Science topic

Infectious Diseases - Science topic

Infectious diseases, also known as contagious diseases or transmissible diseases, and include communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
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"A U.S. federal judge has ordered the OMICS International publishing group to pay $50.1 million in damages for deceiving thousands of authors who published in its journals and attended its conferences. It's one of the first rulings of its kind against one of the largest publishers accused of so-called predatory tactics."
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As you already indicate the publisher “OMICS Publishing Group” is a notorious example of a predatory publisher, see also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OMICS_Publishing_Group and their inclusion in the Beall’s list (https://beallslist.net ). The journal is, as a consequence (and in most of the times), by definition predatory as well.
So much more to say about the journal “Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy” (https://www.omicsonline.org/infectious-diseases-and-therapy.php) but charging 1670 USD (https://www.omicsonline.org/instructionsforauthors-infectious-diseases-and-therapy-open-access.php ) for a basically non-indexed journal is way too much. The fact that they ask you in a, as far as I can see, unrelated field of expertise is a big red flag as well.
So, I would say avoid and simply delete the mail.
Best regards.
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#Infectious disease
#E. coli
#Gene expression
#Transcriptome
Kindly suggest! Thanks in advance. Appreciate any help you can provide.
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Soap fights E.coli. ...it's real soap science, what I make, what I do. Real soap helps solve a tremendous number of problems.
Like, "SARS-CoV-2's outer lipid layer is dissolved by soap and the virus falls apart." ...from the EPA. CDC stated, Use soap and water. How was there ever a narrative followed?
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Government laws require occupational biohazard management. However, they do not present guidelines on which methodology to apply. I guess it's because of the particularities of each occupation and organization. Do you know any methodology for the evaluation of biological risk, in which the calculation of the level of risk can be obtained?
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Thank you, Fernanda.
Could someone suggest literature for the recognition of biological agents in occupational tasks? This was the biggest challenge I have encountered for the use of BIOGAVAL-NEO, in addition to the incidence and prevalence data.
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Dear Researchers,
The recent changes in the COVID-19 epidemic have led to the emergence of a new SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC), named "Omicron," and the number of Omicron cases were consistently increasing around the world. The health professional's knowledge is of utmost importance to prevent and control the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant of COVID-19. In this regard, we would likely to know the level of knowledge and Perceptions of health professionals about the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant; this can provide a greater opportunity to understand the existing knowledge gaps about the novel Omicron variant and to scale up the interventional strategies. Thus, I invite you to participate in this short survey and provide your
valuable opinion regarding the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.
Thanking you in advance
Sincerely
Akshaya Bhagavathula
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Is it indispensable to receive a vaccine by the COVID-19 recovered person?
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As per my opinion it is advisable to receive complete schedule of COVID vaccine irrespective of past history of infection with COVID-19.
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Dear Researchers,
Preliminary data of various studies showed the proportion of the population from Black (in New York), Asian (UK) and other minority ethnic backgrounds and people from low income are highly deprived with COVID-19. These groups reported higher COVID-19 mortality rates irrespective of population density. Furthermore, most of these minority groups are aged 50-79. Since the epidemic started, several studies have confirmed these findings. It is interesting to discuss the reasons behind these adverse outcomes and also share your experience about COVID-19.
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We have been pursuing the possibility that a cluster of unusual chronic illnesses among a group of veterinarian colleagues and some of their extended family, might be caused by infection/colonization with a novel type of organism.
Thorough standard medical work-up has not determined the underlying cause of this “syndrome”, involving chronic hematuria, calcium/phosphate metabolism dysregulation, and development of pain and small nodules especially in areas of fascia or loose connective tissue.
However, simple wet-mounts of what Should be sterile tissues from several of those affected showed objects not normal for those areas, including objects staining positive for cellulose or chitin, and small, motile objects moving with a eukaryotic flagellar swimming pattern.
We attempted to culture these tissues and found that surface colonies only rarely developed, and even then, not usually till 6+ weeks after the culture was started. Oddly, contaminant colonies almost never developed on the test-subject agar plates, and, if continued to incubate, they began developing small spheres within the matrix of the agar, followed by visible fern-like ridges, all developing within the deeper layers of the agar. This did not occur in the control plates.
We initially suspected some type of inorganic crystal formation, but still checked for evidence of an organic process by using sterile technique to cut pieces of the agar, which we rehydrated in sterile water and stained with sterile cotton blue.
To our amazement, the piece of agar stained in a pattern of millions of very small blue dots embedded within the matrix of the agar, and within 45 minutes, there was obvious motility and free-swimming of huge numbers of these blue dots. They resemble motile zoospores of some type of spore-producing organism. When that same slide was allowed to dry, the “dots” produced germ-tube like extensions and formed a network of what appeared to be thin hyphae or pseudohyphae.
This finding was repeatable in cultures from several of the affected patients and absent in controls from healthy donors. We hypothesize that this may be some form of oomycete, or other stramnopile relative, and are hoping to find experts in these types of organism/infection who might be able to comment on if they have seen similar patterns in cultured stramnopiles, (or something else) and/or help us connect with anyone else pursuing this type of research.
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Also, I forgot to mention that you can probably do another research on this germ by injecting it into laboratory animals (the control group can probably receive a normal saline injection)
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Respected researchers or professors,
I am Kumar Sharp, currently a third year MBBS student from India. I will be graduating medical school in 2024.
I have a very keen interest in Pharmacology, drug development, infectious diseases, microbiology and immunology. I have done my best to develop my interests in research and development, public speaking and leadership, publishing work in COVID-19 as well.,which you can see from my profile.
I would like to pursue my future career in these fields and teaching. I belong to a middle class family and do not have adequate resources to apply for international exams.
Can you all suggest if there are any ways to apply for these specialization in countries other than India.?
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China is the best choice, there are vast opportunities for the young
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Hanta Virus
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In a Next Generation Matrix, the dominant eigenvalue (or spectral radius) corresponds to R0 (Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, J. A., & Roberts, M. G., 2010).
What information then carry the remaining (non-dominant) eigenvalues of this matrix? Can they inform us about other dynamics of an epidemic?
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We commonly see positive serum and BAL galactomannan reports in non neutropenic patients. How do we interpret this?
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Various factors can cause false-positive results in BALF GM detection, such as BALF sample pretreatment with Sputasol, antifungal treatment, and β-lactam antibiotics. β-Lactam antibiotics, especially Piperacillin/tazobactam and Mezlocillin/sulbactam, were usually used in patients with bacterial pneumonia. As they are semisynthetic drugs derived from natural compounds produced by other molds, many false-positive BALF GM results from patients taking them have been reported. Kindly check the following RG link that may be useful:
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What are the clinical signs/impact of infectious agents to specific pathogen-free (SPF) laboratory rabbits, rats and mice? Any related references on how to eliminate infectious agents from the infected animals or possible solutions to avoid the infection?
Infectious agents for rabbits : Rabbit Rotavirus, Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Infectious agents for rats and mice: Pneumocystis carinii, Staphylococcus aureus
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Hi, please find attached a pdf that will surely help you.
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I am looking for suggestions for credible medical conferences for publication on pathology / infectious diseases.
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Please avoid the Rome conference with everything you have. The journals are bad, very bad (even different journal names on the same PDF) and a google search for "is waset.org legit" has lots of reasons to avoid this completely. One headline on an investigation of them: "How the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology became a multimillion dollar organization promoting bullshit science through fake conferences and journals." I am not sure if Lotenna is paid by them to promote the conferences or is just naive, but please do NOT get yourself into that rat hole.
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Some of my colleagues and I are aiming to identify open questions in disease ecology within the context of animal behavior that, if answered, will make a considerable difference to the fundamentals of the field of disease ecology. Therefore, we are interested in engaging with researchers worldwide who are involved in the fields of disease ecology and/or behavioral ecology. It is important to note that these should be questions that are unanswered but could be answered by a research program. In your opinion, what are some questions that meet these criteria and could set the agenda for future research in the field of disease ecology in the context of animal behavior?
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Depending on the species and their habitat, a co-evolution of the animal and what it eats occurs over generations of time. I would try to figure out what positive or negative feed backs have occurred or are occurring between the animal and what it eats. Especially important would be identifying any positive selections occurring in morphology/physiology.
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Natural products from food (plant resources) influence the gut microbes. Will these natural compounds influence the immunity of fetus?
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I saw this interesting article from Cell June 24 2021 issue. The human immune system begins in utero via T cell activation.
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We have isolated several strains of an organism from cultures of canine and human blood and subcutaneous nodules (using sterile techniques of course). These isolates have been subcultured on PDA and/or PD nutrient broth and found to be similar in appearance, both the macroscopic colonies, and the microscopic swabs viewed in wet-mount preparations. The organism stains positive with calcoflur white (contains chitin or cellulose) and seems capable of forming a variety of tertiary structures, depending on environmental conditions (ie, hyphae/pseudohyphae, sporocyst-like structures etc..). One universal property is that the small cells/spores etc... become motile within about 15 minutes after addition of sterile water or sterile saline to the smear. The “swimming” pattern appears eukaryotic rather than prokaryotic. I’ve attached a video showing time-lapse of about 25 minutes, during which a drop of stained liquid containing these possible “zoospores” undergoes several morphological changes. We think this represents the process of “zoospore induction” and eventual zoospore settling (maybe with release of stored mucilage etc... causing the white “fluid” appearance that develops upon the termination of “zoospore” motility?). We are awaiting WGS results on the cultured samples, and hopefully those sequencing studies will clarify the identity of these organisms, but in the meantime, we are trying to better understand the “behavior” we are seeing here, and figure out how it might relate to the apparent ability of this organism to infect and cause illness in, mammalian hosts. As far as we know, pythium and lagendium are the only zoospore-forming pathogens currently recognized as mammalian oomycete pathogens. We do not think this organism to be either of those, but we would appreciate help from anyone familiar with the movement patterns of zoospores from those (or other) pathogens to let us know if the movement seems similar to what would be seen in standardly done zoospore induction protocols and/or if there is an explanation for the “bleaching” effect that occurs after the motility ceases. Thank you!
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By experiments, It was noticed that the tap water induces zoospores production.
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As yet, no one has found the animal that gave people Covid-19. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) points out that at this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to people.
SARS-CoV-2 is unprecedented in its combined characteristics: its long period of asymptomatic infection, high transmissibility, significant lethality in high-risk populations, being well-adapted to human cells since its emergence, and having the ability to hijack human innate immunity and bind with high affinity to the human ACE2 receptor.
The reason why we should try hard to figure out the origin of Covid-19 is to inform our efforts to prevent another pandemic like this from happening again. This one was an unfortunate and terrible accident. We should badly want to avoid a second occurrence. We can be blamed for allowing a second one like it if we do not work together soon to find the origin. Right now it appears likely it came directly or indirectly from bats. But specifics would better help us to avoid a second pandemic disaster. Furthermore time is not our friend in finding the origin and sooner is better before information is lost. We need all countries to support a real epidemiological investigation by an unbiased team of scientists given access and authority to take the investigation where ever it leads – possibly to patient zero or to the CoV-2 animal source.
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Also, have a look at this useful link.
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What will be the consequence of the coronavirus vaccine on a patient’s health?
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Why the development of vaccines become unsuccessful so far against previously reported coronavirus (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV)?
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None of them became a pandemic, there was no urgency. And as mentioned, I also think that there was no one who invested in it. As the current situation is dangerous globally, many people have opened their eyes to the importance of investing in science and technology.
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Are COVID 19 vaccines reliable for people with medical conditions, like those with respiratory issues, diabetes, heart problems, etc.?
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Could the manufacture of a vaccine combine with other antivirals be an effective therapeutic option against COVID-19?
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I think this
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Can HIV drugs will be a provisional or recurring option against COVID-19?
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May be
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Can anyone discuss the claimed efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines (e.g., 80%, 95%, etc.) by different manufacturers (COVAX, Pfizer or others)?
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Outstanding and similar ( so far) for protection.
Bit we need to see:
1. a better breakdown of performance in different age and ethnic groups groups
2. Amy major difference in short term side effects
3. how long protection lasts
4. whether it prevents virus from actually infecting
5. Long term side effects of RNA vaccines In general
6. how they compare to protein vaccines and vectored DNA vaccines
7. AND as noted the impact of production, transport, storage, shelf lives on long term use. and costs.
Lots to learn but ( especially given their designation as EUA) there Is still much to learn. However, they will certainly move us towards herd immunity and a more open economy.
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Can the formation of drugs against coronavirus also be useful against the Influenzas virus or HIV? This is because these viruses shared many common proteases for viral replication.
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Dear Talha Bin Emran, the answer is no, the targets and the mechanisms of action aren't the same. My Regards
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Are the receptor proteins on the surface of infected cells will increase or decrease the susceptibility of antivirals?
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Virus–receptor interactions play a key regulatory role in viral host range, tissue tropism, and viral pathogenesis. Viruses utilize elegant strategies to attach to one or multiple receptors, overcome the plasma membrane barrier, enter, and access the necessary host cell machinery. The viral attachment protein can be viewed as the “key” that unlocks host cells by interacting with the “lock”—the receptor—on the cell surface, and these lock-and-key interactions are critical for viruses to successfully invade host cells. Many common themes have emerged in virus–receptor utilization within and across virus families demonstrating that viruses often target particular classes of molecules in order to mediate these events. Common viral receptors include sialylated glycans, cell adhesion molecules such as immunoglobulin superfamily members and integrins, and phosphatidylserine receptors. The redundancy in receptor usage suggests that viruses target particular receptors or “common locks” to take advantage of their cellular function and also suggests evolutionary conservation. Due to the importance of initial virus interactions with host cells in viral pathogenesis and the redundancy in viral receptor usage, exploitation of these strategies would be an attractive target for new antiviral therapeutics.
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Greetings;
I've recently published a preprint for a COVID treatment RCT, which appeared under "Dental" specialty instead of "Infectious diseases (ID)". This is an issue as it doesn't appear under searches for ID. Is there's any way to modify this categorization?
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I think this is really difficullt, as such assignments are generated automatically by certain algoorithms according dot keywords or terms appearing in the abstract. And you never will identify a personal contact whom to address.
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Probiotics are of interest to treat preterms because research shows that they might prevent necrotising enterocolitis in preterms and also sepsis. I wonder what the current practice is in NICUs in Europe? Are they being used? If so, at what dose, what type of probiotics (preferably the commercial name), what are the specifications of the product, any safety concerncs and are they registered as a drug or as a supplement/food? 
Thanks for your help
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I hope, the following articles will help you in getting and understanding of probiotics vs preterm and thus take a look them
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The novel SARS-CoV 2 was an unknown virus until recently. Hemophiliacs A and B are in need of prophylactic therapy using recombinant FVIII and FIX respectively. In the 1980s, we've seen a massive surge of hemophiliac patients contaminated with HIV and hepatitis A, B, C. Since then, screening measures involving nucleic acid methods were incorporated to prevent transmission of these infectious agents. Nevertheless, the concern of transmitting an unknown infectious pathogen such as SARS-CoV 2 remains today. How did we deal with hemophiliac patients before and directly after we knew about covid-19 existence? Did we have a screening measure put in place? Did we turn to only the use of Emicizumab for hemophilia A?
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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Hemophilia A and B patients.
There is not much experience with COVID-19 infection in Hemophilia A and B except a few case reports. As with the crisis of supply of blood and blood products including concentrates of factor VIII and factor IX, has been the main challenges during the times of COVID-19 pandemic all over the world.
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I'm writing a review article in which I explain the different mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis reaches a persistent infection by establishing a cross-signal homeostasis with its host, in which both organisms modulate their actions and reactions towards the other one, and at some part I came up with this sentence " This thought provoking notion makes me think of its similarity to Newton’s third law of motion; a system reaches a steady state whenever the forces acting upon it are equal and opposite one another". How prudent is that?
What do you think about it? :)
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The two critical words in the Third Law are 'equal' and 'opposite'. The essence of 'Opposite' may be perceived well in various biological systems.
As pieces of exemplary shreds of evidence, in cancer therapeutics, tumor exerts strong pro-tumor response against applied treatment and imposes therapeutic resistance, one of the major problems seen in preclinical and clinical studies. The same goes for the multidrug resistance in various medically relevant bacteria.
However, measuring/gauging the essence of 'equal' may be a bit difficult task in biological systems.
AFTERALL, BIOLOGY IS A SCIENCE OF EXCEPTION. The rules of physics/chemistry may be applied directly in some cases while in others, they might seem to be bit 'diluted' or rather entwined with greater intricacy... reason: living systems are not isolated systems, which are often considered for the derivation of the rules/laws of physics and chemistry. It is not about the violation of the rules/laws... rather a manifestation of the same in different perspectives- unexplored/unexplained milieu...
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I want to understand what livelihood means, and how its relation to COVID 19, the Study population I want to know about is Readymade garments workers or people residing in informal settlements.
Firstly I want to know what livelihood means and second of all to find its relationship to COVID 19 would I be able to find out through a qualitative or quantitative or mixed-method study?
Please suggest me any text books if there is any.
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Livelihood for RMG sector: It usually affects the poor garment workers most. For last 4-5 months most of the garment industry of Dhaka and adjacent industrial district which cost their work and hamper their daily way and means of living. This empty handedness means it will cost their treatment procedures if they get infected with Covid-19. Same hardship can imply for other working sectors also.
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Prudent prescribing of antimicrobial drugs to hospital inpatients may reduce the incidence of antimicrobial drug resistance and healthcare-associated infection. Despite strenuous efforts to control antimicrobial drug use and promote optimal prescribing, practitioners continue to prescribe excessively; it is estimated that up to 50% of antimicrobial drug use in hospitals is inappropriate. Antibiotics have several drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with psychotropic drugs (mainly antidepressants, antiepileptics, antipsychotics), which can lead to adverse events, treatment failure and significantly rise the costs of treatment. 
Currently, very little is known about antibiotic prescribing patterns in psychiatric hospitals, including the frequency of potential DDIs between antibiotics and psychotropic drugs.
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Regardless if you have a psychiatric diagnosis and not, you can have infections and other p0hysical disorders. My experience is that too little focus is put on these patients' physical disorders. In the early years alcohol and penicillin was recommended not to be taken together. This was not due to any interaction between alcohol and penicillin but it was a precaution that sailors and others with sexually transmitted disorders could forget to take their antibiotics when drunk.
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Has the number be calculated or estimated? If not, can the number be calculated in principle? If there is no average number, is there a range? What if any are the sources?
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Please, what is a viron? Do you mean virion or virus particle?
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COVID-19, causes 80% asymptomatic and only 20% critical situation among patients, who are that 20% exactly?
As per my understanding, 20% people belongs to following criteria
1. Aged above 60+
2. Diabetic & severe illness history
3. Previous respiratory illness/infection history ?
4. Tuberculosis history or active infection ?
5. Immunity related disorders
6. Secondary Infectious diseases
Minor queries ?
1. What is the age group maximum affected ?
2. Why Children or kids below 10 age is not affected high level ? is it due to low immunity, which not provokes hyperactivity in alveoli ?
3. Drug addicts/ smoker affected highly or average ?
4. Role of alcoholic people and severity in COVID19 ?
5. questions more.
Let us discuss and share our views...
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Unfortunately, we need good guidelines. All listed items have a place to be.
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I am a member of a group of veterinarians who all became ill within about a years time of each other, and who all were employed in the same physical location. Some of the affected veterinarians also had human and/or canine family members who also went on to develop a very similar illness to that seen in the cluster of veterinarians. The practice facility was inspected by OSHA and traditional medical work-up was done on all of those affected. No unifying etiology could be determined for the "syndrome" of illness described by those affected, but environmental chemicals and psychiatric causes were ruled out. As veterinarians and other types of scientists (affected family members), we recognized that the pattern of illness development appeared most consistent with some type of infectious process (possibly with genetic predispositions to resistance/succeptibility to the agent). The illness appeared to develop in unrelated people who worked at a common site initially, then multiple family members of some affected veterinarians developed a similar illness. Our familiarity with collecting/interpreting FNA/cytology samples allowed us to do some diagnostic tests that are not available in human reference laboratories, and with the encouragement of infectious disease physicians at Mayo and UCD medical centers we began some carefully controlled cytology tests on samples provided by those affected with the "syndrome" of illness, as well as samples from healthy control family members/colleagues.
What we have found is an incredibly consistent pattern of fibers/filaments, copiously present in the urine of those affected individuals, and completely absent in the healthy controls. Initially we suspected the filaments to be a possible nematode, but further tests demonstrated that there were also more fragile yeast-like objects and highly organized fruiting-body-like structures associated with the filaments. We also found the filaments and "spores" in subcutaneous nodules, cyst fluid, sputum, and blood cultures from those affected. These details, along with positive staining for chitin by lactophenol cotton blue and calcofluor-white, and positive staining for a thick mucopolysaccharide coat by Alacian Blue- led us to modify the hypothesis and consider that these objects could indicate a fungal or pseudofungal infection.
Many permutations of cytology tests (always coupled with control studies of the same tissues in healthy counterparts) have led us to suspect that we may be seeing some type of oomycete, somewhat similar to Pythium or Lagenisma. We have attempted sequencing, but not gotten consistent results and/or have gotten reports of sequences that are either truncated or reported as different types of fungi, none of which are obviously close relatives of oomycetes. Since this research is unfunded, we have not been able to pursue as much molecular testing as would be ideal. The UCD infectious disease physician did agree that the images were compelling, but not his primary field of study. He/we filed a report with the CDC about the possiblity of this being an emerging/novel human pathogen, but the CDC has not replied to his follow-up requests for assistance in characterizing the findings.
I realize our involvement in this research is both non-traditional and that those of us doing it have motivations beyond that which drives most research. However, we have had enough independent scientists/physicians corroborate our perception that we are seeing something "not normal" in the tissues/fluids of those affected compared to the healthy controls, and encourage us to continue to try to find answers, that I feel compelled to post our findings thus far and ask for opinions and advice. We are hoping that someone, much more expert in mycology/protistology than us might be willing to review these images and offer their perspective. Also, if there is anyone actively pursuing ( or wanting to pursue) this line of research, we are happy to share all of our data gathered thus far, in hopes that it may lead to faster and more thorough characterization of what we have found, and hopefully application to determine which chronic diseases may have this putative infection as a component of their etiology.
Thanks!
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Dear Dr.Melinda,
I am attaching PDF of our Review article to your reference with a hope that it will be useful to you.
Please confirm receipt of the review on Pythiosis.
With best wishes and good luck,
Prof.Dr.Mahendra Pal
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Regarding a research on the effects of humidity to the transmission of Bancroftian filariasis.
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Think as a result of taking precautions and preventing disease
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Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle. A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not fully eradicated. The result of this is that the virus can reactivate and begin producing large amounts of viral progeny (the lytic part of the viral life cycle) without the host becoming reinfected by new outside virus, and stays within the host indefinitely.
Virus latency is not to be confused with clinical latency during the incubation period when a virus is not dormant.
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No latent or reactivated SARS-CoV-2 in clinically recovered COVID-19 patients
You will note in the first article (1) that HCWs who had clinical recovery did not transmit the disease to contacts despite positive RT-PCR tests. In a study recently published (2), patients who had clinically recovered but showed positive RNA based RT-PCR tests did not transmit COVID-19 by donating plasma that was transfused to other recipients.
This indicates that SARS-CoV-2 virus latency or reactivation is more of a hype than a reality and viral RNA in clinically recovered patient is inactive viral litter or garbage, not an active virus.
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I would like to perform some in vitro stimulation assays and can't find a source for L.pn. LPS. Thanks for your help.
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Yaoqin Hong thank you for your protocol offer. Currently, I am not working with L.pn., but if we pick up the project again this would be useful.
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Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses transmitted by infected mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), and rash.
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When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope, about one hundredth the size of most bacteria.
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Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and
efficacy of face masks. Nancy H. L. Leung et al. Nature Mediicine (freely available)
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Two questions about the COVID-19 pandemic.
First. Do you think that the statistics being released by your country’s health authorities are [unreliable], [somewhat reliable] or [quite reliable]?
Second. Has your country (or municipality, etc.) adopted any kind of social distancing as a procedure to combat the COVID-19 pandemic?
I’m a Brazilian biologist and writer. I write about science and would like to know the opinion of colleagues from other countries (from any field of scientific knowledge).
My own analysis of the statistics for March leads me to say that the pandemic is losing strength (on a global scale). For details, see ‘Initial Evidence That the COVID-19 Pandemic May Be Weakening’ (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340438940_Initial_Evidence_That_the_COVID-19_Pandemic_May_Be_Weakening).
[The previous discussion – ‘The driver of biological evolution: genetics or ecology?’ – is here https://www.researchgate.net/post/The_driver_of_biological_evolution_genetics_or_ecology.]
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I am from India, and the statistics released by authorities are reliable. Further, Indian Government has adopted lock down as well as ceiling, a kind of social distancing, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
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" Implementation of Electronic Nose in the hospital to detect dangerous and harmful bacteria". This could help to detect and therefore prevent contamination of other patient or equipment by many highly contagious pathogens.
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Thanks
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How COVID-19 and Other Infectious Diseases Spread: Mathematical Modeling
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There is a paper about this topic in Alexandria Engineering Journal 2020.
Please read this paper.
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I am interested in the screening of about 70 medicinal plants extracts against Coronavirus. The plants were collected in the Middle East, some of them have an anti-viral effect. I am looking for an institution capable of performing this type of screening. An official agreement will be performed before this research.
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Dear Dr.Bader,
I am very glad to know that you wish to evaluate the efficacy of different medicinal plants extracts against Coronavirus. We did some work on the efficacy of some medicinal plants extracts against fungi. Though I am a retired University Professor and Head of Veterinary Public Health, I can help you by giving you technical expertise.
I wish you a grand success in your mission.
Prof.Dr.Mahendra Pal
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This mouse is the origin of the NMuMG cells. The last publications where it was used were published around 1985.
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"albino mice of ABC stock "
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How can we obtain balanced full nutrition by just eating simple foods like bread and eggs?
There is something neglected in the common energy and nutrition balance equation for weight management.
The common understanding on energy and nutrition balance is that, it is the difference between energy/nutrition intake and energy/nutrition expenditure:
Energy/nutrition balance = energy/nutrition input – energy/nutrition output
When the intake exceeds the expenditure, there is a positive balance, which results in weight gain. When the intake is below the expenditure, there is a negative balance and weight loss results.
But most people on weight management know by experience that this equation doesn't work.
As a fundamental cellular homeostasis management program, Autophagy deals with harmful or surplus cellular contents such as protein aggregates, dysfunctional/long-lived organelles, intracellular pathogens, and storage nutrients (glycogen and lipid droplets) and recycles them as source of energy/nutrition:
So should we revise the energy/nutrition balance equation as:
Energy/nutrition balance = energy/nutrition input + recycled energy/nutrition from autophagy – energy/nutrition output?
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Super nutrition - You mean Food Suppliment like Vitamines / Minerals / anti-oxidants .
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I am after evidence, particularly in relation to the respiratory tract.
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Please have a look at this useful RG link.
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vaccination against leishmaniasis
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Do we have a open-source standardized database of TB microscopic sputum smear images?
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TB PCR it is Gene Xpert is the latest WHO recommended diagnostic.It is 90% sensitivity test for pulmonary tuberculosis.
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There are lots of misconceptions about obesity, and its relation to diseases. The so called obesity epidemic is overblown, as a 2006 Scientific American paper stated:
Obesity is not life threatening, and it is not necessary leading to illness.
In dealing with obesity, it is important to distinguish morbid obesity from non-morbid obesity.
The most prominent cause of obesity is infectious diseases and inflammation, and the term infectobesity was coined by Dr. Nikhil V. Dhurandhar in 2001:
The up-regulated autophagy (xenophagy) triggered by infectious diseases turns the eliminated pathogens and dysfunctional cell components into nutrition and energy, which contributed to obesity. So obesity is a side effect of our body’s protective reaction to illness.
Obesity is normally measured by BMI. Yet, the big contributor to BMI is the subcutaneous fat, which is protective and normally harmless. But one relatively small component of the obesity, the excessive visceral fat and ectopic fat that surround the organs or enter the organ tissues, are very dangerous, which contributes to morbid obesity, and is associated with numerous diseases.
To get rid of the ectopic fats that surround the organs or enter the organ tissues, so as to avoid morbid obesity, daily regular time restrictive eating is efficient, and one still can live a long and healthy life by doing so:
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Health policy, education policy etc. in every country should now include active promotion of healthy lifestyle in the media. As part of this policy, informational, educational and activating programs for sports, healthy eating, preventive health check etc. should be finalized from state funds. The governments of countries should consider introducing additional taxation of confectionery enterprises and thus funds for health policy programs could be significantly increased. Obesity is a serious problem that should be taken into account in the current pro-social policies for the promotion of healthy living co-financed from state finance funds.
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infectious diseases speacialist
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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In many regions of the world, women have little or no authority or independence and are not in a position to demand safe sexual practices such as the use of barrier contraceptives. There is a great need, therefore, to identify methodologies that can be used discretely by women to prevent HIV transmission. An enhanced understanding of the factors that facilitate or retard male-to-female HIV transmission would enable the design and development of effective anti-HIV strategies. Many studies have shown A lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota has been shown to decrease heterosexual HIV transmission. Others say that it doesn´t. Whats your opinion?
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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Tuberculosis was the scourge of Europe for many centuries.
They conquered it.
Tuberculosis is the scourge of many developing countries.
What drives this epidemic and what and why are we not conquering this treatable condition?
What is your opinion, please?
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LMIC are not into case finding as what Edwin Ochomo said above. Also the issue of availability of tb medicines is a great challenge. During end of last year most countries in Africa did not have RHZE and that lead to many patients defaulting.
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I came across the two contradicting views that ROS levels must be low under low oxygen (microaerophillic) or in absence of oxygen (hypoxia).
Other researcher shows that ROS levels are high due to inhibition of ETC. Generation of superoxide anions by NADH dehydrogenase shown to play role.
I wish to knew what happens under physiological conditions in tuberculosis inside granuloma or macrophage where conditions are hypoxic or similar ?
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Dear Samsher,
Unfortunately (or luckily), ROS are complicated and a collective name of many different reactive molecules. I don't work on mammalian systems but plants. Similarly, ROS bursts can occur upon entering hypoxia, but may decline (depending on the type of ROS) upon reaching anoxia depending on the type of ROS and organelle/tissue studied.
I would always suggest looking at their methods and check how and when they did their measurements and draw careful conclusions from there.
Best of luck
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During the last years, Brazil has experienced epidemics by Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and Yellow fever.
In Brazil has been an increased number of cases of mayaro fever in several Brazilian states and with the increased circulation of chikungunya virus, there is always a question about the ethiopathogenesis due the similarity of both virus (clinically and structural).
What do you think about it? Following some interesting articles.
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For usutuvirus there is a greater risk in North America by the vectors, however the spread could happen from North America to South America (in the opposite way that Chik and Zika)
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Among HIV positive patients, is it possible that non-AIDS diseases alter the risk of developing AIDS and vice versa?
For a HIV positive patient who has experienced a non-AIDS disease, Does the treatment for non-AIDS diseases reduce the risk of developing AIDS?
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Dear Sahar Nouri,
Non-AIDS diseases alter the risk of developing AIDS and vice versa.
The treatment for non-AIDS diseases reduce the risk of developing AIDS, if the treatment takes into account avoiding unnecessary turnover of CD4+ T cells as mentioned in Dr’s Tetsuo Tsukamoto answer.
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It is no secret (eg see first post) that mice carry harmful organisms. But where is the epidemiological evidence that house mice actually cause human disease? Bats, cats and rats infect humans, but mice apparently do not in practice.
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Please have a look at the following RG links and PDF attachment.
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The complication was neurological. The serical immunoglobulin IgM was positive to CHIKV. Liquor was not tested and PCR was not available. Other serologies were negative, including DENV, toxoplasma, CMV and EBV. Thank you for the help. I would like to publish as a case report.
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You might want to consider "Emerging Infectious Diseases" (CDC), and "International Health" (RSTMH).
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I read this question before, "Do more antigens fused together in a subunit vaccine illicit a stronger immunigenecity effect?"
Then something comes on my mind: "What about a whole unit vaccine?" As we all know, a polyvalent vaccine has already common in poultry vaccine industry but there isn't any single company ever produced Infectious coryza and Avian Influenza together (based on what i searched on the internet).
So, i've been wondering, are the interaction between these two microorganisms has any negative effect such as not ellicit a strong immunogenicity effect or maybe there are some characteristics of both microorganisms which makes it difficult to produce when combined together.
Thank you
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Thank you
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Does Antibiotic overuse in Farming contribute significantly to Antibiotic Resistance in Human Populations?
What would the effect be on the industry, if the antibiotic usage is cut drastically?
Is there a financial benefit to using antibiotics in this way? Why are we sitting with this problem?
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Rampant use of antibiotics has been solemnly creating troubles these days all over the globe. There is no question to deny that, as being a part of same globe we cannot be an exception to it. Those antibiotics used in animals and plants literally can be passed to the humans by the consumption of animals and crops as "we are what we eat"! It may result three possible consequences:
1: direct infection with resistant bacteria from an animal source
2: breaches in the species barrier followed by sustained transmission in humans of resistant strains arising in livestock, and
3: transfer of resistance genes from agriculture into human pathogens.
Thus, extensive use of antibiotics does result no benefits but harms to the health of consumers by elevating the risks of antibiotic resistant. However, for industries without using antibiotics their products may not thrive due to the infections or quantitatively and qualitatively their yields will decline if they do not use antibiotics in their products. Ultimately, industries have to bear financial loss.
Therefore, rational use of antibiotic will be the judicious option or we must develop the alternative tools (Organic plants development programs in huge scale) to cope with these problematic issues.
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I am writing a book and in it, I mention the epidemiological triangle (sometimes called the public health or infectious disease triad). Where did the formulation come from? Who first described it? The references I have found are not informative but it is clearly a very old idea. I am aware that the idea as applied to animal health was formulated in 1974 by an eminent fisheries biologist, Stanislas F. Snieszko (1902 – 1984) to apply to fish diseases. However, I am sure that there must be earlier versions for human health. So far I have been unable to find them.
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Tee: In 1928, in the Cutter Lecture at Harvard, Wade Hampton Frost introduced the epidemic triad. The lecture was published in AJE in 1976.
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Best resource available to check the ways of transmission of microbes, pathogenesis, and details about the microbe?
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I need to construct bacterial invasion pathways in epithelial cells.
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BioRender might be a good option (https://biorender.io/)
It's an online app that contains a library of pre-made cells, proteins, membrane shapes, organs, lab equipment, etc. that you can drag-and-drop so you don't have to spend time drawing each element of the figure yourself.
Saves a lot of time for creating schematic figures, and the icons are all created by trained scientific illustrators so they're both beautiful and accurate. It's also free for educational use.
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Whether malaria infected individual is at risk of developing hypertension or the inverse.
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Please, see PLoS ONE September 11, 2018 it is a excellent review
Silva LS, Peruchetti DB, Silva-Aguiar RP, Abreu TP, Dal-Cheri BKA, Takiya CM, et al. (2018)
The angiotensin II/AT1 receptor pathway mediates malaria-induced acute kidney injury. PLoS ONE 13
(9): e0203836
Malaria-induced acute kidney injury (MAKI) is a life-threatening complication of severe
malaria. By activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been observed, due to vasodilation, which in turn leads to stimulation of RAS and a consequent increase in the level of angiotensin II (Ang II) . The effects of Ang II are mediated by specific receptors: AT1 and AT2 . The Ang II/ AT1 receptor pathway plays a central role in the development of the glomerular and tubular injuries observed in AKI from different causes. This effect has been associated with the induction of a pro-inflammatory phenotype promoting immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion in renal tissue . It has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokine production is strongly associated with severe malaria . Previously, the Ang II/AT1 receptor pathway was implicated in the modulation of immune cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and brain damage in experimental CM, modulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines . Therefore, it is possible to postulate that the Ang II/AT1 receptor pathway is involved in the development of MAKI. To test this hypothesis, in this work we used a well-known murine model of severe malaria, C57BL/6 mice infected by P. berghei ANKA (PbA-infected mice) , treated or not with losartan or captopril, blockers of the Ang II/AT1 receptor pathway. The authors observed that these compounds abolished the increase in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-17, avoiding the development of glomerular and tubular injuries in MAKI. These data help us to better clarify the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of MAKI and suggest a potential strategy for adjuvant treatment with RAS inhibitors in human malaria.
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1.- Thomas Yoshikawa.
Infectious Disease in the Aging.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases . Volume 11, Issue 4, April 2011, page 271.
2.- Gaëtan Gavazzi, Francois Herrmann, Karl - Heinz Krause.
Aging and Infectious Diseases in the Developing World.
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 39, Issue 1, 1 July 2004, pages 83 - 91.
Thank you.
Diana from Perú.
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Dear Diana Rodríguez Hurtado , This is an important and interesting article
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Does average years of life loss (AYLL) can be used to monitor the progress of a particular disease over time? If so, does it require to be age-adjusted? What does an increasing AYLL over time suggest? 
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For trends analysis purpose, it is recommended to use the age-standardize YLL rate instead of YLL rate. This is important because the age structure of the population changes over time, so it requires to adjust for age as a confounder factor.
I hope this helps.
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I normally use the next generation matrix to find the basic reproduction number. Is there any other efficient way to find it.
Thank you in advance.
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Thank you Gamal Enan for your answer. I think that is may be a way to find it experimentally from the blood serum.
In epidemiology, The basic reproduction number R_0 is the number of secondary cases which one case would produce in a completely susceptible population. It depends on the duration of the infectious period, the probability of infecting a susceptible individual during one contact, and the number of new susceptible individuals contacted per unit of time.
The next-generation matrix is a method used to derive the basic reproduction number, for a compartmental model of the spread of infectious diseases. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Next-generation_matrix ). It is completely a mathematically way. However, your answer gave me food of thought. May be the basic reproductive number found by mathematical method can be verify by experimental results from the blood serum.
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Morphological culture colonies is very important for preliminary laboratory diagnosis of bacterial genus followed by confirmatory tests.
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Can you provide additional information e.g. Gram stain, colony morphology in other culture medium?
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What Is the Effect of Host Genetic Diversity on the Spread of Infectious Disease?
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Hi everybody,
All is in the title : What are the uses of the Galleria mellonella model other than an infection model ? We ask me that question and I don't find other uses except study bacterial diseases by pathogenicity for exemple or efficiency of antibiotics / phage therapy.
Thank you
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You can use Galleria for compound toxicity testing, virulence testing, efficacy of novel compounds, evaluation of pathogenicity between strains of bacteria/fungi. In addition, you can now purchase research grade Galleria from https://biosystemstechnology.com/ which are grown free of any hormones or antibiotics and are genome sequenced
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Hi,
I am doing starvation assays with Leishmania parasites for which I need to culture parasites in PBS for about 6 hrs. Typically I find that without serum supplement these cells become very sticky and attached to the bottom of the culture flask.
I was wondering if anyone has ever applied the cellstripper solution (alternative of trypsin that is typically used to lift off adherent mammalian cells) on Leishmania or related organisim Trypanosoma?
Thanks in advance for your suggestions!
Sumit
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Dear Sumit,
Attachment of Leishmania cells in absence of proteins is a recurrent problem to investigators.
I think the simplest measure to resolve your problem is strongly agitate your culture flask.
Promastigote forms are very resistant and you can employ this method to release most of the cells whitout kill them.
Sincerelly yours,
Nelder.
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I'd like to know the best published reference for differential diagnosis of cough ?
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Hi
in Harrison text book of internal medicine in Cardinal manifestation of disease chapter, it shows a very nice approach to cough step by step. I would recommend that algorithM.
Regards
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Can someone help with the a validated questionnaire and correct sample size calculation formula on the topic: Effects of Postnatal Mothers’ Hand-Washing Intervention program on Infectious Diseases among Neonates?
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Dear Omar Manjang,
We need to know what's your study design and specific objectives as well. What main outcome measure are you looking for? These are essentials for sample size calculation. If your design is cross-sectional and you wish to know the prevalence, you may need to do a literature search first to identify what previous study has found.
Good luck!
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Since the climate is changing, there will be also a change in the adaptive characteristics of bacteria. This question is related to our research topic, "The relationship of the zoonotic diseases in stray dogs and the climate of the Philippines." 
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