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Is it completely dependent on the region that patient lives in? If so, I'm specifically interested in the Southern California (United States) region.
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Globally, Candida albicans is the most prevalent species associated with invasive candidiasis; however, the distribution of non-albicans Candida spp
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Can anyone suggest some related literature regarding nosocomial infection.
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Please go through the following paper :
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If an antibody test showed postive for HBsAg, HBcAg and HBeAg, and an enzyme immunoassay showed reactivities for HcR43, NS5 and c100-3, what factors must be considered to be able to conclude that HBV and HCV were contracted from different exposures? What measures must be taken?
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Apart from the patient's clinical history which may be helpful (was the new infection associated with clinical presentation or subclinical/asymptomatic) there are several possibilities:
(i) dual infection, ie. patient acquired simultaneously HBV +HCV
(ii) patient may have been already infected either with HBV or HCV and was superinfected with a consecutive episode.
Scenario (i) is unlikely (not impossible though), however the clinical history will be characterized with two consecutive bouts of disease as the incubation period differs for the two viruses. usually HCV supresses HBV replication and hence the infectious dose for HBV will be much less  and hence one may expect a much longer incubation period for HBV. The problem with HCV though is that the infection is often asymptomatic and may have gone unnoticed.
Scenario (ii) requires some prior knowledge of one of the infections; in this case one additional test may be helpful (anti-HBc IgM which is indicative of a new or more recent infection). If negative then the HBV was acquired in the past and the patient was a chronic carrier and was superinfected with HCV.
Ultimately one may never know the correct answer, however I would suggest that if a dual, simultaneous infection is suspected the source must have had some known risk factors such as IVDU for instance.
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Based on recent literature I am under the impression that the genome-wide comparison of prehistoric and modern pathogen DNA is significant for the following reasons:
  1. Prehistoric human microbiomes can be screened for novel vaccine targets
  2. Reconstructed draft genomes may be used to identify close relatives of modern pathogens
  3. Reference genomes can provide clues that may aid in the timeous and appropriate management of contemporary disease threats
Is this correct? In which other ways can one express the contemporary significance of prehistoric pathogen research?
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I feel that the study of prehistoric pathogen genomes may provide some insight into the development and progression of pathogenesis over time. Although not considered prehistoric, the genomic research and subsequent reverse genetic analysis conducted on samples of the 1918 flu taken from the lungs of individuals that died led to several conclusions regarding the role of specific non-structural proteins that serve as pathogenicity factors. It will be essential, however, that studies conducted look not just at single prehistoric samples, but paint a continuous history to the modern age. By having a historical reference for genetic modifications, the relevance and persistence of such changes may identify selected conserved epitopes associated with infectivity and pathogenicity. 
In regards to the use of past microbiomes as novel vaccine targets, I feel that this approach may be far more difficult. The microflora including the prominent pathogenic species afflicting human and other animal species have likely changed dramatically since prehistoric times. From a standpoint of vaccine design, the key question is whether the antigenicity of prehistoric populations would overlap at all with modern pathogens and be able to confer any protective immunity. Depending upon the pathogen, it may, however for many microbes including most viruses which undergo rapid evolution there is good chance that it will not.
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During the influenza A/H7N9 epidemic in China, live bird markets have been sampled extensively to find the virus. Different types of samples were taken, including tracheal/cloacal swabs in live ducks/chickens, faeces samples, drinking water samples, waste samples, feathers, etc.
In most of the literature I could find, the proportion of positive samples of each type is given by aggregating all sample sites, i.e. authors report the proportion of positive samples of type X across all study sites (often dozens of live bird markets, all of which are obviously not infected).
What I am looking for is the proportion of samples (of each type) that tested positive in infected live bird markets. To make things even clearer, I want to get an idea of the probability that a sample of type X will test positive for H7N9 (by rtRT-PCR) in an infected market.
Any suggestion of relevant scientific papers/reports will be highly appreciated!
Thanks a lot for your valuable help.
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Or I might need to try to contact directly the authors...
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I have very limited therapeutic options treating a patient with extensively Drug resistant TB. However there is no evidence in the literature of the association of these two drugs in a regimen. They are now commercially available however there is little consensus to adding them together given the paucity of safety data. Has anyone managed to give the two drugs together, where there any adverse events and/or increases in QTc?
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There is an interesting and applicable commentary in Lancet Infectious Disease this week.
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some times my standard DNA also gives me weird curves..... I use taqman probes for standard curve analysis... following are some pics attached showing result of qPCR run. Can anybody help me with this??  
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There could be an issue with your data collection point. Ensure the data is being collected following each cycle.
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Hi everyone
Can I ask whether MALDI can detect organism straight from the positive bottle without first growing the colony/colonies?
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Barnini, S., Ghelardi, E., Brucculeri, V., Morici, P., and Lupetti, A. (2015). Rapid and reliable identification of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci by deposition of bacteria harvested from blood cultures onto the MALDI-TOF plate. BMC microbiology 15, 124.
Carbonnelle, E., Mesquita, C., Bille, E., Day, N., Dauphin, B., Beretti, J.-L., Ferroni, A., Gutmann, L., and Nassif, X. (2011). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry tools for bacterial identification in clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin Biochem 44, 104-109.
Deak, E., Charlton, C.L., Bobenchik, A.M., Miller, S.A., Pollett, S., McHardy, I.H., Wu, M.T., and Garner, O.B. (2015). Comparison of the Vitek MS and Bruker Microflex LT MALDI-TOF MS platforms for routine identification of commonly isolated bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 81, 27-33.
Kohlmann, R., Hoffmann, A., Geis, G., and Gatermann, S. (2015). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry following short incubation on a solid medium is a valuable tool for rapid pathogen identification from positive blood cultures. Int J Med Microbiol 305, 469-479.
Schneiderhan, W., Grundt, A., Wörner, S., Findeisen, P., and Neumaier, M. (2013). Work flow analysis of around-the-clock processing of blood culture samples and integrated MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Clin Chem 59, 1649-1656.
Singhal, N., Kumar, M., Kanaujia, P.K., and Virdi, J.S. (2015). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis. Front Microbiol 6, 791.
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Can anyone advise me that how to do spatial-temporal analysis of infectious disease with longitudinal data?
Thank you!
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You may want to look at Satscan: a free piece of software that allows you to do spatial and spatio temporal analysis, looking for spatial or space-time clusters- You need to read the documentation carefully to understand the different models proposes
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Since the MERS Coronavirus infection is endemic on the Arabic peninsula and now transfered by single patient to South Korea: Do you defer travelers coming back from these regions for a specific period (e.g. 4 weeks after return) from donating blood in your country? 
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In response to colleagues’ inquiries about any relevance to blood donors of recent MERS-CoV spread to the Korean peninsula, the following reflects what recently came from colleagues in the US and Europe. So far, there has been no evidence of parenteral transmission published. No specific intervention related to blood donors has been recommended, and there are no new recommendations related to ongoing transmission in the Middle East or the outbreak in South Korea at this time. Donors must be well on the day of donation, and in the unlikely event that a history of MERS-CoV infection is provided by a donor, they should be fully recovered before being accepted for phlebotomy.
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I feel that in some countries in the region, surveillance protocols have been oriented to diagnose DEN, if this rule out diagnose CHIK, but what about DEN/CHIK? Are you aware of which countries, particularly in the Americas, are doing specific surveillance for both? from related studies, which is the proportion of patients with DEN with CHIK coinfection? and CHIK with DEN coinfection?
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Dear all, This is indeed an important point. In mainland France, CHIKV and DENV diagnostics are coupled for patients coming back from endemic areas. Moreover, during the first documented outbreak in St Martin, we observed that 2.8% of CHIKV patients were co-infected with DENV (Omarjee R et al Eurosurveillance 2014). This percentage is similar to co-infection rates observed in Gabon 2007. 
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I'm wondering if the common understanding of health project managers about the vector borne diseases is global issue why they deal with it locally, although that will not fix it at all, because even if we thought it disappear it's going to re emerge soon.
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The vector borne diseases are no more a local issue. With people and cargo moving globally at a great pace the possibility of vectors moving to other unknown areas are incresing manifold. This requires an international monitoring.
The global warming and climate change also have an impact on the spread of vectors to new areas and needs to be looked into globally as well as locally. 
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I have documented small area spread of a new type of infectious agent across Berkshire in the UK. The agent seems to be relatively difficult to transmit but has quite dramatic impact on medical admissions.
A short article is attached, however, background studies can be accessed via www.hcaf.biz in the 'Emergency Admissions' web page.
Much appreciated. Rod
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Dear Dr. Jones,
It appears to me that you have performed the first step in a long series of tasks to identify a potential infectious disease problem.  Unfortunately, piecing together the entire puzzle is a difficult process requiring the coordination of multiple disciplines.  I speak from the experience of having worked with exotic infectious diseases in a laboratory setting with BSL-4 type agents as a veterinary (immuno)pathologist in the USA. Take for example the identification of Hantaviruses as the cause of Korean Hemorrhagic fever and Four-Corners disease.  Sorting the specific details to isolate and identify a specific agent became an exercise in epidemiology, marrying the environment with clinical and post mortem findings and the specific situations in which the clinical events occurred.  There are numerous other examples with the Arenaviruses (Lassa, Junin, Macho, Guanarito) of the southern hemisphere, yellow fever, dengue viruses, and lately chikungunya virus as well as Ebolavirus.  For guidelines, see the attached reference by the Institute of Medicine. This should provide you with some of the necessary guidance.
Kind regards,
William C. Hall, VMD, PhD
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Purine Salvage Pathway & leishmania sp. !!
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You should take a look at Führing J., Damerow S. and Lamerz A. from Hannover (MHH) work ;)
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I wish to know if anyone has experience with the use of FTA cards for the collection, safe transport, and preservation of rabies samples.
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FTA cards can be used for preservation of RNA viruses.  Numerous recent publications out of Australia demonstrate their utility in the detection of arboviruses (West Nile, Ross River, etc.)  See as an example:
Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens by Hall-Mendelin et al. PNAS vol. 107 no. 25
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To be used at 0, 3 and 6 monthly intervals.
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It depends on the population you are studying (e.g. adults vs adolescents etc). I would suggest checking out the CAPS website (University of California, San Francisco) - they have a lot of survey instruments for HIV researchers, prevention planners etc - as long as you cite CAPS as your source. 
Hope this helps!
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My project enrolls newborns through a pregnancy and birth surveillance program. Sick neonates are taken to a facility and blood is drawn. This specimen is transported to a laboratory where it is aliquoted and tested for pathogens. The data is then entered into the database. It's a complex study and I know for a fact that there have been very few studies like this. Moreover, most of those studies didn't publish their M&E methods. I am hoping to find articles on M&E activities for similar studies. If not similar, a project with multi-level monitoring and evaluation system may serve my purpose.
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Thanks Mr. Bilal
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How can you explain the local and global stability of DFE or EE to a non-mathematician?
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That's pretty simple in my opinion...
Local stability of an equilibrium point means that if you put the system somewhere nearby the point then it will move itself to the equilibrium point in some time. Global stability means that the system will come to the equilibrium point from any possible starting point (i.e., there is no "nearby" condition).
In even more physical interpretation, it could be like this:
If DFE or EE is locally stable then all epidemiological situations not-so-much different from the given stable equilibrium will (with time) evolve to (or transform into) the equilibrium point. Also it means that the equilibria are stable to small perturbations: if you push the situation a bit out from the equilibrium point then the situation will return back on its own (from the physicist's point of view, it means that the equilibrium may be a stable situation in real life, because the real world always is somewhat noisy).
Global stability of an equilibrium point in this case may be described as "the inevitable fate of the epidemic process regardless of its starting situation". But a caveat should be put that this "inevitability" holds as long as the world strictly follows the underlying mathematical model of epidemic process.
For still even more lay (or medical) audience all these things may be easily interpreted in terms of "adding or removing a small number of infectious people" but I believe it would make the central idea less clear.
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We see much discussion of global spread and potential pandemics from zoonotic infectious threats (e.g. Ebola, MERS, cryptosporidiosis) and vector-borne threats (e.g., Chikungunya, dengue). Some of these are both zoonotic and vector-borne (e.g., West Nile virus, Chagas', leishmaniasis, Rift-Valley fever). However, there seems to be less emphasis on the potential for geographical spread, or even global spread, of sapronotic infectious agents (e.g., melioidosis, legionellosis, flesh-eating bacteria) that are not vector-borne or specifically associated with other animals, but which tend to build up in certain environments and could be introduced into similar distant environments by internationally transported contaminants. A good discussion of potential sapronotic threats might raise awareness of potential threats and encourage more vigilance in surveillance and preparedness.
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I think the spore-forming organisms from soil would most likely fit into this category. Although anthrax is primarily associated with herbivores, it has been imported into the U.S. on goat skin drums made in Africa. For that matter, we still have naturally occurring anthrax in buffalo and occasionally in cattle in the U.S. Anthrax spores are notoriously hardy and can remain in a viable state in soil for 100 yrs. or more. Another dangerous soil spore-former is Clostridium botulinum, perfringens and tetani. In addition their are molds and other saprophytes that are very toxic for humans that can build up under certain environmental conditions. You will find others if you "Google" agroterrorism.
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It is known that brucellosis occurs in wild boars, bison, elk, etc and therefore is maintained in the wild from these populations
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There is paucity of literature on brucellosis in wild life especially the wild boars
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Dear Weidong Gu,
The program you sent me is very useful and has a easy to use.
I calculated MLE and IR values for tick pools with MLE-IR program.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
Mehmet Fatih Aydın
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There is a small body of research attempting to understand what care-takers of young children perceive to be diarrhea. They may not have the necessary clinical expertise, but have the benefit of spending the most time with rearing their children. In a world where most studies employ the WHO classification of diarrhea, is it important to still attempt to understand local perceptions of what diarrhea is to those who actually care of their children?
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Dear Mark, I worked more closely in addressing the perception of the health-illness-healing in community Saco do Mamanguá, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro. My work on the line will experience this process. Did not publish much, but there is a publication that I and my advisor present in environmental event. This dissertation won the Rodrigo Melo Franco, IPHAN as rescue intangible heritage, at the regional level of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. But the staff of public and community health in Brazil did not give a lot of credit, and therefore not published. See the article I'll put on my page (Study of symbolic representations of health / disease / healing in the community Saco do Mamanguá.) If you send me your email I can send you all the work, but is in Portuguese. Sorry! My english is bad. Thank you!