Questions related to IR
I know that NIR can be direct and diffuse, but I would like to know if the same happens with the rest of IR.
I have a very thin sample of BNNT that is heated up and I need to measure it's temperature using a long wavelength IR camera. This BNNT is of unknown emissivity and I currently unable to measure it using a spectrometer. My thinking is that I can attach or apply a layer of a material of known optical properties to the bottom of the paper so I can measure it's temperature instead. Since I will be applying a think layer, I am assuming the temperature would be the same. I am expecting the temperature of the sample to be between 300 and 500 degrees Celsius.
Now my question is what can I use? I found one Thermographic paint that I can use but the distributor is in Europe and I am in Canada, so it would take some time to obtain the paint. I am looking for other alternatives before making a decision.
If a thermal camera specifies minimum focusing distance as 20m/50m (based on the lens), it means that the bare minimum distance required to provide parallel beam on to the lens is 20m/50m to form image on to FPA.
As collimators with off-axis parabolic mirror provides parallel beam of cavity sources, is it possible to use the IR collimators for calibrating thermal imagers?
Research paper/ technical note, if available in this regard is requested
I run the CD spectra of the modified and non-modified protein and the 2ndary are the same. However, there is a change in amide I in the FTIR results. Thus, the functionalization might be expected to change the secondary structure. Kindly any suggestions with references.
I want to know the best technique that provides exact and reliable results on the chemical composition of a plastic product (geosynthetic product) with the concentration of each compound
what is the best technique among these techniques to detect the chemical composition of a plastic product based on PP: Chromatography, Thermogravimetry analysis (ATG) or Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR).
In IR spectrum, each polymer have number of absorption bands. From those bands, how can I find the Characteristic band or a band that can be used to find out the presence of a particular polymer? Or Is there any important absorption bands or a band that best describes a polymer?
I’ve been doing some DFT calculations for the glyphosate molecule gaussian 09 program, and I need to have a reference FT IR spectrum in gas phase, thank you all
we are trying to "debug" a liquid cleaning product formulation (substances added are known, s. below), which has developed crystals over time. We isolated, washed these and got IR spectra of the crystals and all ingredients that we use (see attachments). We are however still struggling to identify what our crystals could be and what could be reacting.
We know IR is limited in identifying a complete structure. But any further help in the interpretation is appreciated. In particular with regard to the strong, semi-sharp peak at 3281 cm-1. We interpret the main peaks with the bonding types O-H, C-H, C=O and C-O. The structure is similar to triethanolamine, except for the sharp O-H peak and the peak at 1738 cm-1. However, if the triethanolamine reacted with the esters or lactone we would expect a more intense peak.
Ingredients (in order of concentration):
- Dimethyl glutarate (1,5-dimethyl pentanedioate)
- Fatty acid esters
- γ-Butyrolactone (Oxolan-2-on)
- Ethers (3-butoxypropan-2-ol, [2-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]propanol) and 2-methoxy-1-(2-methoxypropoxy)propane; 2-methoxy-1-[(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)oxy]propane)
Thanks for the support,
I face a technical issue of how to measure uniformity of infrared radiation on the target surface.
Namely, the setup is as follows. A halogen lamp is mounted at the end of the pipe-lightguide (see Fig. 1). When halogen is on radiation (visible light and infrared) is delivered to the target surface (c.a. 4x4cm). Total power of the radiation delivered to the surface is high (c.a. 200W which gives 13W per cm2). What I need to know is spatial distribution of the radiation on the target surface (to be able to find out how uniform it is). The measuring unit must withstand several seconds of measuring.
Several ideas and related issues:
1. IR camera could be placed at the end of the pipe. However, any reasonable camera will be burnt at once, at least oversaturated, as the power delivered is extreme.
2. Cover IR camera with a filter. This solution does not really work as the filter heats up and further emits radiation, i.e., I do not observe real distribution which would take place with no filter applied.
3. IR photodiodes. I imagine I could place several IR photodiodes at the end of the pipe but, again, they are highly oversaturated at once and filtering, again, does not really work.
4. Thermal-reactive paper/material(?). I am in trouble to find such a material which could withstand the power needed and provide any reasonable resolution.
Do you have any ideas on that?
I have just started using ORCA and was following a YouTube tutorial series by Dr. S. Kishor => https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJIwRG-f5Gjd95jUG4cGjfSxs2gQfQAza
I'm using ORCA 5.0.3 on windows 10 with an i5 9400 processor and 500 GB A2000 Kingston RAM. In the 16th video of the series, I was introduced to IR frequencies calculation with geometry optimization with the following input -
# avogadro generated ORCA input file
# Basic Mode
# GeomOpt + Freq for Acetone
! RHF OPT FREQ 6-311++G**
* xyz 0 1
C -3.50986 2.85550 -0.14979
C -2.02053 3.03306 -0.02862
H -3.77767 1.82632 0.10157
H -3.82355 3.06176 -1.17685
H -4.01762 3.55239 0.52151
C -1.41776 2.78670 1.32795
H -1.61034 1.75505 1.63245
H -1.85017 3.48112 2.05247
H -0.33688 2.94710 1.28593
O -1.32971 3.36340 -0.99127
Now, when I'm opening the output file (.out) using Avogadro 1.2.0, the molecule was loading, but the frequencies were not loading. I checked the output file, and they were there but were not coming in Avogadro (should render automatically while opening the output file). I opened the Vibration toolbar from the settings of Avogadro to find they were not loaded. Can anyone help me how to view the IR frequencies generated from ORCA in Avogadro or other software?
N.B. - I found a discussion in the ORCA forum about OfakeG which can convert the ORCA output file into a Gaussian output file and I used that to covert as I have institutional access to Gaussian and GaussView (https://orcaforum.kofo.mpg.de/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=5018&p=21189&hilit=OfakeG#p21189). I followed the documentation but I was unable to convert the file type. I got an error saying the application couldn't find the file.
1) Output File
2) Screenshot of Avogadro window
3) Screenshot of OfakeG application window
My Hg/HgO standard electrode working properly . But It showing resultant current lesser than the Standard Calomel Electrode . Why ? drop your ideas ....TIA
As per literature,
"The net peak heights were determined by subtracting the height of the baseline directly from the total peak height. The same baseline was taken for each peak before and after exposure to UV.
The carbonyl index was calculated as: carbonyl index = IC/IR(100),
where IC represents the intensity of the carbonyl peak and IR is the intensity of the reference band."
Now, how do I substract the baseline height from the peak height???
I am preparing polymeric blends from recyclable materials. What are the characterization techniques that should be used and how to prepare the samples (IR, DRX, SEM, TEM, etc)? Could you suggest technical sources and papers/books?
Hello, I am a student researcher trying to export multiple spectra as .csv files (for graphing in Excel) in the Perkin-Elmer IR software. When I open an exported .csv file in Excel, it displays the y-values (%T) with only digits before the decimal point. I would prefer to have digits after the decimal point as well, as the graph is not very fine, and jagged. I have tried configuring the settings within the software, specifically changing "Decimal Places Y" in the Data options of the Export Setup. However this seems to have no effect on the exported data. How can I fix this? Thank you for your help.
Is OH bending IR band in PVA is related to inter/intermolecular hydrogen bond? why does it disappear on blending with another polymer?
Can anyone suggest a suitable reference?
Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, winds, altimetry observations are done by NASA, ESA, JAXA, ISRO and a few other government institutes. Commercial satellite data providers provide very high-resolution earth observation imageries in optical, IR or UV spectrum. Are there any commercial satellites that provide SST or Chlorophyll data?
I've a HHG setup, but the IR filter is broken. This means that the entire IR intensity hits the CCD camera and would destroy it. Because a replacement filter needs a few weeks to arrive, I'm wondering if anyone has an idea how to cheaply/DIY block the IR in the vacuum before the CCD.
Many thanks in advance
How can I observe moving cells without visible light? I tried with IR LED and an IR sensitive Bresser ocular camera, but the iR light was too weak.
Pulse oximetry works by sending red and infrared light through blood vessels and measuring the absorption of the two wavelengths of light by hemoglobin. Blood also contains other proteins such as heme peroxidases which also absorb light at slightly different wavelengths. However, given that Hemoglobin is present in a much larger concentration, would it even be possible to detect other heme peroxidases through the method used in pulse oximetry even if they had different peaks?
I want to briefly know, how theoretically IR and Raman spectrum of a particular optimised structure is estimated using DFT. Actually I want to know what is the basic theory behind this in a brief way.
After doping a InN nanostructure energy gap reduces and also in Ir spectrum molar extinction coefficient value decrease. What are reasons behind this?
This strange waveform appeared today while measuring the IR background. After changing many parameters and testing many times, I still only get this waveform.
Then， sample measurement did not yield the desired waveform, so what is the reason for this waveform? Is there something wrong with the machine?
Thank you very much
Two different IR spectroscopy for the same molecule:
Note: The cyano stretching band should disappear upon cyclization of the molecule.
-The first IR spectroscopy (A) represents the cyano absorption observed in the 2190 cm-1 region.
-The second IR spectroscopy (B) represents two different stretching bands observed in the 2194 cm-1 and 2207 cm-1 regions.
Concerning the second spectroscopy (B), if the stretching band 2194 cm-1 represents the cyano group, then what functional group does the stretching band 2194 cm-1 present, or do these two stretching bands illustrate the same functional group.
Thank you for your help.
Basically, I have this protein:
Transmission-FTIR spectroscopy can be used to analyze analytes in aqueous solutions e.g. Proteins in a formulation. Critical step: In order to correctly analyze the structure of proteins, the buffer solution's spectrum needs to be subtracted from the spectrum of the sample containing proteins. However, due to differences in the amount of water that is present in each sample, the difference spectrum cannot be simply calculated by: Difference Spectrum=Protein Spectrum-Buffer Spectrum.
What is a correct method to calculate the difference spectrum for e.g. algorithm based on least squares? I have looked into many papers and the most frequent answer is that a factor is used in calculating the difference spectrum to ensure that the resulting spectrum has a 0 baseline between 1750-2000 cm-1. But using a factor results in negative peaks in the difference spectrum.
infra red heating become more popular recently because of low cost energy and efficienty , Radiant IR-Heater Tube is the most useful technology to achieve this as i know, I'm interested to collect IR generated by this kind of IR-Heater Tube in a linear fresnel concentrator for Infra red Radiations to obtain a high temperature in a centrale cynlindrical surface. This kind of IR Concentrator Exists ? Some one can advice ?
We have imidazole ring N and Imine N for coordinating to metal in 2:1 (L:M) ratio. Both are forming coordinate bind with metal. So two covalent bond is from 2 O atom of acetate group. And the complex found be 6 coordinated in this case? Is there any possibility for this. How can we confirm the structure from IR and TGA for this acetate groups?
I need to perform Thermogravimetric Analysis with Infrared Spectroscopy (TG-IR) for my samples I have checked analyticsir.in both CIMFR and NITT instutes TG-IR system not working. other than that I couldn't be able to find any other facility in India. Someone point me in the right direction. Thanks.
Can I get electroluminescence camera and IR camera , PV analyzer on rent for research work in India?
Can I get the access or work permission of solar simulator lab in India for research work in any institute?
and what can I used instead of EL camera?
please share the link.....
I have a sample with magnesium, potassium, phosphate and water. I have found a peak around 3750, is it possible to consider magnesium with OH bound in IR for this peak?
I have tried to prepare the Schiff base from tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and p-aminophenol using MeOH, AcOH, 2 drops of HCl, and short bursts of microwave radiation (800W, 3 secs for 1 min).
Although it was small scale, a product formed that was clearly a light violet color. Naturally, tetraphenylcyclopentadienone is black and p-aminophenol is actually a beige/light brown color (due to degradation from light).
The IR looks very messy and I cannot find a reference IR for this compound. Is there a chance that I have failed to actually produce the desired product due to the intense 800W Microwave radiation, or bad solvent system? Maybe the HCl was problematic? Maybe I should have used EtOH?
So I was running an IR on a sample that I had thought (or rather hoped) was phenol (hydroxy benzene), but what came out was either trash and noise, or I simply did not have phenol. My professor and I were quite stunned as it showed no signs of organic peaks at all, especially no -OH peak near 3100. My professor suggested to run my reaction again, but sadly I do not have the reagents on hand at the moment and it will be some time before I get them.
The reaction I ran was one taken from an old book on recycling benzene waste. When I conducted it, I took a mixture of nitrobenzene and benzene waste and I added a random amount of relatively pure Fe2O3 and 13% Hydrogen Peroxide to try and oxidize anything in the waste to phenol or hydroxynitrobenzene. After I treated it with NaOH to make a phenoxide salt and then I did some work up to isolate. What I was left with was a nice white crystalline salt (or so I thought). But the IR says it contains zero organics as far as our IR machine can tell, and our machine is used daily if not hourly, and is kept in great condition.
If someone could help me understand what I have or teach/lead me how to identify inorganics, that would be very appreciated.
Because the attached picture is possibly hard to see small details, I have listed the peaks as well.
-610.07 cm^-1 transmittance: 60%
-635.08 cm^-1 transmittance: 79%
-1091.13 cm^-1 transmittance: 64/65%
Rizal Awaludin Malik After rereading my notes, I have come to realize that I distinctly changed my procedure because I was having trouble with the Iron Oxides previously mentioned. My pseudo-procedure looks more like this:
Fe + 2HCl -> FeCl2 + H2
2FeCl2 + Cl2 -> 2FeCl3
FeCl3 + H2O2 (13% aq) -> Fe(OH)3 + Reactive Species
And my idea was to combine the benzene/nitrobenzene wastes I had with the final reaction in the scheme (combining the reactive species) to try and produce hydroxylated benzene and nitrobenzene.
Some notes from my notebook leave me further puzzled:
"Smell of nitrobenzene and benzene has totally disappeared, and lots of gas evolution. A red precipitate (likely iron oxides) has formed at the bottom of the beaker. There is no longer 2 layers (2 phases) and the yellow color of the solution is very faint, where it was quite deeply colored beforehand."
I'm not sure what exactly happened but I have done a little bit of searching and came across Hexaaqua iron (III) chloride, which may be what I have crystallized out.
To explain further, after the whole reaction was completed, I filtered off the red precipitate and tried to crystallize out whatever product I had formed. When I did so, I was left with a pure white free-flowing powder. The powder seems hygroscopic in nature.
I will likely try this again, with pure benzene to see if the same result occurs.
I want to use silicon wafers for my mid-IR imaging project. I have some specifications for them from my previous lab colleagues. In our previous lab we used to buy:
3” N TYPE <1-0-0> 1-50 OHM-CM 350±10µm SEMI-Std FLATS DOUBLE SIDE POLISHED.
However, getting exact specification is proving to be an hassle!
I am not sure about some parts of the specifications. Could you please help me with the following questions?
1) If imaging data is collected in transmission mode, does the thickness of the silicon wafer matter? What I mean is change in thickness from 300um to 500 um?
2) If the imaging data is collected in transmission, does it matter if the silicon wafers are single side polished or double side polished?
3) if the imaging data is collected in transflection mode single polished silicon wafer should be fine?
Can you calculate IR and IRR p-values and CI in SPSS without using a regression model such as Poisson? I have calculated the breast cancer incidence for various groups by hand using the breast cancer incidence rates of the entire population of a country as a reference. I have calculated the p-values and CI also by hand, but I would like to check this using an analysis in SPSS. Thank you in advance.
I have recently completed my Ph.D. from the Department of Government and IR at the University of Sydney. I am currently looking for a Post-doc position in Europe. My proposed project examines religiosity and support for radicalism among the migrants in Europe.
To begin my journey as an academician/researcher, what scientific and transferable skill should I have? Knowledge or training on which quantitative or qualitative methods or data collection softwares will benefit me in future?
What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of studying political science/international relations rather than pure history? Which is more useful for contemporary policy makers?
IR 3 micron cut-on 4.2 micron cut-off
D*=10 ^12 is a reasonalby realstic value considering currently technology
if not MCT any other options
I have the problem with infrared.
As I found the problem of Ir , I did monitoring energy and interferogram.
Surprisingly, energy value is zero and interferogram is like the picture I upload. I think this is the serious problem. Does anybody know why this is happened and what can I do for solving it?
When I searched about IR drop in the 3 electrodes system, I found that there is IR drop from WE to RE like the image below.
But I can't understand. A lot of literature says current only flow between WE and CE. so, I think there is no current or flux between WE and RE.
Can IR drop (resistance) exist when there is no flux or Do I misunderstand ?
We have two samples. One in dry form and the second one is mixed in water. Which spectroscopy technique should be used to characterize these samples between Raman and IR?
Please provide the proper justification for the answer, if possible.
why all spectra of metal complexes are shifted to a lower wavenumber and reduced in intensity?
By examining infrared (FT-IR) , does the opposite happen, that the shift is towards the highest frequencies?
There is hydrogen bonding in the glycerol, If we have an IR spectrum of Glycerol then how we will interpret that hydrogen bonding is present there?
In calculated spectrum there should be one band at about 800-900cm^-1, but analyzing the experimental spectrum of gas CCl4 (link: https://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Spec=C56235&Index=1&Type=IR&Large=on) there can be observed more peaks at higher wavenumbers. Could someone explain why there is such a phenomenon present?
You will be familiar with spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. In thisrange electronic transition are observed. The absorption of infrared radiation is the process that comes next at lower energies: theexcitation of vibrational and rotational transitions. The energy required for a transition is approximately a factor
of 10 smaller than for electronic transitions. The spectral region is adjacent to the visible spectral region and
extends from 0.7µm to 1000µm, which is the infrared spectral region. In most cases the region from 2.5 to
25µm is used.
I'm building my setup for recording behavior and calcium imaging simultaneously of larval zebrafish. Thus, I need to use infrared LEDs to illuminate the fish for my high-speed camera to capture the image of behavior because visible wavelengths such as 450-500 nm would affect our fluorescence signal. Currently, I'm using a ring of infrared LEDs around my fish of 60W in total and a 60-degree lighting angle, as shown in the image. However, the powerful light source also illuminates the microscope objective above the fish, leaving a noisy background making our behavior tracking error-prone. However, I cannot move the relative position of fish, objective, and camera. Thus, I'm thinking about changing my IR illumination for better contrast. I would like to reduce the lighting angle to a smaller range so it does not illuminate the objective as much as the fish. But I do not know how to change the light path due to my lack of knowledge in optics.
I would really appreciate it if someone can help with this.
An information retrieval (IR) system is a set of algorithms that facilitate the relevance of displayed documents to searched queries. In simple words, it works to sort and rank documents based on the queries of a user.
Do you know historical references about these preferences? IR and RAMAN are complementary vibrational methods. Also, I know the mechanisms and some data about the history and development in the last years. But...Is it about the accumulated information about IR?
Hi! I`ve got question about DESs. How can I proof the formation of DES? If speak about IR, which regions should I look at and which bands can indicate on the presence of hydrogen bonds? And one more question: the addition of water results full distruction of DES or water will only dilute DES? Is there any information about how much water I can add to the DES before it stop being DES and become "water and dissolved substances"?
Dear Researchers, I am asking for your recommendation about IR camera that can be used for measuring the temperature during the welding process.
I am looking for a software (ideally free) which can simulate polarized ATR-FTIR spectra of a stretched macromolecule, that has a specific orientation with respect to the electric field vector of the incoming IR light.
So far I have only found softwares that can predict unpolarized FTIR spectra.
Thank you for your suggestions,
how to characterized whether Fe3O4 or Fe2O3 is formed by reacting FeCl3.6H2O and FeCl2.4H2O(2:1) in the basic medium under a nitrogen atmosphere?
will it be characterized by using IR or UV spectroscopy?
Hi! I have an IR spectrum of product obtained from CO2 electroreduction in acetonitrile using sacrificial Zn anode. The product formed is normally zinc oxalate. However, at high current densities, glycolate or glyoxylate may be formed. Does the peaks at 1767 cm-1 and 1579cm-1 confirm the formation of any of these compounds? The spectra is attached here. Thanks a lot!
in my experiments I use an IR camera with a fixed emissivity of 0.95 to monitor the surface temperature of an evaporating ethyl acetate droplet (1 ml). In order to obtain correct values, I wonder if anyone here might know or has a reference to the emissivity of ethyl acetate? Can it be somehow approximated ?
I need to immunoprecipitate selectively the IGF1R and the insulin receptor from human source and thought of using antibodies aganist the anti-alpha subnits of each receptor. Any advice is important
I am not familiar with solid state parameters especially in rectification ratio where my background was in biotechnology,.
Currently I want to calculate rectification ratio (RR) of my sample/device and plot some graph for my paper. However, I found it quite confusing with little to no basics. The formula for RR = IF / IR , where I can plot a graph RR versus V based on several papers that i refered. Unfortunately, I do not know how they got the value based on this table
My question is the graph that i plotted is very weird as i refered to other people's work as attached. And some paper mention use RR value above threshold voltage? I need guidance and help in calculation as well as plotting the graph RR versus voltage.
I have a ethanol-water 50% extract of mango peel. I purified mangiferin from the extract with filtration and precipitation. so i obtained a low concentrated extract which i want to se the IR spectrum and compare with the mangiferin IR spectrum. however, I would like to know what concentration should i achived to obtain a good IR spectrum from liquid samples (Standard and Extract), Also how many sample should I need in mL. Any advise would be really usefull. PD: I have not enough standard or extract to make a solid sample lecture with KBr.
In vasp, we can use either finite displacement method (IBRION 5/6) or DFTP (IBRION7/8) to perform vibrational spectroscopy.
I am aware that currently vdw correction cannot be applied with IBRION 7/8, but other than that, could you please leave your comments on how to choose between these two approaches for my system? Will the results of the two be system-dependent?
I'm stuck on how to and what constraint to be applied while using MCR for IR spectroscopy data. There are 3 types of constraint : Equality constraint, Unimodality constraint, Non-neagativity, and Closure constraint. Please help me proceed.
The refractive index of most optical materials is monotonically decreasing, sideways sigmoidal in shape, with its highest value (for the purposes of this discussion) at the short wavelength (UV/Vis) side and its lowest value at the long wavelength (IR) side. An example of Silica is shown in the attached figure as a reference.
We typically refer to the short wavelength cutoff as the electron-transition edge and the long wavelength as the multi-phonon edge. At each of these edges, the photon begins to interact with the lattice of the optical material: on the short (high energy) side, by exciting an electronic transition in one of the constituent atoms, and at the long (low energy) side by exciting a multi-atom vibration called a phonon. In each of these cases