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# Improvisation - Science topic

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Can you share your improvised methods for simply measuring the velocity of a river's flow?
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For scientific work, current meters are typically used at various points and depths across the cross section. This equipment would cost in a few thousand dollars.
But for rough estimates, you might try dispersing 10-20 oranges across the cross section, and record their individual and collective speed at some distance downstream, usually through a sinuous meander sequence or reach. Water velocity in a stream or river is variable with location, depth and some will be faster typically at thalweg, and some much slower, pools, eddies, etc. The surface waters where the oranges float may be faster, but some oranges will move to stronger current, and some delayed in slower currents. You might need binoculars to help locate oranges, and a stop watch.
If for for some reason, such as a stream gauging station, you know the river flow discharge rate in cubic feet per second, if you divide by the cross section area (in square feet, assuming you had that too), you would have the mean velocity.
There are various other other tools and meters, but measuring a river can be risky to dangerous if inexperienced or untrained. Doppler meters are most accurate, and suggested for most accurate in larger and more complex river crossings. This equipment costs probably above \$25K today.
If you try wading smaller streams, don’t exceed the rule of ten for safety. The depth in feet times the velocity in feet per second should not exceed 10. A walking stick or wading rod can help. Safety ropes and floatation devices sometimes appropriate if wading.
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I knew that HTMT2 is some kind of improvised version of HTMT (Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio), and usually bootstrapping can be used to provide the 95%CI for the HTMT score in SmartPLS. As for HTMT2 (SmartPLS does not have this feature yet), I calculate it using the R-Studio or online calculator and neither of them can give me the confidence interval, how can I obtain the 95%CI for HTMT2 then ?
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Anak Agung Bagus Wirayuda , thank you very much. Here is a related discussion:
This could be fine in accordance with
But you may want to consider more conservative criteria based on the findings in this article:
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An oxidation ditch is "racetrack type" reactor. It has improvised activated sludge treatment accustomed for long solid retention time which to enhance higher rate of microbial removal. However, there are few applications of oxidation ditches. Is it due to any noticeable disadvantages in oxidation ditches? Please suggest your expert opinions.
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all surface water agitation systems produce aerosols. this is not the problem and in any case it is possible to mitigate the sprays with special barriers. The rotors actually represent a somewhat obsolete system for the supply of oxygen to the biological reactor. The efficiency is not the best. However, this activated sludge process works very well for standard civil sewage and does not require special maintenance or complicated management software. In addition to this, if properly sized, it is also able to break down phosphorus thanks to the alternation of ox and non-ox zones (see very old South African publications: Baderno Process). It depends on what one wants.
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I had completed my Btech Degree in Bioinformatics. I am very much interested to know in detail about NGS data analysis. I need to improvise my career, Is it valuable to join there?
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Rasa Life sciences is fraud training institute. All their google reviews they only submit. once you join your fees gone. they teach nothing. And they will ask you to submit google review with 5 star otherwise they wont give certificate. Even no faculites stay there more than 2 months. i can give n number of students and faculties there who got cheated from RASA life science. Pls take care of this. Other insitutes i dont have much idea. i think eminent is good . but they stoped training. Its not possible to get admission in eminent now. you can try embl training programs.
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Depending upon the distance of the seismic station from the epicentre, the quality of waveform data and the improvisation of the synthetic waveform on it is often a question. If the Pnl waveform segments are showing good fit then S wave components may show poor fit. How this can be improved through proper window and time selections.
Various research articles present a very straight forward approach for the presence of dense seismic stations but how the gCAP inversions can present good inversion results with less density of seismic station network.
For instance
"Synthetics and observed ground velocity were filtered in the same frequency bands (from 0.02 Hz to 0.1 Hz for the surface waves and from 0.05 Hz to 0.3 Hz for the Pnl). These frequency bands were chosen to maximize signal-to-noise ratios of data and to avoid short-wavelength structural heterogeneities. Synthetic seismograms have been computed using an average velocity model derived for the Italian territory as described by Scognamiglio et al. (2009)".
This may not suit my inversions and result in a lower variance reduction.
Your inputs will be much appreciated.
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It depends on the earthquake. The larger the magnitude try to use lower frequency band (e.g. earthquake ~M6 use 0.01-0.1 Hz for Pnl and 0.005-0.04 for surface wave). The time window also adjusted based on the frequency band. Lower frequency needs larger time window.
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The Waqf (confined endowment) was one of the foundations of Islamic Renaissance that has led to a wide activity in scientific, architectural, and health-care movements. It has also resulted the establishment of several institutions which were integrated and vital for the community. These institutions have worked on improvising solutions to new problems. Early Muslims have been racing to establish their own waqf emphasizing the peculiarity of the different goals of each one. This research aims to study the waqf of Abdul Basit ibn Khalil the Damascene (790-857 AH / 1388 - 1450 AD) the Chief-inspector of the Egyptian armies. And I have included in the annexes two of these waqfs.
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Hello very interesting. I will be happy to see the results of your research.
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The word ‘jugaad’ comes from Hindi, meaning a cheap, imaginative, improvised but effective solution to a problem. Jugaad innovations, therefore, are ‘innovative fixes’ – low-cost and flexible answers to everyday issues. Also called ‘frugal innovations’, these are becoming the new trend in the technological sphere nowadays. And quite a number of Indians are leading the way in this regard.
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A flexible approach to problem-solving that uses limited resources in an innovative way. ‘countries around the world are beginning to adopt jugaad in order to maximize resources’ - Oxford English and Spanish Dictionary defination. Origin - Hindi.
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I'm conducting research in improvisation as a tool to build communication skills for adults attending an in-patient residential treatment center and an outpatient service center.
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Do anyone here have any ideas on how to conduct flammability test, fluid resistance and differential pressure using improvised methods? We are trying to look for ways to test coconut coir fiber as potential fabric material in making face masks. However, we don't have any device at school to test the needed parameters. Testings centers are also expensive, so if anyone can suggest a way, it will really be a big help. Thanks
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For over a century, differential pressure was measured with a liquid column, hence the units: millimeters of mercury and inches of water. The ancient Egyptians used a column of water to measure stagnation pressure in a flowing stream. On several occasions when precision instruments have been lost or damaged in shipping, I have calibrated common devices available at any auto supply. I've done the same with postal scales available at an office supply and precision weights.
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Hi. I am doing Suzuki Coupling but yield of my reaction is below 30%. Even with this yield i am not getting pure compound as my my product and impurity spots are extremely close.
I have used following different reaction conditions;
Solvent: DMF+ Water, Dioxane +Water
Temp ranges 80-100 C .
Catalyst: dichlorobis(triphenylphoshine)palladium
Base: Sodium bicarbonate, K2CO3
I am purging my my reaction mixture with Nitrogen before i add catalyst. Any input would be appreciated.
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Suzuki-Miyaura reactions can be cheaper and easier with higher yield by using KOtBu as the base, according to report of Japanese scientists.
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Dear colleagues,
I am working on a measurement model based on capabilities to measure organizational resilience capability (ORC). Given that I could only focus the study on the antecedents of ORC with a microfoundational approach, I would instead like to develop the model a bit more and find an outcome variable that could depend on the different levels of ORC that I will assess. Let's call this missing outcome variable "variable Y" for the moment.
I am also trying to connect the current COVID-19 pandemic to ORC, expecting to find a better response of more resilient organizations with respect to Y. Finally, as I work on Sustainability, I wouldn't mind Y to be related to sustainability too. I was thinking about something such as the difference between "perceived" and "expected" sustainable organizational performance, expecting lower differences to be connected to higher level of ORC. What do you think about that? It is not easy to find a direct link between an outcome variable and ORC. Any suggestions?
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Dear Giacomo Buzzao
Seeing all that you have explained, it seems that you are trying to develop a holistic model that can integrate micro, meso and macro levels. Therefore you need to go to individual level (micro of both organization & holistic concept), then to organization's highest level (macro of the organization and meso of the concept) as well as beyond organizational level (macro). I am working on a similar holistic approach but area is a bit different; Individual and Collective Organizational Mindfulness by integrated Micro, Meso and Macro levels. Micro elements effect the outcomes at Meso level, such as Organizational Collective Performance, simultaneously the Meso level (Leadership, Policies, Procedures, Resources and Attitudes etc) effect the elements at Micro level. Beyond that at Macro level certain factors factors also effect which are beyond control of the organization, such as National Policies, Natural Disaster, Pandemic like COVID-19).
I think you need to conceptualize your concept in clarity . First specify the CONCEPT ( Organizational Resilience), then derive DIMENSIONS from the concept (Anticipate, Coping and Adaption and so on), further derive FACTORS (Internal as well as external to the organization) from dimensions and finally derive ELEMENTS from factors. After you have done that place DIMENSIONS at macro, FACTORS at meso and ELEMENTS at micro and your CONCEPTUAL Model is automatically formed. Then think, discuss and fine tune your model.
I am sending you few figures which I developed for my thesis and fuhrer for my ongoing project and hope they might help you as guideline in formulating your Model. i am available for further help if you need me. Regards
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The tool should have the possibility to:
- upload mp3 files (for me and maybe the participants )
- define a set of questions which should be answered
(one kind of answer could be an audio file)
- give a selection of answers, between which participants could distribute for instance nine points. (answer 1, 3 and 4 could receive 0 points, 2 would get 7 and 5 2 points)
- there should be a management of participants, so that it would be registered, if one did answer a specific recording more than once
The listeners would choose an audio recording, and answer a set of questions regarding this recording. After the first, they could choose a second and do the same thing. So the name of the audio recording should be saved additionally to the answers.
I did a survey with google forms, after evaluating other tools, but there are some restrictions, which made the analysis of the answers quite difficult.
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Hey guys- putting this out there for anyone still having issues with embedding audio recordings. I've built a tool called Phonic (www.phonic.ai) originally designed to RECORD audio in a survey; however many researchers have convinced me to add audio stimuli as an option in the builder.
Phonic has a super generous free-tier for anyone needing this- I'm also here for you if the platform is lacking anything.
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Dear All,
I have set up a 5-plex qPCR. The multiplex works fine but the PCR efficiency doesn't look that great. I am throwing in 250ng human genomic DNA and I get Ct in range of 30-35 for all my products. Average Tm for my three sets of primers is 60 Degree. I am currently using a combined annealing and extension of 60 degree with a hot-start enzyme. I realized if I split it into lower annealing maybe around 57 degree and a bit higher extension around 62 degree, it should improvise the overall efficiency.
Any comments? I am using Smartcycler -II
Appreciate your help!
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The final Ct value tells you nothing about the reaction efficiency of your primers. It just tells you that they amplify late (either low copy number, low efficiency, or a combination).
The only way to measure efficiency is with a standard curve.
You should have already tested the best annealing temperatures for your primers with gradient PCR in a standard thermocycler.
You'll need to think about what exactly you are trying to solve before you start changing the variables. qPCR enzymes are optimized for a very specific temperature range and do not work efficiently outside of those temperatures.
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I am conducting a study on improvisation in nature-inclusive and participatory housing developments in the Netherlands. Nature inclusion and (future) inhabitants' inclusion help to deliver better housing (or any other) developments. Although, these features are not part of current design procedures. Therefore, improvisation is needed during the design phase of such developments. But to what extent? What are the factors of successful improvisation?
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Hello Mattia, yesterday I came a cross a reference to improvisation in urban planning in Richard Sennett's book "The Craftsman." On page 236, he references Bernard Rudofsky's "Architecture without Architects," 'documenting the ways in which most cities were mostly built by improvisations, following no consistent formal design.'
Hope this helps!
Thomas
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I am doing research on the challenges of drone application in the health care supply chain I want to everyone to share their knowledge which could help me in my research.
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Hi Venkat,
I know in Belgium the University Hospital of Antwerp (UZA) started using drones for the transfer of samples between hospitals.
You can get in touch with them through their Twitter @UZAnieuws
Hopefully they can provide you with some more information!
Anneleen
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How can we become more sustainable in both the pre- and post-harvest horticultural sectors. What is being done and what can be done to improvise the footprint.
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Hi,
for insulation you deffinitely ant to look vacuum insulation related options:
Consider both the roof and wall cooling:
For packaging:
And cosider approaching this thing fe.g. orm indicartors point of view:
B.R.,
Ari
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Hi! I need some guidance/ideas to work on a research proposal with a focus in healthcare around Digital Transformation AND Innovation and Leadership.
With the surge of technology in the healthcare world and the rise of AI, many are looking into various aspect to make healthcare more conducive and efficient for patients.
I am having some difficulty in trying to look into a specified area where attention or rather critical thinking is needed in order for it to be something that can be developed to improve or improvise the current trend in healthcare.
Would humbly request all experts and experienced people out here to give me some ideas around this area.
Thank you and regards.
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Dear all,
Thank you so much for all the suggestions and ideas. Will look into it and reply you individually soonest. Was away on a compassionate leave last week
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We have several students who are learning to read music, and all the requisite aspects of becoming a music major at University level, who have large gaps in their musical education. There is little systematic music taught in schools across this country, and those who are teaching music, are mostly untrained.
I'm interested in using audiation as an evaluation tool. I believe that students with better audiation capabilities will do better in classes such as analysis, sight singing, dictation, improvisation, applied music studies etc.
If you have used either of these instruments, please advise; can I use the primary instrument with students of 17+ years? Thanks
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I agree with Diana Wilson on the use of Intermediate test of audiation. The situation of the study of music in Nigeria is quite the experience of Wilson. Institutions like the Delta State University, Abraka and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka have long practised this mode of test for admission of students and it has proved very effective. Music is basically aural and all basic musicianship depends on it.
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Non destructive tests equipment for concrete are quite expensive and not readily available. Is there any non destructive test that can be improvised or built with commonly available materials to determine the strength or/and permeability properties of concrete and other cementitious composites?
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There is some developing research that utilises surface water flow to predict concrete permeability and durability characteristics. This research determines the relative covercrete skin permeability which can be standardised for various concrete parameters such as strength, porosity, and durability. You can get an idea of how it works from this link (at least through the images). http://wdnsword.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/IISopen/Kikuchi_2012.pdf
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Dear colleagues, and Senior Scientists,
I am setting up a cell culture laboratory, but no funding for an inverted microscope now, and viewing my culture for growth and confluence will be a challenge. I am of the view that a simple set-up using hand lens and/or camera can help me view the progress of my cells. I think this is cheap, and can help me start my lab while I work towards getting a standard inverted microscope. Has anyone successfully used such an improvised technique? A guide on how to set-up these devices to view cultures or any alternatives will be very much appreciated. Thanks in anticipation.
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Dear Williams,
That depends on exactly what you want to watch. If you want to look at individual cells you will not be able to improvise anything without spending the equivalent of what you would spend buying a microscope. On the other hand, if you want to evaluate cell cultures by size and or edge growing is possible. But anyway you will have to invest money with camera, lenses, acquisition boards and evaluation software. Unfortunately it is not possible to do research in this area at a professional level without a minimum investment. It seems to me that the inverted microscope may be cheaper than a lot of discrete components which as a rule will not reproduce the same results as you want. I'm sorry but this is the reality of the situation...
Antonio
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Dear Colleagues,
In the absence of a standard CC of any size, can improvising using a burette for fractionation (Not purification) give comparable results as when one uses a standard manufactured CC?
What precautions and care-steps should one take?
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Yes, as long as the burette is packed appropriately.
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I want to carry out LAM (laser Assisted Machining) on a ceramic. My supervisor has requested me to improvise a controller since he cannot afford a laser fibre optics system. He said we can ignore laser parameters, all we need is to heat the material with a laser. How do I power the laser and focus it on the workpiece is my concern now. I am a novice in laser field.
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Dear Tirimisiyu,
please consider also technical issues like the protection of the optical system from dust and dirt. I do not know the work environmet exactly you are planning to work in (and the characteristics of the materials to use), but maybe think about protecting the optics (in case they are too close to a dust/dirt source) with some constant air flow. Otherwise, dirt will burn into the optics and destroy them. If you find this important, please consider also, that you should use clean and dry preassure air, not industial preassure air as air from standard systems contains oil and water.
Best regards,
Hermann
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What types of Improvised explosive device used in terrorist operations?
describe types of Improvised explosive device
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hopfully none. improvisation is best in art and piece initiations. piece between all humans AMEN
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I'm exclusively referring to jazz improvisation. The student is already able to sufficiently master his/her instrument and concretely understand the meaning of a simple harmonic progression.
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Dear Carmine,
When I first learned to improvise (and when I teach it) I tend to limit the harmonic (tonal) vocabulary to a pair of triads: T and D. I see this pair of triads as the rungs on a set of monkey bars or jungle gym. One should be able to negotiate the handholds, so to speak. This affords a budding improvisor the latitude to be creative, and does so within creative and technical constraints; I tend to favor an approach that introduces 1:1, 2:1, 4:1 improvisations (drawn from Aldwell and Shachter's Counterpoint in Composition structure) at first to introduce concepts of dissonance, passing/neighbor tones, as a means of tying melody and harmony. The goal is not to introduce limitless freedom, but to foster a manageable environment where a student can succeed.
After learning these pairs in several keys (+/- 4 accidentals, though ideally all keys should be learned), and in both major and minor contexts, I introduce the interpolation of PD harmonies. This approach leads toward the mastery of the II-V-I progression (which as you'll likely agree is a cornerstone of much of the Jazz repertoire).
At its essence, though, is an approach which fosters the notion of a "tonal playground" that has navigable, manageable goals in a safe, controlled environment.
Best,
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The whole set up is to observe the stress induced birefringence in glass. Light from the Natrium lamp needs to be collimated. Since the whole experiment is carried out in a normal room, there is loss of a lot of light.
How can the system on the collimation side with the lamp and the lens be improvised? Use of an iris or..?
Note: The change of lamp is possible but only in the worst case if there exists no other option.
If more information is required, feel free to ask.
Any information is appreciated. Thank you :)
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Thank you Rafal :)
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I would like to determine the actual light transmittance of the three types of PET bottles that I am experimenting with. Any ideas on how this can be done without using the usual Light Transmittance Meter? Any laboratory within the SADC region that has capacity to determine light transmittance of PET bottles?
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agree with @ Branko Livada
regards
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I mean here, if a paper is sent to a reputed journal (SCI) and if it is rejected strongly (without being sent for review).
If that paper is improvised and sent to the same journal then will it be rejected on the basis of earlier rejection even if the paper quality is improved.
How editor f that journal will look at this whole process?
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I agree with Mirna Leko-Šimić, from the rejection letter, you should have a good idea whether or not a revised manuscript would be reconsidered. However, my earlier submission summarise most of the reasons for rejection without review.
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I was thinking if I could improved my title and search for other topics for the future generations to be beneficial. I was thinking if I could work on a different path for this area, because it is proven that rice water is good for plants, but i want to say is, our teacher wants us to differentiate our topic but it can only lead it in the objective, "The effectiveness of rice watet to the growth of the plants"
I badly need suggestions for my topic as soon as possible. Thank you!
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I mean, not on how it is written, because it is just a first draft, formulizing ideas and begin researching about it but I want to say is, The topic "rice water to the growth of plants" other ideas but same point. One of my classmate suggested that to use different rice water such as using different rice like brown rice, normal rice or other kind of it or using the fermented one, I want suggestions on how it will make a twist but actually ended in the objective "the efficacy of ricewater to the growth of plants"
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FYI - I am a professional classical vocalist, singing music of all centuries, including 21st century music. Very little of what I do is pure improvisation.
Thank you.
-Dr. Liana Valente
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Hi Ron,
Yes, extraordinarily difficult indeed. We would certainly like to have a quantitative measure of creativity in melodic improvisation, and have discussed it from time to time, but the scope of the problem (particularly with regard to defining the context, i.e. the reference by which something is regarded as creative), has kept us from making any serious attempts. So far, we've only measured melodic complexity, using 0-order melodic entropy (considering the distribution of single notes), 1-order melodic entropy (considering the distribution of bigrams of two consecutive pitches), and the Lempel-Ziv complexity measure.
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Several jazz musicians are in the habit of transfiguring the harmonic progression so deeply that the particular song becomes de facto unrecognisable. Sometimes, what is more, the modifications don't abide by the conventional harmonic rules. In your opinion, is there an ethical code in jazz improvisation?
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To answer your question - is there an ethical code in jazz improvisation - I hope not. To impose such a code would require a certain amount of conformity - just as following rules in everyday life. Often, rules are for the insecure - if you're not sure what you're doing, follow the rules. However, don't break the rules until you understand them so well that you can break them in an artistic manner. Reharmonization is often overused by certain players and composers but I find it to be an effective tool in helping me to make music that is unique and personal.
But on the other side of the argument, I have, in the past, told students that if they're going to change the harmonies so much that it makes the melody unrecognizable, then they should just write a new piece.
Interesting question - lots of different opinions and ways to approach it.
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We are planning to conduct a training for elementary science teachers on making improvised instructional materials to improve the quality of science teaching. Most of the science teachers in our city are non-science majors which prompted us to organize a training-workshop. What are improvised science instructional materials you can suggest that we can do?
Here is an example of what we want to do. An improvised microscope
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Angelo, I salute your goal to assist your upcoming workshop participants in your country by engaging in STEM with improvised materials. As a former Peace Corps Volunteer teacher in Swaziland, Africa (1981-1984) I developed a preference (driven initially by need but later by preference) for using locally available (and economical) materials, also. One improvised material I have used in my STEM PD workshops that I lead is a used plastic bottle (with its screw top) such as a small Gatorade bottle that is not a smooth cylinder (important to clean and sanitize the bottle before use). I challenge my participants, working in teams of 4 to figure out a way to fill the provided bottle half way (by volume) with water using only the bottle. I also provide them a pitcher of water to use in this challange and a stirring rod (which could be made of any material available). Each team of participants is provided these materials along with piece of colored tape (could be simply masking tape) to place on the outside of the bottle (bottom of tape aligned with top of water) that indicates the level of the water they have decided is exactly at the halfway fill mark in the bottle. Participants struggle to decided where that level, is since almost all recognize due to the bottle shape it would not be at what they see is the halfway height point. Some guess where the halfway point may be using an "eyeball strategy", while others come come to see that the bottle has a plastic seam line along its vertical shape which can be used to find the halfway by volume level of the water by turning the bottle sideways and by trial and error filling the bottle with water from a pitcher until the water level aligns with the seam. Participants place their team's water bottle with top secured and tape on the outside of the bottle side by side for comparison. Invariably, the bottles have differing places they have placed their tape. We debrief on their methods of coming to a "solution"to the challenge, with the the goal of deciding which strategy may be most fruitful in solving the challenge most accurately. We discuss the notion of "elegance" in strategy selection which for science is oftentimes associated with the notion of choosing the simplistic strategy which is shown to arrive at correct solution to a problem. The participants then usually select the seam strategy as fulfilling that criterion in this case. I then wonder if there may be a way to check to see if the seam strategy really has lead them to the same answer since there always seems to be some slight variation in the bottle levels of water even when the seam strategy is used. I suggest if they considered using the concept of set theory to consider a solution to the challenge. That is, if by volume the level of the water they have suggested fills the bottle by half, the other half (currently holding air) must be an equal volume in the bottle, since one half by one half equals a whole in set theory. Therefore, they can check whatever water level they may have thought represents half of the bottle's volume, by simply turning the bottle over vertically (make sure the cap is on tightly so no water may come out) and seeing if the resulting water level is exactly at the same point on the tape they placed earlier on the outside of the bottle to show the level of the bottle filled halfway by volume by water. This type of strategy using an application of set theory most engages their attention and their appreciation as being most elegant in this case, due to its ease in use and accuracy. As a STEM activity, we then take time in identifying what learners could learn about the "S"--gravity's impact on water in a closed container on Earth and methodology analysis of solution, "T" the technology used to produce the water bottle, "E" the design process to solve the problem, and "M" the use of a concept from mathematics to solve the problem. And, what about the bottle stirrer they ask? Why were they provided that? My response--when solving authentic challenges no one engaged in STEM knows upfront what equipment may be of value to solve the problem. The stirrer is provided not to imply it is of essential value in this instance to solve the problem (which most assume it must be, since it was provided to them in this challenge as they learned by school science always is the case if equipment is provided in a so-called school STEM inquiry experience in such as in a laboratory exercise. Lesson to notice is that in real life problems in STEM do not come all set up with directions on what may be needed (equipment, for example) to solve them. In fact, available equipment (in this instance, the stirrer) may indeed actually distract them as it may have done for some in this activity (even though when it was provided it was NOT stated it must be used to solve the challenge).
If you (or others who read this response to your question) should use my STEM activity with improvised materials that I developed (could be others have also come up with the same or a similar idea for the same improvised materials although I have never seen such activities or was influenced by any to come up with this idea) , I hope you may find success with it as I have with it over the years. If you do use it, please share your experience using it with your participants as shaped by your needs as a STEM teacher educator and your participants needs and interests. I always grow as an educator when we share our teaching stories, successes and challenges (as I think of them, as opportunities to continue learning my craft!).
All the Best, Randy
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Several Outdoor ed and Wilderness medicine schools are dropping traction splints from their curriculum. We know from sad experience that patients often arrive at the ED with traction splints poorly or incorrectly applied and the splint is doing no good what soever and may be causing harm. We have many anecdotes to support the use of traction splints (when applied correctly) for patient comfort. Applying a traction splint to a patient with a suspected femur fracture is not a trivial decision, and the effective application, particularly of an improvised, traction splint is technically challenging and a highly perishable skill. I am looking for data to defend the case for use or not using traction in a back country setting. Thanks!
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please check
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For improvisation of the extraction procedure, we would want to skip the step of washing procedure during the extraction. Are there any literature that cite about the spin column membrane which could remove the impurities at once without the washing steps?
Thanks heaps
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Hi
You could use composite membrane Silica plus polymer matrix
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HI,
I have some data on synergistic effects between my compounds and several other anticancer drugs. I can share the data if someone can suggest me how to improvise and change the concentration of the drugs so that I can get a complete synergistic effect.
Regards,
Pratik
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I'd read the study by Talalay and Chou detailing their concept of 'Combination Index'.  It's a fairly simple method to assess synergy (or lack thereof) in drug combinations, is compatible with nearly any readout, and is commonly used in assorted drug synergy publications.
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To define it as spontaneous production, the selection and the execution of new auditory-motor sequences appears insufficient. On the other hand, compared to numerous brain imaging studies on musical cognition, perception and musical development, there are few of them on musical invention which are, for the most part, confined to the study of already memorised performances and very few on musical improvisation in real time. In a brilliant work, a number of years ago Limb (2008) asked ten pianists to memorise a melody and, after having them lie in the tube of a suitably modified magnetic resonance machine and connected to a keyboard, he managed to have them reproduce a melody they had just learned, make a simple scale and, finally, improvise. Limb saw that the improvisation was correlated to the activation of a nerve network that included, among other things, structures such as the inferior left frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulated cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex. The most interesting evidence was the widespread ‘turning-off’ of the prefrontal areas, which are generally correlated to the conscious control of the activities in progress and responsible for interference in the capacity to concentrate. This experience of ‘turning-off’ is not yet sensorial and not yet perceptive; it is not an experience of emptiness, but corresponds to the activation of mental images that anticipate the specific action that leads to an internal emulation of the planned motor actions, very similar to what takes place in reality. As has been shown recently by Ridderinkhof and Brass, (2015), also with reference to the sphere of football, the comparison between the effects of the anticipated action and those of the internal emulation may generate an error signal that may encourage the improvement of the motor performance, even without the execution of the real movement.
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Dear Ubirajara,
thanks for your suggestion. Unfortunately I don't know the Bob Snyder's book "Music and Memory", but I'll try it. In my opinion, our brain, more than a reactive machine (as yet it was stated for a long time), it is a predictive machine, that formulates hypotheses, provides the consequences of actions and plays in advance. The evolution of motor schemes of behaviour has given rise to an natural logic underpinning prediction and action. In his long adaptive challenge, the human brain not only tuned systems for fast action reshaping, but also molded the entire musculoskeletal architecture and redefined the internal models of the body.
In the original form of life that is jazz, narrating means directing time: a time of epiphanies and introversions, of intuitions and revelations, of syncopated rhythms and aesthetic insights, which appear and disappear on the edges of interference between consciousness and the unconscious.
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Following the "teaching the subject or teaching students" thread, I want to ask how strictly one should follow a syllabus in order to communicate with student's needs. It's easy to say: let's teach students, not subjects, but when it comes to practical problems in the middle of a semester, what do you do? Stick with the plan or start to improvise?
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Personally, I don’t think having a syllabus and improvising are at odds. As I see it, the syllabus specifies the topics to be covered, lists articles and books that students should read and describes assignments, grading standards and the like. But this doesn’t prevent other activities from being inserted where appropriate. I’ll give several examples for courses I taught this fall. One topic on my syllabus dealt with the Brown vs Board of Education. Students read several articles about segregated southern schools before the passage of Brown. One of the articles mentioned Rosenwald Schools. I found several articles about Rosenwald, who was one of the men who owned Sears stores and a philanthropist who donated funds to all-black segregated schools to build better school houses. I also found pictures of Rosenwald Schools from the past and Rosenwald School structures that are currently being used for other purposes. I showed this material in class. We also discussed the role of philanthropists in public schools as both a historic and a contemporary phenomenon. And one of the questions on the mid-term asked students to discuss Rosenwald Schools, describe how they came to be, and then compare the role of the Rosenwald, as philanthropist and contemporary philanthropists.
In another class the dealt with linguistics, I was trying to illustrate the role that language prejudice plays in US life. Except for the most stigmatized varieties of American
English, many US students aren’t as aware of the role that various accents have on their everyday judgements of people even though this is a topic on the syllabus. One of the best sources to help students become aware of this prejudice are television commercials that illustrate how advertisers exploit language prejudice to sell particular products. Two of the commercials— one for Grey Poupon, the other for Polaner All Fruit— both available on YouTube are masterful a illustrating this point. Even though this was not not on the syllabus, I showed both of these commercials in class and we discussed why they worked, that is what attitudes they conveyed, and how advertising people may know more about us than we know about ourselves.
I could provide other examples of improvisation, things that I decided to do spontaneously that weren’t on the syllabus that were appropriate at the moment and that rather than detracting from the topic at hand, expanded on it and helped elucidate some point. I am always looking for ways to enrich the material we are scheduled to cover in class and this requires improvising.
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I'm trying to apply non-functional relations between triads and seventh chords and between traditional scales to the classical guitar using harmonic progressions from the works of romantic and modern classical composers as referents for improvisation.
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I am personally very interested in graph theory, abstract algebra and group theory as methods to travel through pitch space, organize melodic contour, and so on.  I have yet to turn this all into an article, but I am in the process and hope to publish (eventually).  There are a lot of good books on this, but I have found A Book on Abstract Algebra by Charles Pinter to be particularly approachable -- very grounded in applications of permutation groups and their associated graphs.
There is a theorem by Cayley that states (I think I have this at least approximately correct!) that every finite group is isomorphic to a permutation group, which is basically to say that if you understand permutation groups you understand a great deal about transformations in general.
As far as music is concerned, I think the first thing I would recommend is David Lewin's Generalized Musical Intervals and Scales and his PLR transformations in particular. Dmitri Tymoczko has a lot on the Tonnetz concept.  Bob Morris has done a lot of work on group theory applications to music, although it requires a fair amount of background.  Also, there's a pretty interesting article by Michele Intermont and Aileen Murphy in College Mathematics Journal 42/3 (2011) called "An Application of Group Theory to Change Ringing" which you might find helpful.  A rather different approach but I think VERY interesting can be found in the Harmony Book of Elliott Carter, regarding how all the possible chords in 12 eq. temp. pitch class space can be broken up into component subsets and recombined into new collections (including a handy analysis of part of his guitar concerto in the preface).
There is a classic article called "Dissonant Prolongation" by Robert P. Morgan if you are interested in Schenkerian approaches; I don't have the article in front of me but I recall him prolonging diminished seventh chords in Wagner.  Really, a lot of his students (notably Salzer) delved into the application of Schenkerian analysis to music other than Mozart, Bach, Beethoven...  Generally speaking, you will find a lot of material like this if you just search for "prolongation" along with other words like "post-tonal", "atonal", etc.
I have a few pieces of music I have written that employ some of the above ideas (such as travelling exhaustively through the power set of a given set using Hamiltonian paths).  If you are interested, I would be happy to send them to you.  I suppose I should also mention that I've been writing a lot of music for classical guitar over the past few months, so if that is of interest, I'd be glad to send that along as well.  Best wishes on your research!
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Improvising and narrowing down my previous research question to get a better clarity
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"Children with sensory sensitivity should not be exposed to sensory-challenging environments that use artificial stimulation, to answer Anthony's question."
I do not think the answer to this question is simple, or that it can be answered theoretically.  Empirical data are needed.   Do we say that a congenitally deaf child should not be exposed to weak and distorted auditory input?   An adult with a vestibular disorder will do better by exposing themselves to vertiginous environments in order to learn compensatory strategies.
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I request someone to help me with this. Given same Si/Al ratios, SBA-n materials have higher acidities compared to MCM-n, whereas hierarchical zeolites with wall thickness ~2 nm shows even better acidity than the former. What decides acidity and how to improvise my framework acidity? I thank you in advance.
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First it has to be established the meaning of the term ¨higher acidity¨. Bronsted acidity involves both density and strength. Thickness of the walls of Al-MCM-41 and Al-SBA-15 might play an important role in the former. The strength, however, depends on the Al-framework distribution, this is to say (Si,nAl) environments. The presence of Lewis-like sites in the neighborhood of the Bronsted ones (B-L interaction) also exercises a notable synergism. Then, this is not surprising that materials having similar Si/Al show quite different acid strength. Dependence of density and strength on framework composition is usually opposite: The higher the Si/Al ratio the lower the Bronsted density and the higher the acid strength. This is why a typical volcano-like distribution of reaction activity, is frequently observed in acid-catalyzed reactions over zeolites and related materials. In conclusion: Walls thickness might increase the number of available Bronsted sites to reactants whereas the nature of such acid sites, which depends on their local environments, will define their strength.
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I am interested in the ontological structure of improvised music and I would appreciate literature recommendations.
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It's taken me a while to get around to penning this, so apologies. It's a fascinating question. I think that Dave Wall makes some really great points on this above. If I understand the question correctly, you're really asking about how to consider improvised music as an entity from an ontological perspective. Why it's a good question is because I think that an awful lot of work on the ontology of music that has been published, up until really recently, simply cannot account for the possibility of an answer to this question because of the presuppositions that they pose in their account of the ontology of music. Similarly, for instance, an awful lot of work in the philosophy of music cannot admit, for instance, drone music within the category of music because of the ontological claims made about what can or cannot count as music. This proposition, as I see it, is patently absurd, entirely culturally conditioned and the result of a subjective position which is therefore entirely removed from ontological considerations. I would follow Dave in suggesting that to think about the ontology of music you have to start from the point of a view of a relational ontology and to then start to map out some of the other ontological conditions that will delimit the kinds of relations that will bring about something that we will call music, and I'd again follow Dave in saying that an intentional act that produces sound is here crucial. I'd add others though, and indeed this is what I've done in a recent book, Noise Matters: Towards an Ontology of Noise, in which I sugest the following ontological taxonomy of music, and this could of course apply to improvised music also:
(i) Music is sound that is
ii) structured,
iii) eminently expressive since its only form is its expressed content, and hence
iv) irreducible to a secondary function (such as representation),
v) conditioned by an assemblage in the real world (and therefore not transcendent or ahistorical)
In case you're interested in reading more, there's info on the book here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239152113_Noise_Matters_Towards_an_Ontology_of_Noise
Thanks for reading and I hope that this contributes something useful to the debate.