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Ice Cover - Science topic

A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land, RIVERS, lakes, ponds, or SEAWATER.
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Publications related to Ice Cover (10,000)
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Article
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Distributed fiber-optic seismic sensing is a next-generation seismic acquisition technology. It records dynamic strain based on the phase change of back-scattered Rayleigh light caused by incident seismic waves. This method generates a dense record of the seismic wavefield using optic fibers which are durable in extreme environments and have low ma...
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Hill-hole pairs are subglacial landforms consisting of thrust-block hills and associated source depressions. Formed by evacuation of material where ice sheets have been locally frozen to the substrate, they give insights into paleo-ice-sheet dynamics. The aim of this study was to document the relationships between ancient hill-hole pairs identified...
Chapter
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The Younger Dryas (YD) stadial is the last extreme cold event detected in the northern hemisphere during the last deglaciation. Many theories have been proposed to explain the causes of this event. Currently, the most accepted one is that the increased meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic or Arctic Sea produced a series of changes in ocean...
Chapter
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Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS 1) and the preceding pre-HS 1 episode are some of the latest extreme events of the last glacial period and correspond to the preliminary phase of the dramatic retreat of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet that leads to the last glacial–interglacial transition. HS 1 is considered the marine equivalent of the Oldest Dryas in Eur...
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How atmospheric and oceanic circulations respond to Arctic warming at different timescales are revealed with idealized numerical simulations. Induced by local forcing and feedback, Arctic warming appears and leads to sea-ice melting. Deep-water formation is inhibited, which weakens Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The flow and te...
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In this paper, the crack process of the A74 iceberg is carefully monitored in different aspects by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. First, a offset tracking strategy is designed to retrieve the temporal evolution of the glacier velocity field. Secondly, a signal coherence factor (SCF) is proposed to analyze the interferometric signals....
Article
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Curvilinear depressions and chains of asymmetrical to circular pits up to a few meters deep and a few tens of meters wide have been mapped on the upper continental slope beyond the mid-Norwegian shelf. These features are interpreted to represent a continuum of seafloor landforms produced by the grounding of iceberg keels at successive low tides. Th...
Article
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The coastal regions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, contain deposits of the Ross Sea Drift, sedimentary material left from the Ross Sea ice sheet from the advance of the West Antarctic ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Much of this deposit is ice-cored, but data on the stable isotopic composition of water from this ice, which may c...
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Complex ecosystems characterize the Arctic Region, which experiences rapid environmental changes due to climate change. These changes are happening spatially as much as temporally. Spatiotemporal interactive three-dimensional visualization of environmental phenomena is eye-catching, while creating the foundations for the rapid understanding of Arct...
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Northeast Greenland is the place where the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) experienced the largest areal changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the age constraints of the last deglaciation are in some areas sparse. In this study, we use forty-seven new ¹⁰Be cosmogenic exposure ages to constrain the deglaciation of the present-day ice-free area...
Article
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Glaciers in the Pamir are the water tower of arid Central Asia, and more than 50 million people depend on meltwater from them. Many studies have reported glacier changes in the Pamir, but the glacier inventories employed in the previous investigations are both outdated and lack comparability. In this study, we present a new multitemporal glacier in...
Article
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Himalayan mountain ranges separate the Tibetan plateau from the Indian subcontinent, where challenging topography, ongoing orogeny, and weather conditions are significant factors behind mass movements. The detachment of a composite rock-ice mass occurred on 7-Feb-2021 over the north-eastern slope of the Trisul mountain resulting in devastation alon...
Article
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Dolomites in Arctic Ocean sediments are widely attributed to erosion and transport of sediments from northern Canada and Greenland. Coarse-grained dolomite-rich ice-rafted debris is often linked to iceberg transport, but the origin of fine-grained dolomite is less well constrained. A presumed source is the Mackenzie River. In this article, we finge...
Article
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The study of glaciers in remote regions improves our understanding of global glacier change. With an area of 149.31 ± 1.84 km², the Santa Inés Icefield constitutes one of the largest and least studied and explored glaciated areas of Southern Patagonia. We study the extent and glacier variations of the Santa Inés Icefield over the last 75 years, and...
Article
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With the climate change, polar sea ice is diminishing. This, on one hand, enables the possibility for e.g., Arctic shipping and relevant resource exploitation activities, but on the other hand brings additional risks induced by these activities. Increasing research focuses have been observed on the relevant topics in the complex and harsh polar env...
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In recent decades, the two polar regions have exhibited strikingly different changes, with much greater warming in the Arctic than the Antarctic. However, the warming asymmetry between the two polar regions is quite small during the second half of the twentieth century. By using a multi-member ensemble of simulations with the Community Earth System...
Article
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The source, amount, and trajectory of icebergs discharged into the western Arctic Ocean provide essential clues to Arctic ice sheet development and its feedback on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Nd and Sr isotopes, ice-rafted debris, and mineral components were used to trace the icebergs that were first discharged into the west...
Article
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What caused ocean/climate changes that drove Marinoan deglaciation, and the subsequent genesis of Ediacaran cap carbonates remains unclear. To address this issue, we examined the Hg records in Ediacaran cap carbonates from shelf to slope depositional settings in exposures from South China. These cap carbonates show higher total Hg (THg) concentrati...
Article
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The Arctic is one of the regions most affected by global climate change, and is subjected to changes linked with a melting cryosphere and increasing anthropopressure. Although antibiotic resistance is a global problem, the diversity and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and integrons in the Arctic are...
Article
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The modern, over 250-m-deep basin of Lake Constance represents the underfilled northern part of an over 400-m-deep, glacially overdeepened trough, which reaches well into the Alps at its southern end. The overdeepening was formed by repeated glacial advance-retreat cycles of the Rhine Glacier throughout the Middle to Late Pleistocene. A seismic sur...
Article
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Background Glaciers of the Hindu Kush region are highly susceptible to climate change. Recently, a severe glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hit the supraglacial region at the frontier of Dook Pal Glacier. Information on the bacterial community in a freshly appeared supraglacial lake after GLOF is essential to probe the bacterial distribution patte...
Article
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Quantifying changes in seawater carbonate chemistry is crucial to deciphering of patterns and drivers of the oceanic carbon cycle and climate change. Here, we present a new deep-water carbonate ion saturation state (Δ[CO32−]) record for the Pliocene western tropical Pacific, reconstructed from the size-normalized weight of the planktonic foraminife...
Article
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In this paper, we document that glaciofluvial gravel sequences and glacial till deposits that are exposed in the Müntschemier and Finsterhennen gravel pits (Swiss Plateau west of Bern) record three glacial advances during the Birrfeld Glaciation, which corresponds to the last glacial cycle. Sedimentological logging shows that both gravel pits expos...
Article
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Multi-temporal, high-resolution, and homogeneous geospatial datasets acquired by space- and/or airborne sensors provide unprecedented opportunities for the characterization and monitoring of surface changes on very large spatial scales. Here, we demonstrate how an off-the-shelf, open-source image correlation algorithm can be combined with SwissALTI...
Article
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The characteristics of glacial lakes are a precursor to glacier retreat, ice mass loss, velocity, and potential risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). The current state of the art for glacial lake mapping, especially in a high mountainous region, is limited to manual or semi-automated threshold-based methods. Here, we propose a fully automate...
Article
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Cut-and-fill sequences are the result of climatically or tectonically induced alternating aggradation and incision phases of a fluvial system. A recently established cosmogenic nuclide chronology of the Cover Gravels ( Deckenschotter in German) in the northern Alpine Foreland, which are the oldest Quaternary glaciofluvial gravels and comprise evide...
Article
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Ice shelves buttress ice streams and glaciers, slowing the rate at which they flow into the ocean. When this buttressing is reduced, either through increased melt or calving, the increased discharge of grounded ice upstream contributes to sea level rise. The thickness, strength, and stability of ice shelves can be influenced by channels in the ice...
Article
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Ice shelves surrounding the Antarctic perimeter moderate ice discharge towards the ocean through buttressing. Ice-shelf evolution and integrity depend on the local surface accumulation, basal melting and on the spatially variable ice-shelf viscosity. These components of ice-shelf mass balance are often poorly constrained by observations and introdu...
Article
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Glaciers across the Kashmir Himalayan region are melting at an accelerated pace compared to other regions across the Himalayan arc. This study analyzed the recession patterns of nine glaciers in the Kashmir Himalaya region over 28 years between 1992 and 2020 using satellite images and field measurements. The recession patterns were correlated with...
Article
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Vegetation in arid central Asia (ACA) has been experiencing significant changes due to substantial warming and humidification since the 1980s. These changes are inhomogeneous due to the ecological vulnerability and topographic complexity of ACA. However, the heterogeneity of vegetation changes has received limited attention in the literature, which...
Presentation
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La política educativa escolar chilena en estado de coma … preparando su réquiem Sebastián Donoso Díaz Desvanecido el sopor autocomplaciente de la política educativa chilena tras un par de décadas de "ser la niña(o) símbolo de las agencias internacionales multilaterales", enfrentamos como país en forma creciente e irremediable tanto los resultados d...
Article
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The surface effective emissivities of Arctic sea ice are calculated using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) measurements. These emissivities are analyzed for stable winter conditions during the months of January–May and November and December of 2020 for several main sea ice types defined with the sea ice maps of the Arctic and Antarc...
Preprint
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Ocean-atmosphere-sea ice interactions are key to understanding the future of the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic continent. Regional coupled climate-sea ice-ocean models have been developed for several polar regions, however the conservation of heat and mass fluxes between coupled models is often overlooked due to computational difficulties. At re...
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We establish a general framework for studying the bound states and the photon-emission dynamics of quantum emitters coupled to structured nanophotonic lattices with engineered dissipation (loss). In the single-excitation sector, the system can be described exactly by a non-Hermitian formalism. We have pointed out in the accompanying letter [Gong et...
Preprint
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Digital elevation models (DEMs) are currently one of the most widely used data sources in glacier thickness change research, due to the high spatial resolution and continuous coverage. However, raw DEM data are often misaligned with each other, due to georeferencing errors, and a co-registration procedure is required before DEM differencing. In thi...
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Lakes are key ecosystems within the global biogeosphere. However, the environmental controls on the biological productivity of lakes-including surface temperature, ice phenology, nutrient loads, and mixing regime-are increasingly altered by climate warming and land-use changes. To better characterize global trends in lake productivity, we assembled...
Preprint
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Over the past 60 years, scientists have strived to understand the past, present and future of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. One of the key components of this research has been the mapping of Antarctic bed topography and ice thickness parameters that are crucial for modelling ice flow and hence for predicting future ice loss and ensuing sea level rise. S...
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Pakistan is vulnerable and most affected by adverse impacts of climate change. The study examines the impact of climate change on Pakistan during the year 2022, resulting into unprecedented heatwave and drought in summers followed by the abnormal rains and floods during monsoon season. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy, which has be...
Article
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The NASA MEaSUREs Inter-mission Time Series of Land Ice Velocity and Elevation (ITS_LIVE) project seeks to accelerate understanding of critical glaciers and ice sheet processes by providing researchers with global, low-latency, comprehensive and state of the art records of surface velocities and elevations as observed from space. Here we describe t...
Article
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The changes in atmospheric pCO2 provide evidence for the release of large amounts of ancient carbon during the last deglaciation. However, the sources and mechanisms that contributed to this process remain unresolved. Here, we present evidence for substantial ancient terrestrial carbon remobilization in the Canadian Arctic following the Laurentide...
Preprint
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The rapid melting of glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) during recent decades poses an alarming threat to water security for lager parts of Asia. If this melting persists, the entire Himalayan glaciers is estimated to disappear by end of 21st century. Here, we assess the influence of the spring 2020 COVID-19 lockdown on the HKH, demonstrati...
Article
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Increased Greenland ice sheet melting has an impact on global mean and regional sea level rise and the ocean circulation. In this study, we explore whether Greenland melting signatures found in ocean model simulations are visible in observations from radar altimetry, satellite gravimetry and Argo floats. We have included Greenland freshwater flux (...
Article
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With the escalation of global warming, the shrinkage of mountain glaciers has accelerated globally, the water volume from glaciers has changed, and relative disasters have increased in intensity and frequency (for example, ice avalanches, surging glaciers, and glacial lake outburst floods). However, the wireless monitoring of glacial movements cann...
Article
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Ice cover on subarctic lakes is an important indicator of climate change at local-or regional scales. This study proposes a new approach for classifying altimetry data from Jason-2 and SARAL/ Altika satellite missions to characterize surface states of subarctic lakes. It focuses on Great Slave Lake (Canada) during freeze-up and thaw periods. For th...
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Understanding the transport and accumulation of microplastics is useful to determine the relative risk they pose to global biodiversity. The exact contribution of microplastic sources is hard to elucidate; therefore, investigating the Antarctic Weddell Sea, an area known for its remoteness and little human presence (i.e. limited pollution sources),...
Article
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Large amounts of atmospheric carbon can be exported and retained in the deep sea on millennial time scales, buffering global warming. However, while the Barents Sea is one of the most biologically productive areas of the Arctic Ocean, carbon retention times were thought to be short. Here we present observations, complemented by numerical model simu...
Preprint
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Glacier forefields have long provided ecologists with a model to study patterns of plant succession following glacier retreat. While plant survey-based approaches applied along chronosequences provide invaluable information on plant communities, the “space-for-time” approach assumes environmental uniformity and equal ecological potential across sit...
Article
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Melt-albedo feedback on glaciers is recognized as important processes for understanding glacier behavior and its sensitivity to climate change. This study selected the Muz Taw Glacier in the Altai Mountains to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in albedo and their linkages with mass balance, which will improve our knowledge of the recent acc...
Article
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Plain Language Summary We analyze how storms impact the sea ice cover in the Atlantic part of the Arctic Ocean in winter. To capture the current state of the Arctic, we focus on the last two decades (2000–2020). A few days prior to the arrival of a storm at a certain location, the sea ice concentration (SIC) at that location starts to decrease and...
Article
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In recent decades, surface melting on the inland Greenland ice sheet has increased, leading to significant meltwater-refreezing in the snow and firn. Increased knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of these melt features (i.e., ice layers) is needed to help estimate future global sea-level rise. Here, using a combination of microsc...
Article
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Henichesk is a seaside resort town located on the shores of the southwestern part of the Utlyutsky liman, near the Tonka (Henichesk) Strait. Within the city, there are a large number of private hotels and apartments, and the appropriate entertainment infrastructure is built, but every year the number of vacationers is steadily declining. According...
Article
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Climate change presents challenges for the management of geoheritage at all scales from individual geosites to whole landscapes, and affecting all areas of the planet. Direct impacts will arise principally through the effects of climate changes on geomorphological processes and vegetation cover, while indirect impacts will result from hard engineer...
Article
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The special geographical location of the polar regions increases the difficulty of modeling surface emissivity, thus the physical retrieval algorithms of the temperature and humidity profiles for microwave radiometers mainly focus on the regions between 60°S and 60°N. In this paper, the deep neural networks (DNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) m...