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The aim of this article is to summarise the concerns and recommendations about sharing patients' data on social media by Indian dentists. It identifies a need for formulating policy at institutional and national levels for sharing and storage of clinical data on social media.Dentists commonly post patients' photographs on social media like Facebook...
Article
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Purpose: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has left the student community in distress. They have had to vacate their hostels and go home, which has restyled their enjoyable campus life into virtual online classes. The technical glitches and uncertainty of the future kept them in the doldrum. Our study explored the subgroups of socio�demograp...
Article
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Active participation of youth and surrogate decision-makers in providing informed consent and assent for mental health treatment is critical. However, the procedural elements of an informed consent process, particularly for youth in child welfare custody, are not well defined. Given calls for psychotropic medication oversight for youth in child wel...
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Background Preterm labour prediction has been relied on history of previous preterm birth and cervical length of current pregnancy. However, universal cervical length measurement has some limitation. We aim to find a surrogate marker of cervical length to close the gap in preterm prevention program and lower uterine wall thickness seems promising....
Poster
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Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common congenital renal anomaly, estimated at about 0.25% among the general population. HSK shows variations in origin, number, and size of the renal vasculature. In this report, the detailed anatomy of a single case of HSK is described. During the abdominal dissection of a male cadaver in the Anatomy Department o...
Poster
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Muscle and tendon aberrations have been described in the literature for decades. The current case report describes a duplication of the sartorius muscle (SM). During the dissection of a male cadaver of 55 years of age, in the Anatomy Department of AUTh a double-headed SM was identified. No ethical approval was required for the conduction of this st...
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Acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is mediated by the activation of the classical complement system in addition to noncomplement-dependent inflammatory pathways. Complement fixation by donor-specific antibodies leads to cleavage of the complement proteins C4, C3, and C5 to produce multiple complement split-products (CSP) and the end-effector m...
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Context: Accumulated evidence suggests that X‑radiations can induce genotoxic effects and are not safe at any particular radiation dose level. Various assays have been proposed as potential tools in cytogenetic biomonitoring studies, but they have limitations. Aims of the Study: To assess the genotoxic effects of panoramic radiography on oral mucos...
Article
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Since the mid-20th century, the study of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) has aimed to identify the distinctive characteristics that enable individuals to acquire new knowledge and skills under their control. The theory of Internal Self-Regulation vs. External-Regulation in Learning (SRL vs. ERL; 2017) has postulated that a large number of self-regula...
Poster
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Objectives: Emotional disorders (EDs) are the most common mental health problems and produce a great burden in the national health system. This protocol aims to compare the economic feasibility of implementing in primary care a brief, transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioural therapy (tCBT) for mild to moderate EDs with that of the treatment usually a...
Article
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Study design: A cross-sectional study based on an online questionnaire. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) in people with lower limb amputation (LLA) and to analyse the association factors that can influence the genesis of LBP. Summary of background data: It is still unclear whether LBP is more preval...
Article
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Objective: This study purports to answer the question: Does a dual-energy CT scan of the chest using reduced radiation result in images of equal or better quality compared to those produced by the gold standard of care? Methods: With the agreement of the Ethical Review Committee and written informed consent from 32 patients, who received dual-energ...
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IntrodIntroduction Preeclampsia is a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Uterine artery waveform and biomarkers like pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) may reflect the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Thus, we aim to find out whether abnormal uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and low serum PAPP-A in...
Article
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Introduction Managing postoperative pain requires an individualized approach in order to balance adequate pain control with risk of persistent opioid use and narcotic abuse associated with inappropriately outsized narcotic prescriptions. Shared decision-making has been proposed to address individual pain management needs. We report here the results...
Article
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Context: Accumulated evidence suggests that X‑radiations can induce genotoxic effects and are not safe at any particular radiation dose level. Various assays have been proposed as potential tools in cytogenetic biomonitoring studies, but they have limitations. Aims of the Study: To assess the genotoxic effects of panoramic radiography on oral mucos...
Article
Full-text available
Background The World Health Organization recommends tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment (TPT) for all people living with HIV (PLH) and household contacts (HHC) of index TB patients. Tests for TB infection (TBI) or to rule out TB disease (TBD) are preferred, but if not available, this should not be a barrier if access to these tests is limited fo...
Article
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Dermatoglyphics is the study of the configuration of epidermal ridges of the volar surfaces of palms, fingers, soles and toes. This study on digital dermatoglyphic patterns of Ibibio ethnic group of Akwa Ibom State was aimed at analyzing the dermatoglyphic patterns present on the fingers of the Ibibio people and the interrelationship existing among...
Article
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There is limited knowledge concerning factors that affect non-exclusive breastfeeding (NEBF) practices in immigrant populations, especially in Latin America. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between maternal factors and the prevalence of NEBF in Haitian immigrant women in southern Chile. This was an analytical cro...
Article
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Background Pucotenlimab, also called HX008, is a humanized anti-PD-1 antagonist IgG4 mAb. It blocks programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2). In the CBCSG 006 trial, gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) has shown impressive antitumor activity as first-line therapy for metastatic tri...
Article
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The present study investigates the mediating role of sense of control in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and flourishing. A cross-sectional study design was employed and a total of 368 international students studying in Turkey consented to voluntarily take part in the study. The participants who were identified using convenience sampling...
Article
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Purpose Prone position is known to improve acute lung injury, and chest radiographs are often necessary to monitor disease and confirm support device placement. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding radiographs obtained in this position. We evaluated prone radiographs for distinguishing features and ability to identify support devices...
Article
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Introduction A major development in solid malignancy treatment is the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which have produced durable responses and increased survival rates. However, the therapeutic effect of ICIs has great heterogeneity in patients with cancer. We propose a systematic review to evaluate the predictive value of tumo...
Article
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Background: Hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on dialysis. Blood pressure (BP) control is of paramount importance in reducing morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population, although there is no consensus on target BP. Ambulatory BP recording is considered gold standard i...
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This study describes a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant in a nursing home in Central Italy during October-November 2021. Trained interviewers collected data from residents, staff, and administration officers with an agreed informed consent procedure. Thirty-two (44.5%) out of 72 residents (median age 89 years) and six (26...
Article
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Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic paralyzes the education sector. To minimize the interruption of teaching and learning, most universities in Malaysia shifted to virtual mode during this unprecedented period of the pandemic. With an ever-increasing number of Malaysians fully vaccinated against COVID-19, the education syste...
Article
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Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a common mode of respiratory support used in neonatal intensive care units. In preterm infants, nasal CPAP (nCPAP) therapy is often delivered via soft, biocompatible nasal mask suitable for long-term direct skin contact and held firmly against the face. Limited sizes of nCPAP mask contribute...
Article
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Background: Postoperative pain is of significant concern to patients undergoing lower limb surgery. Several pharmacological agents have been used to manage postoperative pain following lower limb orthopaedic surgery with variable results. However, only a few studies compared pregabalin and gabapentin for postoperative pain management of lower limb...
Article
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Background: Adolescents comprise 1.2 billion of the world population. There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among secondary school adolescents in Dongola city, North Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-ba...
Article
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Carrier screening for autosomal recessive variants has become a cornerstone of community and public health genetics. While the first carrier screening programs were confined to conditions with relatively high prevalence, and hence well-known carrier frequency, the number of candidate genes has increased greatly since the advent of high-throughput D...
Article
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Objective: Conducting research in the emergency department (ED) is often complicated by patients' acute and chronic illnesses, which can adversely affect cognition and subsequently capacity to consent for research, especially in older adults. Validated screening tools to assess capacity to consent for research exist, but neither the frequency of u...
Article
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The aim of the paper is that of investigating the concept of “person” in the context of Italian law on informed consent and advance healthcare directives (law n. 219/2017). The following paper will first consider the importance of the concept of “person” within bioethics; secondly it will exhibit how there are different levels of bioethics, and tha...
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Background Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing long-term outcome after laparoscopic (LF) and open fundoplication (OF) in children are lacking. Here we report recurrence rates and time to recurrence, frequency of re-interventions, use of antisecretory drugs, gastrointestinal symptoms, and patient/parental satisfaction a decade after childre...
Conference Paper
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The discussion of ethics in relation to AI often centres on concerns about privacy, surveillance, bias, discrimination and attempts to use AI to influence human behaviour. When considering ethical AI in transportation, the "trolley problem" dilemma is often the issue that immediately comes to mind, leading to discussions about whether and how auton...
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Purpose The present study compares the most frequently used the CATCH, PECARN, and CHALICE clinical decision protocols with an aim to evaluate their effectiveness from the population perspective. Methods This study included all patients under 18 years of age presenting with blunt head trauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 and higher for whom...
Article
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Background Patients scheduled for coronary angiography may feel insufficiently informed about the planned procedure. We aimed to evaluate the patient-rated quality of the Informed Consent (IC) process and to investigate the efficacy of medical graphics to assist and improve the IC procedure. Methods A graphic-based information broschure illustrati...
Article
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) banking is an important laboratory service that preserves the option of future genetic testing. DNA bank consent forms are a critical tool to facilitate thorough and valid informed consent. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of consistency of current clinical DNA banking consent forms with the American...