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Before the outbreak of ebola In West Africa, dead bodies are usually given a befitting burial using the traditional system (rectangular hole about 6-8 feet deep, 2-4 feet wide). During the peak of the outbreak in Liberia, dead bodies were burn as a process of disposal. In Sierra Leone all dead bodies have been buried by dressing them as demanded by law and tradition. I am concern about the negative impact of these two methods of disposing dead bodies of victims of the dreadful disease ebola. What are some of the short term and long impacts of these practices on:
1. Agriculture (food supply and safety).
2. Health status of people residing close to cemeteries or burning sites. 
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Is there any evidence about whether fabric or bare hands would spread covid-19 more from one surface to another? (e.g. opening a door using a fabric glove). Assuming the fabric doesn't touch your face, like bare hands easily do, even with efforts to remember not to people struggle to remember. I've been thinking of prompts to prevent face touching, such as wearing fabric gloves when out and about, but I don't want to promote this unless fabric is at-least-no-worse than hands for transferring the virus between surfaces.
I'm talking about use in the community for instance when people have to travel or go to food shops, not in a healthcare context. The gloves should be changed between different settings (e.g. apartment block, bus, shop - switch to a new pair of gloves for each). The gloves should be ironed hot at the end of each day.
As far as I can tell from my attempts searching, this is evidence based, but I'm keen to know from someone who is better at interpreting evidence in this field if it is sensible.
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well, the risk of conducting covid19 by using gloves or not the same but the gloves remember us not to touch our eyes,mouth and nose so don't get infection
properly if you contact with infected patient, at that time wearing gloves become a must
thank you
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Measles has been globally well-contained for decades, thanks to the widespread MMR vaccine, which protects children against measles, mumps, and rubella.
However, in recent years, an alarmingly increasing number of parents have decided against vaccinating their children as anti-vaccination "literature" or "culture" has proliferated online, claiming the vaccinations could create worse health issues.
With decreased vaccination coverage, those infections are coming back among children and societies, such as the recent measles outbreak in New York.
What can we do to help prevent such issues in the future?
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"What the Measles Epidemic Really Says About America
The return of a vanquished disease reflects historical amnesia, declining faith in institutions, and a troubling lack of concern for the public good.
PETER BEINART AUGUST 2019 ISSUE [The Atlantic]
...One answer is that contemporary America suffers from a dangerous lack of historical memory. Most of the parents who are today skipping or delaying their children’s combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine don’t remember life with measles, much less that it used to kill more children than drowning does today. Nor do they recall how other diseases stamped out by vaccines—most prominently smallpox and polio—took lives and disfigured bodies...
Our amnesia about vaccines is part of a broader forgetting. Prior generations of Americans understood the danger of zero-sum economic nationalism, for instance, because its results remained visible in their lifetimes. ..
Declining vaccination rates not only reflect a great forgetting; they also reveal a population that suffers from overconfidence in its own amateur knowledge. In her book Calling the Shots: Why Parents Reject Vaccines, the University of Colorado at Denver’s Jennifer Reich notes that starting in the 1970s, alternative-health movements “repositioned expertise as residing within the individual.” This ethos has grown dramatically in the internet age, so much so that “in arenas as diverse as medicine, mental health, law, education, business, and food, self-help or do-it-yourself movements encourage individuals to reject expert advice or follow it selectively.” Autodidacticism can be valuable. But it’s one thing to Google a food to see whether it’s healthy. It’s quite another to dismiss decades of studies on the benefits of vaccines because you’ve watched a couple of YouTube videos. In an interview, Reich told me that some anti-vaccine activists describe themselves as “researchers,” thus equating their scouring of the internet on behalf of their families with the work of scientists who publish in peer-reviewed journals.
In many ways, the post-1960s emphasis on autonomy and personal choice has been liberating. But it can threaten public health. Considered solely in terms of the benefits to one’s own child, the case for vaccinating against measles may not be obvious. Yes, the vaccine poses little risk to healthy children, but measles isn’t necessarily that dangerous to them either. The problem is that for others in society—such as children with a compromised immune system—measles may be deadly. By vaccinating their own children, and thus ensuring that they don’t spread the disease, parents contribute to the “herd immunity” that protects the vulnerable. But this requires thinking more about the collective and less about one’s own child. And this mentality is growing rarer in an era of what Reich calls “individualist parenting,” in which well-off parents spend “immense time and energy strategizing how to keep their children healthy while often ignoring the larger, harder-to-solve questions around them.”"
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This indicator is very important into Dengue's control interventions.
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Hi Dr. Mousa, this link may be help you
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Risk factors for CRBSI are well documented but I´m looking for a sort of screening tool in ICU pacientes with CVC.
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How well could Malaria be controlled in a low socio - economic population? an at risk population, relatively low in all socio - economic index. Can someone provide any relevant studies?
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To avoid repetition, all comments made by colleagues are right. However, malaria control depends mostly on Government policies. We know the ways the disease and vector can be controlled. If the Government will respond to malaria the way they responded to Ebola,  I believe malaria will be eradicated in one year at most.
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Usually in Suspected TB patients sputum smear x 3 times negative is considered as a tool to stop air borne precautions and my question is can GenXpert for TB/Rif R be used for this purpose in parallel in low endemic areas? for a quick withdrawal !
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hi colleague. GeneXpert is a pertinent tool especially after three consecutive smears collected atleast 8 hours apart is proven negative on microscopy. However,it is recommended for specificity and sensitivity to conjugate smear microscopy and NAA detection to give a proper AII.  
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Dear Friends, try to understand?
Data of FMD outbreaks in India Processed by National Institute Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics in attached photo is self-explanatory to reveal the efficacy of FMD CP, either increase or no change in the status of disease in FMD CP areas are the characteristics. After every year of increased occurrence of a disease, next year outbreaks are low due to immunity offered by the disease that is why outbreaks were less in 2015 and in 2016, you can witness the FMD outbreak rampant in all parts of Northern India.
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 may the efficacy of the vaccines not enough or may presence of a new serotypes not included in the available vaccines 
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As we are doing so may effort to control the rabies by means of prophylactic vaccination for dogs and doing ABC in dogs and we are spending huge amount of money for post exposure prophylaxis for humans, doing health education and educational campaign. Still so many human and animal deaths happening in India due to rabies. Where actually we are lagging?
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Responsible dog ownership, stringent rules and regulation, ABC programme, scheduled Anti rabies vaccination campaign (year round), Proper waste disposal, public awareness and education, stringent rules, control in wild population through oral vaccines, prompt treatment and proper post exposure immunization in humans, more of a One Health approach involving various Human and animal health departments, wild life, environmentalists, Local government organisations, related NGO's, is the key for controlling rabies, rather than departments acting independently and reaching no where.
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I wish to carry out a study on pinworm infection among children. I will be thankful for your suggestions on:
1. Features suggestive of pinworm or worm infestation.
2. Features increase the risk of pinworm infection.
3. Knowledge aspects need to be assessed from parents or guardians
4. Sites from which swab should be taken for pinworm eggs in the environment
Please respond to the attached delphi survey.
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I think you can take the age of kindergarten and primary school kids,continuous itching, the use of cellophane tape
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  • please all key actors
  • their potential contributions to risks of eating food infected with Campylobacter
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Food Standards Agency very important, for example see this survey from earlier in 2015 about chickens in supermarkets 
Obviously the farming industry, and food retail industry too. 
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I have a series of increases in death arising from a suspected series of outbreaks of an unknown agent.
The suspicion is that the agent is relatively difficult to transmit and relies heavily on chance to initiate a mass effect.
How do I test the hypothesis that a high increase in deaths is typically followed by a low increase in deaths in the following outbreak and vice versa?
See attached chart.
See also http://www.hcaf.biz/emergencyadmissions.html  for further detail of these infectious-like events
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Dear Thomas, Many thanks for the reply. Probably a little more complex as there seem to be interactions with influenza, however, seemingly a new type of outbreak. See attached. Cheers Rod
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Hi everyone
Can I ask whether MALDI can detect organism straight from the positive bottle without first growing the colony/colonies?
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Barnini, S., Ghelardi, E., Brucculeri, V., Morici, P., and Lupetti, A. (2015). Rapid and reliable identification of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci by deposition of bacteria harvested from blood cultures onto the MALDI-TOF plate. BMC microbiology 15, 124.
Carbonnelle, E., Mesquita, C., Bille, E., Day, N., Dauphin, B., Beretti, J.-L., Ferroni, A., Gutmann, L., and Nassif, X. (2011). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry tools for bacterial identification in clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin Biochem 44, 104-109.
Deak, E., Charlton, C.L., Bobenchik, A.M., Miller, S.A., Pollett, S., McHardy, I.H., Wu, M.T., and Garner, O.B. (2015). Comparison of the Vitek MS and Bruker Microflex LT MALDI-TOF MS platforms for routine identification of commonly isolated bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 81, 27-33.
Kohlmann, R., Hoffmann, A., Geis, G., and Gatermann, S. (2015). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry following short incubation on a solid medium is a valuable tool for rapid pathogen identification from positive blood cultures. Int J Med Microbiol 305, 469-479.
Schneiderhan, W., Grundt, A., Wörner, S., Findeisen, P., and Neumaier, M. (2013). Work flow analysis of around-the-clock processing of blood culture samples and integrated MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Clin Chem 59, 1649-1656.
Singhal, N., Kumar, M., Kanaujia, P.K., and Virdi, J.S. (2015). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis. Front Microbiol 6, 791.
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Unexplained periods of higher death and medical admissions have been characterised in the UK. Both deaths and medical admissions appear to show spatial spread indicating a potential infectious aetiology.
A quick overview of this research is available at:
The actual analysis is relatively simple and is not time consuming and the spatiotemporal spread of the agent is best demonstrated using very small area data.
If you are interested in conducting research outside of the UK I have a draft paper which demonstrates the current approach and the type of results which can be observed. If you contact me by email (hcaf_rod@yahoo.co.uk)I will send a copy of this draft paper and hopefully these outbreaks can be demonstrated far more widely than the UK.
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Hi Terri, I think this is possibly the first example of a new generation of more subtle diseases. The kinetics of spread are relatively slow and highly granular and this explains why these outbreaks have gone hidden for so long. Also this is not a 'silo' disease with a simple diagnosis, the effects are complex and can probably be best described as exacerbation of existing conditions. Hence it hides behind other recognisable diseases. Have just submitted a big review attempting to show that something like cytomegalovirus could cause such disease types. Still many questions to be answered which was why I asked for help. Cheers
Rod
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Need to collaborate
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Researchers from Gondar University ,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ,Ethiopia,have published the following article. You may like to collaborate with them.
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I am working on plasmacytoid dendritic cells and many references suggest that flu PR8 is best for stimulation of pDC...can anyone tell me if I plan to use this virus what kind of biosafety should be followed?
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Time has changed and so are the need & demand. I personally feel one need BSL- 3. This will safeguard all.
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My research group and me are inquiring about this question and we want to answer some isues about this topic, in addition to this general question, we want to know:
-What is understood, exactly, by biosurveillance?
-What is understood, in terms of biosecurity and biosurveillance, by Early Warning Systems?
-From the point of view of biosurveillance, scientifics and experts, what is currently the role of citizenship?
-There are tools, apps, guidelines, etc. whereby citizenship can collaborate or "enact" as alert system?
-Where can we find documentation about this kind of issues?
-What is a sentinel site or a sentinel web? and how it works?
-What is the role of Internet into this new intelligence related with detecting pandemics and acting before it occurs?
I have some stuff written about it in my blog: http://ebaes.blogspot.com.es/
Thanks in advance, 
Enrique
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You can find out more about Promed at: http://www.promedmail.org/
It is an email based service that people can email in reports of animal or human disease outbreaks. It is moderated by specialists in various disciplines such as virology etc. If accepted, then the emails reports are disseminated to all those on the network. Often, the specialists make comments to add to the report to fill in technical detail. Promed has been following the Ebola outbreak quite closely.
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I have recently noted an upsurge in the incidence of tuberculosis (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary) in medical Residents. What precautions/ measures can prove effective in curtailing such an occurrence?
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I fully agree that the measures of TB infection control should be in place at health care facilities. They usually are in place at TB departments. It is considered that health care providers working at triage are more exposed to TB. In 2013, a cross-sectional study from Japan involved HCWs from a hospital without TB-specific wards. The screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been performed by interferon gamma release assay (Quantiferon TB Gold in tube). LTBI prevalence rate was 11% and questionnaire revealed previous close contact of the staff with TB patients. Please find attached the paper.
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From recent evidence, I learned that most of the people washed their hands for about 10 seconds.
However, I did not find any microbial data of short hand rubbing. Please let me know if there is any.
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Probably the period of rubbing is less of a factor than frequency of hand washing; if the hands are frequently cleansed the level of contamination will remain minimal. Consider professionals like doctors and food handlers who wash their hands every time they touch a patient or handle food item; they hardly take a 30 s washing their hands because of the frequency. These individuals might be excellent study subjects for the topic on length of time for hand-washing.
Recent study (unpublished) of university students queuing for meals showed that heavily contaminated hands are not effectively decontaminated with ordinary soap and water when washing is briefly done. In this study (fearful of sounding biased) it was established that ladies' hands tended to carry more diverse variety of micro-organisms requiring extended washing period.
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What is the reason for the epidemic of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in East Africa?
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It might be, but that is very unlikely given that the reduction of P. falciparum is mostly related to the effect of the many interventions implemented in the region that are also efficient against P vivax. Epidemiologically, you will need to increase the population at risk (susceptible subjects ~ Duffy positives) as well as the population of mosquitoes that are efficient P. vivax vectors to close the malaria cycle. Both can be driven by migration, which occurs often and very intensively in some African regions. I do believe that this will offer you a partial answer to your question, although I'm afraid that the reality is far more complex than that. Africa offers a very favorable environment for vivax malaria transmission so once we have more subjects that are protected against it there is no reason to don't expect more P vivax malaria cases.
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Following the discovery of B. salamandrivorans, the chytrid fungus that decimated the rare Salamandra salamandra in the Netherlands, stringent biosecurity measures (use of fungicides etc.) have to be implemented at our institute, issued by the agency for nature and forest. This provides an excellent opportunity to implement biosecurity measures for preventing the spread of invasive alien species and enhance biosecurity awareness amongst scientists and field workers. My question is: does anyone have any good examples of biosecurity implemented at research institute level/documents, and about how it's done, which products to use etc.? I already have some excellent intel from Inland Fisheries Ireland, but some mainland Europe information would be nice.
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Hi Tim. The biosecurity advice which Joe Caffrey talked about at Neobiota practically mirrors ours at Cornwall College. The SINNG protocol has been rolled out at each of our campuses and our college minibuses carry a Biobucket which contains a brush and Virkon Aquatic spray. The website is in the process of being updated and the protocol will be available there soon if it isn't already. Happy to help further. 
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Rodents are reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases to human and their infested fleas,mites,ticks and lice act as vehicles transmitters of infections to man.What is best apply ant-ratting or insecticide first?
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Rodents indeed serve as reservoirs for many zoonotic diseases.  Many of these diseases are transmitted via parasitic arthropods, but others are transmitted simply by contamination of the environment by rodent feces or urine.  Also, many arthropod parasites of rodents do not survive long away from the host, and many do not prefer humans as hosts.  Thus, rodent-associated zoonotic diseases that involve synanthropic arthropod transmission actually circulate most effectively in the presence of healthy rodent populations close to human habitation or activity.  Thus, I would start with control of the rodents, then move to comprehensive sanitation of human activity areas that would eliminate both arthropods and other infectious contaminants.
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Is there an agent for virus inactivation that can be used in whole blood samples, that still allows to make routine tests in those samples, like blood cell count and blood chemistry?
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Dear Enrique
There is no validated or approved technique for inactivation of viruses in whole blood, even for therapeutic use. While it is "relatively" easy to inactivate free enveloped and, to some extent as well, non-enveloped viruses in plasma, it is more complicated to inactivate cell asssociated (e.g. lymphocytes-associated) viruses without affecting the integrity of the cells. The only technique that could possibly do the job currently is photoinactivation combining a photosensitizer such as riboflavin and illumination. This technique is, however; yet not approved for clinical use and requires careful conditions for its application. Leucoreduction may remove some cell-associated viruses but would obviously affect the blood count. In conclusion, to the best of my knowledge there is no simple procedure that could ensure inactivation or removal of viruses in whole blood samples without affecting the integrity if the cells (RBC, platelets, WBC). Kind regards, Thierry
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GSK is set to begin a clinical trial of an experimental vaccine against Ebola, jointly with American scientists.
The experimental vaccine has already produced promising results in animal studies, and with an approval from the FDA, it will enter initial Phase I testing in humans.
Still, the new vaccine will not be ready for widespread deployment before 2015 - even assuming it works as well as hoped.
I wonder about that design of the study, assuming that the phase 1 will safe then how the phase 2a dose finding and phase 2b proof of concept will be conducted, knowing that a large sample size will be requires. How can we predict the outbreak? And where will be the setting for this complex trial?
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In the search box, type "ebola"
You can see the clinical trials of vaccines for ebola that have been completed and/or in progress since 2006.
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Hi everyone, I'm doing my thesis on the responses of in vitro cultures of L. mexicana to a specific alkaloid from an ecuadorian plant. The next step is to measure ROS production with and without the alkaoid by flow cytometry with CellROX kit from LifeTechnologies.
Which is the best protocol or steps for doing this? 
Thanks so much for your responses,
Anabel
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Hi Ali,
the first paper actually has helped me to understand how ROS function and the response of the parasite to oxidative stress. However, I have already done my experiment with CellROX kit but had problems with the positive and negative control that the kit includes. Have you ever work with CellROX kit from Invitrogen? Do you know how to improve it performance?
Thanks so much for the answer and the papers,
Regards,
Anabel
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GIS advancements could significantly contribute so as to avoid more deaths from spreads of deadly viruses, like the later Ebola virus or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease). The GIS related scientific community could prove that by concentrated actions and knowledge on related projects, could promote better managerial handling of the occurence of EHF.
I would personally propose the following links:
and especially,
In case you have any additional input, please feel free to disseminate your knowledge to all.
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You might check my brief blog for the University of Chicago Press which published my Disease Maps: Epidemics on the Ground (2012). It's at: http://pressblog.uchicago.edu/2014/08/13/tom-koch-on-ebola-and-the-new-epidemic.html.
A deeper answer is one that brings up the purpose of the map the GIS is to produce. What will it add? At the large, local scale of the region mapping both identifies the areas (by town) where ebola is most active and resources most needed. To that can be added resources available and those that are needed but not in place. And, too, there is the ability to map (and we've been doing this for over a centure), the progress of the diseass, often identifying specific vectors (health personnel, itinerants, etc.). Nationally we see the disease's progress in the S.Saharan countries, adding mortality and morbidity figures into a time frame (by month, perhaps). And then there is the global map in which we see both ebola's attempts to spread and the varying forms of containment being employed to prevent it.
 So the issue of GIS isn't one simply of maps available or resources for mapping but the type of questions being asked.
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Ms
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Mitoxantrone has a limited role in the treatment of MS in the current scenario.  Apart from the short period that it can be administered, treatment induced leukemia ( even as far as > 5 yrs after treatment) and cardiac toxicity are reasons for not preferring this drug. However in aggressive MS  that has not responded to first line therapy ( for eg. while compliant on Betainterferon , patient develops > 2 severe clinical relapses /yr or has increasing T2 W lesion load or > 2 GAD enhancing lesions) , then there is a limited role for Mitoxantrone to INDUCE Remission , to be followed later by a less toxic first line drug. 
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Or information on the progress in the development of its vaccine? The vector is the Aedes mosquito; and the DENV (dengue fever virus) is an RNA virus.
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The Aedes mosquito can be controlled through fishes (Poecilia), small crustaceans, in small artificial deposits like water tanks baby turtles has been used (Trachemys scripta) to predate on Aedes larvae https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerardo_Borjas/publications.
Some products with biological spores have been used in some countries: Bacillus sphericus and Bacillus turingiensis var israelensis (Bti) but there is controversy about if this a chemical or biological product.
About the vaccine, there is an expectation that in less than five years we'll have one, since several pharmaceutical companies are working in its development with a very strong support from Universities and International Organizations. The information has been summarized in previous entries
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Samples were taken from environment, equipment, personnel hands and uniforms.
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Thank Mr. Ghazal. Of course it is normal to have bacteria, for what I wanted to discuss was about rates up when you can say it is normal, taking into account the type of bacteria and the number of colonies.