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Inequality - Science topic

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Publications related to Inequality (10,000)
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Inequality and deep poverty have risen sharply in the US since the 1990s. Simultaneously, cash-based welfare policies have frayed, support for public assistance has fallen on the political right, and prejudice against recipients of welfare has remained high. Yet, in recent years Universal Basic Income (UBI) has gained traction, a policy proposing t...
Article
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Inequality is a ubiquitous phenomenon in real-world society. This investigation aims to study inequality in prisoner dilemma. Individuals contribute to a public pool and act either fairly or unfairly to share the public resource. The participator can either accept the allocation scheme to get a payoff that is better than nothing, or reject it to pu...
Article
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Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is a core element of Sustainable Development Goals and has become a global healthcare priority. China has been committing to provide all citizens with affordable and equitable basic healthcare over past decades. However, progress towards UHC in China has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims t...
Article
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Water Inequality, Water Security and Water Governance are fundamental parameters that affect the sustainable use of water resources. Through policy formulation and decision-making, Water Governance determines both Water Security and Water Inequality. Largely, where Water Inequality exists, Water Security is undermined through unsustainable water...
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‘Unequal development’: a cherry narrative always assumed as natural and continuous between the Global North and South. As de facto assumed, the foundation of poverty has always been diagnosed as a domestic and technical immaturity of developing countries that will find a solution within the international economic order. But what if the North–South...
Article
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Efforts to promote diversity and inclusion often lack a theoretical basis, which can unintentionally exacerbate issues. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation results of a theoretically grounded workshop aimed at reducing microaggressions and promoting ally engagement among graduate students in science and engineering. In Study 1...
Article
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This paper empirically examines the quantitative relationship between financial inclusion and inclusive growth in sub-Saharan Africa using a panel of 46 countries for the period 2004–2018. The evidence suggests that usage of financial services, among other covariates, has a quantifiable and discernible impact on inclusive growth compared with avail...
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Objective The objective of this study was to analyze gender inequalities and intersectionality experienced by rural-indigenous women who produce and sell native maize tortillas at three different markets-tianguis in central Mexico, facing the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This was a qualitative study based on 36 in-depth interviews before pandemic (2...
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With the recovery of the world economy following the easing of restrictions designed to contain COVID-19, energy demand has surged, even as natural gas stocks have run dangerously low. In addition to the reduced investment in upstream energy resources, infrastructure and maintenance since the outbreak of COVID-19, the situation is exacerbated by su...
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Recent literature has suggested a link between poor air quality and worse COVID-19 outcomes. In the United States, this link is particularly noteworthy because of residential sorting along ethnic lines within the US population; minorities are disproportionately exposed to health hazards, including air pollution. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic...
Article
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This paper contributes to the literature on social stratification by analysing the role of internal migration as a possible channel for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. While internal migration is associated with social mobility, it can also be used as a strategy of status maintenance among graduates from privileged backgrounds. Th...
Article
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In the geodetic data processing field, most methods for dealing with inequality constraints model are based on additive random error (ARE) models, and there have been few studies on mixed additive and multiplicative random error (MAAMRE) models with inequality constraints. To address this problem, a MAAMRE model with inequality constraints is first...
Article
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This research article explains in detail the pre-processing stage unifying various techniques, using real and open public data from Peru, between the years 2016-2019. The main objective is to address the study of gender inequality through clean and reliable data. This article shows how to group and clean 6 data sets by category to identify and inte...
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This paper addresses how Christianity, and in particular Catholicism, is deployed in response to gender‐based violence (GBV) in Papua New Guinea. It provides insights into the various ways the Catholic community, Church, and its clergy respond to and manage GBV. Focusing on a case study in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea,...
Thesis
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O presente trabalho foi elaborado como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Livre Docente junto ao Departamento de Ciências Básicas da FZEA/USP. Para tanto, compilaram-se seis artigos com escopo ancorado na resolução detalhadas de problemas de olimpíadas internacionais de matemática na área de Geometria. O material didático também foi ut...
Article
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The invention of agriculture 12,000 years ago has been called the worst mistake in human history. Alongside the social, political, and technological innovations that stemmed from it, there came a litany of drawbacks ranging from social inequality, a decline in human health, to the concentration of power in the hands of a few. Millennia after the in...
Article
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Spanish universities have been implementing gender equality policies for over a decade. The research presented here aims to determine the barriers and challenges perceived by female academics in the Faculty of Education at the University of Alicante. The study used a seven-point Likert-type scale survey consisting of 10 items, which were validated...
Chapter
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Taking the city and the urban environment as a starting point, this analysis looks at globalization and the inability that states have so far demonstrated to find solutions to the political, socioeconomic and ecological problems of our time. The public policy of the “30 glorious years” (1945–1975) in Spain and later neoliberal privatizations paved...
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Background Our study examines if SARS-CoV-2 infections varied by vaccination status, if an individual had previously tested positive and by neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation across the Delta and Omicron epidemic waves of SARS-CoV-2. Methods Population cohort study using electronic health records for 2.7 M residents in Cheshire and Merseyside...
Article
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Load frequency control (LFC) is one of the controversial topics in power systems, especially in shipboard microgrids (SMG). In such applications, renewable energies such as wind, solar, or wave energies provide the power supply. However, changes in the weather conditions or loads can disrupt the frequency. To have a constant frequency in the presen...
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Cross-country research argues that the design of welfare states and social protection systems shapes the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Studies that examine this relationship within a country are however lacking from the literature. Based on a quasi-experimental research design using difference-in-differences estimation and data from...
Chapter
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On May 13, 2021, CCG hosted a dialogue between Huiyao Wang, CCG President; David Blair, CCG Vice President and Senior Economist; Anne Case, Alexander Stewart 1886 Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, Emeritus at Princeton University; and Angus Deaton, Senior Scholar, Princeton School of Public and International Affairs.
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Inequalities in income, wealth, quality of life, health and education are an intensively researched field of economics. In this study, we examine the inequality in sports expenditures of Hungarian households. We hypothesize that the development of income inequalities will also correlate significantly to inequalities in sports consumption, and this...
Article
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We prove a one-dimensional Hardy inequality on the halfline with sharp constant, which improves the classical form of this inequality. As a consequence of this new inequality we can rederive known doubly weighted Hardy inequalities. Our motivation comes from the theory of Schrödinger operators and we explain the use of Hardy inequalities in that co...
Article
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Economic inequality, in particular vertical inequality in income and wealth within countries, ¹ has widened considerably with potentially dramatic economic, political and social consequences. ² Reflecting the need for urgent action on inequality, the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 10 focuses on the reduction of various forms of...
Article
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Category Trauma; Ankle Introduction/Purpose There has been significant scrutiny of physicians' opioid prescribing patterns for both operative and non- operative patients. Orthopaedic surgeons are the third highest group of opioid prescribers among physicians in the United States. The wide scope of orthopaedic procedures lends to the variability an...
Article
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Many parents in post-liberation Goa exhibit a pronounced preference for English medium early schooling for their children. The enrolment in the English medium schools, however, is much lower than in the Marathi and Konkani medium schools. This educational situation seems to be the outcome of such factors as mobility aspirations, identity politics,...
Article
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Background: In Bangladesh, safely managed sanitation (SMS) coverage is low, and diarrheal disease is a significant health problem. This study estimated the inequality in access to SMS facilities at the national and sub-national levels and assessed the prevalence of diarrheal diseases in connection with these improved facilities. Methods: Data were...
Preprint
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The ability to measure and track the speed and trajectory of a community's post-disaster recovery is essential to inform resource allocation and prioritization. The current survey-based approaches to examining community recovery, however, have significant lags and put the burden of data collection on affected people. Also, the existing literature l...
Preprint
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Empirical studies show that there is lack of female presence on corporate boards in public companies, although some companies have a single female director (known as a ‘pink unicorn’) who, like a unicorn, might look nice but who is, in fact, only a fiction. We investigate whether traditions and rituals support gender inequality in a religious count...
Technical Report
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We state and prove a result of convergence of series indexed on uniformly discrete sets, which is based on both a lemma of convergence of functions in Paley-Wiener spaces and the celebrated inequality of Plancherel-Polya.
Article
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Housing is the most important durable good consumed by households. This paper assesses the distributional effects of including the value of the flow of dwelling’s services consumed by households with respect to the case where such value is excluded, testing different estimation methods in four developing countries. Including rental values leads to...
Preprint
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We give a simpler proof of the sharp Frank-Lieb inequality on the Heisenberg group. The proof bypasses the sophisticated argument for existence of a minimizer and is based on the study of the 2nd variation of subcritical functionals using their fundamental techniques.
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The role of gender inequality in childhood immunization is an emerging area of focus for global efforts to improve immunization coverage and equity. Recent studies have examined the relationship between gender inequality and childhood immunization at national as well as individual levels; we hypothesize that the demonstrated relationship between gr...
Preprint
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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2575-5982) is a professor of sociology and senior vice provost at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Her research has focused on labor market inequalities, wage penalties for paid and unpaid caregiving, work-family policy, and nonstandard employment. Her research has appeared in the American Sociological Review, So...
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Diversity has increasingly become coveted in the Creative and Cultural Industries (CCIs), with a significant presence in institutional and policy vocabularies. The concern to employ diverse staff and cater to diverse audiences is driven by socio-economic rationales and in terms of ethnicity, the focus of this article, is justified by the levels of...
Preprint
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We prove a generalized isoperimetric inequality for a domain diffeomorphic to a sphere that replaces filling volume with $k$-dilation. Suppose $U$ is an open set in $\mathbb{R}^n$ diffeomorphic to a Euclidean $n$-ball. We show that in dimensions at least 4 there is a map from a standard Euclidean ball of radius about $vol(\partial U)^{1/(n-1)}$ to...
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This paper analyses medium-term labour market trends from 1983 to 2018 in Italy relying on the “Rilevazione dei contratti di lavoro” from INPS archive which provides information on average salaries by professional category, age, gender, and geographical origin. Within an overall pattern of exacerbated wage inequalities, documented by means of diffe...
Article
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In education, among the most anticipated consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are that student performance will stagnate or decline and that existing inequities will increase. Although some studies suggest a decline in student performance and widening learning gaps, the picture is less clear than expected. In this study, we add to the existing lit...
Article
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The migration of humans from one place to the other is a direct result of globalization. Globalization has resulted in permeable boundaries with a repercussion of a highly mobile labor force. Many European and American countries are popular points of destination among other Asian and African countries. Canada's multicultural environment and Express...
Article
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The article investigates how socioeconomic background affects noise annoyance caused by residential road traffic in urban areas. It is argued that the effects of socioeconomic variables (migration background, education, and income) on noise annoyance tend to be underestimated because these effects are mainly indirect. We specify three indirect path...
Article
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Purpose :-This paper aims to review the existing condition on the effects of the Patriarchy on gender especially on females to determine whether patriarchy has undermined the status, condition, and progress of women or has provided opportunities for reducing gender discrimination. Design/Methodology/Approach :-The authors reviewed the literature on...
Article
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In this paper, Wang’s log-Harnack inequality and exponential ergodicity are derived for two types of distribution dependent SDEs: one is the Chan–Karolyi–Longstaff–Sanders (CKLS) model, where the diffusion coefficient is a power function of order θ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepack...
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The Bengali Nobel-laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) portrayed the helplessness of women in the hands of patriarchy in his famous short stories. “Shasti” (1893) and “Haimanti” (1914) are two of them. “Shasti” first appeared in Sadhana, and the monthly magazine Sabuj Patra first published “Haimanti” in 1914. Later, it was included in Galpaguch...
Article
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In this paper, we prove the sharp Pitt’s inequality for a generalized Clifford-Fourier transform which is given by a similar operator exponential as the classical Fourier transform but containing generators of Lie superalgebra. As an application, the Beckner’s logarithmic uncertainty principle for the Clifford-Fourier transform is established.
Preprint
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We extend Stiglitz (1982) to a dynamic and stochastic optimal taxation model, while assessing the effects of exogenous wage regulations. We show that when wage regulations are imposed, consumption inequality rises more than when they are removed. The results lead to an important policy implication that in the face of exogenous wage regulations, the...
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Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic changed people’s working conditions worldwide and research suggests increases in work stressors. However, it is not known to what extent these changes differ by gender or parental status. In the present study, we investigate trends in work stressors and whether these differ by gender and parental status. Methods We us...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that have the potential to increase inequality in Indonesia. Inequality can be caused by economic and social factors, including unequal economic potential and activity, quality of human resources (measured by Human Development Index or HDI), population, investment, workforce, and government spen...
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Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of miscarriages in humans. It is caused by chromosome segregation errors during cell divisions. Evidence is mounting that the probability of specific chromosomes undergoing a segregation error is non-random. In other words, some chromosomes have a higher chance of contributing to aneuploid karyot...
Chapter
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Eudaimonic well-being builds on the writings of Aristotle and integrates contemporary theories of positive psychological functioning. The empirically operationalization is detailed, emphasizing the importance of rigorous psychometric evaluation. Scientific advances of this model of well-being are noted, showing links to sociodemographic factors, ex...
Article
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Background The coronavirus pandemic has exposed existing social inequalities in relation to disease preventive behaviors, risk of exposure, testing and healthcare access, and consequences as a result of illness and containment measures across different population groups. However, due to a lack of data, to date there has been limited evidence of the...
Article
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Roma people are likely Europe's most discriminated and marginalized minority. In the past years, increasing attention has been paid to their migration to Western Europe and their limited social mobility in their countries of destination. Our article focuses on the "post-return" experiences of Roma and the changes generated by return migration in th...
Article
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The Sustainable Development Goals aim to improve access to resources and services, reduce environmental degradation, eradicate poverty and reduce inequality. However, the magnitude of the environmental burden that would arise from meeting the needs of the poorest is under debate—especially when compared to much larger burdens from the rich. We show...
Article
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(1) Introduction: Several studies observe a social gradient in the incidence and health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they rely mainly on spatial associations because individual-level data are lacking. (2) Objectives: To assess the impact of social inequalities in the health outcomes of COVID-19 during the first epidemic wave in Piedmon...
Article
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Background Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women and is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Mammography is the best and the most available diagnostic method for breast cancer early detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and inequality in the mammography uptake among Kurdish women in the...
Article
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Media in Jakarta (core) has a socio-cultural influence on Bandar Lampung (periphery). The accumulation of information production in Jakarta creates an unbalanced flow of information in the national information circuit. Mainstream media and converging media continues to create an anti-diverse flow of information. This paper finds that the media play...
Article
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Most research investigating inequality as a moderator of the effect of income on wellbeing focuses on inequality within geographic contexts. This study asks whether the association of income with subjective wellbeing varies with level of inequality within groups defined by the intersection of dichotomized race (white versus non-white) and gender. T...
Preprint
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Background: Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) is an important indicator for measuring health inequality. Previous studies mainly focused on whole populations rather than specific vulnerable groups through the regional survey or cross-sectional data. China’s rural area is often associated with an underdeveloped economy and insufficient health re...
Poster
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AI solutions can play an even more important role in achieving sustainable development – from sustainable production, pollution control and water efficiency to industrial safety, clean air and healthcare. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ally that sustainable development needs to design, execute, advise and to plan the future of our planet and i...
Article
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We argue that the relationship between individual satisfaction with life (SWL) and SWL inequality is more complex than described by earlier research. Our measures of SWL inequality include indices designed specifically for ordinal data as well as often used (but inappropriate) measures suited to cardinal data. Using inequality indices derived by Co...
Preprint
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I develop an econometric method to determine the characteristics that affect the disparity in the distribution of a positive random variable, e.g., income or wages. I relate the conditional Lorentz curve to the conditional quantile function to decompose the conditional Gini index. The proposed procedure uses polynomial approximations of the estimat...
Article
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I assess the macroeconomic and redistributive effects of tax reforms aimed at increasing tax revenue in Spain. To this end, I develop a theory of entrepreneurship that mimics key facts on the wealth and income distribution in Spain. I find two reforms that raise fiscal pressure in Spain to the average value among countries in the Euro area. The fir...
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Aggregation operators have become an essential tool in many applications. The functional equations related to aggregation operators play an important role in fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic theory. The modular equation is strongly connected with the distributivity equation and can be considered as a constrained associative equation. In this paper, we co...
Preprint
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This paper investigates socioeconomic inequalities in household willingness to pay for National Social Health Insurance. The paper used data from the nationally representative Zambia Household Health Expenditure and Utilization Survey. Contingent Valuation was used to elicit willingness to pay using a bidding game technique. A concentration curve a...
Article
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In this paper, the moment inequalities for some aging distributions are derived based on a mathematical class entitled “a new better than renewal used in Laplace transform order in increasing convex order class (NBRULC)”. The introduced inequalities can be utilized as a new mathematical test for the exponentiality property versus NBRULC. If the mea...
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In this paper, along with a number of applications, the extension of Hadamard's kind inequality for-convex functions and-convex functions on triple ordinates given in 3-variables is shown.
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Evidence shows that economic advantages and disadvantages tend to be hereditary, generating a positive association between income inequality and intergenerational immobility. This relationship, “the Great Gatsby Curve,” is explained in this article in relation to welfare regimes. Compared to Liberal and Nordic welfare regimes, Conservative welfare...
Article
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This article presents a new Carleman inequality for a linear Schrödinger equation which is suitable for both bounded and unbounded domains. We characterize the conditions on the auxiliary function necessary to obtain the global inequality. The novelty of this result is the construction of the auxiliary function on some unbounded domains and for a c...
Preprint
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COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted individuals depending on where they live and work, and based on their race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Studies have documented catastrophic disparities at critical points throughout the pandemic, but have not yet systematically tracked their severity through time. Using anonymized hospitalization d...