Questions related to Infectious Disease Surveillance
Is it completely dependent on the region that patient lives in? If so, I'm specifically interested in the Southern California (United States) region.
If an antibody test showed postive for HBsAg, HBcAg and HBeAg, and an enzyme immunoassay showed reactivities for HcR43, NS5 and c100-3, what factors must be considered to be able to conclude that HBV and HCV were contracted from different exposures? What measures must be taken?
Based on recent literature I am under the impression that the genome-wide comparison of prehistoric and modern pathogen DNA is significant for the following reasons:
- Prehistoric human microbiomes can be screened for novel vaccine targets
- Reconstructed draft genomes may be used to identify close relatives of modern pathogens
- Reference genomes can provide clues that may aid in the timeous and appropriate management of contemporary disease threats
Is this correct? In which other ways can one express the contemporary significance of prehistoric pathogen research?
During the influenza A/H7N9 epidemic in China, live bird markets have been sampled extensively to find the virus. Different types of samples were taken, including tracheal/cloacal swabs in live ducks/chickens, faeces samples, drinking water samples, waste samples, feathers, etc.
In most of the literature I could find, the proportion of positive samples of each type is given by aggregating all sample sites, i.e. authors report the proportion of positive samples of type X across all study sites (often dozens of live bird markets, all of which are obviously not infected).
What I am looking for is the proportion of samples (of each type) that tested positive in infected live bird markets. To make things even clearer, I want to get an idea of the probability that a sample of type X will test positive for H7N9 (by rtRT-PCR) in an infected market.
Any suggestion of relevant scientific papers/reports will be highly appreciated!
Thanks a lot for your valuable help.
I have very limited therapeutic options treating a patient with extensively Drug resistant TB. However there is no evidence in the literature of the association of these two drugs in a regimen. They are now commercially available however there is little consensus to adding them together given the paucity of safety data. Has anyone managed to give the two drugs together, where there any adverse events and/or increases in QTc?
Can I ask whether MALDI can detect organism straight from the positive bottle without first growing the colony/colonies?
Can anyone advise me that how to do spatial-temporal analysis of infectious disease with longitudinal data?
Since the MERS Coronavirus infection is endemic on the Arabic peninsula and now transfered by single patient to South Korea: Do you defer travelers coming back from these regions for a specific period (e.g. 4 weeks after return) from donating blood in your country?
I feel that in some countries in the region, surveillance protocols have been oriented to diagnose DEN, if this rule out diagnose CHIK, but what about DEN/CHIK? Are you aware of which countries, particularly in the Americas, are doing specific surveillance for both? from related studies, which is the proportion of patients with DEN with CHIK coinfection? and CHIK with DEN coinfection?
I'm wondering if the common understanding of health project managers about the vector borne diseases is global issue why they deal with it locally, although that will not fix it at all, because even if we thought it disappear it's going to re emerge soon.
I have documented small area spread of a new type of infectious agent across Berkshire in the UK. The agent seems to be relatively difficult to transmit but has quite dramatic impact on medical admissions.
A short article is attached, however, background studies can be accessed via www.hcaf.biz in the 'Emergency Admissions' web page.
Much appreciated. Rod
I wish to know if anyone has experience with the use of FTA cards for the collection, safe transport, and preservation of rabies samples.
My project enrolls newborns through a pregnancy and birth surveillance program. Sick neonates are taken to a facility and blood is drawn. This specimen is transported to a laboratory where it is aliquoted and tested for pathogens. The data is then entered into the database. It's a complex study and I know for a fact that there have been very few studies like this. Moreover, most of those studies didn't publish their M&E methods. I am hoping to find articles on M&E activities for similar studies. If not similar, a project with multi-level monitoring and evaluation system may serve my purpose.
How can you explain the local and global stability of DFE or EE to a non-mathematician?
We see much discussion of global spread and potential pandemics from zoonotic infectious threats (e.g. Ebola, MERS, cryptosporidiosis) and vector-borne threats (e.g., Chikungunya, dengue). Some of these are both zoonotic and vector-borne (e.g., West Nile virus, Chagas', leishmaniasis, Rift-Valley fever). However, there seems to be less emphasis on the potential for geographical spread, or even global spread, of sapronotic infectious agents (e.g., melioidosis, legionellosis, flesh-eating bacteria) that are not vector-borne or specifically associated with other animals, but which tend to build up in certain environments and could be introduced into similar distant environments by internationally transported contaminants. A good discussion of potential sapronotic threats might raise awareness of potential threats and encourage more vigilance in surveillance and preparedness.
There is a small body of research attempting to understand what care-takers of young children perceive to be diarrhea. They may not have the necessary clinical expertise, but have the benefit of spending the most time with rearing their children. In a world where most studies employ the WHO classification of diarrhea, is it important to still attempt to understand local perceptions of what diarrhea is to those who actually care of their children?